Diagnosing and Repairing a Sta-Rite Pool and Spa Heater Using a Systematic Approach – Segment Two

We will continue our systematic approach to diagnosing a pool heater by looking at what to do when the light in the control pad on the top of your Sta-Rite pool and spa heater that is labeled “service heater” is lit. (We will proceed with the assumption that you know everything from segment one.) This time you will need to remove the sides from the heater before disconnecting power to the heater so that you can read the codes on the board attached to the topside. After removing the sides, you will see the big topside that is still connected to the heater. Below the topside is a metal panel that keeps the topside in place. Under this panel there are two locking pins (cotter pins). Carefully remove the two pins and store them somewhere safe until reassembly. Gently remove the top and turn it upside down. You will see a light lit on the board you are looking at when you turn the topside over. The light will be next to a code that is written on the board.

The first code that you’ll see on the left side of the board will be PS. This is the code for the pressure switch. We covered the pressure switch in segment one. If this light is lit go back to segment one and review that segment. If necessary follow the instructions to replace the pressure switch.

The next code you’ll see on the board is HLS. If you have a controller on the system you will need to bypass it at this time. You will need to carefully disconnect the power from the heater. After you are sure that the power is disconnected, you will need to find and open the high-voltage cabinet. This cabinet is a metal box in the middle of the heater. If you are looking at the cabinet, there is usually a screw on the top right side. Loosen the screw and the door will swing down toward you. You need to be extremely careful when working in this box and only do so when you are sure that the power to the heater is OFF.

You will need to bypass the firewall safety interface. To do this you will need a short wire with stab-tab connectors. If you have a controller and it was properly installed the wire may have been left in the box by the tech who installed the controller. If not you will need to make this jumper wire. At this point look in your owner’s manual to locate the two proper pins to connect to. If you have a controller or are using a fireman’s switch this is where your control should be connected. If you have a controller and it is not connected here, it could be the source of your problems and either have a certified tech correct the problem or correct it yourself.

You must be careful not to put the jumper wire on the power terminals or you will destroy your heater by burning up the electronic system. Use your manual to locate where the fireman’s switch is supposed to be attached and carefully attach your jumper between these terminals. If you now turn on the power and the heater works without any problems, your problem lies in the controller or the wiring going to the controller. You will need to trouble shoot this system.

If you still have the same problem with your heater. (“service heater” light comes on), leave the jumper in place and verify that the pump is on and that you have good water flow. Make sure again with your meter that the pressure switch is not cycling. It should read as a dead short. (See segment one) With good water flow verified and the “service heater” light on, your problem could be one of the thermo-regulators in the safety system.

Since we started this with the indicator light on the board lit next to HLS, the first thing we are going to check are the wires going to the high limit switch. The high limit switch is located near the bottom on the left side of the water manifold as you face it. To see it you need to remove the side cover on the water manifold. The screw that holds the cover is on the top of it. You need to make sure that the orange wires going to the switch are intact, attached and not corroded. If the wiring is good, use your multi-meter to check that the high limit switch reads as a dead short. If it reads open and the water is not above 104 F, replace the high limit switch. If this does not fix your problem you may have a bad control board and it will need to be replaced. Testing the control board is a very involved process and will be dealt with in a later segment.

This is the end of segment two and has taken you through part of the safety circuit in the heater and 2 of the indicator lights on the board. We will continue on with our systematic diagnose of problems on the Sta-Rite pool and spa heater in the next segment.

Building Up the Brow Bones For a More Sculpted Forehead and Eye Shape

The forehead has a variety of shapes that do differ based on gender. Men will tend to have flatter fuller foreheads with more prominent brow bones (supraorbital ridges) while women’s foreheads will usually be softer, less full, and with flatter brow bones that tend to angle off into the temporal region. Whether it be by a congenital deformity (such as craniosynostosis), frontal tumor resection (craniotomy flap) or from prior contouring purposes (FFS, facial feminization surgery), there are rare instances when one desires to have a fuller or more prominent brow definition restored.

Brow bone augmentation (BBA) is one form of forehead reshaping that can be done. Using synthetic materials as a building material, the bone can be ‘thickened’ and recontoured to alter how the brow looks. Since the eyebrow and the upper part of the eyelid is affected by its underlying bony support, such changes can produce subtle to dramatic differences.

One of the key issues of brow bone augmentation is which material to use. Currently, hydroxyapatite (HA) and acrylic (PMMA) are the only two moldeable materials of choice. Your own bone is usually not a good option since you have to harvest it and how it survives as an onlay is unpredictable. Both HA and PMMA have their advocates but I have gotten good results with both. Either one can do the job. PMMA is much cheaper from a material cost standpoint and is very hard once it sets, being hard if not harder than natural bone. HA is much more expensive, a little harder to work with, and is more fragile to impact. But it is closer to the mineral of natural bone so it has greater compatibility and less risk of long-term body reaction concerns.

There is also the option of a synthetic implant carved out of silicone or polyethylene. (Medpor) This requires a greater degree of skill and time to get all the edges flat and flush with the surrounding bone. It is easy to see how an edge step-off can be felt through the skin unless it is done perfectly. Feathering edges and blending into the surrounding bone is much more assured with the moldable materials.

The other important consideration of BBA is access. For the most part, an open scalp approach provides the best vision and control of the shape. But this is understandably problematic for most men unless they have a pre-existing scalp scar to use. For most women, this is not a significant issue as a hairline (pretrichial) approach can be done and that scar can really be quite fine and unnoticeable. I know this from a lot of experience with pretrichial (hairline) browlift procedures done for cosmetic purposes.

A non-open scalp approach (endoscopic) can be used in select cases of forehead augmentation. When it is the central or more upper parts of the forehead that are being augmented, the endoscopic approach using PMMA as an injectable material can be done. PMMA can be injected and pushed around as a congealed putty and shaped by external molding through the forehead skin. HA is a quite different material and its handling properties do not permit anything but an open approach scalp approach. But working down at the brow area, which is a very low point for endoscopic visualization, is even difficult with PMMA. Therefore, I would advocate an open approach for any amount of brow bone build-up.

A Recent Visit to a Genuine African Game Ranch in South Africa Reveals Some Fascinating Facts

I was recently privileged to visit the Game Ranch called Egerton, near the town of Hopetown in the Northern Cape. Hopetown, of course, is a little-known town, but it is a fact that the very first Diamond found in South Africa was discovered here in 1852. Of course the town of Kimberly, better known as the main source of South African diamonds, is only a mere 90 or so miles North of Hopetown.

