Losing Body Fat Can Make Your Face More Attractive

When people lose large amounts of weight, often their entire face looks different. Body fat changes the whole shape and look of your face, taking away definition in the jaw and cheekbones in particular. Heavier people often have pudgy necks. Look at your average supermodel-nice long, lean necks make their faces more beautiful.

Your Face Can Reveal Your Body Fat Level

It’s not hard to tell if someone is at a low body fat, just look at their face. It’s not the lean arms or legs that give it away-you can still have fat and flabby abs. People who are in great shape just never have fat faces for some reason. If you are heavy and getting lean, it’s your face that people will probably notice changes in first, because you will be more attractive.

A Lean Face is Considered More Handsome

Most women really prefer that strong, masculine jaw line and defined chin. You know the look, “GQ Style.” Just look through any magazine, you’ll see that models like Tyson and Antonio Sabato Jr. have exactly this look. Check out the hottest Hollywood stars–Matt Damon, Johnny Depp, Orlando Bloom-these guys are sex symbols! A man is less attractive with softer, more feminine features

Lose Body Fat, Get the Ladies – Just Like Jared Leto Does

Jared Leto doesn’t have to be a big, muscular guy to get the ladies. In fact, he just wouldn’t look right at all if he had another 30 pounds or so of bulky muscle. Most women actually find him more attractive than the super-cut Mr. Olympia bodybuilders. His lean look that’s right for his body size and looks healthy and natural is what gets him noticed.

Men and Women Both Look Better With Lean Faces

In my opinion, a woman can be too lean. Some women, particularly those in fitness competitions for example, can become too lean, making their face a bit angular and harsh. A healthy level of body fat (think Jessica Biel of Megan Fox) gives a woman’s face soft feminine features, while still being lean. That’s a look a lot of guys love!

Good News For Anyone Trying To Lose a Lot of Weight

Go ahead, do the work and lose the weight. You’ll be so glad you did. For sure, you have a more beautiful face hidden under your excess body fat. So, losing weight will not only leave your body healthier and more attractive, your face will look sexier as well. If you need further convincing, look at before and after pics of Charlize Theron and Jared Leto. Two people that got dramatically different faces when they lost a lot of weight-different meaning better. Even if you only have a small amount to lose, your face will look leaner and more attractive without the body fat. Wait and see how many compliments you receive.

Stay Lean to Avoid Double Chins

Nobody, I repeat, nobody wants a double chin. Staying lean for your entire life is one way to minimize the risk that you’ll get the dreaded double chin. Gravity can’t pull down any fat if it’s not there in the first place. Your youthful good looks will last a whole lot longer without excess fat on your face.

Leaner is Better When It Comes to Good Looks

The newest fashions and latest cars will do you no good if your face is not attractive. Leaner people look better in the hottest European and Hollywood fashions, it’s a simple fact. A man with a pudgy face just doesn’t look as good with hip, messy hair. Same thing goes for bald guys-unless you have a nice, lean face, it just doesn’t look right. This is not really just my opinion, ask anyone. So go ahead, get the expensive car to be cool, but get lean first.

Summary: In summary, getting a leaner body won’t just make your body look better naked, your face will look better, too!

Body Language – Your Feet Say A Lot!

Did you know that the brain speaks to the hands more often than any other body part?

This occurs because we habitually gesture with our hands as we communicate with others. Have you ever caught yourself on the telephone talking with someone else and using your hands and other body movements to emphasize a point or conclude a statement? Of course, we all have.

What about the feet though? Have you ever considered how much information is relayed through foot position and movement? A lot!

Unlike the hands, the feet receive the least amount of attention from the brain. The feet however receive a lot of attention from the brain if the body is in fight or flight mode or otherwise threatened or uncomfortable.

Take for instance a conversation between two people who are very interested in each other. Upon observation, you will probably note that their bodies and feet are pointed towards each other.

Sometimes when one foot is crossed over the other knee, a female will slowly roll their foot from the ankle in an up and down or in a circular motion.

A male will usually play with their ankle area too. Sometimes you can observe a display of interest by gestures such as pulling up a sock or rubbing the ankle slowly. These are non verbal indicators of liking.

Of course there are other signs to include as well which make up the cluster of gestures and body movements indicating interest such as a genuine smile, a head tilt and open posture to name just a few.

However, it may occur where everything on the surface appears to be fine and genuine between two people, yet upon observing the feet and legs, one of the individuals has their leg(s) pointed towards an exit or door.

This is a strong indicator that they may want to move on or are not interested in the other person or uncomfortable in the moment. Body shuffling, micro or macro facial expressions of boredom and other cues can further conclude disinterest in that person or conversation.

Remember that the feet will tell the body where it wants to go at that particular time or moment.

Going forward, the next time you are networking or find yourself at a social function, pay close attention to the direction of the feet of others. It will give you a strong indication of the interest level that the other person has in the conversation or company around them and allow you to use the non verbal message cues to your advantage.

This being said however, it’s also important to note to pay attention to our own feet and their position when communicating with others. Especially if our intent is not to let the other person know how you really feel.

Vending Machine Business Start Up Costs

One of the great things about starting a vending machine business is that it is possible to do it with minimal startup costs. If you do have access to considerable funding though you could also choose to purchase existing routes or jump straight into your own more professional set up. Depending on how you want to kick off your venture into vending, getting started could set you back anywhere between a few thousand dollars and several hundred thousand dollars.

A vending machine business can be started on a really low budget so it is best to start off slowly and take on less risk. You can then invest more heavily once you start earning some profit and decide that vending is definitely a business that you want to be in.

When it comes to determining the amount of capital that is required to start a vending business you need to take more into account than just the costs that you will face up to the point where you start doing business. You also need to consider the operating expenses that you will have over the first six months while your profits are still low.

If you start out full time then you may also need to set aside funds to cover your living costs for a period of six to twelve months until your business becomes profitable.

Let’s take a closer look at some of the vending machine business startup costs that entrepreneurs in this industry typically face.

Vending Machines

The amount of startup funding needed will vary greatly depending on the kind of machines that you want to start off with.

One trick to starting off on a shoestring budget is to start with candy vending machines which can usually be bought very cheaply on online auction sites for around US$150 or less each. These machines are cheap, simple to operate and candy and gum balls offer a great profit margin for little effort. Buy them in lots of one, two or three at a time and slowly grow your business as you find suitable locations.

