My Air Bag Did Not Deploy – What Went Wrong?

One of the most common phone calls we receive is from consumers wondering why their air bag did not deploy during a crash. This article describes how air bag deployment thresholds are established, the kinds of crashes during which air bags should deploy, and crashes where they may not deploy. It also provides information on several different defects that may be responsible for the air bag failing to deploy when it should deploy.

Air Bag Deployment Thresholds

Conventional air bags are generally designed to deploy in certain frontal crashes above the thresholds selected by the manufacturer. Unfortunately, the consumer often cannot determine the thresholds for their car, as they vary widely between manufacturers, and even vary among different models from the same manufacturer. However, there are some general guidelines that are helpful for consumers.

Although there were some variations, most frontal air bags from the 1990s were designed to deploy in crashes above a threshold level of 14 mph into a solid concrete barrier. At the same time, most air bag systems were also designed to never deploy in crashes below 8 mph into a solid concrete barrier. Between these two speeds, the air bags may or may not deploy, depending on the specifics of the accident and vehicle.

However, please note that these speeds are based on crash tests into a solid concrete barrier. Therefore, if your car has struck something that moved or deformed (like another car, utility pole or guardrail), these thresholds could be considerably higher. For example, a 14 mph barrier test may be equivalent to a frontal crash at 28 mph into a parked car. Also, these thresholds for air bag deployment have generally increased since the 1990s, with some now reaching 18 miles per hour, recognizing that air bags can cause more injuries than they prevent in minor accidents.

If your crash severity exceeds the car company’s thresholds, and yet your air bags did not deploy, you may well have a defect in your vehicle’s air bag system.

Crashes Where the Air Bag Should Deploy

Your air bags should deploy in every crash where they will help prevent your injuries. This means that your air bag should deploy in those crashes where you would otherwise suffer injuries of the type that the air bag is designed to prevent: head, neck, and chest injuries. For example, your frontal air bag should deploy in an accident where your head would otherwise be injured from hitting your steering wheel.

Although frontal air bags are generally not designed to deploy in side impacts or rollovers, in some cases they should deploy in those kinds of crashes. That is because some side impacts or rollovers also cause front-to-back deceleration that causes you to move forward inside your vehicle. One example would be if you were driving at highway speed and were hit on the side of your car: in addition to crushing in the side of the car, your car would also slow down its forward motion rapidly, which could be enough to deploy your frontal air bags. Similarly, frontal air bags should generally not deploy in rear impacts; however, if you are hit from behind and pushed into a car in front of you, that second impact to your car’s front end may justify deployment of your air bags.

For side impact air bags, they should generally deploy on the side of the car experiencing the side impact. Similarly, rollover “curtain” air bags should deploy when the vehicle experiences a rollover, to help prevent head and neck injuries and to reduce the risk of being ejected through an open or shattered window.

Examples of crashes where air bag deployment would be expected include moderate to severe crashes involving your front bumper or the front corners of your vehicle, frontal impacts to a utility or telephone pole, and under-ride impacts where the front of your car goes under the side or back of a truck.

Crashes Where the Air Bag Should Not Deploy

Your air bags should not deploy in those accidents where they will not prevent your injuries. After all, air bags can deploy at speeds of more than 200 mph, and you should not be exposed to those kinds of forces if it won’t help you. Thus, your frontal air bags should not deploy in side impacts, rear impacts and rollovers where there is no significant deceleration from front to back.

Other examples of crashes where your air bags should not generally deploy include:

o Minor frontal crashes

o Most impacts to the undercarriage of the vehicle, such as when crossing a railroad

o Impacts with animals such as deer or dogs

o Impacts with street curbs or parking blocks

o Driving on rough roads, including those with large potholes, gravel or bumps

Of course, your air bags should never deploy when your vehicle is not in an accident. Although this seems obvious, there are actually many cases where this has occurred, often due to poor design of the air bag system software, or due to electrical issues with the air bag system.

Why Your Air Bag Did Not Deploy

There are several reasons why your air bag may not have deployed during a crash. The first reason is that perhaps your crash is not the type of accident where air bag deployment would be helpful. For frontal air bags, this includes many, but not all, side impacts, rear impacts and rollovers. This category also includes minor accidents in which the driver and front passenger (if there was one) did not suffer any significant injuries requiring medical treatment.

The second reason is that there could be a defect that prevented the crash sensors from detecting the crash properly. Our investigation and analysis of air bag systems in hundreds and hundreds of crashes has revealed numerous causes that fall within this category. In some cases, the air bag deployment threshold is simply not set appropriately, often due to inadequate testing. In other cases, a flaw in the software of the air bag control module has caused it to ignore the data from one of the crash sensors. In still other cases, there are simply too few sensors to properly detect real-world crashes; this often results from overly zealous cost-reduction efforts by car companies that are trying to improve their finances. In a few cases, quality control efforts have failed to prevent defective sensors or air bag control modules from reaching the public.

The third reason is that there could be a defect that prevented the deployment signal from reaching the air bag modules and deploying them. Here, the problem usually lies with the electrical components and wiring between the crash sensors, control module and the air bag modules. The most frequent defect in this category that we see is when the driver air bag fails to deploy, but the passenger air bag does deploy. In many cases, this is due to a defective clockspring located in the steering column. Millions of defective clocksprings have been recalled, generally due to poor quality control at either the supplier’s production plant or the car company’s assembly plant.

Another defect in this category is when the wiring is routed through vulnerable areas, resulting in wires that get cut early during a crash sequence. Although the sensor then detects the crash, the cut wires prevent the signal from reaching the air bag modules.

The fourth reason is that there could be a defect that prevented the actual air bag modules from deploying correctly. In a few cases, the crash sensors and air bag control modules have commanded deployment of the air bags, but the air bags failed to respond. This is almost always due to defects within the air bag modules themselves, usually due to poor quality control.

Interesting Facts About Stucco Nobody Has Ever Told You

Stucco is also known as ‘Portland cement plaster’. It is generally used in building repair, to repair leaky windows, decorate exteriors or for any other decorative purposes. Restoration companies use it for restoration projects as it is widely available in various textures and colors.