Nothing could have prepared me for the stunning beauty of the place. I was quite overwhelmed. Set on the banks of the mighty Orange (now being changed to “Gariep”, a San name) River, this magnificent piece of Africa was captivating from the first moment I arrived. My hosts were Peter and Linda Roux, the owners of the Ranch, and I could not have been in better hands. From the moment of my first welcome drink, I was made to feel completely at home; very soon Peter took me on an orientation drive around the property, and a sizable one it is!

Extending for some 7,400 acres, it has nearly 6 miles of Orange River frontage. In addition, this part of the river has the only “White Water” for about 50 miles in any direction, with rapids that are quite a challenge. In fact, Egerton has been home to the first South African Rafting Championships and Kayak Rodeo.

A rustic Guest Camp is located on the river bank, at set of the rapids. This camp is, in true African style, an open-air one, with meals being taken around the fire in the evenings, and with accommodation sleeping 25 in 5 large en-suite chalets. The ambience and peacefulness of this camp have to be experienced to be believed.

What about the Wild African Game? Of course, a visit to an African Game Ranch would not be complete without the African Game. Here Egerton does not disappoint; with 12 different species, including African Oryx (Gemsbuck), Red Hartebeest, Burchell’s Zebra, Blue Wildebeest, Springbuck, Impala, Mountain Reedbuck, Steenbuck, Grey Duiker, Warthog, Kudu, and of course the Magnificent African Buffalo.

Egerton is home to a highly successful Buffalo Breeding Project. In fact, there is a dedicated 750 acre breeding camp situated in the middle of property providing a secluded and interference free breeding area for these high value animals. Surplus Buffalos are captured on a yearly basis for selling and relocation to other game farms.

Naturally, no African Game Ranch would be complete without the Trophy Hunting. Egerton is no exception, and has become well-known for producing hunting trophies of the highest quality, and the property is registered with a certificate of adequate fencing, entitling year round trophy hunting.

This visit will remain in my memory for many years to come, and if I had the necessary wherewithal, I would not hesitate to buy this gem of the African bush. If anyone out there is considering a property in South Africa, and has any sort of yearning for nature and natural places, please don’t wait. Give Peter a call, or better still drop him an email (the contact details are on the Website at www.egertongameranch.co.za) and I’m sure he would be delighted to talk to you. As I’ve said before, you could do worse.

A Street Car Named Desire

Thomas Lanier Williams, known as Tennessee Williams, the author of A Street Car Named Desire presents the contradiction and paradox that real human life might offer. It is a stage play with elements of tragedy and pathos that was published and staged in 1947. The theme of the story presents conflicts with which the central character, Blanche Dubois has to live. The theme is not dramatic or out of life as most of us live in our delusory world that may be far off the reality. While most of us cope up with our delusions and distinguish between real and fantasy, the others like Blanche Dubois turn a victim of overpowering delusion. And she knows it: “Blanche explains to Mitch that she fibs because she refuses to accept the hand fate has dealt her. Lying to herself and to others allows her to make life appear as it should be rather than as it is”.

The plot of the story is wonderfully crafted that goes on to highlight a number of emotional traits that are tested during the time of human tragedy. Most human beings are weak for their inescapable need to cry over the shoulder of some one close. At times this dependence takes severe form as in Stella’s dependence on Stanley for love and support; Mitch, otherwise a sober character, is also not without the need of companionship that he finds in Blanche, after the death of his mother. Blanche is also in need of support. Whether the support is offered by Stanley or not is an issue that needs analysis. Money matters, as it does for Blanche, while Stanley, a hard core down to earth worker proud in his masculinity must ensure he is not being cheated by Blanche. The drama depicts that while life moves on from past to present, the lingering past just cannot be done away with whether Stella tries to move on after leaving Belle Reve, or Blanche tries to find a man in her life after her husband commits suicide, or Stanley is apologetic about his rough actions. The past keeps haunting them in present. Death is shocking, and it is especially so if it involves some one close and near. It might often entail a sudden shift in one’s outlook and personality. Blanche’s husband’s death has a profound impact on her, even as those of the others in Dubois family. Mitch confronts the death of his only love as well as his dying mother who ultimately dies.

There are several other characteristic themes that merge in the single plot. One such theme is the loss of a world that meant status and class, and consequent downward spiral into the life of a blue collar ghetto. The impact of this social theme translates into loneliness, insecurity, and having to bear cruelty. Stella and Blanche the two sisters originally belong to a world that no longer exists for them. Their family’s ancestral plantation, Belle Reve, is lost. Their world is also lost along with it. The two sisters are the only living symbols of the old world. In the second scene, Blanche makes a comment about Stanley to Stella that says it all: “Oh, I guess he’s just not the type that goes for jasmine perfume, but maybe he’s what we need to mix with our blood now that we’ve lost Belle Reve”.

They are left with two options: either face reality and come to terms with, or live in a make believe world of fantasy to which Blanche succumbs; Stella comes to terms with reality. The real world now is the harsh world of hardship, of cruelty, of blue collar culture and living symbolized by Stanley. Stanley represents raw masculinity that intrigues and repulses at the same time. He and his world are quite in contrast to the aristocratic world of Blanche Dubois of which she is no longer a heiress but persists with her illusions even as they stay together which allows the readers to contrast what might be the symbols of real and illusion.

Let us see the paradox in Blanche’s life: Blanche’s illusory world offers her comfort as it is in fact her primary means of self-defense. Her deceptions do not spring from any malicious intents, rather they are an extreme reflections of her frailty to cope up with the misery of real life. She appears extremely reluctant to face the truth head-on. “For her, fantasy has a liberating magic that protects her from the tragedies she has had to endure. Unfortunately, this defense is frail and will be shattered by Stanley”.

Blanche makes a dramatic entry into the scene looking for her sister’s house. She looks in disbelief at the apartment building as she checks the address. She appears to pity Stella, her sister having to live in such a rundown building. Blache, about 30, elegant and attractive, a little haggard and weak is in her white suit with pearl earrings and white gloves. She appears lost and out of place in the ghetto populated by blue collar workers. Blanche tells Eunice when he asked her whether she is lost, “They told me to take a street-car named Desire, and then transfer to one called Cemeteries and ride six blocks and get off at-Elysian Fields”.

From here on the cocoon of unreality that Blanche lives in to protect herself against her weaknesses including her inability to repress her sexual desires become apparent. She refuses to acknowledge and lies about her promiscuous behavior in Laurel. “She shuns bright light, lest it reveal her physical imperfections; and she refuses to acknowledge her problem with alcohol. Stanley effectively penetrates her cocoon verbally with his crude insults and physically with his sexual coup de main near the end of the play”. As against Blanche, Stanley is rude, coarse, and domineering ruled by primal instincts. Her opinion of him might be seen as what she says about Stanley in course of conversation with Stella: “He acts like an animal, has an animal’s habits. Eats like one, moves like one, talks like one!” He is a man who calls a spade, a bloody shovel. His manners are uncouth and lingo, working class. He is hell bent on destroying every fabric of fa├žade that is a protective armor of Blanche Dubois.

