Build a White Cedar Sauna That Will Last a Lifetime

Growing up along the shores of Lake Superior meant that a traditional Finnish sauna was part your life. In fact some homes did not have a shower or a tub in the home. Instead a Finnish sauna with its cold water spicket or shower took their place. Most all saunas were built by the home owner using local designs. A cedar sauna was the most common type that was constructed. However some were also built using Eastern Hemlock.

A Northern white cedar sauna was the most preferred construction. For more than 300 years white cedar was used to line the cedar chests that people store their clothes in. When the clothes were taken from the chest they had the great fresh cedar smell that we all enjoyed. A cedar sauna also provides same great aroma as it was heated. Frequently the sauna stove was fueled with white cedar kindling. A cedar fire will snap loudly and quickly give a hot fire heating the cedar sauna in a matter of minutes even in the dead of winter.

Once the cedar sauna was heated, water was ladled on the stove rocks releasing moisture that further increased the cedar aroma. A white cedar sauna had more benefits that just a great aroma. White cedar is softwood that is very easy to work with but probably one of its best features is that it resists rot even in the wettest conditions. A sauna constructed of white cedar will last a long time despite the recurring cycles of high heat and moisture that would cause most wood products to breakdown and rot. Sauna benches, buckets, main door and ladle all were constructed of cedar as well.

In most cases the sauna walls were double sided with old time saunas having cedar logs on the outside and cedar walls on the inside all of which provide the cedar sauna with great insulation. Floors were also frequently constructed with cedar boards that were spaced to allow the water to naturally drain through them. A cedar floor is a lot warmer during the winter months as well. In some locations that have poorly drained soils a drainage system must be built beneath the sauna to carry excess water away. A good sauna must also have a good door that insulates and seals the heat inside. Because cedar is a good insulator and is a very light weight wood it is ideal for constructing a sauna door.

Choosing a good sauna stove is critical to making your sauna perform to its full potential. A good water proof firebox is important to assure that when you ladle water on the stove rocks it does not put your fire out. A good sauna stove will have the strength to hold enough rocks to provide the radiant heat that gives the cedar sauna all its great health benefits. If you live in an area where a wood fired sauna is not feasible you can still build a traditional sauna that uses an electric sauna heater. There are a number of manufactures that build good quality electric sauna stoves.

A cedar sauna is the best type of sauna no matter what type of heat source you use. Nothing beats the smell and look of a Northern white cedar. No matter what type of sauna you build and operate there is no better way to totally cleanse your body and improve your physical and mental well being. Start checking out the sauna sales and plans today and build your sauna.

Hot Crab Dip With Blue Cheese

Hot crab dip with blue cheese is a delicious appetizer. Serve it up with crackers or chips. You can even dip raw vegetables and bread slices in it. This is a great dip to serve at parties, especially in the winter when all your guests really appreciate something warm. This dip is very creamy and satisfying, and the crab flavor just hits the spot. Everyone loves crab, and serving it in a dip like this is a great way to make this luxury item stretch. Get the best crab you can to make this dish the best it can be. High quality seafood makes all the difference when you add it to a recipe.

When you are planning a holiday party or just a special gathering, it is nice to provide some appetizers. Chips and dips are a simple answer to the dilemma of what to serve. You can plan to serve several different types, such as salsa, onion dip and, just to up the ante, a nice hot dip like this one. It provides your guests with a wide variety of tastes and textures even if all you provide is appetizers.

Appetizers like this hot crab dip are perfect for a busy party host. Most can be made ahead of time, then you just pop this dip in the oven at the last minute and set it out for everyone to enjoy. The creamy flavor is a wonderful combination of cheeses, crab and seasonings the combine to make an incredible dish. Do not be surprised if you get asked for the recipe whenever you serve this dish. It is also a great dish to take to potlucks or other gatherings. All you really need is an oven. Just mix everything up ahead of time and when you arrive, pop it in the oven to finish up. You end up serving a terrific hot dish that did not have to get cold on the way over.

Recipe for Hot Crab Dip

What You Need

  • 1 (8 ounce) package cream cheese, softened
  • 1/2 cup non-fat sour cream
  • 1 Tablespoon lemon juice
  • 2 to 3 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
  • 1 Tablespoon Dijon mustard
  • Pinch of garlic salt to taste
  • Up to 1 Tablespoon of milk (only if necessary)
  • Dash of Tabasco sauce
  • 1/2 – 3/4 pound crab meat, fresh or canned
  • 1/4 cup blue cheese crumbles
  • 1/4 cup grated cheese of your choice
  • Crackers and Chips for dipping

How to Make It

Pick any shell fragments out of crab. Set aside.

In a bowl, mix up the cream cheese, sour cream, mustard, lemon juice, garlic salt, blue cheese crumbles and Tabasco sauce until it is smooth. Add a little milk if the mixture is too thick. You want it to be dense and creamy.

Fold in the crab meat carefully.

Pour mixture into a greased 1 quart casserole dish and top with grated cheese.

Bake at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for 15 to 20 minutes until the cheese is bubbly.

Sustainability of Cast Iron

Cast iron is iron or ferrous alloy which has been heated until it liquefies and is then poured into mould to solidify. It is usually made from pig iron. It can be thought of as an alloy of carbon and iron. There are two types of cast iron and they are determined by the carbon content as Grey cast iron and White cast iron. The qualities and uses of cast iron make it highly sustainable even in this 21st century.

QUALITIES AND USES

Castability, resistance to force, wear resistance, good fluidity and relatively low melting point makes it a preferred material, which is widely used in field of construction engineering for making pipes and in automotive industry for making cylinder heads and gear box cases. It is resistant to destruction and weakening by oxidation and hence used to make utensils for cooking food.