Exterior stucco can be classified into two types, hard coat stucco and exterior insulation & finish system. Hard coat stucco is commonly used for homes. It is generally cheap, thus gaining popularity for commercial projects. It is a little expensive comparatively and is mostly used in commercial constructions.

Hard coat stucco is generally applied in one coat, two coats and three coats together with a cement base. Three coat system provides 2 rough coats with cement and one finish coat while the one coat process provides the facility of one rough coat and one finish coat. One coat process is much simpler, cheaper and time saving, hence gaining popularity these days. One coat system provides almost the same benefits of three coat system. However, three coat process is much tougher than the other and can withstand cracks in most critical weather conditions.

Typical Benefits

1. Attractive Look: Stucco can increase the looks of a house. Therefore, it is preferred to use in the interiors of the home. The different design and stonework can add tremendous beauty to your home. Its use is equally appreciated for exterior parts of your house. Various pigments are available to enhance its beauty further.

2. Reduced Cost and Maintenance: It is generally cheaper than other available building materials. It is also maintenance free in comparison to other construction materials and far better than paint. For painted surfaces, you consistently need maintenance which makes it more costly. Stucco applied surfaces don’t need any fixes or maintenance for many years. Pigments can be used after it has completely dried.

3. Highly Durable: No building material can beat the durability of the stucco. If applied correctly, it can stand for many years without any maintenance. Seeking professional assistance for such project is a good choice.

4. Architectural styles: Stucco can be used in different architectural styles, especially Spanish. However, an expert artisan can produce great design work using stucco.

5. Good Weather Repellent: Stucco is best for extreme weather conditions and is extremely helpful in blocking rain water. This is fire proof and thus your home can withstand against heat damages.

It is mandatory to use stucco siding correctly in order to utilize its full benefits. You can consult professional services to help you out in this regard.

Save Paper, Save Trees

Paper is a very important material used in our daily life. It is used in variety of ways. Whilst among many uses, the paper is chiefly used for the purpose of writing and printing.

The word paper derives from the Greek word ‘Papyrus‘ (Egyptian writing material) which was formed from beaten strips of papyrus plant.

Paper is made of cellulose pulp, derived mainly from wood, rags, and certain grasses processed into flexible sheets by deposit from an aqueous suspension.

Uses of Paper:

Paper can be used in various ways, such as for communication, storing information, cleaning, construction, representing a value, packaging, and personal use etc.

Paper making products:

Paper gives us lot of useful products. Here a list of common products made from paper is:

  • Books
  • Notebooks
  • Report cards
  • Greeting cards
  • Menu cards
  • Paper-bags
  • Paper money
  • Medical chart
  • Bandages
  • Envelopes
  • Tarpaper
  • Sand paper
  • Wrapping papers
  • Paper boats
  • Paper airplanes
  • Newspaper
  • Magazines
  • Catalogs
  • Wallpaper
  • Photographs
  • Playing cards
  • Stickers
  • Telephone directories
  • Disposable items
  • Stationery
  • Table -cloths
  • Grocery-bags
  • Kites
  • Tissue paper
  • Bank notes
  • Tickets
  • Cheque
  • Security voucher

Why recycle paper?

Paper recycling is the process of collecting, processing, reusing and recovering the waste paper and remaking into new products rather than throwing it away in the trashcan which in turn, conserves raw materials and energy that needs to make new products.

Did you know if each individual save one sheet of paper per day, then 40,000 trees are saved per year.

Saving paper, in turn, saves trees, saves energy, saves water, chemicals utilized in making of paper, and also reducing garbage.

We should start the process of recycling the waste material from home first rather than what others are doing outside and continue it as it helps to control waste disposal problems, and also saves money that they would otherwise have spend for disposal.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that recycling of paper causes 35% less water pollution, and 74% less air pollution than making new paper and paper products.

Industrialized making of paper is de-stabilizing our earth’s climate and reusing and recycling of paper can help to stabilize and conserve our environment to a great extent.

Recycling is the only key to cut down the amount of waste, to reduce pollution, to save renewable energy, to save trees, and to save money. But before we thinking about recycling anything, the very best thing we can do for health and well being of our planet to use less resource in our daily life.

Recycling of paper could save seventeen trees, causing reduction of 587 pounds of air pollution, 15,644 liters of water, in turn, reduces 58%of air pollution, 4077 kilowatt of energy, thereby reducing energy requirement by 64%, 1042 liters of oil, reducing oil pollution by 64% and oil requirement by 45%. About 55% of municipal waste is paper and paper products before recycling. Recycling one ton of newspaper reduces 3cubic meters of landfill.

Millions of people buy newspaper daily and simply throw away in the trashcan after reading it out without knowing the fact, that it takes 24 trees to make one ton of newspaper.

Recovered paper must be clean for successful recycling. It should be free from contaminants, such as food, dirt, plastic metal, and other kinds of trash, as contaminated paper makes the process of recycling quite difficult. Contaminated paper which cannot be recycled must be composted, burned for energy or land filled in order to reduce the bulk of garbage around us.

Reduce, reuse, and recycle is a simple and great way to cut down the amount of paper use. Practicing these 3R’s also helps in saving our energy and protecting our environment.


It is important to realize our responsibilities how to make our planet green and better place for our future generation to live in. Concerted efforts need to make in this direction before it is too late. By adopting the following ways helps to reduce the paper consumption, which in turn, saves trees and reduces the greenhouse gases emission.