That’s what reality does to illusion. It recklessly tears asunder the envelope of falsehood. However, we do see Blanche not totally deceptive with herself. She does realize that they have no option but to mix their superior blood with working class, as she pities the fate of Stella’s child who will enjoy none of the privileges she and her sister did. Nonetheless, Blanche simply fails to come to terms of reality. It is in fact this failure that results in severe consequences for her. A time comes towards the end of the drama when she loses her mental proportions completely.

Chairs for the Elderly and Chair Lift

Lift chairs are used a lot by the aged people, the immobilized, and those who may find it difficult to sit or stand due to body pain. Using chair lifts may offer the mobility, comfortable posture, and more independence. HSL chairs tilt in the forward direction when the user desires to sit down or stand up. After getting seated, a push button helps to bring the chair back to the normal position. Lift chairs can also be clubbed with a recliner to move people up and down a staircase.

One needs to consider several things before buying chair lifts:

1. These chairs can be big size and occupy a lot of space. So, you should have adequate room in their homes, as well as access to a power socket, so that the power chair lifts can be plugged in for working.

2. Next, you will have to decide the appearance of your recliner – the color and covering to decorate the chair. A wheel chair can be fitted with a number of fabrics, and leather.

3. Depending on whether you are left or right-handed, you will want to choose a stair chair with a handheld controller on the appropriate side.

4. The price of popular chair lifts and wheelchair on depend on the lifts manufacturer which you choose. It may vary from several hundred to several thousand dollars.

A riser recliner chair or lift chair is a little piece of luxury your elderly family member deserves. This article explores some of the most significant attributes of recliner chairs and gives you the best update you require. Chairs for the elderly are a very important requirement in any household.

One with weak knees, ankles, waist, and other joints are usually the people who will get the real advantage out of these medical chairs. Moreover, old persons who have met with some kind of accident, or suffering from a chronic disease benefit a lot from these lift chairs.

Many of these chairs are made up of weather-proof material like stainless steel and wood. This increases the life of the chair because it can resist wear and tear.

The more complicated ones have safety switches and locks. They help the disabled in maintaining safety. There are many designs from which you can choose. This article gives you all the information on how to make that critical decision to choose your chair:

1. The Double-position lift chair

This chair can be reclined up to 45 degrees very easily at the touch of a switch. Also it can be stopped in any position between zero and 45 degrees.

2. The Triple-position recliner chair

This chair gives you a lot of power. It can be reclined till 90 degrees flat. One can get a good sleep in it if one feels like.

3. The Unlimited reclining chair

This seat can be reclined at any angle and level. It is equipped with a dedicated motor to operate it. It functions like a stair would in this scenario. This can be used as a shower chair with a seat for taking bath.

When one gets old it can be very difficult to move around. Chairs for the elderly help old people to do it with ease without taking much help from others, and once again enjoy the joys of a regular daily life.

You need to properly install the chair lifts because it is very important for the safety of the handicap. It is highly recommended that you allow a professional trained to install the chair do his work. You can also fit the chair lift yourself to save money. When you or your loved ones require help in getting from the ground floor to the top floor, they are the perfect option. It can be a great comfort, luxury and invaluable freedom for those who have difficulty sitting or standing.

How to Start a Traffic School in California

The first thing you want to do is go to the California DMV website, dmv.ca.gov I will add links for you so you can find the information easily as the DMV website can be a little difficult to navigate through. (AB2499 is New CA legislation for traffic schools that was put in place 9.1.2012) It covers all the rules and regulations as well as the qualifications needed for the owner operator and instructor.

After you go through the information you will want to print out the traffic school owner checklist, it will prove to be very helpful in checking off each thing you need to complete.

Opening up a Traffic violator school can be a long and tedious endeavor; there are many requirements that need to be in place before the DMV approves you.

I will list a few of the steps involved in opening up your school:

1) The first thing the DMV requires is to submit a traffic school lesson plan along with an $800.00 fee for your original review of an online course, $800.00 for a home study course review or $475.00 for a classroom course to be submitted with your OL764 form. You will have to wait up to 120 days for the DMV to do a background check on you as well waiting for your approval or rejection of your course. If you would prefer you can purchase a pre approved lesson plan which is probably easier than writing your own which is a 6 month to a year project. Plus you will get your approval letter from the DMV in about a week and only have to pay a $25.00 fee to use a pre approved course.

2)The DMV must approve your traffic school name before you can move forward with the rest of your application, you will need to fill out the OL 612 form, but before you your waste time purchasing your domain name for an online traffic school you can call the DMV and check to see if the name you wish to use is available at the time of your call (916) 229-3126. If your name is similar to another name being used, your domain name will be rejected. If the name is available then you can send the form up to DMV by overnight mail, they will send you back an approval for your chosen name by US mail.Once you get your application approved, your school name will be placed on the DMV website, which is free marketing for you.

Some additional DMV requirements are: being fingerprinted by live scan, securing a bond, pay the required fees, submit an insurance certificate, purchase a DMV approved lesson plan,or write your own, rent an office space in which to run your business out of and hold your traffic violator classes if you wish to teach a classroom course. FYI…The DMV makes no distinction between a classroom traffic school or an online traffic school course in terms of the application process,the DMV wants you to have an office space even if you only have an online course. They state that students should be able to come into the business they have chosen to take their traffic school course with.

Your application must also have: Assurance of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Property use verification. If you Incorporate or choose to have a Limited Liability Company or Limited Liability Partnership owned businesses: You will need a copy of the Articles of Incorporation, Corporate Minutes or other document filed with the Secretary of State, which identifies the officers, share holders and managers with an interest in the business is required.

A copy of your Business License

Copy of your Fictitious Name Statement

Copy of your rental or lease agreement for all offices and classrooms or use form OL 144, Traffic Violator School Classroom Lease or Rental Agreement.

A California traffic school consists of an owner or owners, an operator who oversees the operation of the school and the traffic school instructor who will teach the classes. The operator has to take an 8 hour course either online or inclass as part of their application process if they have never been a licensed DMV operator before. If they have previously been a DMV licensed operator then they only need to take a 4 hour online or inclass course. After class they will receive a certificate which can be taken to DMV with their application packet. After the operator has taken their initial course whether a 4 or 8 hour they will have to take a mandatory 4 hour class each year. The owner does not have to take a DMV test, but the operator and instructor do. The written exam will consist of traffic laws, Safe driving practices, Knowledge of teaching methods and techniques. The operator will also have additional test questions on statutes and regulations, office procedures and record keeping.