SUSTAINABILITY

It is the oldest material in engineering but we should say it is taking a rebirth of fortunes in the modern world with regards to environmental impact and sustainability.

It does not rust. It only oxidises that too, at a very slow pace. This process emits carbon based iron ashes which is good for the environment when compared to PVC which is being used now as it is easy to handle. The carbon gases that are given off, promote growth of plants and it is also supposed to increase planktonic life in oceans and thereby prevent global warming.

It is totally recyclable. It is not downcycled, in which case the material loses some of its superior properties.

Pig iron is the basic raw material. It can also be made from a mixture of steel from automotive and construction industry and scrap in the foundry also. The scrap is melted to get new iron. Hence, waste is made into wealth.

Properly maintained cast iron products will last the life of the building, though the capital cost might be higher. Even when a building is demolished after its full life, It can be recycled and used for the same purpose.

It is still the most preferred material in the construction industry for structural support, windows, soil drainage etc.

Cooking in cast iron utensils is sustainable because it is long lasting.

Cast iron utensils have natural non- stick qualities when compared to hazardous Teflon coated ones. It’s skillets only need to be coated with oil to make it non-sticky.

The dishes need to be washed only with hot water and a stiff brush. Therefore they prevent the use of soaps which might have high chemical content.

It spreads heat evenly and makes cooking easier.

When we take food prepared in cast iron skillets, we also consume small doses of iron which is good for our health.

To sum up, Iron is the fourth common element in the Earth’s crust which can be recycled fully every time without loss in properties and hence, sustainable.

Timber Suspended Floors – Specifications and Benefits

You can find timber suspended floors mainly in older houses in Britain. But after the Second World War, the timbers were restricted to use. Thus, other forms of building were adopted. Timber suspended floors can be used in different parts of your house.

Timber suspended ground floors: A Timber suspended ground floors contain a number of boards including tongued, well-grooved and man-made boards like plywood or timber beams. These timber beams are 15.7 inches apart and are held by timber wall plates that are adequately supported by the main walls of the house. The wall plates are bedded on the top of a proper damp-proof course.

Timber suspended upper floors: Similar to the timber suspended ground floors, the timber suspended upper floors also contain timber sheets of man-made board laid over that are supported through timber beams. Usually, timber suspended floors are at the upper level than at the ground level. They are known as single floors as the beams bridge a single cross to run from wall to wall.

The timber beams of the upper floors are bigger than the hollow ground floors as additional support is simply not possible in the upper floors. They form a bridge of narrow span across the minute part of the room. If the timber beams are more than 1.3 ft in thickness then a binder is used to support the beams. The ends of these beams are built into the walls and are supported by the hangers or fixed on the walls. The end of the timber beams which is built into the walls will be covered with some preservative to protect the timber from moist and such. Usually the roof of the room beneath the floor is plastered or fixed with the plasterboard.

Solid ground floors: This is another form of timber floor having different layers of various materials. The very first layer is made up of hardcore compositions of crushed stone and of broken brick of 3.94 inches to 5.90 inches in thickness. This is to provide a solid and level foot for the floor slab. Above this 1.97 inches thick layer of fine ash, sand and weak mix concrete is covered to bind the surface. This layer is used to give a smooth surface for bedding damp-proof covering. The damp proof covering should not be placed directly on the hardcore.

Floating wood floors: These types of floors are very fashionable and beneficial. They are not really permanent floors because they just float on top of floors that are already in place, making them very easy to lay and manage. They are not fixed, to the sub floors an anyway. There is no need of any sticking material, or nails, to fix this flooring. You can set such timber floating floors on any normal flooring.

Timber suspended floors have always been a popular method of construction and will probably be used by builders for many years to come.

Benefits of the One Plan Health Insurance Blue Plan

Health insurance is not just for those with a six figure income, and it should not be a right but rather it should be a privilege. This might not be reality in South Africa at the moment but this is the vision of One Plan Health Insurance, a newcomer to the South African health care industry.

With One Plan medical aid everyone can afford to have health care at a price that will fit their pockets. And with the most basic plan starting at R100 a month, this can truly become a reality.

One Plan Health Insurance offers valuable services and products ranging from hospital plans, to cover in case of death and also cover for dread disease and HIV/AIDS cover. This means that One Plan Health Insurance truly is a one stop shop for all your health care needs, for you and you loved ones. Here is a look at what their comprehensive and affordable Blue Plan can offer you in the time that you will need it most.

What the One Plan Health Insurance Blue Plan Offers You

With the One Plan medical aid Blue Plan as a primary member you will receive R 5 250 worth of medical cover per year, excluding hospitalization, dread disease cover, and other benefits. This means that R 5 250 will go towards your average medical needs, like visiting a doctor, receiving prescription medication, pathology, radiology and maternity care.

Besides just covering your day to day medical needs One Plan Health Insurance will cover other crucial medical needs, such as accident cover, illness in hospital, emergency illness and natural birth and emergency caesareans.

Furthermore you will also receive accidental disability cover for up to R 130 000 for the duration of the policy. You and your family, if they are members, will also be covered in case of death, both accidental and from natural causes.

Optometry needs will also be covered and you will be able to have a comprehensive eye test, frames and specially cut glasses for your frames at any Eyenet optometrist nationwide. What more could you want from a health care provider?

But there is still more. As a member of One Plan Health Insurance you will also be able to take hold of amazing deals and goodies on offer from their online shopping mall, OneLiifestyle. Through the exclusive offers on their website you will be able to get discounts on over 300 trusted brands. So what have you got to lose?

Who can benefit from the One Plan Health Insurance Blue Plan

Those looking to cover themselves and their family in case of any medical emergency that might arise will benefit from the One Plane Health Insurance Blue Plan. And with low monthly rates it is not just the rich that can afford to look after their health. And with great value added bonuses there is no reason why you should not SMS them on 31644, and they will call you back.

