Enclosed Versus Unenclosed Platform Wheelchair Lifts

Are you looking for a platform lift that can transport your wheelchair from one level of your home to another? Most of the specifications are straightforward – you already know how much room you have for a lift, how big the platform has to be, how much you can spend, and how much weight it needs to support. What about the issue of enclosed vs. unenclosed?

These two lift varieties rarely appear side by side on the showroom floor so they seem to fill different niches but they’re actually quite similar. This guide will explain a few of the strengths and weaknesses of each wheelchair lift variety.

Advantages and Applications of Unenclosed Lifts

Unenclosed lifts are an inexpensive, practical solution that allows access from one floor to another. The variety is incredible, ranging from light and uncomplicated to strong enough to carry a mobility scooter or heavy electric wheelchair. Unenclosed lifts are used both indoors and out – the outdoor models are moderately weatherproof and work just fine in mild weather. Snowy climates are not the best for these lifts.

Unenclosed lifts do better for interiors though. They feel more spacious than enclosed lifts, so you can opt for a smaller model that takes up less floor space without feeling cramped or closed-in.

The Varieties and Benefits of Enclosed Lifts

Generally, any lifts that span more than two floors will have an enclosed construction not for safety or aesthetic reasons, but because the lift itself will require a little more structural support. Some applications require a wheelchair lift that operates more like a residential elevator, installed wherever two or more closets line up. Hiring contractors to install a shaft is prohibitively expensive but will give your lift extra durability and length of life.

An enclosed lift can go anywhere and span as many floors as needed. Of course, we suggest the lighter unenclosed models if you don’t need much power or versatility.

If you’re looking for the type of lift that secures directly to the stairs or wall, and travels on a track, you are looking for an “inclined” platform lift. Different companies use different terminology but it helps to keep the terms straight when you’re looking for a platform lift.

The shopping process is a lot easier once you start narrowing down the selection and choosing between enclosed and unenclosed is a great place to start. Once you know what you want, the lift manufacturers and retailers can provide all the information and guidance you’ll need.

How to Make Rubber Stamps: Comparing Methods of Manufacture

Vulcanized Rubber Stamps

The traditional red rubber stamp that everybody is familiar with will have been manufactured in a vulcanizing press. The first rubber stamp vulcanizing press was patented in 1890 by Charles Schultze in New Orleans USA. Vulcanizing is today one of the most cost effective methods of making rubber stamps for mass produced stamps. Each batch of stamps is produced using a mould. This method of manufacture is more suited to stamp making where the same moulds are used over and over again. Making custom made stamps with a vulcanizing press requiring ‘once only’ moulds will drive the cost of manufacture up significantly.

Making the mould – before a mould can be made you must have a master plate manufactured from metal or polymer, the master plate has the necessary relief (the artwork is raised) to make an impression in the mould. Having a master plate made each time a mould is required is what drives up the cost of manufacture for vulcanized stamps. Pressing the master plate into a Matrix board creates the mould that will accept the rubber. Heat and pressure is applied to the master plate and matrix board inside a Vulcanizing press. The Matrix follows the shape of the relief provided by the master plate, this then hardens on cooling.

Making Rubber Stamps – Creating stamps is a simple process once the mould is made. Raw rubber stamp gum is placed on top of the mould and then placed inside the stamp press. Hydraulic pressure is placed upon the rubber and the mould from within the stamp press causing the rubber to melt into the areas of the mould that contain the images and text, curing and hardening takes about 10 minutes. Once cured the sheet of rubber is pulled away from the mould and cut up into individual stamps to be affixed to mounts.

Cost of a vulcanizing system is approximately $12,000 AUD

Advantages – Low cost of production for mass produced stamps, good ink transfer.

Disadvantages – Cost of producing master plates and moulds for custom made stamps.

Laser Engraved Rubber Stamps

The traditional raw rubber used for vulcanizing stamp dies is quite unacceptable for the production of laser stamp dies, the laser process requires a very even thickness and blemish free surface to produce an acceptable printed image from a stamp die. The rubber must also be subjected to a specific curing process before it can be exposed to the elevated temperature of a laser beam.

The depth of the engraving is determined by the laser speed, its wattage and the density of the rubber. For example, a 50 or 100W engraver will engrave the rubber deeper and faster than a 25W machine, which may require a second pass to achieve a similar result. Usually supplied in an A4 size sheet form, a good quality laser rubber is required for engraving stamp dies and must also have suitable compression strength and ink transfer properties.

To assist the engraving process, it is necessary to remove the excess dust which is constantly created by the laser cutting action with an efficient exhaust filtration system. As very few, if any, CO2 laser engraving machines were initially purpose built for engraving and cutting rubber, installing and maintaining an effective dust extraction system pays long term dividends. Mirrors, lenses and any exposed bearing surfaces should be cleaned thoroughly as part of a regular maintenance program. Any neglect in this area will be detrimental to overall trouble free laser operation, as the build up of dust and residue will affect running efficiency and the quality of the finished stamp die. Lasers are controlled directly from a computer, the software drivers supplied with lasers work with many graphic programs such as CorelDraw.

Approximate cost of a 25 watt Laser suitable for stamp making is $40,000

Advantages – Production is computer controlled, custom made stamps can be made easily

Disadvantages – High capital investment, maintenance costs and running will be much higher than vulcanizing or polymer methods of manufacture.