  • Companies can save significant sums on printing costs by publishing reports electronically rather than on paper.
  • Use mobiles or e-mails for communication purposes instead of sending letters.
  • Create best out of waste also helps to control and manage waste better thereby, reducing the impact on our environment as well as our health.
  • Use durable items rather than disposable items, as it stays longer and can also save money and minimize the amount of waste. Repair the things rather than buying new items also reduces the amount of waste.
  • Use both sides of paper for printing.
  • Recycle newspaper by turning them into something useful, instead of discarding it away. It also reduces the amount of materials going into landfills.
  • Send get well soon cards and greeting cards on special occasions over the Internet.
  • On average, 16% of the money we spend on packaging which ultimately ends up as rubbish. So avoid over packaging goods.
  • Use coffee mugs for your tea or coffee instead of paper cups at work place.
  • Use unbleached or uncolored paper in bulk to reduce packaging.
  • Buy paper that has minimum chlorine content.
  • Stop printing whenever possible.
  • Reduce font size while printing.
  • Books, which you need no longer, and are in a good condition, donate to the library. These in turn, raise the money for the library to buy new items.
  • Get and pay your bills online rather than through the post.
  • Let your child to use white/black board for writing rather than paper. This way they can rub off what they do not need which in turn; lot of papers can be saved.
  • Watch the news on television, or you can read the news online instead of buying newspaper. This helps to kill paper waste instead of trees.
  • If you wish to create an eco-friendly atmosphere in the office, then go paperless.
  • Use cloth napkins in place of paper napkins, as they are more hygienic and also minimize the paper waste.
  • Place your orders by phone, e-mail or online.
  • Keep recycling bins on the roads; at the railway station, or bus stand where people can drop off the waste materials, or you can directly deliver it to the recycling center.
  • Use cloth bags instead of paper bags to carry the items you buy.
  • Use unused side of paper for jotting down the notes before dropping it in the recycling box.

We are using and wasting paper almost without care, and without realizing that how severe the consequences could be. It is need to think – “AS YOU SOW, SO SHALL YOU REAP“. Let’s do our part to save our mother earth from getting it more spoiled and make it greener, cleaner, and better place for future generation to enjoy.

Spread the word“GO GREEN, AND LIVE GREEN.”

Interlocking Floor Tiles – What To Know About Floor Tiles

When it comes to floor tiles, the sky is the limit. The vast array of choices available to consumers enables homeowners to fully indulge their creativity in a way that suits their own personal tastes and style preferences. Beyond the aesthetic lure of floor tiles, there are also the practical characteristics that make various ones appropriate for different purposes.

Tile flooring has become a popular decorating choice for a number of reasons. Consumers can easily find their favorite floor tiles to create the artistic vision in mind. Uses for floor tiles continue to expand as creative homeowners are now using them in other areas as well. Pioneering decorators have been known to use tiles on countertops and in bathrooms such as in shower stalls, creating beautiful new designs and surfaces that are easier to care for.

As mentioned above, floor tiles provide a great deal of stylistic versatility, accommodating virtually any room and décor. They are resistant and durable so that consumers receive good value for the money. And, at the end of the day, these tiles are very easy to maintain and clean.

Installing Floor Tiles Can Be Easy

Homeowners can even use tiles to help alleviate certain health concerns. Cork tiles, for example, are hypoallergenic and is most commonly installed in kitchens or other rooms where individuals are standing for extended periods of time. In addition, this particular kind of flooring is even more durable than hardwood floors. These surfaces are made from compressed cork oak trees and are naturally antimicrobial and even antifungal. These factors allow cork tiles to reduce allergens and increase the cleanliness of certain rooms. Floor tiles are also easily and readily available, even for the average Joe tackling his very first flooring project. Virtually any home improvement store, from bigger companies like Lowe’s and Home Depot to smaller hometown stores, carries floor tiles and the tools needed for proper installation. In fact, although it is a large and involved task, installing tiles is one of the most straightforward home renovation projects one can do.

Another antimicrobial kind of tiling includes vinyl floor tiles. These surfaces are very resistant to both mold and mildew. For this reason, these tiles are most commonly installed in kitchens and bathrooms for healthier homes. Besides their antimicrobial properties, vinyl tiles are very efficient in retaining heat during the winter, which can help reduce the cost of energy bills.

This makes them a great choice for installation in basements. Additionally, because vinyl tiles are now made to look like ceramic tiles, consumers get the same effect for a fraction of the cost. However, ceramic tiles are another good option in the pursuit of cleanliness. Although these floor tiles do not have the same antimicrobial properties as cork or vinyl, they do not harbor germs.

Choose floor tiles for durability

If it is indestructible floor tiling that homeowners seek, bamboo tiles will deliver. Although it is lightweight, this natural material is highly resistant to falls and other heavy impacts. Because it is available in a variety of shades, it is easy to find the kind of bamboo tiles that best suit any particular room.

Another highly durable kind of floor tile is the concrete one. Its unique combination of sand, water, stone, and cement makes the concrete tile an excellent choice for outdoor spaces like porches and patios. In fact, some consumers install concrete floor tiling for a roof due to its resistance to harsh climates.

Although floor tiles are typically very resilient, there are some mistakes that can be made which cause them to become damaged long before their time. Poor installation is the number one cause. When these tiles are installed over existing sub-floor, it creates an uneven and insecure foundation. This eventually causes the shifting of tiles and cracked grout, resulting in the need for the entire job to be redone.

In the bathroom, tiles are easily damaged by water. Regular maintenance and upkeep of bathroom plumbing, particularly of toilets, can help prevent damage. Toilet leaks can weaken and loosen grout, causing the tiles to be damaged. Excessive water pooling around the bathtub for whatever reason can cause the same problems with the tiles.

Even though tiles are generally much sturdier and longer lasting than hardwood floors and carpet, dropping very heavy items on them can cause them to crack. The solution here is simple. Simply be careful of what is happening can prevent unnecessary cracking of tiles. Other times it is simply faulty manufacturing that causes tiles to break. It may be that the tiles were not properly fired or that the materials contain some impurities that caused them to be weakened.

Proper installation goes a long way in elongating the lifetime of floor tiles. In fact, poor and shoddy installation is responsible for the majority of most tiling breakage and cracking. A cracked tile usually requires that some or all of the surrounding tiles be torn out and new tiles be laid. An oversight in installation ends up costing the consumer a great deal more in the end. Consumers are best off hiring professionals to do the tiling, especially when expensive tiles (such as marble) are being used.