These are just some of the requirements that I have listed above, read through the information on the DMV website before you decide if you want to proceed with opening up your school. In my future articles i will go over the requirements in more depth for the operator and instructor as well as marketing yourself on the internet.

DMV Links:

To view the forms and fees along with the application requirements for the traffic school owner the link below will show you all the information on one page.

http://dmv.ca.gov/vehindustry/ol/tvschowner.htm

DIY Repair Tips – How To Repair Your Luggage

Your knowledge on luggage repair can come handy when traveling and you discover one or two rip and tear in your bag. After traveling, you might also have to deal with a few torn edges in your bag. While high-end brands of luggage have their own maintenance and repair crew, you have to deal with your own luggage maintenance problems if you have low-cost travel bag.

Here are some repair tips you might find useful:

Tip 1: Common luggage fabric like vinyl can be fixed using cement specifically made for vinyl. You can purchase this from repair shops that fix clothes. It is cheaper than having an expert fix the bag. You just tear off a piece of cement and stick it to the damaged area. It is like patching a hole on your roof.

Tip 2: If the tear is large and cannot be easily repaired using the cement, you can use both vinyl patch and cement. Purchase vinyl patch and cut it off to the right size of the tear you are fixing. Affix it beneath the torn area. Seal the area with the vinyl cement.

Tip 3: If you have leather luggage and it has a large rip or tear, you can try the same method as tip 2. Purchase leather patch and cut it into the right size that can be affixed to the damaged area. Make sure it is the same color and texture of leather to have a consistent look. Attach it using fabric glue. You can purchase this from the fabric store.

Tip 4: If there are dents in your metal luggage or hard-sized metal suitcase, open the luggage and use a solid material like a block of wood to knock the dent on the inside. You can try wrapping the wood in cloth first to avoid scratching the metal surface.

Tip 5: Most broken handles cannot be fixed. You have to replace it. Purchase a replacement handle. Remove the old handle of the bag. You might have to loosen up screws or remove stitches. Once you have removed the old one, attach the new handle. Use the same bolt to attach the handle in place. If it needs to be covered by fabric, buy fabric similar to your luggage and sew it on the bag.

Tip 6: When fixing stuck zipper, try applying a bit of greasy product on the zipper first like soap to loosen it up. If clumps of fabric are stuck in the zipper, pry it off so you can open up stuck zipper. If it is crooked, you should have it replaced right away. If the bag is made of soft fabric, just remove the stitches of the zipper and purchase a replacement zipper with the same color and length. Stitch the new one to the luggage. For hard-cased luggage, you should have the zipper fixed by a professional.

Events and Festivals in Italy (Summer Season)

Throughout Italy, the variety of local character and color is astonishing. This is mainly due to the survival of regionalism, particularly in the southern parts of the country.

Old traditions, customs, and lifestyles are still greatly respected and there is a deep attachment to the land, which is reflected in a healthy interest in food and produce, as well as the perseverance of seasonal religious and secular events. Annual festivals, whether in rural or urban areas, range from wine tasting and gastronomic celebrations to elaborate commemorations of every patron saint imaginable.

SUMMER

Summer brings the crowds to Italy, particularly the cities. Italians, however, flee and head for the coast, usually in August. The lines for tourist attractions can be long and hotels are often fully booked. Festivals vary; religious events are interspersed with those of the arts and local folklore.

JUNE

Festa della Fragola (Jun 1), Borgo San Martino, Piedmont. Musical and folkloric performances in celebration of the strawberry.

Biennale (Jun-Sep), Venice. The world’s biggest exhibition of contemporary art takes place during odd-numbered years only.

Infiorata (Corpus Christi day), Genzano, Lazio. A procession through streets carpeted with flowers.

Festa di San Giovanni (mid-Jun-mid-Jul), Turin, Piedmont. Festival in honor of the city’s patron, St. John.

Calcio Storico (Jun 24 and two other days in Jun), Florence. Soccer in 16th-century costumes; fireworks.

Festa di Sant’Andrea (Jun 27), Amalfi, Campania. Fireworks and processions.

Festival dei Due Mondi (late Jun-early Jul), Spoleto, Umbria. International festival of drama, music, and dance.

Gioco del Ponte (last Sun), Pisa. “The Bridge Parade” of marchers in antique armor.

Estate Romana (late Jun-mid-Sep), Rome. Open-air movies, performances, ballet, and concerts.

JULY

Corsa del Palio (Jul 2), Siena. Tuscany’s most famous event presents a medieval flag waving exhibition and horse race.

Festa della Madonna della Bruna (first Sun), Matera, Basilicata. A lively procession of clergymen and knights in costume.

Festa de’ Noantri (last two weeks of Jul), Rome. A colorful festival in the streets of Trastevere.

Festa della Santa Maria del Carmine (Jul 16), Naples. Featuring the illumination of the city’s bell tower.

UmbriaJazz (Jul), Perugia. World famous jazz artists perform.

International Film Festival (Jul-Aug), Taormina, Sicily.

Opera Festival (Jul-Aug), Verona, Veneto. Renowned opera festival overlapping with the Shakespeare Festival, providing music, drama, opera, and dance.

AUGUST

Medieval Palio (first weekend Aug) Feltre, Veneto. Parades and archery competitions, medieval-style.

Festa dei Candelieri (Aug 14), Sassari, Sardinia. “Festival of the Candle”, dating from the 16th century.

Festa del Mare (Aug 15), Diano Marina, Liguria. This “Festival of the Sea” boasts a spectacular firework display.

Corsa del Palio (16 Aug), Siena, Tuscany. See July entry.

Venice Film Festival (late Aug-early Sep). International festival on the Lido.

Rossini Festival (Aug-Sep), Pesaro, Le Marche. A celebration of the composer’s work, in his birthplace.

Settimane Musicali di Stresa (late Aug-end Sep), Stresa, Lombardy. Four weeks of concerts and recitals.

Top 10 Tips to Writing Great Candle Lighting Ceremony Poems

10. Get inspired.

Think about an anecdote or personal trait that makes this person special to you and write it down.

Example: For a bar mitzvah boy’s grandfather who passed away very recently, the notes one could write about him are as follows:

He was Irish, Catholic, not Jewish. He was so proud of the man that David is becoming. He lived in Florida and he made David feel safe in Florida by telling him that his home was really David’s Florida home, so David was never homesick in Florida. He was a baker, he used to make bread on the kitchen table without a bowl, he made a lake in the middle of the flour. There needs to be something about David remembering him making bread with the lake on the table. The candle will be lit by Grandpa’s brother Uncle Frank and Aunt Marianne. This is the first family get together without him.