If you do want to start out with larger, electronic vending machine equipment that vends snacks and hot or cold beverages then you are looking at much larger startup costs. New machines for vending food or beverages range in price from around $2000 up to $6000 per unit. As an inexperienced operator you would be crazy to buy new machinery and would be much better off leasing some machines for a period while you test out a variety of locations. Buying quality second hand machines is also one way to lower your initial outlay.

Other startup costs associated with vending machines include, security locks, tools for a maintenance kit and extension cords.

Don’t forget to allow for machine parts and repairs if you are reliant on hiring a technician when the need arises.

Rent for Business Premises

Most operators start a home based vending business and therefore don’t have the overhead costs associated with leasing commercial premises. If you have a spare room for an office and some space in the garage for storing machines you should be fine. Otherwise you can look at renting storage space.

Office and Administration

Depending on what equipment you already have and the scope of your plans you will have to spend a certain amount on kitting out your home office. You will likely require a desk, filing cabinets, a PC, printer, Internet connection, phone connection, stationery and possibly other office equipment as well.

Vehicle Expenses

To service your route effectively you will need a suitable vehicle. Depending on the kind of machines that you operate you may not be able to get away with using your own car and you may have to consider leasing a vehicle. You may require a larger van or light truck for transporting machines and stock and you might even require a vehicle with a refrigeration compartment.

Professional Fees, Licenses and Permits

You will be applying for licenses and permits in order to set up a legal operation that is in compliance with local regulations. You may also require the services of an accountant, an attorney or other professionals during the process of setting up your vending business.


Don’t forget that most of the time the machines that you are likely to purchase are empty and you will therefore need to buy stock for them. This can represent a considerable startup cost at first as you will certainly be looking to buy your inventory in bulk in order to save money.

Marketing and Branding

In order to get started making money with vending machines you will need to secure your first few locations. The initial marketing of your vending business may require some spending on advertising. At a minimum you will want to get a logo designed and have a set of business cards made up. Your initial marketing efforts will most likely involve making phone calls and pounding the pavement and the major cost here will only be your time.

Other Startup Costs and Operating Expenses

You will also have to figure in other startup costs and operating expenses such as market research, insurance coverage, cell phone costs and possibly commissions.

Don’t forget to make an allowance for unforeseen expenses and price changes. Your forecasts may be inaccurate and prices often rise over time or end up being higher than you first anticipated.

Fishing Popps Ferry

Running from I-10 to Pass Road in Biloxi is Popps Ferry Road. The centerpiece of this road for anglers is the Popps Ferry Bridge. Bisecting Mullet Lake and Big Lake off Biloxi’s Back Bay the waters are a home to healthy populations of both saltwater and freshwater fish.

Location and directions

Take Exit 44 (Cedar Lake Road) off Interstate 10 and head south. The second red light intersects with Popps Ferry Road. A turn to the west along Popps Ferry Road brings you to the foot of the bridge sharing the same name. The last road before the water, Causeway Road, will take you below the bridge and to the public pier and boat ramp.

Warnings and notes

The 3900-foot long Popps Ferry Bridge is an important link in the Inter-Coastal Waterway (ICW). Its 25-foot drawbridge span opens no less than ten times per day to allow recreational and commercial traffic to pass through the waterway. With some pushboats moving multiple barges lashed together, these leviathans take a high degree of caution and a wary eye. In 2009, a towing vessel with eight barges struck the bridge and collapsed a 150-foot section into the water below.

What to bring

The waters of the Popps Ferry area including Mullet Lake, Big Lake and Back Bay lay almost exclusively in the brackish water between Interstate 10 and Highway 90. According to the Mississippi Department of Wildlife Fisheries and Parks, a saltwater license is required south of U. S. Highway 90 and a freshwater or saltwater license is valid between I-10 and U. S. Highway 90. This means that the area can be fished with either license. Saltwater licenses are not valid north of I-10. Any person (65) or older, or any person otherwise exempted from obtaining a freshwater fishing license, must have documentation with him/her at all times and effective July 1, 2010, residents 65 years of age or older are required to purchase a lifetime recreational saltwater fishing license. Louisiana residents must however purchase both the Freshwater and Saltwater license to fish in the marine waters of Mississippi.

Typical fishing

The old pylons of the fishing pier are good spots for flounder. Slow trolling natural baits such as shrimp along the bottom work well for these flat fish. Good sized black drum come in close to eat crabs and logically those baits, rigged properly bring success there. The mouths of the tidal streams entering the lakes are preferred locations for juvenile redfish (Red Drum) up to twenty inches. Night fishing with a good moon during the summer months can frequent a good amount of white trout.

Because the area is brackish water, a good number of freshwater fish are often to be found in the area including brim and bass. Big stripers (Atlantic Striped Bass) haunt the reed banks running baitfish and are often a great catch. Fishing close to the bridge brings nice flounder, especially when fishing under the lights at night.

Hints and tricks of the locals

Clint Shows of Ellisville and his fishing buddies frequent the Popps Ferry area whenever they have downtime. Fishing from a 21′ semi-v put in at the launch there, Clint is proud of his favorite spot. Shows related when asked if he has had any luck this spring so far that:

“Yeah, we’ve got some pretty nice ones. We always get big reds between the VA and just the other side of the Popps Ferry Bridge.”

When asked what they are having luck with he advised, “We were using spinner baits like redfish magic. Root beer-colored cocahoe minnows seem to work as well as just about any glitter or chartreuse tail. Flukes (a bass lure) are good too.”

Clint and company prefer open-faced baitcast reels including Cabela’s Prodigy. Bass pro shop Pro Qualifier and Daiwa Magazine Force V’s on Berkley Cherrywood graphite rods. The whole boat confesses to use Spider Braid 20lb test.

“No need for a leader.” Clint explained with a smile.

His buddy, Brad Hill, holds up a nice 17-pound striper caught on a DOA shrimp lure for example.

James Randall of Biloxi, a local resident who fishes from the bank with a medium sized spinning reel likes to use split shot weights and 1/0 hooks to grab the always-present Sheepshead, white trout and the occasional croaker. He confesses that the croakers are just for cut-bait on larger hooks for redfish. Besides his spinning reel, Randall uses Zebco 33 closed-faced reels strung with 10-pound test. After a day of fishing, James lines up a good collection of flounder and trout down the tailgate of his truck and smiles.

“It’s always good fishing down here off this bridge”

CV Axle Replacement and Halfshaft Removal – Replace the CV Or the Entire Half Shaft?