For example, ceramic tiles may crack if the mortar that was spread beneath was done so unevenly. Over time, gaps in the grout will cause the tile to bend whenever weight is applied. The bigger the tiles, the easier they can crack. The problem can be avoided by applying mortar to the back of tiles bigger than 12 by 12 inches in order to offer more stability and a better foundation.

Tiling that has been installed over plywood is also very susceptible to eventual cracking and damage. This is because plywood is flexible, causing the same issues that poor application of mortar can induce. In this case, cracking will be most prevalent along the floor joists. It is recommended that a mudbed subfloor be used instead. This subfloor is made of inches of reinforced concrete plus a wire mesh. A cement back board over top of plywood can also provide similar stability.

Floor tiles that have been installed over flooring with existing cracks will also crack in all the same places. As the old, cracked flooring shifts and continues to deteriorate, it moves the newly attached floor tiles with it, causing them to break. A coupling membrane may be used prior to installation to avoid this unsightly problem. The flexible coupling membrane attaches to the floor and to the tile. This accommodates the floor tiles when the existing flooring moves, preventing them from cracking.

What Your Spa Or Hot Tub is Trying to Tell You

You walk out to use your spa or hot tub and immediately you know something is wrong. Either the water is cold, which makes for a less than enjoyable soak or nothing is working at all. The spa appears dead.

If you have a digital system in your spa or hot tub with a digital upper control, you first look at the upper control display to see if it will tell you what is going on. Looking at your upper control, you see abbreviations like SN1 or FLO or even “—-“. What do these symbols and abbreviations mean?

The symbols and abbreviations displayed on your spas upper control are called error codes. They tell you that the spa has detected a situation for which it then tries to identify. Different equipment manufacturers use different codes to identify certain conditions found by the spa self diagnostic system.

We will look at the two spa systems I receive most questions about. Balboa controls and Sundance Spas controls.

Balboa, one of the most common spa controls manufacturers, uses the following codes.

pd = Power supply, unit running on battery backup

OH = Sensors reading 112-118 Degrees

Flo = Improper flow or pressure switch malfunction

Cool = Water temp 20 degrees below set point

ICE = Potential freeze condition has been detected

Sn1 = Hi-limit sensor malfunction

Sn3 = Temp sensor malfunction

LOC = Interlock failure – possible pump or ozone spike

(—-) = Unknown water temperature. (Displays when Spa is first powered up after refill).

Sundance Spa, one of the largest spa manufacturers, uses the following error codes.

ILOC = Interlock failure – possible pump or ozone spike

FLO = Pressure switch malfunction or Flow switch malfunction (system specific).

Hold = Flow Switch (heater is deactivated. Pump may also be deactivated).

Hold = Panel buttons pressed to many times to quickly.

HOT = PCB temperature above acceptable limit – air blower on.

ICE = Potential freeze condition.

PnL = Communication between the panel and circuit board is faulty.

(—-) = “WATCHDOG” (spa is deactivated) A problem has been detected. (system can not identify)

Sn1 = OPEN SENSOR (heater is deactivated) or SHORTED SENSOR (spa is deactivated).

Sn3 = OPEN SENSOR OR SHORTED SENSOR ( heater disabled).

(This is not a complete list and your spa error codes may vary depending on year and model.)

Notice the similarities and differences in the codes. Both use FLO,SN1,SN3 and ICE and so forth, Differences include, (—-). Meaning totally different things between the two systems. You must use the error codes for your control system to accurately diagnose the problem with your spa.

Lets take a quick look at the FLO error code. Both manufacturers state FLO is caused when a pressure switch malfunctions or a flow switch malfunctions. This can be the case in many situations, however, it is my experience that the number one cause of a spa displaying the error code “FLO” is due to a dirty or worn out filter.

(Some manufacturers attempt to narrow down the FLO error with different displays of the code, i.e., a solid FLO or a flashing FLO (FLO error blinks off and on).

Blinking FLO = Heater has been deactivated, pump is on and Flow / Pressure switch are open. (This means the system detects the spa has called for heat, the PC board has applied power to the pump, but it has not detected water flow. It deactivates the heater to avoid damage to the heater).

Solid FLO = Pump is off, flow or pressure switch is closed. (Meaning, the system should not be detecting water flow because the PC Board has not applied power to the pump, but the flow pressure switch is saying there is water flow. The flow or pressure switch is stuck in the closed position or shorted.)

A dirty or worn out filter can cause several error codes to be displayed. “OH” (over heat) because water is not moving quickly enough through the heater vessel and the high limit detects too hot of water temperature. “FLO” because the filter will not allow enough water through the heater vessel to activate the flow or pressure switch. Filters should be replaced approximately annually or bi-annually if you use two different filters. Filters should be rinsed thoroughly every month, and cleaned properly every 3 months or so.

For more information on error codes for your spa, visit Spa Parts Supply or contact your spa manufacturer for a list of codes that pertain to your spa. When in doubt, call a spa service technician for troubleshooting help and repair.

The Difference Between Losing Body Fat and Losing Weight

You see when you weigh your self on the scales they may tell you that you have lost weight. However many kilos or pounds – and you are probably quite happy about weighing less right? After all that is what you want. But did you know that for every kilo of weight you lose – 50% is actually fat loss, while the other 50% is made up of muscle, fluid and bone density?

Many people are not aware of this. While your new weight number on the scales may look great to you now – most people will put this amount of weight loss back on and more in the future. The biggest reason for this is because you have lost muscle mass in your original efforts to lose weight and this decreases your bodies ability to burn more calories. You need lean muscle to burn calories – the more you have – the more your body becomes at efficiently burning fat.

The best way to determine if you have actually lost body fat is not via the scales. It is by using your trusty old tape measure and taking your measurements. When you notice a decline in centimeters you are losing body fat. You will also notice it in your clothes and how well they fit you too.