Facts About Weber Attenuator

The Weber attenuator is defined as an electronic device designed to reduce a signal’s amplitude and power with minimum or no distortion to that signal’s waveform. In comparison with other attenuators such as the Ultimate Attenuator and the digital attenuator, this kind of attenuator uses rheostats. The rheostats are use to control attenuation and to distribute power to the speaker motor or other load. The two types of this kind of attenuator are the speaker motor model and the resistive or resistor-based model. The speaker motor model uses an actual speaker motor to generate a reactive load on the amplifier. The resistive model of Weber attenuator creates a purely resistive load on the amplifier using power resistors.

One advantage of the speaker motor model over the resistive model is that it provides a more interactive, natural sound. This Weber power attenuator also has less impact on the tone as compared to the resistor-based model. There are several types of speaker motor-based attenuators. They are the Mobility Analog System Simulator (MASS), MiniMASS, MicroMASS, MASS 150, Power Tap, MASS Lite and Stereo MASS. The MASS type utilizes a speaker motor so that the load will give a realistic interaction between the output circuit of the amplifier and the attenuator. The MASS unit contains a line out connection with front panel controls for mids, bass, volume and treble. These control panels are useful for consumers who plan to run simple direct out signals. Consumers interested in the wet-dry approach also find these control panels effective. The MicroMASS and the MASS Lite models consist of two power level controls. One control is utilized for the bass-mid frequencies and the other one is for the upper mids-treble frequencies. Meanwhile, attenuation is continuously adjustable from zero to over -50 db in the MiniMASS model. The MASS 150 unit features extra output jack, MASS bypass, line out and range switch. The Stereo MASS does not contain a line out but it has treble compensation built in. The Power Tap unit features treble compensation, range switch, and a -20 db fixed line out.

The resistive model of Weber attenuator includes the Low Power Load Dump, High Power Load Dump, Mega Dump and Headphone Tap. As compared to the motor speaker-based MASS, the Low Power Load Dump unit is smoother and not as interactive. Its attenuation is continuously adjustable from zero to over -50 db. The High Power Load Dump model with 200 watt power uses power resistors and capacitors. This model uses 11 steps of output control on a rotary switch. The Headphone Tap unit is referred to as a 50 watt dummy load which consists of a headphone output jack. Lastly, the Mega Dump model comprises system bypass, range switch, adjustable line out, and 0, 3, and 6 db treble boosts.

According to product review and manufacturer’s claim, this attenuator is mostly hand-built. This ensures customers that they are buying products of highest quality. Some of the accessories available for Weber attenuator include 1 feet RCA phone plug to ¼ phone plug, 59 Bassman Attenuator Harness, Rackmount Wings for the Mega Dump and MASS 200 units, and attenuator harness for Peavey amplifiers.

Renaissance Warfare and Weapons – Seige Tactics

The era commonly known as Early Modern Warfare began during the middle of the fifteenth century and lasted until the end of the eighteenth century. The widespread use of gunpowder along with the weapons designed to use it, changed the methods of warfare dramatically.

China had been using gunpowder for centuries before the European countries began using it. Cannons were the first common weapons to use gunpowder. But at the time, all weapons that used gunpowder were generally large, very heavy, required many men to deploy them and were unwieldy to say the least. Cannons first appeared in Europe during the late Middle Ages and their primary use was for attacking castles. The development of the siege cannon quickly made the use of castles and their tall walls, for your main defense obsolete. The siege cannon meant that the attacker was now favored to be the ultimate battle winner. As a result, the character of the defensive position had to be changed. The high castle walls gave way to slopping walls. These slopping walls would deflect the cannon shots and allow the primary defense mechanism, the wall itself, to remain intact. Castles with their tall and relatively thin walls became obsolete as a defense tool.

The castles gave way to fortresses. These fortresses were built with thick slopping walls. To defend themselves, cities had to spend vast amount of money to build the new fortresses. These fortresses, with their ability to sustain cannon fire then brought back the Siege as the primary tactic for attacking a position

A siege is the assault of a city or fortress with the intent of winning through attrition, a more modern term is a blockade. When an attacker could not get the city or fortress to surrender and realizing that a direct frontal attack would not be successful would resort to the siege tactic. A siege usually meant the attackers would surround the target, either the city or a fortress with the intent of blocking the entry of supplies and provisions to the inhabitants.

Common siege tactics were

1. Mining or sapping

Mining or sapping involved digging a tunnel under the walls of the castle or fortress. The mines would have wooden reinforced walls for support. Once complete the attackers would fill the mine with flammable materials and set it on fire. Later, with the use of gunpowder, the mines would be filled with explosives, which was a much more effective use of the “sapping or mining”. The purpose of the sapping, or mining was to bring down the wall over the mine and allow an entrance point for the attackers.

2. Artillery bombardment. Using everything thing imaginable to go over the wall of the fortress or castle and inflict harm.

3. The use of the siege engines.

There are many types of siege engines. The general categories are ballista, battering ram, catapult, helepolis, mangonel, onager, siege tower and trebuchet.

Ballista: This is a powerful weapon that resembles a giant crossbow. The purpose of the ballista was to throw heavy arrows. It could shoot the arrows one at a time or in groups. The ballista is also knows as a bolt thrower. In earlier times the Romans used the ballista to hurl large stones but during the Middle Ages the ballista was modified to throw arrows, which at the time were known as bolts. The crossbow is believed to have been inspired by the early ballista. The ballista was made of wood and used animal sinew as the rope or string. Winches were used to pull back (cock) the ballista.

BalisstaThe ballista was a very accurate weapon when hurling bolts (arrows) but the accuracy was gained at the expense of range. The first known use of a ballista was in Italy in 400 B.C. The catapult was a natural evolution of the ballista.