Changing C.V. (Constant Velocity) axles today is almost as common as doing brake jobs. But some CV axles can be pretty stubborn to remove. In this article learn some of the tricks I’ve used over the years as a Master Tech to make changing CVs and 1/2 shafts easier. Automotive specialty tools are sometimes needed to make the job easier, I’ll discuss some of those and if it is better to replace the entire half shaft, the joint or just the CV boot.

Clicking On Turns

Since you’re reading this you may already know that a common sign of a bad CV joint is popping and clicking on turns. A shudder on straight take offs could be a worn inner joint, but this is much less common. Outer joints have the most movement (like on turns), that’s why outer boots usually wear more than the inner ones. CV boots are designed to pump grease throughout the joint during movement. Wear that causes outer joints to make noise can be accelerated if the CV boot breaks from dry rot or wear and the lubricating grease is lost. If the CV boot breaks, grease is thrown out of the joint by centrifugal force while driving. Without grease to keep the joint lubricated and cooler, its life is drastically reduced. Also outside elements like moisture and dirt can enter the joint,  further reducing its life expectancy. Once they wear, they make a clicking noise upon turns while accelerating. If they are noisy, the 1/2 shaft assembly may be the easiest way to go instead of replacing just the joint. CV 1/2 shaft prices have came down in the last decade and are more readily available than they used to be.

Removing the Half Shaft Assembly

The job of removing half shafts on most cars is mostly the same.

  1. Remove the big nut that holds the joint to the wheel hub.
  2. It may be necessary to unbolt or un-clip the brake hose to prevent stretching it when removing the axle.
  3. The steering knuckle (where the brake rotor mounts), must either be loosened at the strut mount or at the lower ball joint to allow the shaft to slip out of the hub. Choose the easiest!
  4. The inner CV will either be held into the transmission by bolts or with a retaining clip (the clip is not visible).
  5. If there are no bolts on the inner joint, in most cases it will need to be pried out with a pry bar.
  6. Alternatively a slide hammer with a C.V. joint puller can be used to remove the inner joint from the transmission. 

Inspecting and Replacing Boots

You may be able to detect and replace worn boots before damage is done to the C.V. joint. If the boot has dry rot and is about to crack or has just recently split . And the CV joint doesn’t make any noises yet, it has been caught it in time. The CV half shaft assembly can be removed and just the boot can be replaced with new grease of course. The CV boot kit also comes with two clamps and special grease. It is less expensive to re-boot a joint, but it is a little more labor intensive. On cars that I was familiar with, many times I changed the CV boot without taking the shaft completely out of the car. Usually though, the shaft is removed and placed in a vise to be worked on. The old boot is cut away to help reveal what type of retaining clip is holding the joint onto the 1/2 shaft.

When a cleaner is used, like brake clean and the joint is angled it’s easier to see the clip. The joint may need to be turned while kept on an angle to see the clip. Most either require lock ring pliers to spread the lock ring or the joint can be struck sharply with a hammer (care must be taken not to damage the cage). If you have doubt on what type of retainer you are working with, consult a service manual for your specific model. Be aware that the ball bearings can fall out when the joint is off the shaft and the cage is turned sideways depending on the type it is. After cleaning and drying with compressed air, the grease bag can be cut on the corner and the grease is squeezed into the center of the joint. It’s common to force out some of the old grease that was trapped while doing this. Scoop up and discard the old grease that may ooze out. Put the boot and joint back on the shaft by spreading the clip or tapping lightly with a brass hammer. Special CV joint boot clamp tools will be needed to tighten the bands properly. There are two basic types of clamps. There is a type that will be crimped with boot clamp pliers. The other type requires a banding tool, this type is wound and cranked tight using the same motion as you would with a can opener.

A common mistake is damaging the output seal in the transmission when removing or re-installing the axle. If the seal is damaged, transmission fluid will leak. Be careful to center the inner joint when putting it back in. Also a mistake that is made even by professionals is to either break the cir-clip that holds the axle in the transmission or to not install the axle completely IN. It is normal to feel a little movement in and out when pushing and pulling the inner joint when it is properly installed. If the retaining clip is broken or not fully inserted, the shaft can slip out enough that the car will not move! Also if tapping the shaft back into the transmission, be careful not to damage the outer threads. Remember if this is your first axle job, don’t hesitate to have a buddy with experience on call!

USPS Mailbox Requirements

The United States Postal Service has specific requirements for all residential curbside mail boxes. The USPS Domestic Mail Manual sets forth regulations and rules concerning residential curbside mailboxes. The manual describes the standards for letterboxes and other mail receptacles for the deposit or receipt of mail.

Residential Mailboxes

A residential mailbox is any curbside or wall-mounted receptacle which is used for the purpose of receiving material in which postage is paid.

Who Can Use A Mailbox

Only authorized letter carriers may place mail or packages into the mail receptacle. No part of the mail receptacle may be used to deliver anything that does not contain postage. This includes items attached to the box, hung from the box or inserted into the mail box. Any mailable material not displaying postage and found in the mailbox is subject to the same amount of postage as if it were carried by a mail carrier.

Exclusions from USPS Rules

Door slots and other non-lockable bins used with apartment mailboxes are subject to the same regulations as a curbside mailbox. Just keep in mind that a mail slot should be large enough to accommodate the type of mail the homeowner receives. If the mail slot is not large enough, then the mail carrier will cease delivering mail to the residence.

Curbside Mailboxes

All homeowners must keep the area around their mailboxes clear of anything than will obstruct the safe delivery of mail. If the United States Postal Service employee cannot safely reach in and deliver the mail, the postmaster may withdraw delivery to that mailbox.

Any curbside mailbox which is to be installed at the edge of the roadway or curbside of the street and allows it to be served by a mail carrier from a vehicle on any city route, rural route or highway must be approved by the United States Postal Service.

Every curbside mailbox should display the homeowner’s name and address assigned by the local authorities on the flag side of the mailbox. The numbers and letters must be at least one inch high and in a contrasting color in neat, legible letters. If the boxes are grouped and the address cannot be placed on the flag side of the mailbox, then the house number should be inscribed on the door. No advertising of any kind can be placed on the mailbox or the mailbox post.

Mailbox Sizes

There are regulations regarding curbside mailboxes. A curbside mailbox can be one of three size for residential mail: small T1 (C1) size is approximately 5 inches wide by 6 inches tall and 18 ½ inches long, Medium T2 (C2) size is approximately 6 inches wide by 7 inches tall by 19 inches long, and the Large T3 (C3) size is approximately 8 inches wide by 11 ½ inches tall by 22 ½ inches long. The “T” stands for Traditional and the “C” stands for Contemporary. The dimensions reflect the minimum interior size.