With a little work you can turn it into this:

My grandfather who I love so dear

Passed away recently, but I know he is near

His was my second home in Florida, of this I know

He told me how proud he was as he watched me grow

Grandpa was a baker and bread he would always make

With flour on the table, in the center he made a lake

This candle is to honor him, that has been my plan

Please come up to light it with me, Uncle Frank & Aunt Marianne

9. Make poems that are 4-8 lines.

Too few will be hard to convey your message and too many might bore your audience.

8. Try to keep each poem the same length.

You don’t want Grandma to be upset that she got 4 lines when Uncle Bill got 8.

7. If you are having trouble finding a word to rhyme with another word, you can either pick a different word (like choosing “great” instead of “good” or “sweet” instead of “nice”) or try going to http://www.rhymezone.com/

It is a great rhyming dictionary on-line that comes in handy for those tough to rhyme words.

6. Try to make the first line rhyme with the second line and the third line should rhyme with the fourth line.

It’s an AABBCCDD pattern that makes it simpler to read and find a rhyming word.

5. If you know who you want to call up to light the candle, find a word that rhymes with their name

With you guys as family I am never alone… (and end the line with) Come on up Uncle Bill and Aunt Joan.

4. An easy method to use is to find a last line that rhymes with the number you are on.

For example:

Grandma’s cooking always tastes like heaven,

So come on up to light candle number eleven.

3. There are a few catch phrases that you can use for any poem such as:

…I love you …

Come light candle number two.

And…

“To my aunt and uncle whom I truly adore,

Please come up to light candle number four.”

Here is an example of how you turn the notes you jot down into a poem. For Grandma & PopPop: Michael is their first and only grandchild, he has slept there every Friday the first 2 years of his life, and still sleeps over at times. They took him skiing for the first time when he was 4, they take him to movies, play cards, you name it, they do it for him!

Turn that into:

There are two special people here who I just love and adore

They introduced me to skiing when I was a boy of four

I have learned so much from both of them about being a good friend

Whether it’s at the movies or playing cards, there’s laughter without end

When I was little I stayed with them almost every Friday night

Grandma & PopPop it’s number twelve, I’d love your help to light

2. If there is someone on the list that your family knows, but you don’t know so well, be sure to speak to your family and get some insight into who they are and why they are special.

Example:

For a very dear friend of Mom and Dad’s – JoAnn. Steven’s mom has known JoAnn since they were 6 and of course JoAnn knows Steven since his birth. She helped the family a great deal when Mom and Dad were going through a divorce. She helped move them from Staten Island to NJ, she stayed there for 2 weeks to help them settle in. Always there for Mom, serious or fun…she is a lot of fun to be around.

Turn that into:

This next candle is for a family friend who’s always there in a fix

She’s known me since my birth and known Mom since they were six

From Staten Island to New Jersey, she helped us with our move

Two weeks she kept us company, till we got into a groove

Always fun to be around, that’s why I’m such a fan

Please come up for candle eleven, mom’s dear friend JoAnn

1. When in doubt, go to a professional who will write the poems for you and allow you to concentrate on all the other things you have to do when becoming a bar or bat mitzvah. Visit me at http://www.thepoemlady.com or email heymannyc@yahoo.com. I’ll write candle lighting poems for you based on the information you provide. I also help pick out the songs and make the whole thing effort free. The poems are sweet and funny. You can even print them out and roll them up in a scroll and hand them to the candle-lighters as they come up so they can take their personalized poem home with them.

Most important, just remember to have fun and enjoy your special day

Installing Roof Leak Barriers – Sealing Off Dormers and Side Walls

On the structural settling, roof decks and side walls can move separately. This settling can tear ice and water shields. Installing water-proof leak protection sealed to only the side wall will eliminate this problem from happening. When sealing dormers and side walls on a roof, install Shingle-Mate or Deck Armor roof underlayment protection. Be sure to cut it flush to the wall seam. Prepare a full 36″ width of Weather Watch or Storm Guard Ice and Shield and align the Weather Watch or Storm Guard so that there is at least 5″ running up the adjoining wall.

Remove split-back release film and firmly press to seal the Weather Watch or Storm Guard Ice and Water Shield. This seals the membrane to the Shingle-Mate or the Deck Armor roof protection underlayment and to the adjoining wall materials.

For masonry materials, some products may not seal or bond to certain cements and masonry products. If you are installing to a masonry material, install the Shingle-Mate or the Deck Armor roof underlayment 3″-4″ short of the wall seam making sure to leave the wood decking exposed. Then, seal the ice and water shield to the deck and run up the masonry without sealing.

Always remember that the Weather Watch or Storm Guard Ice and Water Shield are required around the dormers of roofs and the side wall of a house for the Weather Stopper orGolden Pledge installations.

Always take care when installing and sealing the Weather Watch or Storm Guard leak barriers. These special underlayments are crucial to the life of your home and the roof itself. The homeowner needs to make sure to hire a qualified roofing contractor that knows how to install the Weather Watch or Storm Guard properly. A qualified roofing contractor knows the proper installment procedures to install the water proof roof deck protection, so the homeowner will be assured that these roof-leak barriers are taking care of his/her needs for leak protection in the form of water proof underlayments.

When dealing with masonry materials, the homeowner needs to make sure the roofing contractor understands they are dealing with a masonry material and not all water-proof underlayments will bond to the masonry on their home. In this case, there may be other materials that can be used to make sure a water proof roofing material will bond and seal to this type of masonry on a home.

A homeowner can rest assured that when using a contractor that knows how to install these types of products, their home will be taken care of.

Color Your World to Productivity

Did you know the color of your office and surroundings can actually have an effect on your productivity? So if you have been feeling sluggish and seeking an answer in motivation, it may be as simple as picking up a paint brush. A couple of questions you need to ask yourself before you paint, is do you want a relaxing environment, or do you need your workspace to be more stimulating? Some colors motivate, while others distract. If you’re easily distracted, surround yourself with soft, muted colors to relax and calm you and help you get down to work. If you find motivation difficult, surround yourself with brighter colors to provide yourself with more energy. If you don’t have the time to paint at the moment, (or wallpaper), – look around at other items you may be able to change the color scheme on, or add a splash of color to; ie; the couch, throw pillows, chair covers, desk cover, frames, etc . . .