Battering Ram: Battering rams are devices used to break through fortification walls or doors. They have been in use since ancient time. The simplest form of a battering ram is a large heavy log carried by several attackers to hit the fortress or castle door or wall. The objective is to do enough damage to the wall or door to allow the attackers inside.

A more efficient design of the battering ram was to use a wheeled frame to carry it. The battering ram was suspended by ropes or chains which allowed the ram to be much larger and be swung more easily. The sides and roofs of this improved type of battering ram were sometime covered with protective materials to keep them from being set on fire and to protect the attackers.

Some battering rams were not suspended by ropes or chains but were placed on rollers instead. This would allow the ram to gain much higher speed and thus inflict much more damage. The writer Vitruvius described this type of rolling battering ram as used by Alexander the Great.

To defend themselves from a battering ram the defenders would drop obstacles in front of the battering ram or use grappling hooks to immobilize the ram or set the ram and/or its frame on fire. Another defense was to simply launch an attack on the ram as it approached them.

The use of battering rams can be traced to the destruction of Jerusalem and the fall of Rome. They were used throughout the Crusades too.

Catapult: A catapult is a type of siege engine used to hurl a projectile a long distance. Catapults were not weapons that the attackers carried with them into battle and they were generally built on the battle site. They are made from wood and it was plentiful on most battlefields.

The differentiation of differing types of catapults comes from the way they used to store and release their energy.

The first type of catapult was a variation of the Roman ballista. These used rope or animal sinew to hurl the objects. The rope or sinew was pulled back under tension and when the tension was released the energy carried the projectile. So if the catapult stored and released the energy through tension, it is considered a tensional catapult.

Another type of catapult is the torsion catapult. These have an arm with a bucket, cup or sling to hold the projectile. The force is transferred to the sling through the use of rope at the other end of the throwing arm. These ropes are placed are pulled tight to “load” the catapult with torsion energy.Helepolis: This is an ancient type of siege engine and was known as the Taker of Cities. It was invented by Demetrius Poliorcetes for use during the siege on Salamis in Cyprus.

The shape of the original helepolis was a tall square tower that was supported on four wheels. The helepolis was divided internally into nine different stories. The lower stories held machines used to throw projectiles (large stones). The middle section contained catapults for throwing darts (large spears). The top section was used for throwing smaller stones and smaller catapults. The helepolis was manned by two hundred soldiers and was propelled via a large drive belt and wheel inside the helepolis. The soldiers could propel the helepolis from the inside without having to take direct fire from the defenders.

Mangonel: This type of siege engine is a catapult type used to throw projectiles at castle walls. The mangonel could hurl projectiles over great distances (1,300 feet). This is a much longer distance than the trebuchet, which was invented later. The mangonel was not very accurate and hurled the projectiles at a much lower angle than the trebuchet.

The mangonel was a torsion arm catapult that used a sling to hold the projectile. The energy was stored by twisting ropes or sinew.

In battles, mangonels hurled rocks, burning objects or just about anything else the attackers could think of. Vessels filled with flammable materials were popular and would create a large fireball upon impact.Onager: The onager is a torsion type of catapult. The torsion energy is stored by twisting ropes. The release of the energy provided a type of kicking action and thus the name onager which meant wild ass.

The construction of the onager was pretty straightforward. It consisted of a frame which stayed on the ground. The front of the frame had a solid wooden vertical frame attached to it. The vertical frame had an axle running through it with a large single spoke protruding from it.

In battle the spoke was pulled down via the use of twisted ropes or winched down to hold store the energy. When the energy was release the spoke would violently kick into the crosspiece of the vertical frame and the projectile would shoot forward.

A variation of the onager is the mangonel. The mangonel used a bowl to hold the projectile instead of the sling and was less powerful than the onager.

Siege Tower: This is a specialized siege engine used to protect the attackers as they approached the walls of the fortress or castle. These were often rectangular shaped and sat on four wheels. They were built to a height of approximately the height of the wall and sometimes even higher. When built higher than the wall the siege tower allowed archers to shoot into the castle or fortress.

These were heavy and difficult to maneuver and were generally built on the battle site. They took a long time to construct and were used primarily when all other types of siege tactics had failed, like sapping or direct ladder assault.

Its large size made it an easy target for the defender cannons upon approach.

If the siege tower was successful, the last thing to do was to drop planks between the tower and the wall to allow the attackers to enter the fortress or castle.

The outcome of a siege falls into one of these four categories:

1. If the defenders repelled the attackers without aid from outside forces then the position is deemed to have been “held”.

2. If the defenders repelled the attackers with the help of outside forces then the position is deemed to have been “relieved” or “raised”.

3. If the attackers succeed in taking the fortress, castle or city but the defensive forces are able to escape then the position is deemed to have been “evacuated”.

4. If the attackers succeed in taking the fortress, castle or city and they also destroy and/or capture the defenders then the besieged entity is deemed to have “fallen”.

This article is one of many on various segments of the Renaissance era. Others can be found at the Renaissance website.

What You Don’t Know About China Town – The Chan See Shu Yuen Temple

Introduction

Hello and ‘Lei Hou’- that’s ‘hello’ in Cantonese, one of the most spoken Chinese dialects in Malaysia.

The Chan See Shu Yuen Temple was built more than a century ago. The four founding fathers of this temple- Chan Sow Lin, Chan Xin Xi, Chan Chun and Chan Zhai Tian- were also among the first pioneers of Kuala Lumpur. Do you notice they all have the same surname Chan?

The Chan See Shu Yuen Clan Association is an association for the ‘Chan’ clan. People with the surname Tan, Chan and Chen all belong to this clan, as the Mandarin character for these names is the same. Chan is a very common Chinese surname and many of them come from Guangzhou in China. There is a Chan Family Ancestral Temple in Guangzhou, and this one is modelled after it. That is why you see similar Cantonese architecture and art. Work began in 1896, and it took ten years to complete.