Lockable Mailboxes

A locking curbside mail box will help to deter most thieves from stealing your mail. Many residential mailboxes are available with a built-in locking mechanism. If your mailbox is not equipped with a lock, you can purchase one from several online sources. Locks are essential for deterring thieves and are extremely important when the homeowner is away for several days and unable to retrieve the mail. Also note that the U.S. Postal Service will not open locked boxes nor will they accept a key for that purpose. Locks can be installed on both post and wall mounted mailboxes. When installing a lock on an existing mailbox, make sure your mailbox is strong enough to withstand an attack. Lockable mailboxes should be large enough so that if the homeowner is away for several days, it can accommodate the overflow of mail.

Novelty Mailboxes

Novelty mailboxes are mailboxes that have been dressed up or decorated in some fashion. The same rules and regulations apply to novelty mailboxes as do pre-approved and custom-built mailboxes.

Where to Place A Residential Curbside Mailbox

All curbside mailboxes must be placed in a safe and convenient place. The box must be on the right-hand side of the road in the direction of travel of the mail carrier’s normal route. The box should not be placed where it places the mail carrier in a dangerous situation or drive on the incorrect side of the road or violate any traffic laws.

The curbside mailbox post should be positioned 6-8 inches from the curb and approximately 42-46 inches high measured from the lawn to the top of the installed curbside mailbox, not the top of the post. If the post has a vertical arm, the arm should not extend any closer than 6 inches from the curb. When installing your new set, make sure your set complies with these regulations.

Wall Mount Mailboxes

The USPS does not have rules or regulations for wall mount mailboxes, however, you should notify your local mail carrier before installation to ensure proper placement of the mailbox and check for any local codes or regulations governing placement of the mailbox. The product should operate easily and nothing should obstruct the opening and closing of the lid. Also check with your home owners association to see if they have any rules or requirements which you need to comply with.

Building Your Own Mailbox

All custom built curbside mailboxes must meet the same standards as approved mailboxes. Custom built mailboxes should have a flag on the outside, strength, durability and quality should be comparable to approved mailboxes.

Be cautious when building your own mailbox and post. Approximately 100 motorists are killed yearly in collisions with curbside mailboxes. Some posts are mounted in concrete or constructed of indestructible materials. In a collision, a motor vehicle can be severely damaged and its occupants injured or killed.

Mailbox Post

Mailbox posts should be neat and made of material that can adequately support the mailbox. The mailbox post may not represent effigies or caricatures that can disparage or ridicule anyone. The mailbox can be attached to a fixed or movable arm.

Upgrading The Tippmann 98 Custom Paintball Gun

Tippmann 98 Custom

Tippmann is counted among one of the most prominent manufacturers of paintball guns, barrels, and other accessories. Among the most popular paintball products are the reliable Tippmann 98, Tippmann TPX, and Tippmann A-5 series. In 1986, advancements in gun laws pushed the company into shifting its business specialization from minimized replica machine guns to paintball-related products.

The change was relatively convenient for Tippmann, as years of producing machine guns allowed them to gain expertise that became suitable for making Tippmann paintball guns. The Indiana and Illinois-based company prides itself in being a pioneer of the semi-automatic and full-automatic paintball field. Among some of the company’s popular products include the Tippmann A5, the X7 Phenom, and the Tippmann 98 Custom series. The latter is currently enjoying consumer popularity, particularly because of the many Tippmann 98 Custom upgrades available in the market. Customizing Tippmann 98 models offer sure benefits for the weathered Tippmann paintball gun user. Even the most terrible playing conditions and difficult situations can be improved a lot when a player purchases customized upgrade parts for his marker.

The Tippmann 98 Custom series was developed by the company to be conveniently modifiable. Among some of the trademark features of the 98 Custom are its Split Receiver Designs, which enable the user to ‘split’ open the 98 for improved internal cleaning and maintenance; as well as the front sight springs and trigger pins that allow the user to put the 98 back together again with ease. Tippmann 98 Custom upgrades allow the paintball enthusiast to modify the muzzle velocity, reduce recoil, improve handling, enhance marker accuracy, and generally improve the performance of their paintball markers. Stores both online and retail offer many parts cut out for Tippmann 98 Custom upgrades, such as bolts, feed systems, triggers, shoulder stocks, charging handles, sight rails, and many more.

Modifying the bolt of a Tippmann can pay off for the professional player, as an improved replacement can reduce the risk of recoil. Recoil is the backward force resulting from firing the gun, which in turns makes it hard for paintball players to aim the gun properly. Augmenting the quality of your bolt – ideally replacing it with a lighter one – can yield smooth and accurate firing, since less effort is needed to steady the paintball gun. This appears to be the target selling point of bolts and hammers for Tippmann 98 Custom upgrades. Products such as the TechT Paintball Zero Kick Hammer have made the hammer lighter, increasing its movement speed and contributing greatly to the entire bolt mechanism. Other customized Tippmann upgrades, such as the Rufus Dawg Wicked Bolt, bank on their capacity to withstand damage from dirt and crime which reduces the need for replacement.

Good muzzle velocity is also a very important feature of a paintball marker. Muzzle velocity rates how fast the paintball pellets discharge from the marker – the faster the muzzle velocity, the less the air resistance. Thus, pellets fired from a greater muzzle velocity are more accurate and increases the chance of scoring a win on that next paintball tournament. Replacing the current spring of a paintball gun with customized upgrades for the Tippmann 98, such as spring kits, provide increased muzzle velocity, while upgrading a marker with customized charging handles allow paintball users to cock the weapons with ease. Other Tippmann 98 Custom upgrades also include velocity adjusters to change muzzle velocity for different situations, custom triggers that allows for different firing modes and increase in rates of fire, and shoulder stocks that support stable firing for situations that require fast shooting.

International and Domestic Workforce Diversity

The trends towards global businesses and the diversity of the workforce also challenge the HR department. For example, cultural attitudes about women in the workforce caused many companies to redesign their development programs and put women in jobs that had been largely held by men. The diversity of educational attainment among workers had led companies to provide increasing amounts of remedial education in reading, writing, arithmetic, and English as a foreign language, with the large number of non-English-speaking workers in some firms, training materials are sometimes adapted to a second or third language.

Proactive HR department are expanding their programs to include diversity training. Here the concern is less with techniques, such as role playing or behavior modeling, and more with creating sensitivity to diversity in the workplace. For example, a survey by a major U.S. based consulting firm found: Employees is one survey reported providing:

Cultural diversity sensitivity training in 53% of firms.