This is why some people who may look really fit and slim actually weigh the same as you – and you may be overweight. It is because they have more lean muscles and lean muscle weighs more than fat. Because they have all this lean muscle their body is very efficient at burning calories – so they may weigh the same as you but be considerably smaller because they have less body fat.

Is It Easier To Predict Volcanoes Or Earthquakes?

It seems that in recent years some of the most severe hazards have taken place. Their enormous destructiveness goes hand in hand with the suffering of the people concerned. Many of us will ask ourselves why such disasters could not be prevented in times of modern technology and high scientific know how. But like weather, volcanoes or earthquakes cannot be influenced by the human intelligence. Life would not be life if we could control everything, even if it is difficult to comprehend why these terrible things do happen.

I have written this article to explain a little about the nature of volcanoes and earthquakes.

Especially volcanic eruptions and earthquakes are devastating natural hazards which are both difficult to predict and difficult to respond to.

However, examples like Montserrat, Mount St. Helens, Heimaey, the San Francisco earthquake and the Mexican earthquake illustrate the differences in terms of predicting and responding to these hazards.

Volcanic eruptions are easier to predict than earthquakes, as minor earthquakes are often the first ‘sign’ of a following volcanic eruption. The example of Mount St. Helens underlines this, as first signals of a coming volcanic eruption could be noticed already three months before the actual eruption. These signals can be either minor earthquakes or even gas production in a volcano shows that it is ‘active.’

Earthquakes are harder to predict as they occur suddenly without any warning or with short notice. However both earthquakes and volcanoes can be monitored and observed by seismographs, tilt meters, lasers, GPS and observation. Furthermore some animals like catfishes can be used to predict them as they are very sensitive. It is also possible to create hazard maps as prediction for volcanic eruptions. These are based on previous eruptions and close observations.

The example of Heimaey in Iceland shows that volcanoes can also occur unexpectedly. It erupted without any previous signs on January 23rd 1973. In this case there were only 24 hours of minor tremors before a 400 metre fissure opened up to pour out lava. The Heimaey is only one example where a volcanic eruption occurred without previous warning. Other examples like Mount St. Helens and Montserrat show that volcanic eruptions are usually easy to predict. Mount St. Helens for example resulted in the largest landslide in recorded history with a speed of 70 to 150 miles per hour. But due to great preparedness only 57 people died. This shows that early warning results in easier and more accurate prediction.

As a general rule, it can be said that earthquakes are more difficult to predict than volcanoes as they occur without any warning.

Can You Use a Patio Heater in a Gazebo?

Many wonder about the safety of using a patio heater in a gazebo. A gazebo is a nice place to sit during the evening and does get cold like a patio during the cooler months of the year. It is fine to run a patio heater in a gazebo under certain circumstances.

Make sure that the gazebo is not enclosed. It must be wide open like your patio would be outside of the beams that are holding up the roof. But if you are really that concerned or there is some enclosed space inside, buy an indoor/outdoor heater which are safe to use even in completely enclosed spaces.

The best fuel source for a heater used this way will be electric. Natural gas lines running to the gazebo will be far too expensive. Propane is an option but it will take up more space. You will have to deal with the cords for the electric heater but it’s a much easier fuel source than the others.

One concern about using a heater inside gazebo is limited space. Full sized heaters might be a little too big for your average sized one. One option to consider as an alternative might be to use the electric wall heaters. These could be hung inside the gazebo saving some space and keeping the device out of the middle of the area. One could also get a standing infrared heater and point it towards the gazebo while it sits on the outside of the space.

Whatever option you choose to do, be safe. Always go with the manufacturers directions and recommendation on the box. Don’t ever try to make up your own version of what is or what is not safe.

Theme Park Water Ride Tips and Tricks to Keep Dry and Not Wet

If you have kids, you know they love water rides at the theme parks. Parents always make one classic mistake about them. They look at the ride and think “well, maybe if we go on it we will get lucky and not get too wet”. HAHA!!! Trust me, you will lose on that bet! You ALWAYS get really wet on the water rides, that’s what they are designed to do.

So here are my tips and tricks for keeping yourself, your camera and your shoes dry when you go on a water ride at a theme park. Let’s say you go to Disney and your kids want to go on a water ride. Okay, so you go and get those overpriced raincoats they just happen to sell right outside the water rides. So now you’ll stay dry even if you do get a wall of water rushing over you. BUT, you forget the most important part of your body.

Your FEET! Think about it, you come off the ride with your clothes dry, but now you have soaked, wet sneakers and socks. So all the rest of the day you squish around in steaming, hot wet shoes, yuck! Your feet WILL get soaked, trust me. Some rides have compartments to stash stuff, but do you really want to take off your shoes and socks right there?

Here is where my tips come in for when you go on those theme park water rides. When you go to the parks, take a small backpack. Maybe have a few of your family carry one to spread out the bulk. Now, inside those backpacks you have a pair of rubber sandals for each member that you picked up at any of those cheapo gift shops, there’s one every block where theme parks are!

Also put an extra pair of socks in there for each person. There’s more you should carry, but for this post I’m just talking about what you want for the water rides. Once you get to the water ride, they all have small lockers you can stash stuff in. Get one, change out of your shoes and socks and put on your sandals, then lock your stuff up. Leave your cameras, purses and wallet there too.

Now you can go on the theme park water ride and not worry about things getting wet, except for clothes that will dry off in the hot sun of Florida. Once you get off, go to the restrooms and dry off what you can. Then slip on your socks and shoes, and now you have nice dry feet, nice! Wait, some of you sandal lovers might be thinking.

Why not just wear sandals all day, then you don’t even need to carry shoes? You do NOT want to wear sandals all day long walking around the theme park. The pavement gets very hot, and you do lots of walking. One of the most common complaints is blisters from people wearing sandals. Plus they fly off your feet on the open bottom roller coasters!

So, wear sneakers that have thick soles and socks you can change to feel better half way into the day. Carry sandals in a backpack, maybe small towels if you want too. Your feet will thank you at the end of the day, trust me. And remember as your looking at that ride your kids want to go on, you WILL get WET!!