Think of it also as a club for people who came from the same province in China. When the Chinese immigrants arrived in Malaysia, it was very difficult for them to adapt in this new and foreign land. That is why clan associations are important, because they provide immigrants with contact with people who speak the same language, as well as contact with their family members back in China. The clan association also looks after their general welfare.

The association also houses a temple, which is the subject of this article.

From the outside one will not miss the green and red faade. In fact, the temple is sometimes known as The Green Temple. Look from left to right, especially at the roofline and you will see the elaborate ornaments that decorate the temple. Painstakingly minute, they tell stories of ancient China and Chinese mythology.

Right before entering the temple compound, there are two pillars with blue tops. To admire the front facade of the temple, go all the way to the left. These are the famous terracotta figurines that tell of ancient history and mythology. These carvings and sculptures are elaborate and fascinating. There are also the same captivating carvings on the right end of the front facade.

Inside The Temple

Don’t forget that in Malaysia, religious places are not tourist places, but are actual religious venues used by believers to worship. If you see some worshippers deep in meditation or prayer, be as discreet as you can.

At the gates, high up on the left and right, one can see two gray stone lions. Stone lions are believed to guard the temple from demons. The Chinese characters beneath them very loosely translate into welcoming blessings.

There is another pair at eye level, and this time, they are white. At first glance one may think they are the same, but look carefully at their paws and you will see that they are different. Guardian lions are always made in pairs- one female and one male. The one on the left is the female guardian lion, and she has a cub in her right paw, representing the circle of life. The one on the right is the male guardian lion, and he has his left paw on a globe to represent his feeling the “pulse of the earth”. Symbolically, the female guards those who live inside, and the male guards the structure of the temple.

On the stonewalls, are some Chinese characters, which is a typical feature in Chinese architecture. On the top, there are four big Chinese characters. Unlike in English, Chinese words are read from right to left, and from top to bottom. The four words read ‘Chen Shi Shu Yuen’- which means ‘Study Hall of the Chan Clan’. The Chan clan, if you remember, occupies this clan association. There are little characters on each side of the words. They tell you the name of the writer and when it was written. In Chinese calligraphy, or Chinese writing, writing is not just writing. It is an artistic skill, and every piece is a work of art. Think of Michelangelo or Leonardo Da Vinci painting a masterpiece and signing off at the corner of the work. In fact, the personality of a writer is said to be reflected in his writing. On the right and left side of the door, are more Chinese characters. They are too poetic to be translated, but they loosely mean, ‘light radiates from honour, and may wisdom never die’. This type of greeting is important in Chinese architecture, and each temple has their unique greetings. If you have the chance to visit other Chinese temples, ask the locals to translate these words of wisdom for you.

When you walk through the red door, the first thing that strikes you is the richly ornamented carvings of a golden tableau over your head.

On the left and right are altars for the deities who guard the door.

On the left next to the shrine, are two plaque inscriptions; one red and one white. And on the right next to the shrine, are also two plaque inscriptions- both are black. Think of them as a kind of Hall of Fame, where great and outstanding members of the Chan clan receive acknowledgement for their contribution to the advancement of the clan. They could have built schools, preserved their heritage, donated large sums of money, or anything that helped the Chan clan.

On the red pillars on both sides, are even more Chinese characters. What do they say this time? Again, a little too poetic to translate, but they are reminders to the current generation not to forget their ancestors. Chinese people remember their ancestors through a unique tradition called ancestor worship. They would put up pictures or inscriptions about their ancestors and offer food and joss sticks as a way to seek their blessings. It’s similar to the Catholic practice of seeking intervention from the saints, upright people who have passed away. In many Chinese homes, you can see pictures and inscriptions of the deceased at the altar next to the gods. In fact, right here in this temple, is where the current generation of Chans worship their ancestors.

At the open courtyard now is a shop that sells many interesting Chinese souvenirs, and by that, I don’t mean corny touristy souvenirs, but excellent teas, ceramic teapots and many other interesting traditional items. Chinese teas have their own grades, just like wine. There is a Chinese saying, in describing a good tea, that a good tea has a fragrance so strong that it sticks to your cup after you’ve finished drinking. On the right is an exhibition hall that showcases many interesting cultural presentations such as Chinese calligraphy. And in front, is the main shrine.

From the centre of the court, one can see clearly the roofs of the buildings that surround the courtyard. The first thing that will strike you is the open space concept. Many do not realize that the courtyard is inside the building as opposed to the outside. This is a very typical characteristic of Chinese architecture, and many temples are built like this. The courtyard is surrounded on all sides by building units. This is often known as the ‘sky well’ concept because the roofs form a small opening to the sky. Also you might notice that the breadth of the building is more important than the height and depth, giving the width of the building visual impact. The roof design uses the Kwang Tung style of pottery, which uses rolling waves as its motif.

Right ahead is the main hall called the De Xing Hall. I will explain each section from left to right. On the left, are four pictures of the early founding fathers. They are the important early members of the Chan clan. Next to the pictures is a room. There are black and white pictures of deceased Chan family members. Here, the Chinese perform ancestral worship. There are row after row of names written on yellow paper. They are the names of the dead. The Chinese believe that life continues after death, and the dead can influence the fortunes of the living. Hence, worshippers pray that their ancestors will bless them with good luck and protect them from harm. Others do it out of filial piety, which is heavily emphasized in Chinese culture.

On the left wall, one will see pieces of wood in red, orange and yellow. They are an old epistle, written by an unknown person to remind his relatives that the deceased will always be watching over the living, guiding and protecting them. This is yet another reminder to the current generation of the importance of ancestor worship.