Communication-across-cultures training in 32% of firms.

Gender issues training in 42% of firms.

Harassment-free-workplace training in 71% if firms.

Sexual awareness training in 15% of firms.

Disability awareness training in 56% of firms.

Elder issues awareness training in 235 firms.

“Today’s workplace is a melting pot of human differences,” says Mercer Consultant Richard F. Federico, “but companies that capitalize on this human mosaic can give an edge, particularly after corporate right-sizing, restructuring and re engineering have run their course….being sensitive to a diverse workforce isn’t just the right thing to do, it’s the good business thing to do.” “Ad global workforce and empowered teams become more prevalent,” he says, “employees will need to work closely together despite differences to satisfy equally diverse customers.”

The Distinctive Aspects of Leonardo Da Vinci’s Work or His Inventions

Leonardo da Vinci (15 April, 1452 – 2 May, 1519) was an Italian Resurgence man: inventor, painter, engineer, musician, sculptor, mathematician, architect, cartographer, anatomist, geologist, writer, and botanist. His genius, possibly more than any other, exemplified the Renaissance humanist epitome. He often was labeled as the prime example of the Resurgence man, a person of “unquenchable inquisitiveness” as well as “enthusiastically inventive mind”. He is widely regarded as one of the best painters and maybe the most distinctly talented person to ever have lived. According to Helen Gardner an art historian, the depth and scope of his likings were without practice and “his personality and mind seemed superhuman, the man himself remote and mysterious”. In addition, it is claimed that despite the various assumptions about Da Vinci, his world vision was basically logical rather than enigmatic, and that the experiential methods he engaged in were rare during his time.

Da Vinci was born out of marriage to a lawyer, and a laborer woman, Caterina, in Vinci within the Florence region, Leonardo got his education in a studio of the well-known Florentine painter Verrocchio. Most of his early working life was done in Milan with the guidance of Ludovico IL Moro. He later on went to work in Bologna, Venice and Rome, and spent his remaining years in France.

Leonardo is, and was well-known mainly as a painter. Amongst his works, included the Mona Lisa painting of which is the most well-known and most imitated painting, as well as The Last Supper of which is the most religiously reproduced painting ever, with their prominence coming close to only Michelangelo’s Adam Creation. Da Vinci’s painting of the Man of Vitruvian is also considered as a cultural icon that has been reproduced on several items such as textbooks, the euro coin, and T-shirts. There are about fifteen of Leonardo’s paintings that have survived because of his continuous, and regularly catastrophic, experimentations with new methods, and his prolonged postponement. However, several of these works as well as his notebooks, which contained scientific diagrams, drawings, and his views on the method of painting, influenced artists of later generations matched by only that of his existing, Michelangelo.

Da Vinci is admired for his technological inventiveness. He conceptualized a tank, flying machines, concentrated solar power, the double hull, and the calculator; he also outlined the theory of rudimentary plate tectonics. Comparatively few of his designs were made during his lifetime, but several of his smaller inventions, like the automated bobbin winder as well as the testing machine for the stretchable wire strength, entered the manufacturing world unheralded. Leonardo made significant discoveries in civil engineering, anatomy, optics, as well as hydrodynamics, but failed to publish any of his findings of which had no direct impact on later science.

In conclusion, Leonardo Da Vinci, although he made tireless efforts in teaching himself and becoming knowledgeable in natural sciences, languages, philosophy, history, and mathematics, as a mere listing of the comprehensive contents of his library reveals, he stayed an empiricist of pictorial observation. But then again – thanks to his brilliance – he established his own “theory of knowledge,” distinctive in its nature, whereby science and art form a synthesis. In the overall face of Leonardo Da Vinci’s achievements of creative brilliance, the question of how much he completed or did not complete becomes meaningless. The heart of the matter is his intellectual force – independent and characteristic in every one of his creations. This force has stayed constantly operational to the present day.

Making a Sexy Miss Piggy Costume With Items From Your Own Closet

True I am already an adult but I can’t deny my love for one of my favorite American shows ever: The Muppets! For years and years I’ve watched the show, memorized the lines and imitated all my favorite characters. So this year for Halloween, I will be paying a tribute to my adorable show and dressing like one of the Muppets myself.

I am going to be Miss Piggy since I am also chubby, aggressive yet tender all at the same time. In fact, I plan on making a Sexy Miss Piggy Costume. I’m even thinking of choosing one of my friends to dress up as Kermit the Frog to be my boyfriend at the Halloween party we will be attending. But in order to look like Miss Piggy, a lot of work has to be done in order to make my Miss Piggy costume look flawless, and I will prepare it myself, with a little help from friends, and my own, closets.

First of all I will have to purchase a long blonde, messy wig from my local costume store to put on my head since I don’t have the right hairdo naturally as “the Pig”. I will take the blond wig and tease the roots and the ends to create that rock star image she always wanted in the show. But that’s not all I plan to do.

Then I’m going to dress all in pink with black leather boots. So the top I will be wearing will be pink and very tight exposing some cleavage with a huge star on it that says “MISS PIGGY IS YOUR DESTINY” so everyone can understand the meaning of Miss Piggy and what she’s here for. I’m actually sewing the shirt myself too!

My skirt will also be very tight and short, and will rock a wide black leather belt with it to match the black leather boots I plan to wear as well. Black fishnet stockings will also be worn under my skirt to give the look of a Britney Spears type Miss Piggy costume. Sexy, hot and one tough little Piggy.

The makeup includes foundation I will use on my face which is going to be absolutely pale and will make me look like a porcelain doll, pigs like Miss Piggy are light in color of course. Intense pink blush will be applied to my cheeks for extra attention, pink lipstick and dramatic eye makeup. I have to purchase dark blue contact lenses and false eyelashes to create Miss Piggy’s goo-goo eye look. She has large blue eyes with full lashes. A wide rubber headband with pig ears will be placed on my head to automatically finish off the look while I also wear a wide piggy nose.

Accessories will include huge pink chandelier-like earrings, a few big bracelets on my arms, and a very tiny purse just to store in my lip-gloss, wallet and cell phone. I’m thinking of creating more Muppets costumes for friends of mine who might dress up like Gonzo or Fozzy Bear and as I already mentioned as Kermit the Frog. It would be like a Muppets reunion for Halloween!

Engagement Anxiety Dismantled – Do I Love My Fiance Enough?