Almost all theme parks have great water rides that are fun. Taking my tips will insure you have a good time and not have sore, wet feet or damaged cameras from the water. Have fun at the theme parks and stay dry!

Acne Boils – Cystic Acne Treatment

Acne boils are hard, red, painful swellings, usually beginning as pimples or nodules about hair roots. They increase rapidly in size and develop “cores” in their centers. Carbuncles are unusually severe boils, usually with more than one core or head, accompanied by general illness and debility.

Boils and carbuncles are caused by the same kind of germ – Staphylococcus aureus as a rule. To start a boil or carbuncle, the germs must gain entrance to an oil or sweat gland or hair follicle. It has often been noticed, however, that a general low level of resistance, a low metabolic rate, rubbing in of dirt by clothing, or diabetes paves the way for boils or carbuncles.

The core of an acne boil consists of innumerable bacteria interspersed with white blood cells. It tends to soften and form thick liquid pus around it, which escapes through a break in the skin. The pus, containing live germs, may spread the infection and cause other boils if it comes in contact with unprotected skin. Warmth and moisture hasten the formation and breakdown of the core, and help to keep the skin soft so that the pus may more easily break through. If the skin is kept wet continually, however, it may become soft enough to encourage the spread of germs through it. Dressings wet with strong solutions of salt or other chemicals stimulate drainage of the pus from the tissues into the dressings. Following adequate drainage, a boil subsides quickly.

Never squeeze or pick at a boil. The collection of germs in the forming core may be broken up and spread into surrounding tissues. The germs may even spread into the bloodstream, causing septicemia or “blood poisoning.” The most dangerous spot in the body for a boil to be located is the area marked out by the bridge of the nose, the corners of the mouth, and the outer corners of the eyes. This includes the inside of the nostrils. Many cases fatal septicemia or meningitis has resulted from improper interference with boils or pimples in this area.

What to Do

1. Immediately upon the appearance of a pimple which appears severe enough to develop into a boil – if it is not deep-seated ad has a small yellow spot in the center – dip the point of a needle into tincture of iodine or carbolic acid and open the pimple by thrusting the needle sideways through the yellow spot and lifting the needle. Do not press or squeeze. Wipe off the small amount of pus with a bit of sterile gauze or absorbent cotton. Apply 2 percent tincture of iodine to and around the opened pimple at once. This may abort the boil.

2. If the pimple is deep-seated, or if it does not have a definite yellow center, do not attempt to open it, but paint it and the surrounding skin twice a day with 2 percent tincture of iodine. Let the solution dry on the skin and apply no dressing of any kind for one hour. This will help to protect the surrounding skin from infection.

3. After the skin has been left dry for an hour, apply dressings of several layers of gauze kept wet with a warm saturated solution of Epsom salts on a repeat schedule of two hours on and one hour off. The dressings may be covered with waxed paper, oiled silk, or plastic to prevent their drying out. It is helpful to keep them warm by covering with a hot-water bottle with a layer or two of Turkish toweling between dressing and bottle.

4. The pain of the boil will be considerably relieved if the treatment outline in (2) and (3) is followed, and the boil will probably come to a head and break within a few days. If instrumental opening becomes necessary, it is better to have a physician do it.

5. Penicillin injections and sulfadiazine by mouth are recommended for a carbuncle or a severe boil. The use of these requires the supervision of a physician.

6. It is wise to keep a wide area of skin surrounding the boil disinfected by frequent application of rubbing alcohol or mild tincture of iodine, as described in (2), to prevent the germs in the pus from getting a foothold in the skin and starting new boils.

7. A “run of boils” should always lead to consultation with a physician. If diabetes is a factor, it must be treated. It may be advisable to build up resistance to the special strain of staphylococcus germ causing the boils by giving a course of injections of “autogenous vaccine,” which the physician can have made. Frequent changes of clothing, alcohol sponging, and frequent baths are also important.

Made in China – Designer Handbag Fashion Totally Misunderstood

Wow! What’s all this garble about “everything” made in China being counterfeit or fake? Do people understand the design and manufacturing process? Or, are they just determined to squabble about one of the manufacturing industry’s greatest resources?

True, there’s been a lot of media about children’s toys being manufactured poorly. Shame on China for the mess they’ve created. They’ll fix the problem, or they’ll lose business. We all learn from our mistakes, right? Or, at least the smart folks learn. And, let’s face it, China is no dummy!

China has been manufacturing most of the clothing, shoes, handbags, and accessories stocked in all the major department stores throughout the world for many, many years. And, this is not going to fade or go away. China offers low-cost labor for low-end to high-end designer handbags, clothing and just about anything around the house.

Most people don’t understand the truth about the Made in China label. China has been producing most of the Designer Merchandise sold in the USA for very long time. Why? Because the price to manufacture in China keeps prices as low as possible for consumers. People complain about the high price tags on designer handbags, clothing, shoes, and accessories. If the same item made in China was made in the USA or Europe the prices would be doubled or tripled.

If the Hermes Birkin bag was assembled by hand in China instead of France, the price would not be $7,000.00 each. If Italian leather was sent to China for the assembly of Prada handbags, the prices would not be $3,000.00 each. Please put things into perspective.

Burberry’s new management decided to use China for some of its assembled manufacturing needs and people went crazy. The thought of using a designer handbag made in China is misunderstood, misinterpreted, and misguided. The product made in China consists of the same quality of fabric as if it were made in the USA, France, England or Italy. The only difference is the designer item was assembled in China, or any other country offering a cheaper assembly manufacturing process.

Most of the high-end Designers buy fabrics, leathers, and materials from the USA or Europe, pay a premium price for the high-quality fabrication, and then negotiate manufacturing in China. The materials and specifications are sent to China and made. Representatives from each of the Design Houses travel to China or other manufacturing countries to supervise the process. The finished products are shipped to the USA and other parts of the world for sale. It’s a process kept sweet and as simple as possible. It creates jobs and produces a global economy.