On the left altar, one will see a golden shrine with more pictures of the deceased. In front of them on the table are five porcelain vases. On the imposing golden pillar, are Chinese characters, loosely translated as a blessing for this divine place, that its name would be as sweet as fragrance and that this place will pour out wisdom and talent.

Moving onto the main altar, one will see a magnificent golden shrine. This is the resting place of the upright, as the sign says. The three statues are those of the Shun Emperor Chung Hua Master, the later ancestor Chen Hu Man Master and the Honourary Kai Zhang Ruler Chen Yuan Guang Master. On the table, there are two paper servants. Paper servants are usually burned, together with currencies believed to be used in the after life, otherwise known as hell bank notes. There are many other modern paper foldings such as cars, houses, television sets, phones etc, as they are believed to be received by the dead when they are burned. There are also five majestic vases on the table.

On top of the middle vase, stands a dancing lion. A dancing lion is believed to invite prosperity and chase away evil spirits.

On the next imposing golden pillar, are words of praise for this temple and a reminder that to prosper, you have to remember your ancestors.

On the finally, on altar to your right, are more pictures of the deceased. The layout is similar to the one on the left.

Next to it, one will see the same layout of red, orange and yellow planks. These are again reminders of the importance of ancestral worship.

The four pictures after that are more pictures of outstanding clansmen.

There is a hall on the right side of the temple. There, there are many exhibitions such as Chinese tea displays, calligraphy demonstrations and painting techniques.

We’ve come to the end of the Chan See Shu Yuen Clan Association temple guide. There’s a visitors book near the right altar if you’d like to leave your comments.

TIG Welding Techniques – Which is Better? Walking the Cup Or Freehand

Walking the cup vs free hand Tig Welding Techniques explored.

Ever since I learned how to Tig weld pipe, I have heard welders argue back and forth about which welding technique is better, walking the cup? Or free hand?

So which welding technique is better?

To me the answer is simple. Both have their place of course. It’s Ford vs Chevy.

You need to know how to tig weld using both of these techniques.

Why?

Because there are times when walking the cup is better, and there are times when free handing is better

For fab shop pipe welding, cup walking works great and can be very fast and easy. But what about all the tig welding done on the job site where there are all kinds of things in your way? That’s when the freehand technique rules.

If you are welding pipe and can walk the cup, then just do it because there is nothing prettier than a tig weld on pipe done by an ace cup walker. But when the time comes where you need to freehand, you need to be good at that tig welding technique too.

Walking the cup works great on pipe that is about 2 inch and larger and also on most every socket welds even as small as 1 inch in diameter.

But for smaller diameter pipe and tubing, free hand is the best welding technique.

Free hand tig welding is also necessary for welding all kinds of things other than pipe. In fact, it is used for practically everything other than pipe welding whereas walking the cup is not very useful for much other than pipe welding.

But lets be clear about the term “free handing”. It does not mean holding the torch without propping on anything. It simply means that the ceramic cup is not resting on the metal.

The hand is steadied by resting some part of the hand against the metal being welded. That’s the only way to be steady enough to make good precise tig welds.

Making a good looking tig weld means being able to maintain a tight arc. You can’t do that unless your hand is steady.

Simple Tips to Start a Stationery Store

Stationery is very needed by most of the people. Starting a stationery store will be a good business idea for you. Most of them sell decorative pencils and pens. Some other items which are commonly sold in this store are cards, specialty envelopes, invitations, guest books, journals, and some other supplies for business or school. It will be a promising business with good profit.

Before starting your business, there are some factors you should consider. It will help you make a proper plan so that you can start your business properly.

The first thing you have to do is to decide whether you want to start a general store or to target a niche. Commonly, stationery retail niches sell eco-friendly products, wedding stationery, humorous stationery, stationery for children, or stationery with regional or ethnic products.

After deciding, you have to get the permits from your state. You need it to start your retail business. What you may need include sales tax and use permit, resale permit, fictitious name certificate (DBA), and employer identification number (EIN).

Secure a venue which you will use for your stationery store. You may open an e-commerce shop, a traditional brick and mortar store, a mall kiosk or booth, e-commerce shop, flea market, or rent a space in bazaar. As another alternative, you can start it by opening online stationery store. Once it grows, you can open physical store.

The next thing you have to do is to purchase wholesale stationery from larger distributors or artisan companies. It will help you save your budget. You can also purchase it from an online store which offers you wholesale product.

If you want to open a physical store, you can buy retail supplies such as baskets, shelving, shopping bags, and cash registers. Consider all the things which you will need for your store. On the other hand, if you decide start online store, you will need labels and shipping boxes.

The last thing you have to do s to promote your business. You can do it by printing directories, handing out fliers and coupons, or renting ads. You can do all the things which will complement your business.

Science Fair Project Ideas That Win Awards – Project #9 – Submarines

Objective

To find out how a submarine uses a propeller and a stabilizing fin for forward movement.

Introduction

Although the submarine you have seen in a movie seems to be gliding along effortlessly, it is actually fighting the forces of gravity, pressure, friction and buoyancy. Have you ever encountered these terms in previous science fair experiments? Among all other science fair experiments, this is one of the best, as you will understand how these forces are overcome by the submarine.

Materials

A 500ml water bottle, a soda bottle (2 liter), knife, scissors, 2 large paperclips, needle-nose pliers, chopsticks, 3 rubber bands, stiff ruler, a silicone sealant, a bathtub or pool

Preparation

The Propeller

This is one of those science fair experiments in which you will need the assistance of an adult.