They usually speak in low tones, as if they’re violating some unwritten law of an engaged person. I can hear the fear, doubt, confusion, and anxiety wrapped in each word, as well as the relief that they’ve finally found a safe place where they can discuss their real feelings. The story and subsequent questions are some version of the following (written as a woman but could just as easily be spoken by a man about his wife-to-be):

“My fiance is a great guy. He’s honest, responsible, loyal, good-looking, funny. My parents and friends love him. I’ve never felt so safe with anyone. We have the same values about kids, family, money, religion. I know I love him and he’s my best friend but… I’m not sure that I’m in love with him. Do I love him enough to marry him? How do I know that I’m not making a mistake?”

I usually know within the first fifteen minutes of a counseling session whether or not the person is making a mistake. But it often takes much longer than that for my clients to assimilate the information I offer them, work through the exercises I prescribe, and begin to dismantle their engagement anxiety so that they can transform what we think of as “cold feet” and begin to feel excited about their wedding and marriage. We typically address three key areas to facilitate this process:

1. We distinguish between red-flag relationship issues and normal engagement anxiety:

There are two kinds of fear that arise during engagements: the first is a signal that there’s a serious red-flag issue in the relationship and the second is a signal that you’re about to make the biggest commitment of your life and, yes, it’s scary. What are the red-flag issues I’m referring to? Some are very obvious: your partner has an addiction issue (alcohol, drugs, work, gambling), there are betrayal or trust issues that haven’t been healed, there are incompatibilities regarding core values like having children or religion. Other red-flag issues might be less blatant: your partner has serious control issues that he’s not willing to address, you’re young (early twenties) and aren’t ready to commit to one person, you have the feeling that your partner doesn’t really love you but is more in love with the fantasy or idea of you. There are certainly other red-flag issues, but these are the most common I encounter in my practice.

The second kind of fear is what we commonly think of as “cold feet”. Personally, I don’t like the expression cold feet because it doesn’t accurately describe what people experience during their engagement, which is a real fear. I’m not one to mince words; I call a spade a spade and when people are in transition, they’re scared. They’re scared of the unknown. They’re scared of jumping off the cliff of the familiar life and landing in new and unfamiliar territory. They’re scared of committing to one person forever. Getting married is enormously scary and to say otherwise is to avoid a basic truth about this significant life transition. So once we determine that there are no serious red-flag issues in the relationship, we work to normalize the fear and learn how to make room for it during the engagement without letting it running the show.

2. We redefine love:

Our culture has a lot of misconceptions about love, and no where do they appear more prominently than around engagements and weddings. Prior to getting engaged, my clients share that they felt positive about their partner and excited about the prospect of marrying him. But once he popped the question, suddenly she puts him, and their relationship, under a microscope and wonders: Do I love him enough? I know I love him, but am I really in love with him? And then the waterfall of buzzwords around love and marriage cascade down her brain night and day: Is he my soul mate? What if I’m settling? Do we have enough passion? Is he (my all-time favorite and the one that gets most women) the one?

Oh, dear one, if these words and phrases are causing you to question, you’re not alone! It only means it’s time to redefine what it means to love someone, to choose to marry someone, to make the conscious, daily choice to love and commit. As one of my clients astutely said: “I had to fall out of love with my fiance so I could learn about what love is and then fall in love with him all over again — this time from a healthy place. I learned that love is not a feeling but a choice.” During our bridal counseling sessions, we spend a lot of time discussing the truth about love, romance, and marriage until the fantasy is cracked open and my client is grounded in real love.

3. We explore the underlying causes of the anxiety:

The word anxiety is somewhat of a catch-all phrase that encompasses a wide spectrum of emotions from fear and terror to depression, grief and uncertainty. The crux of the Conscious Weddings Counseling Sessions – and the impetus for pioneering bridal counseling over a decade ago – is to shed light on the thoughts and feelings that typically create what we think of as wedding cold feet and engagement anxiety. These include:

o Grief about letting go of the single identity and lifestyle

o Fears about making the commitment of marrying one person

o Confusion about how to separate from family of origin

o Uncertainty about walking toward the unknown of marriage

o A recurring sense of loss about: deceased relatives, past relationships, previous transitions

In other words, oftentimes the anxiety that arises during an engagement has nothing to do with one’s partner. Once we make sure there are no red-flag issue and redefine what real love is, I help my client to remove the projection from her fiance then guide her through the underlying causes until the anxiety dissipates and she’s able to have the joyous wedding and healthy marriage of her dreams.

Legionnaire Success Lessons

The French Foreign Legion was founded in 1831. Their spiritual home and old training centres are in the former colonial French North Africa although they now train mainly in Southern France. What made them the legendary force they were and still are? What success lessons can we learn from them?

Recently twelve volunteers chose to do four weeks basic training in Legion style in the Western Sahara desert. They were under the harsh but experienced and encouraging regime of three ex-legionnaires, Sergeant Chef Peter Hauser, Sergeant Glenn Ferguson and Corporal Richard Sutter

Their experiences were filmed by Channel 4 TV and can teach us much about motivation and success. I have also talked with Sergeant Glenn Ferguson and gained some more insights into what motivated him and the other legendary legionnaires.

He joined the Legion at the age of 19. He was motivated at first by fear of punishment and then by pride. He hated to fail at anything and could also appreciate the pride of an elite group. One of his favourite sayings is:

“You will never be the best if you constantly have to lower the bar so the weaker elements can join”

Throughout the program the three ex-legionnaires appeared keen for some of the volunteers to ring a bell as a symbol of their wish to leave the group. They wanted to weed out the weaker elements. Legionnaires with low standards can get their fellow legionnaires killed.

Elite groups do not have the time to tolerate the weak or half hearted. They only want members who are willing to give 100% effort. They would rather that ‘losers’ (people who are lazy and half-hearted) did not join. Another saying of Sergeant Glenn Ferguson puts this well:

“If you didn’t come to be the best, then stay with the other losers”

In the modern world where everyone must be encouraged to join everything, this seems to be very old-fashioned and elitist but note that this saying does in fact make sense even today. It is not saying that you must be the best before you join up.

You must just want to be the best. This leaves room for the less talented so long as they have the right attitude. Any weakness will soon leave them as they endure the pain of the tough training regime of the Legion.

As the Sergeant commented to his suffering protégés in the TV program:

“Pain is weakness leaving your body”

Several of the volunteers started the training as ‘the weak’ but ended up as ‘the strong’. One former legionnaire commented in the program that when he entered the legion, he believed he could do nothing. When he left after five years he believed he could do anything. Such belief is a key element in any success.