Most consumers don’t know the designer manufacturing process or understand the details. They see a Made in China label and assume it’s a counterfeit item or fake. In reality, it’s not. It’s a moderately priced item made in a country which has been stereo-typed. And, we can’t blame the consumer because most of the junk, counterfeit and fake merchandise bearing the trademarks of others are made in China. Hopefully, the USA Customs Department working closely with the fashion industry will help end importing counterfeit goods.

There are many countries available the fashion designers use to outsource labor. The high-end leather designer handbags with high-ticket price tags are made in the USA, Italy, London and France. The lower cost designer products are made elsewhere. Most designers offer collections every season which provide both high-end and lower priced products. For example, Ralph Lauren has five price and fabrication determined collections: RL Classics, Collection, Black Label, Blue Label and Lauren. Plus, many of the designers produce a separate collection for outlet stores and discount stores like Marshalls, TJ Max, Target, Walmart, etc.

Some of the countries are more commonly used than others, and nonetheless they are countries with capabilities and low-cost labor. Some of these countries include, and are not limited to China, Turkey, Mexico, Romania, India and Portugal.

Fashion designers who make designer handbags, designer wallets, designer scarves, designer clothing, hats, shoes, etc. use these countries because they can sell their products at affordable prices. Some of the fashion designers include, and are not limited to Coach, Burberry, Liz Claiborne, Robert Rodriquez, Max Studio, Tommy Hilfiger, Ralph Lauren, Marc Jacobs, Michael Kors, Kate Spade, Dooney & Bourke, Juicy Couture, Donna Karan, Anne Klein, Brighton, and many, many others.

Just because an item is Made in China, it does not constitute fake or counterfeit. Let’s get this straight and communicated clearly. The reason the item was made in China is because at that point in time, the designer’s manufacturing team decided it was the best business decision to make for a cost-effective distribution of its product and collection.

The next time you see a Made in China label on a designer handbag or accessory, and you purchased it from a reputable source, thank your lucky stars for the bargain price you paid. If you have any doubt, take the item to the designer’s boutique for authentication and peace of mind. Don’t assume just because it’s Made in China it’s a fake. You know what assuming does, right?

Thank Anti Vibration Mounts for Your Peace and Quiet

A new report was recently issued on the Global Automotive NVH Materials Market for the period spanning 2012 through 2016. Therein, analyst forecasts revealed that “the Global Automotive Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) Materials market (will) grow at a CAGR of percent over the period 4.82 percent.” The report goes on to suggest that “one of the key factors contributing to this market growth is the increase in the demand for comfort and safety in automobiles.”

Anti vibration mounts are one of the products that enable that comfort and safety to be brought about. As a result, such mounts are one of the contributors to the growth witnessed in the Global Automotive Noise, Vibration, and Harshness report.

Part of the family of custom molded rubber and rubber-to-metal bonded parts, anti vibration mounts come in many variations. One of the most reliable of these is the Vibro-Insulator® line of mounts that are used in the control of noise, vibration, and shock.

According to Wikipedia, molded and bonded rubber and elastomeric isolators and anti vibration mounts are often used as machinery mounts or in vehicles. The website cites their main purposes as: 1) to absorb shock and 2) to attenuate some vibration. Wikipedia goes on to explain that “the fluid in automotive shock absorbers is a kind of damper, as is the inherent damping in elastomeric (rubber) engine mounts.”

The automotive industry, however, isn’t the only one to make sure of anti vibration mounts. As Science Daily recently reported, such mounts are playing an integral role in quieting rail transit. That’s because an anti vibration mount securely holds vibration absorbers in place. Used to “damp vibration in everything from engines to buildings,” vibration absorbers can be “attached to the wheels or the tracks of transit systems.” When they are, they make the railways a more pleasant form of transportation to have around by reducing the noise stemming from the trains. As a result, both passengers and the people living and working near the train tracks enjoy greater peace and quiet. In particular, vibration absorbers are “effective in reducing wheel squeal.”

Of course none of these positive effects would be possible without the aid of anti vibration mounts. Because they are designed to keep the vibration absorbers where they belong, they ensure that noise reduction is maximized.

The Global Automotive NVH Materials Market 2012-2016 report speculates over the factors contributing to the growth of the Automotive Noise, Vibration, and Harshness Materials market. It points out such contributors as governmental laws and regulations pertaining to noise reduction. It then goes on to single out the “stringent laws” of European nations that are “in place to ensure the minimum negative impact of automobile noise on the environment.”

Vibro isolators and the anti vibrations mounts that secure them in place help not only the automobile industry but also other transit industries like rail meet the noise reduction rules that are established for them. Whether it is in the European Union or in the United States, citizens are enjoying much more peace and quiet thanks to the noise mitigation an anti vibration mount provides.

Bosch GBH 24 VRE – A Must Tool For Your Drilling Purposes

Visit any construction site near you and you can be almost assured that you will come across a drilling tool from the Bosch Corporation. This company has for a long time now been known for producing high quality tools that are both corded and cordless. The batteries that they use in their cordless tools are rechargeable and last for a long time. The tools are usually very efficient and use the latest technology. One of the tools that have been made by this company is the Bosch GBH 24 VRE which is a great drilling tool. Let us look at some of the characteristics of this tool.


– The Bosch GBH 24 VRE comes with a dust cover so that the drill can be kept to avoid rusting of the motor.

– It has a double lock system on the battery.

– It is made in a way that the machine pulsates at the least when in operation.

– It has a 2-way rotation switch which enables the lock off function.

– The tool also uses a special system known as the SDS-Plus (Special Direct System-Plus) which, as the name suggests, uses the system in built in the tool directly.

– The Bosch GBH 24 VRE also comes with a chuck which protects when there is a heavy load.

– It has an auxiliary handle which revolves 360 degrees for better handling of the tool in various positions.

– It comes with a 42mm spindle collar.

– It has Electronic Motor Protection system and Electronic Cell Protection system which enhance the drill’s efficiency and performance. In this way, they increase the life span of the battery that is in use.

– The tool is also quite light in weight making it easily portable from one place to another.