Cool colors, such as purples, greens and blues are more passive in nature, and will make your work area feel calmer. It will help quiet the nerves, lift the spirits, and soothe the soul. These are especially good colors to use if you work with the public in stressful situations, such as a counselor, lawyer, psychiatrist, etc. .. They’re calming and meditative, which will help with thoughtful concentration and reflection.

Use warm colors such as reds, yellows, and oranges, for an intimate and cozy feel. These colors tend to be a bit more active than the cooler colors.

Warm hues are great to use in settings where you want a cheerful and invigorating feel. They help awaken the mind and enliven the spirit. A good motivator for sales and people or for those who need to be creative in their work.

Warm, muted tones tend to work better than bold, bright colors in office environments. Psychologically, bright colors are very stimulating, but also tend to be distracting in working spaces. Decide what will work best for your own personal space. If you are the boss, enabling employees to make their own office space the colors of their personal choice will make for a happier, more relaxed atmosphere, with employees who are more productive.

A good rule of thumb in offices, is to use bright hues as accents, rather than as the main wall colors. Use vibrant colors sparingly in these areas to create the level of stimulation you desire.

If you work with international companies, one thing to keep in mind is the meaning of color in different cultures. For example, in Russia red means beautiful. In China red attracts good luck. In South Africa it’s the color of mourning and for the ancient Romans, a red flag was a signal for battle. The main thing you want to be sure of is that the colors you choose to work with, are not an insult to an international company you do business with.

It’s also good to keep in mind that different colors have different meanings in certain professions. Such as the medical field: Blue means oxygen, which can signify death and dying, yellow is saved for neurology, but is also associated with decay and sickness, red is inflammation and green symbolizes bile.

A few colors are listed below with some of their noted affects and effects:

Red- Portrays dominance, power and attention. Use red to grab people’s attention, and get people to take action. Muted Reds are often soft, cozy and personal. Red can also be used to have a desired cautionary effect.

Green- Relaxes people. As nature colors they provoke growth, fertility, health and harmony. Muted greens are calm, restful and soothing, while shaded variants project trust and order, encouraging contemplation, serenity and repose.

Yellow- Sunny, attention getter, harmonizing, energy, and coveys hospitality. Promotes deep feelings of well-being. Muted shades speak of home, harvest and abundance.

Blue- Cooling down affect. Steady, evoking the emotions of sky and sea. It is calming, expansive and cool. Muted hues recall summer skies, azure mountain lakes, and blue-green ocean depths, helping in deep concentration and reflection. Shaded blues exude a comfort and ease.

Orange- Radiant, luminous, bright, glowing and bold. The muted shades are restful, earthy, natural and soothing.

Purple- Pure purple has the clarity of blue and the warmth of red. The deep colors convey grandeur and luxury, while the lighter shades are elusive and intriguing. Muted purples are airy and peaceful and the shaded purples are soft and shadowy.

White- Represents peace and purity, the color white can be used to give an open, spacious feeling to a smaller work area. Soft, muted, or tinted whites are the best choice for the main wall colors in offices. Pure, bright white, when used in large quantities, can strain the eyes in a brightly lit work environment. Instead, use bright whites for trim and moldings to create a crisp, clean look.

Neutrals- Soothing, comforting, safe and secure, neutrals make a great background for almost any office environment. Neutrals blend with every color, making them the perfect choice for offices that are open to other rooms of the home. Neutral colors are comfortable, yet elegant and understated. Their subtlety makes them versatile, simple to use, and very easy to work with. Lending well to the thinking process, neutral colors are open-minded and cooperative. They are not distracting, making it easy to concentrate on the task at hand.

Neutral color schemes work well with furnishings from all time periods. Contemporary, traditional, and even period furnishings. To avoid looking dull or bland use a variety of different tones with different patterns and textures. Use colorful accents to bring unexpected ‘punches’ of color to a neutral room, or use color to highlight an interesting architectural feature and to bring attention to a focal wall.

For the exterior, using neutral color schemes is probably the safest choice you can make. Neutrals blend with the environment, and are tasteful and timeless, giving them long-lasting appeal. Neutrals harmonize with nature helping to integrate the business with the natural landscape. Neutral colors are unobtrusive, making them useful for camouflaging architectural defects and unattractive areas such as gutters.

Enjoy customizing the colors of your own personal work space. And most of all enjoy the benefits the colors will bring you and your clients.

Remember to always provide adequate lighting. Lighting is critically important for office work-and your eyesight. Use adjustable desktop lamps to help provide additional lighting to create warm, decorative pools of light, especially in the evening hours and at night. Desktop lighting also helps to reduce glare on your computer screen.

How Does Winter Weather Damage Hardwood Floors?

In cold weather climates, like that of Cleveland, Ohio, and surrounding areas, winter weather can take its toll on the finish of hardwood floors. Salt, snow, and other debris can be tracked in along with heavy foot traffic, making your floors look terrible. One of the worst culprits in winter is rock salt. Rock salt, which is necessary for keeping sidewalks ice-free and easy to walk on, will destroy the finish of hardwood floors. After a long winter, you might even need hardwood floor repair after so much exposure to salt. It’s a good idea to consider avoiding placing salt right by the entry way and it’s crucial that you wipe your feet or take off your shoes before coming inside.

Winter weather on its own can also do damage to hardwood. Floor resurfacing is often needed after a particularly snowy winter. With so much snow being track in and heavy traffic on the floors, hardwood floor repair is almost inevitable. You can protect your floors from damage caused by snow and ice by using floor mats throughout your home. Although most people think they are only needed at the front door, floor mats can protect the flooring throughout the home and are especially useful during inclement weather.

Pets can also cause problems in the winter. They will inevitably track in snow, ice, and salt, making it almost impossible to keep your floors clean. Cold weather can be tough, and will do a lot of damage to hardwood. In order to avoid hardwood repair, it’s important to take the time to use mats and other protective coverings to keep your floors good as new. With long cold winters in Avon, Hinckley, and many other cities throughout Ohio, you’ll want to take every precaution to avoid costly floor resurfacing after the winter.

Hardwood floors are such a nice feature in the home and it’s important to protect them year round. Rock salt, snow, and other weather-related debris can destroy the surface of your beautiful wood floors and lead to expensive hardwood floor repair or even hardwood floor refinishing. Through a little preparation, you can keep your floors good as new so they can be enjoyed for many years to come.

Sphere Fountain – 5 Easy Steps to Design a Rolling Sphere Tabletop Fountain in Less Than 30 Minutes

Rolling sphere fountains are absolutely marvelous in their appeal and design. They are one of the most difficult fountains to design at home. However, with this easy-to-implement design guide, it should be a piece of cake for you to design a rolling sphere tabletop fountain.