I was a teacher for over 30 years in London Comprehensive schools. Everyone is accepted into these schools whether they are ‘weak’ or ‘strong’. They are all given the opportunity to learn. Unfortunately, a minority are not only ‘weak’; they don’t want to become ‘strong’ or are too lazy to become ‘strong’ and they don’t want anyone else to be ‘strong’.

When such lazy and disruptive pupils leave the school, the rest make much faster progress and can even enjoy their education. A touch of the French Foreign Legion attitude towards the half-hearted and disruptive might well improve our Comprehensive system.

Occasionally a ‘loser’ shows up in my martial arts classes; they don’t want to work hard except at the bits they enjoy and they distract the others. I don’t care about their ability or lack of it. The key factor is their attitude. Fortunately I am not forced by the Government to keep these students. I can either ask them to leave or give them a chance to improve.

I usually give them a chance but, if their attitude does not improve, I am pleased when they go. I do not want the majority of the class with a keen attitude to lose their opportunity to concentrate and make speedy progress. Training with like minded people is the quickest road to success in any venture.

The French Foreign Legion does not usually give lazy people a second chance. They are out on their ear immediately or are quickly disciplined into accepting the rules.

I was impressed by the French Foreign Legion ‘aperitif.’ This took the form of 10 pull ups before the evening meal. The volunteers found this tough as most of us would.

Sgt. Glenn Ferguson explained that this ‘aperitif’ was important in battle. It is no use being able to travel miles on foot and then not being able to pull yourself up over a wall when you reached the place of battle. Upper body strength is essential for a soldier. One of the Sergeant’s favourite saying makes the point:

A man who can’t pull his own body weight is a waste of oxygen

I especially liked the ‘aperitif’ exercise because it involves daily effort at a precise time. Any consistent daily effort produces impressive results. Performing the drill before a meal or reward is also a great idea. Having an immediate reward after some action makes it easier to perform the action. Daily efforts are a key factor in any success story.

Sergeant Chef Peter Hauser, who had served with the legion’s elite parachute regiment all over the world, taught the volunteers about the weapons and tactics of the legion.

The volunteers were in similar territory (in the Western Saharan desert) to that in which the Legion in the sixties were the last line of defence as France ‘s colonial Empire crumbled.

Simon Murray was a legionnaire from 1960 to 1965. He described the huge amount of equipment a legionnaire had to carry:

“It is a tough life because you’re carrying six days of rations. You were probably carrying about 40 kilos and you’ve got 4 hand grenades; you’ve got 200 rounds of ammunition; you’ve got a sten gun; you’ve got a couple of water bottles; you’ve got a shovel, you’ve got your sleeping kit and half a tent. You’re quite weighed down and very often you are going u phil l and long, long, long hard slogs and frequently men would be absolutely done and collapse; and then the sergeants would kick them and move them along and would start screaming at them. You might have a fever; you might have this that and the other. Nobody gave a damn.”

The ruthless attitude of the sergeants did not allow for excuses and excuses are a major cause of failure in any venture. The sergeants like Sergeant Glenn Ferguson believed in pushing men beyond their limits. Most success stories contain this element of extending your boundaries and breaking through your limitations. One of the sergeant’s favourite sayings is:

“If you never are shown that your limits can be pushed, you will never know how far you can really go.”

Near the end of the 4 weeks, the volunteers had to do a standard Legionnaire eight km run in 60 minutes with a bad fitting 12 kilogram pack on their backs. They had to walk two hours to get to the start of the run after a night on sentry duty. Will, one of the volunteers, had very sore ankles but with the help of Corporal Rutter, he made it.:

“You can do it – little steps. One in front of the other. Come on Will – a last bit of effort – you can do it. Come on; last little bit of effort; you can do it; it come on. Come on! Grit your teeth! You’re there! “

Will just made it with ten seconds to spare. He put his success down to Corporal Rutter’s help but the Corporal put it down to him. “If you delve deep in yourself you can do it – it’s a mind thing – it’s all in your mind.”

Again this kind of attitude and the encouragement that went with it leads to success and achievement. I think taking little steps in anything is a big factor in achieving success.

The main reason recruits to the Legion drop out is because of foot problems caused by the frequent long marches and runs. Why do some keep going while the others drop out?

Bobby, one of the remaining four volunteers, gave one reason:

“The positive people seem to still be here. It shows that a smile and good nature can carry you through most things.”

On their final day, the four successful volunteers faced the kepi march. The night before the march they are told the heroic story of Camerone. During the Franco Mexican war in 1863 the Legion retreated to a farm house called Camerone where they were surrounded by 2000 Mexican soldiers.

When the Legionnaires fought down to the last three men without surrendering the Mexican captain let the three surviving men go with their weapons and wounded comrades. He said:

“What can we do with men such as you?. You have shown such courage.” This esprit de corp is what the volunteers would need on the Kepi march.

Will likened the Kepi march to giving birth. “At the time it is very painful but later you forget all the pain and think it would be a good idea to have or do another one. “

An Irish ex-legionnaire who featured briefly in the TV program commented that the kepi march is difficult but that’s just the way it is. “If it wouldn’t be difficult, you wouldn’t be there. The blisters came forth and then the blood came forth.”

Sgt Glenn Ferguson described the real march done through the Pyrenees : “180 k’s in 3 and a half days; 18 hours a day of marching . You walk on these bloody stumps that used to be your feet. You know they are in a bad way because you can feel it ( the Sergeant’s description was more colourful) but you just keep walking and in about ten minutes your brain just turns off and you just keep going. At the end your boots had to be cut off – lots of blood and lots of skin.”

Eventually all three staff and the four remaining volunteers, Bear, Bobby, Will and Loic finished the march and reached the Atlantic sea. Loic liked the symbolism of going through the desert and then landing in the sea. Everyone rushed into the Atlantic to celebrate.

Later all four were presented with the kepi blanc as a souvenir. They would not be allowed to wear it but could keep it to remember their experience. Only real legionnaires could wear the Kepi blanc

Loic had learned that at the end of the day he could live a very simple life on a lousy bed with a cold shower and that the materialistic issues which bother us mean absolutely nothing.

Bear, the leader of the volunteers, commented:

“We didn’t find Beau Geste and the romantic myths of the legion. We found only pain but from that pain came pride and honour. Whatever you say against the legion you have to realize that for the people who come through it gives a huge sense of pride. And the strength of the legion is that it gives people family and pride and a second chance. It builds good things through the hardship.”

The following key success lessons can be learned from this account:

Surround yourself with keen, hardworking people who want to be the best. Expel the lazy and half-hearted.