  • Cut a soda bottle (2 liter) in half. Take the bottom for making a propeller with 5 curved separate blades.
  • Two holes are to be drilled in the propeller, in the centre and a little off-centre.
  • Cut a small plastic circle out of the remaining 2-litre soda bottle. Bore a hole at the centre of this circular piece of plastic and the submarine bottle cap.
  • The free end of a straightened paperclip should be passed through the cap of the bottle, the circular plastic and the centered propeller hole. The free end should be bent back and passed through the non-centered hole in such a way as to keep the cap, the plastic piece and the propeller in close contact with each other, but allow the propeller to rotate freely.

The Submarine

  • Drill two holes at the bottom of a 500 ml water bottle similar to the propeller holes.
  • Now feed the straightened end of a paperclip from the inside of the bottle through the central hole. Bend the free tip and pass it in the non-centered hole. Secure the paperclip in such a way that it will not turn. This part is very tricky, so use a chopstick.
  • Attach a rubber band between both the paperclip hooks. The rubber band must be tightly stretched between the hook at the bottle’s base and the hook on the cap.
  • Attach the ruler perpendicular to the water bottle body in the centre with the help of two rubber bands in the form of an “X”. The ruler is your stabilizing fin.
  • Now use a waterproof sealant to close all the paperclip holes in the bottle.

Your submarine is now ready.

Testing your Submarine

  • Fill three-quarters of the submarine bottle with water and put the cap on.
  • Turn the propeller to build potential energy in the rubber band. Science fair experiments require that you write down all your activities. So count the number of turns and write this number in your lab book. You must turn the propeller that many times in future.

Procedure

Now you will position the stabilizing fin in the front, center and the back in different ways and have some fun observing how your submarine moves. Record your observation each time. Use the below-mentioned ten positions.

  1. No fins-
  2. Middle: Fin Centered-
  3. Middle: Fin moved to the right –
  4. Middle: Fin moved to the left –
  5. Front: Fin Centered-
  6. Front: Fin moved to the right –
  7. Front: Fin moved to the left –
  8. Back: Fin Centered-
  9. Back: Fin moved to the right –
  10. Back: Fin moved to the left –

The observations will allow you to answer the following questions:

  • What would happen if there was no stabilizing fin?
  • What is the best position for the fin?
  • Why is a stabilizing fin important in a submarine?

If you’re ready to get started with your submarine experiment, your next step is to download a free copy of “Easy Steps to Award-Winning Science Fair Projects” from the link below right now.

Baby Shower Centerpieces That Double As a Gift!

Here you will learn how to make and where to purchase your baby shower centerpieces. As the centerpiece is the focal point of the baby shower, it is very important for you to design or purchase the right one.

You need to place them above eye level at the table to keep from blocking the view of the and the guest of honor from seeing each other at the table. There are many different types of centerpieces to choose from. One very popular type of centerpiece which doubles as your shower gift is a baby diaper cake.

Once you have picked your theme you need to keep it featured around that theme. If making your own baby shower centerpiece, many of the supplies needed will be available locally. However, going online will add to the variety of centerpieces you have to choose from.

Many centerpieces will be made with candles surrounding them. Such as floral centerpieces, using fresh or artificial flowers. Fresh flowers will be more economical if you choose flowers that are in season. When choosing artificial flowers, you can go with silk, chocolate flowers such as roses, plastic flowers, or light-up roses.

  • Use a wicker basket and fill it with baby items. You could put a cloth diaper, diaper pins, baby bottles, bibs, baby socks, pacifiers and other small baby items. Surround the basket with small candles or put a couple of helium balloons tied to the handle.
  • If using a beach theme, use a beach bucket and place a flower arrangement inside, with candles around the outside. Or put small tools for the beach inside the bucket.
  • Fill a small goldfish bowl with water and fill it with floating candles and flower buds. Or you might even add a goldfish to the water.
  • Use votive holders and candles that match your theme. They will provide a soft type of illumination to the event.
  • Go to a craft section or a craft store and purchase small pink and blue gemstones. You could place these in votive holders, or small glass vases of different sizes. Add shredded tissue to the mix and you will have another lovely baby shower centerpiece.
  • You could get different glass figurines of a stork, swan, castle, teddy bear, or whatever would fit with the theme. Put them in a box filled with colored shredded paper and put the figurine on top. Any of these would be a great addition to your baby shower.
  • Hang an umbrella from the ceiling filled with stuffed animals. Or you could put flowers inside and add balloons, dolls and/or ribbons.
  • Fill a bucket, bowl, or basket with candy, small stuffed animals, or flowers.
  • If the baby shower is in the fall or winter. Use small pumpkins, headstones, or leaves of different colors. Pumpkins could be made of tissue, or small figures of pumpkins.
  • Tropical Themes could use many different items to make your baby shower center piece. Pineapples, tiki lights, small palm trees, hula dancer center piece, or a flamingo.
  • Nautical themes could use small boats, ships, sailboats, anchors, or a treasure chest.
  • Spring themes could include items such as hearts, leprechauns, or bunnies.
  • Western themes could use straw, cowboy hats, cowboy boots, western badges and rope.

These are just some ideas to choose from. Think about them, mix and match, or add your own ideas to make centerpieces that perfectly match your theme. You and your guests and guest of honor will have a fun day. They will be getting away from reality for a short time to rest and enjoy themselves.

Energy Saving GLS Light Bulbs

The term GLS, when applied to lighting, literally means ‘General Lighting Service’; the name is usually applied to an incandescent bulb with a traditional bulb shape. However the growth in popularity of power saving bulbs has meant that there are a wide range of energy efficient equivalents available.

Replacing traditional incandescent bulbs in the home or business with energy efficient bulbs is one of the easiest ways to save energy, the environment and money. The cost of electricity bills can be reduced significantly, while also knowing that a difference is being made on a larger scale.