Material You Would Need:

o Submersible pump that circulates about 80 to120 gallons of water per hour.

o Narrow flexible pipe tubing to fit the pump spout opening

o A small light-weight rolling ball made from marble.

o A rock or stone base with drilled hole in middle.

o A proportionally sized bowl

o River stone or pebbles.

Here’s the Easy-To-Implement Step-by-Step Design Guide

Step 1: Setup Clean your bowl and the rock base. Make sure that the base is drilled thoroughly and that there are no blockages. Place the submersible water pump in the bowl. Make sure your pump has the water flow set to high. Add sufficient water in the bowl to cover the pump and test its operation. Once you verify that the pump fits within the bowl and it’s operational, turn it off.

Step 2: Base Integration Place the rock base on top of the pump spout. If the spout of pump is too wide, use the flexible pipe tubing to pass through the drilled base. Cut the pipe tubing on the other end of the drilled base so that it stays invisible. Turn on the pump and see if the water flows through the drilled base.

Step 3: Add The Marble Sphere Turn on the pump and verify if the water flows through the drilled base to turn the marble sphere. If the marble sphere does not turn, you have two options: either choose a pump with higher gph capacity (Gallons per Hour capacity) or choose a marble sphere with lighter weight.

Step 4: Test Everything & Decorate Now that you have placed the sphere on top of the drilled base, your fountain is almost ready. Add decorative features like river stones, pebbles, moss, or mosaic to your bowl if you want to add some flare to your water fountain!

Step 5: Maintenance Maintenance of this fountain is fairly easy. Just check the water level regularly and observe the evaporation rate of the water. Make sure you keep the bowl clean of debris and other external material or it might stop working because of pump issues.

Applying these easy-to-implement steps would help you design a beautiful rolling sphere fountain to refresh your mind, rejuvenate your senses, and unleash your creativity this Christmas season!

Know Your Mini Moto

The Mini Moto is a small scale replica of the World Super Bikes used by the likes of Valentino Rossi and ex champion Carl Fogarty. The Mini Moto comes equipped with either a two stroke air or water cooled engine which are, depending on the model, capable of speeds of up to 60Mph.

In this article I will underline the finer points of the components that make these speeds possible.

The two Stroke Engine

The two stroke engine produces more hp per pound than the four stroke engine. The two stroke engine consists of three moving parts, the piston, the rod and the crank. The piston acts as valve that opens and closes the intake and exhaust ports that are located on the walls of the cylinder. Unlike the four stroke engine that fires only every other time of the pistons movement, the two stoke engine fires every time the piston reaches the top of its travel. This means that the time spent generating power is doubled in the two stroke engine than that of the four stroke engine, as there is no engine coasting during passive cycles. This is the main reason that the two stroke engine can rev more highly and produce more power (for its size) that the four stroke.

Fuel

The two stroke engine needs to be run on a mixture of petrol and two stroke oil. This is so that the engine is kept lubricated whilst in use.

99% of all starting problems are caused by fuel problems. These can stem from bad or old fuel and improperly mixed fuel (please see mixing chart).

Do not use fuels that contain alcohol, as the can cause you bike to run ‘lean’. Be advised some racing fuels contain alcohol and are best avoided..

We recommend that you use normal petrol for a garage and a quality two stroke oil.

A mixture that is too lean I.e not enough two stroke oil can damage your mini moto’s engine as the moving parts are not properly lubricated. This can cause the engine to seize. However a mixture that is too rich can choke the engine and effect the performance and cause starting problems. You can tell if your mini moto is running too richly by the plumes of white smoke coming out of the exhaust and the lack of performance. A rich mixture (25:1) is needed to lubricate the engine during the ‘run in’ period, you may experience a lack of performance during this period. The pocket bike may run more slowly and acceleration can be sluggish, however when you change to a mixture of 50:1 you will really notice a difference. The leaner mix ignites in the combustion chamber faster and with a more explosive force than the richer mix. This means higher revs which means more power and acceleration.

We recommend that a fuel mixture of 25:1 is used to ‘run in’ you mini moto, and a mixture of 50:1 is used thereafter.

‘Running in’

Your mini moto should be ‘run in’ for the first 3-4 tanks of fuel. During this period we recommend that you use a fuel mixture of 25:1. This means a mixture that is made up of 25 parts petrol to 1 part of two stroke oil. During the ‘running in’ period be careful to not rev the engine to its maximum as this can damage the engine. The ‘running in’ period will allow the moving parts to become well oiled and the clutch and brakes to ‘bed’ themselves in. After you have run the minimoto on this fuel mixture for 3-4 tanks, check the chain and tighten accordingly, check the tyre pressure, tighten the bolts on the brakes, forks and wheels. You may also need to readjust the throttle settings to allow for the higher revs that changing to a leaner fuel mix produces. The bike should now be ready for a fuel mixture of 50:1.

Clutch

The mini moto uses a centrifugal clutch to power the drive the sprocket, which in turn drives the back wheel of your mini moto.

When you start your mini moto the clutch spins as the engine ticks over . The clutch is engaged when you pull back on the throttle. The increase in speed of revolution of the clutch makes the clutch expand and grip the inside of the clutch bell which turns the sprocket that drives the back wheel of your pocket bike.

The clutch can be set up in different ways depending on the type of performance that you want from your minimoto. Adjustable clutches are not standard on mini moto’s but an after market Polani or Blata style adjustable clutch can be used in your new mini moto. These allow the rider to adjust the mini moto’s set up in according to their preference. Setting the clutch to engage too late when the engine has built up too much power may cause the clutch to slip and never fully engage. This can result in excessive wearing. However setting the clutch to engage too early, before the power has built up in the engine can cause your pocket bike to ‘bog down’, resulting in slow acceleration. The perfect set up is to get the clutch to engage just as the engine has built enough power to rocket the mini moto away, but without making the clutch slip, this is achievable through trial and error.

Spark Plug

Making sure that your spark plug is fresh is important in a two stroke mini moto engine. You can tell a lot from the colour of the spark plug. The top part of your spark plug is covered in ceramic insulator which, when brand new is white. This part of the spark plug can change colour according to how your engine is running. The plug should appear as a nice tan colour when the engine is running perfectly, this indicates complete combustion. A greyish or white colour indicates that the engine is running too lean which can result in engine damage. In this case you should clean and check your fuel system for any obstruction, check your fuel mixture, check for loose intake manifold bolts and carburettor mounting leeks, faulty gaskets and leaking crank seals. Anywhere that your engine could potentially leek and suck in fresh air can be the source of a lean condition.

A blackened or oily spark plug indicates improper combustion and is the result of running too rich. This can be caused by too much oil in the mixture or the spark plug could be faulty and misfiring. Check the fuel mixture and replace the spark plug.