Take daily action to make yourself stronger in every way.

Push yourself beyond your imagined limitations

Keep smiling and stay good natured.

Accept pain and hardship as a road to strength

Remember past achievements by yourself or others

Encourage each other and if necessary take small steps to reach your goals

Don’t indulge in making excuses

Stairlift Accessories – 5 Accessories That Will Make Your Stair Climber Ride More Comfortable

When you are thinking of buying a stairlift, or a stair climber, there must be a good reason for it. Either your strength has been reduced or you have been injured so it is not easy for you to walk up and down the stairs. A home stairlift brings you back the ability to travel between floors effortlessly. You will be able to enjoy your home and your living there again fully.

Additionally, the stairlift accessories might be something to look into. They could further assist you in accomplishing the daily tasks in your home and conserve your energy further.

You will find five stairlift accessories reviews here: Newspaper holders, Grocery carriers, Hinged rails, Sit and stand or perch frame, and Weather tight seat and unit cover.

Newspaper holders

You want to keep your hands free while riding the stair lift. It is just safer that way. Many stair lifts offer attachments, or add ons such as a newspaper holder.

Grocery cariers

Some stair lifts offer a large, metal basket as a side attachment to the chair, with several dozens of pounds carrying capacity. Such baskets are perfect for carrying groceries and other heavier items with you. Again, you will be able to keep your hands free while in transport.

Hinged rails

Sometimes it is necessary for the rail to extend into the hallway, or over and across a door. This is not desirable as it hinders the traffic through the hallway or through that door. So a hinged end-rails can be implemented. The hinged end-rails will rotate along the hinge back onto the rest of the rail, removing themselves as an obstacle in the hallway or at the door. The rails can be hinged for as long as the stairlift is not in use.

For added convenience, motorized hinged rails are available. The electric motors will help you with extending and retracting the hinged rail as needed.

Sit and stand, or perch frame

This is another very useful accessory for some people. If you are hard of sitting, or if you are having trouble bending your knees to sit properly, a sit and stand or a perch frame is very helpful. It enables you to stand or perch instead of sitting when necessary. The frame consists of a bar that you can hold on to during the ride, and an additional safety rail that you can also use. Another use for the standing or perching frame is when the stairs prove too narrow to be able to sit in the chair lift comfortably.

Weather tight seat and unit cover

The weather tight seat and unit cover mostly makes sense for outdoor stairlift only. It prevents rain, dirt and sand, and wind to affect your unit and reduce its life span. There is no covers available for the rail so to keep it in good shape, frequent vacuuming or sweeping is recommended.

The History of Ugly Christmas Sweater Parties

‘Twas the Night Before Finals: The History of The Ugly Christmas Sweater Party…

Ugly Christmas Sweater Parties originated like the Post-it note: by accident. No, a 3M scientist was not goofing around in a lab, but the birth of the legendary Ugly Xmas Party tradition was one big fat accident. It started with elementary education teachers. They began sporting the sweaters like it was their job. This had a trickle down effect…slowly but surely infecting soccer moms, soccer grandmoms, art and music teachers, retired people, volunteers, PTA-goers, thrift store shoppers and the racks of Kohl’s department store. Ugly Christmas Sweater Fever (as it is clinically referred to) had reached epidemic proportions.

No one died, fortunately, but this huge mass of people were really really ridiculously confused. For some reason, they thought they looked good. Really good. Super stylish. Cute as a button. Hollidazzlin. But no, they were sadly mistaken.

They looked hideous. For a long time, the non-Ugly Xmas sweater wearers remained in the closet. No one wanted to make the first move to alert these sad souls of their super sad situation.

A flip switched somewhere around 2007. Many attribute it to white people*. White people and their undying thirst for theme parties. One college co-ed sported a said sweater to a regular Christmas party. Everyone loved “Ugly Sweater Guy.” Next thing you know, people are calling their elementary education teachers, their soccer moms and their local thrift stores in search of a sweater to wear to the next party. They know they’ve seen em…now they must track them down.

J. Bauer Piano Company: The Story of William Bauer, The Most Creative Piano Designer

We’ll start with his father.

Julius Bauer was born in Berlin on July 20, 1831. At an early age showed natural talent for constructing musical instruments and by the time he was 18, had accumulated many years of experience working on pianos and violins. At this time, the revolution of 1848 was erupting, so he left for America and arrived in New York.

Immediately opening his own store, within 8 years his company had grown rapidly. He leaves his brother John in charge of the New York store and comes to Chicago in 1857 with his other brother Herman. They sold several piano brands such as Behning, Miller, McCammon, and Knabe.

In the great Chicago fire of 1871, his business was destroyed. For the next year and a half, he operated in a church while having a new building built. During this time of tragedy, his brother John dies, and so he closes down the New York branch.

Although Bauer started as a retailer, he soon began to build pianos that sold under his name. Bauer pianos became known for being exceptionally well made pianos.

With his success, Bauer was able to afford lavish warerooms in two major cities, Chicago and again in New York by 1880.

Julius dies in 1884 and his wife Anna Marie takes over management of the company.

Their son William was born in 1870, and after graduating from High School, he goes on a European vacation. When he arrives back in Chicago, he starts his career in the factory learning everything he can about pianos from the ground up.

Now the fun begins. William turned out to be a gifted piano maker with an inventive mind. In my opinion, he was one of the most original thinkers in piano technology history.

(The following may be a little technical.)

His designs seem to be based on stiffness. His plates are designed so that the string tension is placed in a horizontal plane inside the middle of the plate, whereas in a “regular” grand piano, the string tension is horizontally on top of the plate.

He goes one step further in his upright. A major flaw with uprights is that the sound can be smothered by the cabinet. William tackles this issue by placing the soundboard in the back of the instrument for maximum sound exposure, but the plate and the strings are in the middle of the instrument. He connects the soundboard to the bridge and strings with dowels.

Quite amazing!

I recommend that you should see his patents which are accessible online by searching Google Patents.

Another example of his unique approach is the soundboard itself. You can easily spot a Julius Bauer piano because his soundboards have ribs on the top and the bottom.

Later he even invented a piano with no steel plate at all. It features a wooden plate to replace the traditional cast-iron plate with the goal of giving the piano a sweeter tone.

His piano designs and methods of construction were very unique and highly praised in his day. Today they are worth a second look, and they are very much worth restoring.

He sold his company to the Wurlitzer Piano Company in 1930 being hit hard during the Great Depression.

Wurlitzer continued to build the Julius Bauer name up until about 1938.