One of the unique functions that come with the Bosch GBH 24 VRE drill is the ability to carry out dual drilling. This is enabled by a free switching mode system that allows a user to switch from rotary hammer to rotary only. This is a great tool to use for your drilling needs at any construction site.

The batteries that are used on this tool are lithium ion batteries. The tool comes with a Bosch Hyper Charge which charges the batteries really quickly. The batteries produce a voltage of 24v which is good enough for the kind of work it does.

You can read more reviews online on the Bosch GBH 24 VRE drilling tool.

Get Your Treatment For Genital Warts Only From a Physician

Warts are caused by human papilloma virus. Not all warts are infectious, but genital warts or Condylomata acuminata is. It is a highly contagious sexually transmitted infection that occurs both in men and women. Before we go into depth, let us take a look at the different stains and the resulting warts. There are approximately 130 strains of the virus. Among them:

• Type 1 Causes planter and palmer warts.

• Type 2 causes common warts. Filiform warts, planter warts, mosaic planter warts

• Type 3 causes plain or flat warts

• Type 6 and 11 causes 90% of the genital warts

• Type 16 and 18 causes 70% of the cervical cancers

There are many ways of treating genital warts. The traditional method is:

• Applying liquid nitrogen which is very painful

• Applying podophyllin, which is only 55% effective

• Loop Electro Surgical Excision of the wart by the doctor

• CO2 Laser Surgery for large warts in the genital area

• Interferon injection into the wart which helps the immune system of the body to fight the infection. The injection is given twice a week for about 8 weeks or till the warts disappear. This treatment is 50% effective.

• While treating genital warts in pregnant women the external application of the medicines cannot be done because they get absorbed in the skin and can lead to the child getting some birth defects. So only treatments like freezing can be done.

Therefore, see a doctor to have it diagnosed and then take up proper treatment as Condylomata acuminata is as infectious as it can sometimes be painful. Although the body’s natural immune system clears up the virus sometimes, it needs treatment most of the time. There are different ways of treating genital warts. Let us take a peek into different clinical methods by which you can clear the genital warts. At the same time, as the virus is incurable, there is a fair chance of the warts reappearing again and again.

One should be careful while treating pregnant woman, lest it harms the foetus and causes defective birth. As it is, most of the medicines have some side effects. That is why one should take up the treatment under the guidance of a qualified medical practitioner only. It seems a true case where prevention is better than cure. Of course, prevention too is very difficult because you will never know if your partner has Condylomata acuminata or not.

Pharmacists sell many ointments, lotions and genital wart creams but the best is to go to the doctor and only on his prescription they may be used. The natural therapy would be to use banana peals along with a combination of garlic, to effectively remove genital warts.

Most of the genital warts creams contain silver oxide, some natural oils and organic beeswax. Siver oxide kills the germs, beeswax reduces inflation and redness and the natural oils contained in it moisturises the skin and gets rid of the toxins. Having less toxic diet, maintaining personal hygine does help in the long run. You can also try natural therapy. Take bananas that are just turning yellow. Cut the peel into right size and put the inner side of the peel on the warts. Secure it with a tape and leave it for as long as possible. Garlic pastes can also do wonders. Use sesame oil to moisturize the skin. Using tea oil is not recommended, but Polyphenon E, which is extracted from green tea has a higher clearance rate. Try them along with other medicines. Besides there are some good Homeopathic medicines that clear warts from the roots.

The occurrence of warts is more likely in people who have low immunity levels. So our diet should be rich in folic acid and beta carotene to boost up the immunity system. Another important thing to be noted is that genital warts should be treated the moment they are noticed. Any delay in treatment would make it harder to get rid of them.

The Origins of Fabric Painting

You look at the wonderful tapestries and marvel at the designs. The painted fabrics take your breath away and leave you wondering, how on earth did they do that? Craftsmen throughout the ages have passed on their astounding skills teaching people for centuries how to paint fabric.

It is said that fabric painting has its roots in Asia and eventually made its way through Europe, India and Africa as merchants traded their wares throughout the ancient world. It was at this time fabric painting techniques were adapted by artisans in each of these countries to reflect the culture of their times.

It’s quite interesting to note that although the craft may have begun in a certain place and time, it did not remain the same but evolved into rather interesting forms. Despite the distance and language barriers, each artisan experimented, expressed and refined their painting technique, adding a unique spin while still embracing the core principles of the fabric painting craft.

Ancient civilizations introduced the painting aspect on human bodies much earlier than painting on fabrics. This practice was later adapted to be applied to fabrics. Fabrics were woven, patterns were designed prior to and sometimes after the fabric had been constructed. Another method used to create this opulent-looking fabric was by dyeing the individual yarns before weaving the fabrics. Today artisans do not limit themselves to dyeing yarns or painting yardage but have taken it a step further in painting directly on the assembled garment.

In this present-day though much has changed, there are still quite a number of elements that remain the same in the fabric painting craft. The intricacy of design, the skill of the crafts persons and the diverse range of materials and colorants used are a few of the more prominent items that remain.

Though previously considered a discipline for a select crew of skilled craftsmen, this art has become somewhat of a well embraced and eagerly sought after profession and hobby. Once there is an interest and the basic concepts and techniques are shared, most people are quite amazed at how easy it really is to learn how to paint on fabric.

Yes times have changed, no longer do people wait to be taught by the Master’s of the field, but they are willing to take a leap of faith and embrace the simple techniques that are shared by many of today’s leading textile artists and fabric painters alike. There’s no more waiting in line or having to travel great distances to glean the vital information necessary to becoming a successful fabric painter. The information is now close at hand and available in many forms including downloadable e-courses and e-books.

With all the tools and resources available the budding textile artist yearns to get active with the paint; it is at this particular point that the fabric selection, design concept and colors come into play. It is important to know what you intend to do with the painted fabric. Will it be purely aesthetic or will it have a particular function? As you have decided this you are now ready to create your masterpiece and add your cultural flair to your fabrics for the upcoming generations to admire.