Air Filter

Your new mini moto is equipped with an air filter. Some bikes such as the B1 Origami rep liquid cooled and the Mini Dirt bike have a ‘cone’ style K and N style air filter. The 2005 mk2 mini moto and the B1 Origami Replica air cooled bikes have a standard mini moto air filter. Both air filters purify the intake of air that is sucked into the carburettor. This means that the air filter should be cleaned regularly as the mini moto’s performance can begin to suffer as the engine can become starved of air if the air filter is choked with debris. To reach the air filter, remove the bikes bottom fairing, remove the protective cover by unscrewing the holding screws. Clean the air filter in petrol but make sure that the filter is dry before reattaching to you mini moto.

Tyres

The tyres on your mini moto are filled with air (pneumatic). Please consult your mini moto handbook for the appropriate psi. It is important to check the tyre pressure regularly, an under inflated tyre will affect the performance of your mini moto, acceleration can become sluggish and cornering can become dangerous.

Chain

Before riding your mini moto you need to make sure that the front and back sprockets are aligned and that the chain is perfectly straight running between them. Once you have established this make sure that the chain is tensioned correctly (please see your mini moto handbook). To test the tension of the chain you can manually push the pocket bike, if you hear a ‘pinging’ or ‘popping’ sound the chain is too loose. If the chain is noisy and starts to bind the chain is too tight.

Make sure that the chain is well oiled. The chain needs to be oiled before every ride.

Gearing

The gearing of you mini moto is dictated by the number of the teeth on the front sprocket and on the back sprocket. The sprockets can be changed as an easy way to manipulate top end speed and acceleration, quite like changing gear on a mountain bike. A front sprocket with more teeth will improve acceleration, however the top end speed will be reduced. A larger rear sprocket will produce a higher top speed but acceleration will suffer. The gearing on your bike can be adjusted in accordance for the track you are intending to ride I.e. a small track with a lot of bends will suit gearing for improved acceleration, however a track with long straights will require a mini moto that is geared for a higher top speed.

Throttle

The throttle on your new mini moto is a ‘twist grip’ style throttle. When you twist the throttle the throttle cable is pulled back revving the engine. It is important to keep this cable free from obstacles and clean. If the throttle begins to feel ‘loose’ of ‘gives’, the tension of the cable can be adjusted via the adjusting screw.

Brakes

The brake system comprises of brake levers, brake cables, brake callipers and brake discs.

The brakes on your mini moto are operated by levers found on the handle bars. The right hand brake controls the front brake, and the left controls the back brake. Pulling on the handle pulls the brake cable which in turn pulls the lever located on the bake calliper. This action pushes the brake discs towards each other. This creates friction on the brake disc which slows down or stops the bike.

The brakes can be adjusted in the following ways.

The brake cable can be tensioned using the adjustment screw found on the brake lever. Unscrew the locking nut, twist the screw to reach the desired tension. Re screw the locking nut.

This is a two person job. Adjust the screw on the hand brake so that is at the end of its travel. Undo the clamp that holds the brake cable on the lever located on the brake calliper. One person needs to push the lever forward as far as it will, the second person needs to pull back on the brake cable and re fasten the clamp. The crake cable will now be highly tensioned.

Pull Start

To start the mini moto pull slowly to turn the fly wheel. This pumps some fuel around the engine, which lubricates the moving parts. Pull the pull start firmly in order to start the engine. Important, do not pull the cord to the end of its run as it can break. If the mini moto does not start check the choke and the throttle cable.

Choke

The choke controls the amount of air that is allowed into the air/fuel mix. The choke is adjusted via a lever located on the side and back of the engine. The choke is off when the lever is down, and on when the lever is up.

When you start the mini moto the choke should be on, when the mini moto is warm and ready to ride the choke needs to be off.

Carburettor

It is recommend that any adjustments to the carburettor are made by a professional. The carburettor pumps and mixes the fuel and air. The small diaphragms, orifices and ports mix the air and fuel very precisely, this process demands clean fresh fuel.

Jet

The jet can be adjusted by the screw located in the access hole to the right of the choke lever. The jet is adjusted by the manufacture however the conditions of where you wish to ride may be different, which means that you will need to make adjustments. Turning the screw clockwise will make the bike run with a leaner mixture, and counter clockwise will richen the mixture. Only adjust the screw 1 tern a at time and then test the mini moto, this is trail and error. Please note that it is best to find the optimum setting for performance and then run a slightly richer mixture as a mix that is too lean can seize the engine.

Is Dr Oz Right About Inversion Tables?

What is an Inversion Table?

Inversion tables are devices which allow the user to attach his or her feet to the base, tilt backward, and hang upside down. Most inversion tables allow you to adjust the angle of inversion thus you can hang anywhere from a 45 degree angle to being completely perpendicular to the floor.

The goal of the inversion table is to utilize the weight of your body to help provide traction of the spine. The idea is that for those suffering from sciatica or disc related low back conditions providing for a traction effect of the spine will help reduce a disc bulge, decrease nerve root compression, and possible add to the hydration of the discs.

Who Should Use Inversion Traction?

Based on the research, inversion traction is an effective means of increasing the space between the vertebrae of the lumbar spine. Studies have evaluated the use of inversion therapy for those with both acute and chronic lower back pain. Although the studies involve a small number of participants, there is evidence that inversion traction is effective in reducing low back pain.

Unfortunately no study has evaluated what type of low back condition is best helped by this form of therapy. And because symptoms associated with a herniated disc are very different than spinal stenosis symptoms, caution must be used in utilizing inversion traction for all types of low back or sciatica symptoms.

Who Should NOT Use Inversion Traction?

Although on the Dr. Oz show inversion traction was touted as a means of increasing blood flow to the brain, this may not be a good effect for everyone. Studies have shown that blood pressure consistently increases when using inversion traction. Thus, for those who have high blood pressure, this form of therapy should only be considered under medical supervision.

An increase in blood pressure can also have a negative effect on those with a specific eye condition. Those with a history of glaucoma, an eye disease associated with increased intraocular pressure, should also avoid inversion traction as increased pressure to the eyes and head occurs with the use of this type of device.

Although the effect of inversion therapy helps to increase the space between the lumbar vertebrae, studies have found it has the opposite effect for the cervical spine in that it slightly adds compression. If you also have a history of a cervical condition, use significant caution as this form of traction can aggravate neck symptoms.

Inversion traction does have some benefits in the treatment of low back conditions. The use of this therapy is not indicated for those with a history of high blood pressure or glaucoma. As with the use of any new therapy, consult a medical professional before implementing it into your treatment program.