The GLS bulb is just one type of light bulb that is now available as an energy saving bulb or CFL, (Compact Fluorescent Lamp), Up until recent times CFLs were only available in a few shapes such as the spiral shaped bulb. However, these eco friendly bulbs in their recent form are a much better product than when they were first introduced.

Many different shapes now exist, with the GLS energy saver being very popular as it can act as a direct replacement for the traditional incandescent GLS. In most households this is a change that makes sense. Some say the newer energy saver bulbs look better and add more character to certain light fittings.

Whereas the first low energy bulbs to be introduced flickered when switched on and tended to be dull due to a low Lumen value, a vast improvement has been made.GLS Light Bulbs are now available in various sizes, wattages, lumens values, bases and colour temperatures. These variations make the modern energy efficient light bulb more versatile. For example, a cosy warm white bulb with a colour temperature of about 2700 Kelvins is an ideal choice for households, whereas a daylight white bulb (6500 Kelvins) better suits an office or larger business premises,

Most GLS bulbs are available with an ES and BC base, (Edison Screw or Bayonet Cap). They are usually available in 11 watt and 15 watt options, 15 watts low energy being equivalent to around 60 watts incandescent. The Lumens value is a highly important factor, with a higher Lumen value meaning a stronger light output.

Energy Saving GLS Light Bulbs are a popular power saving replacement in Europe. Most have an average lifespan of at least 8000 hours and can save 75% to 80% of energy used. Large financial savings can be made by the switch to energy saving bulbs.

The Three Greatest Barriers to Organizational Change

The need for rapid organizational change is a fact of life in today’s business environment. While there may be a few companies whose leaders are committed to a belief that it is good for everyone to “shake things up” from time to time, most organizational change is undertaken to accomplish key strategic goals. No matter how necessary change seems to upper management, many barriers must be broken down if a planned strategic change is to be implemented successfully. The key to successful change is in the planning and the implementation. The three greatest barriers to organizational change are most often the following.

1. Inadequate Culture-shift Planning. Most companies are good at planning changes in reporting structure, work area placement, job responsibilities, and administrative structure. Organizational charts are commonly revised again and again. Timelines are established, benchmarks are set, transition teams are appointed, etc. Failure to foresee and plan for resultant cultural change, however, is also common. When the planning team is too narrowly defined or too focused on objective analysis and critical thinking, it becomes too easy to lose sight of the fact that the planned change will affect people. Even at work, people make many decisions on the basis of feelings and intuition. When the feelings of employees are overlooked, the result is often deep resentment because some unrecognized taboo or tradition has not been duly respected.

2. Lack of Employee Involvement. People have an inherent fear of change. In most strategic organizational change, at least some employees will be asked to assume different responsibilities or focus on different aspects of their knowledge or skill. The greater the change a person is asked to make, the more pervasive that person’s fear will be. There will be fear of change. More important, however, there will be fear of failure in the new role. Involving employees as soon as possible in the change effort, letting them create as much of the change as is possible and practical is key to a successful change effort. As employees understand the reasons for the change and have an opportunity to “try the change on for size” they more readily accept and support the change.

3. Flawed Communication Strategies. Ideal communication strategies in situations of significant organizational change must attend to the message, the method of delivery, the timing, and the importance of information shared with various parts of the organization. Many leaders believe that if they tell people what they (the leaders) feel they need to know about the change, then everyone will be on board and ready to move forward. In reality, people need to understand why the change is being made, but more importantly, how the change is likely to affect them. A big picture announcement from the CEO does little to help people understand and accept change. People want to hear about change from their direct supervisor. A strategy of engaging direct supervision and allowing them to manage the communication process is the key to a successful change communication plan.

There are other barriers, to be sure, but the three outlined above are extremely common and highly likely to create havoc in the organization. By planning and dealing with these three areas thoroughly, carefully, and sensitively, people will be most likely to get on board and help implement the change and adapt to organizational change far more readily and supportively.

How to Remove System Security Virus Infection

System Security is a type of rogue security malware, or smitfraud. It is distributed via malicious websites, but also comes bundled with fake video codecs. Given the ubiquity of video content on the web these days, most PC users are used to installing all kinds of codecs needed to play clips or movies.

Unlike many other examples of rogue malware, system security virus is a well-crafted pest. It causes havoc on infected computers.

Here’s a list of symptoms.

1. Task Mananger, Command Prompt, Registry Editor get disabled. For many PC owners, these are the tools to be used in the first place. This particular malware disables many Windows modules.

2. Currently installed antivirus programs may fail to detect the infection, and are taken over by the virus. When it happens, antivirus software becomes useless; it cannot be started.

3. Desktop wallpaper is replaced by scary warnings.

4. Windows Security Center starts displaying fake warnings urging the user to download the cure.

5. System Security virus comes with a scanner to show fake results of present infections.

6. Almost all applications cannot be open showing the warnings “the file xyz is infected”. No installation of security programs is possible due to same very reason.

Here’s a short list of steps to remove system security virus in case of emergency (when you have no a tech person on call).

1. Open My Computer, go to C:Documents and SettingsAll UsersApplication Data and look for a folder with the numeric name (e.g. 11480154). Inside it, there should be two lonely files, one of them with the numeric filename same as the name of the folder. Delete both files and the folder.

2. Restart Windows.

3. Go to Start, Run, type in MSCONFIG and click OK to launch Microsoft Configuration Utility. Navigate to Startup tab and look for the entry with the numeric name. Uncheck the box near it.

4. If there are entries pointing to C:Program Files with “System Security” in the path, remove the checks from those boxes as well.

5. Right-click on My Computer. Go to System Restore. Check the box stating “Turn off System Restore”. Windows will warn you about restore points being deleted. Click OK and restart.

6. Now enable Windows System Restore (by removing the checkmark from the box in #5).

Finally, run a scan with your antivirus or antispyware software (which should be functioning by now) to remove system security entries.