Liquid Polymer Rubber Stamps

Converting rubber stamp polymer from a liquid into a solid to make stamps is quite fascinating. Polymer stamps are manufactured between two sheets of glass using precision controlled UV light which passes through a negative containing the stamp artwork solidifying the polymer. Negative production has been simplified with the introduction of water based negative technology, photographic chemicals for producing negatives are now a thing of the past.

The first step in making polymer rubber stamps is to print your images, clipart or text onto Vellum, an almost transparent paper like film.

To produce quality stamp artwork you must use a laser printer, inks from bubble jet printers are translucent allowing UV light to pass where it should not. Water based negatives are easily washed out after being exposed for a few minutes in a UV exposure stamp machine.

Polymer contained in a sachet is now replacing the older cumbersome method of using foam tape to create a dam and pouring of rubber stamp polymers, the sachets have also addressed the age old problem of removing air bubbles from the poured polymer.

The negative of your artwork and polymer sachet is sandwiched between two sheets of glass spaced 2-3mm apart which is then exposed in the machine for a few minutes. Once you have completed the exposure it is a simple process of cutting open the sachet and washing away the excess unexposed polymer before returning the stamp die back to the machine for a 10 minute curing. Once the stamps are cured they can be cut up individually. Polymer sachets are available in a range of sizes up to A4 size.

Processing time is about 30 minutes for a batch of polymer stamps.

Cost of polymer stamp making machines range from $3,500 AUD for an Australian made unit designed specifically for stamp making up to high end imported units with computer controlled washout for $15,000 AUD.

Advantages – Lower capital investment, polymers make almost clear stamps making them ideal for scrapbooking and card making. Stamp relief can be easily controlled during exposure.

Disadvantages – Early polymers did not accept inks as well as polymers available today, this along with being new technology caused initial resistance to polymer stamps.


Most large stamp manufacturers have a mix of the above equipment. The unmounted rubber stamp dies produced with any of these manufacturing methods can be cut up and affixed to simple hand stamps, dater stamps or self inking stamps. Craft stamps are usually affixed to wooden blocks or in the case of polymer stamps affixed to clear acrylic blocks with adhesives or InstaGrip mounting mat. Various manufactures produces stamp mounts. Astron Industries in Australia manufacturer the clear hand stamp ‘Vuestamp’ and also distribute the Ideal range of self inking mounts. Other brands of self inking mounts are Trodat, Colop and Shiny.

Kamado BBQ Smoker Lies

Over Christmas I bought a Big Green Egg. I read all the marketing blurb in the brochure and it captured my imagination, I’ve already written about how good it is and published some kamado barbecue recipes but I was still intrigued to find out more about the origins of such a versatile piece of cooking equipment. I wrote an article about it but since publishing it, I’ve done more research and found that some of my original findings may have already been creative in their origins.

My preliminary research on the internet determined that it’s origins lay in clay cooking pots from China that were later adapted by the Japanese a few hundred years ago. The end result was the Mushikamado and looking at photographs on the internet it’s pretty clear that this part of the story is clear cut.

Where things become a little less clear is in the 1960’s when the kamado as we know it today arrived in the USA. There’s a lot of published work that refers back to Richard Johnson, a man who founded the Kamado company that it was he who brought the kamado to the USA and also it was he that first called it a kamado and patented the name. Further research leads me to believe that some of these points are not true.

The first point is that kamado is in fact a real Japanese word and not one made up by Johnson. The word kamado actually is part of the Japanese language and means stove, and to further the point there are also many derivations of the word in the Japanese language:-

Yukikamado – A pot with a stove attached that could be carried around

Tsukikamado – Another word for the stove, constructed with stones, tiles, and clay.

Magatamagata kamado – A large range with polished black tops, a base, and a stoke hole in a curved or horseshoe plan with as many as eleven cooking holes.

Ishikamado – a steel rice cooker that is inserted into a stone frame.

Niwakamado – A temporary cooking range set up in the earth floored area of houses from the first to the third of January as part of the New Year festivities.

Kamadodono – A building with a hearth or cooking stove.

Koujinsan-no-kamado – In some districts, such as Saga prefecture, a large cooking range mainly used for special occasions.

Kamado matsuri – Cooker and Well Festival

Mushikamado – rice cooker

The second claim made by Johnson is that he trademarked the word kamado, but careful investigation at the US patents and trademarks office has proved this claim to be untrue as well.

So who should we believe and do we really care? Looking around at how many businesses use the word kamado and the evidence above about how well utilized the word is in the Japanese language it would appear that some of the claims made by Richard Johnson may well be considered good marketing rather than a statement of fact. Having said that, I’m thoroughly enjoying cooking on my kamado all year round, I’m excited about the results that I get when using it either as a barbecue grill or a meat smoker and all the smoker grill recipes I use are contributing to the factual proliferation of the internet.

What Benefits Can a Range Hood Bring to a Kitchen?

Many people nowadays are considering investing in a range hood – whether an aluminium one or a stylish copper hood – as a design element in their kitchen area; these features can look stunning and really add to the ambience and feel of a kitchen space. With many different designs available too, it is easier than ever to find a perfect match for your interior decor.

There are several other key advantages, however, to having an aluminium or copper hood in your kitchen, extending well beyond just style. Here are some of the benefits that a range hood can bring to your kitchen space that you may never have even considered.

The first benefit of having a copper hood in your kitchen is that it drastically improves air quality. This may seem like an obvious point – after all, many people invest in these items as they are a way of ventilating a space that would otherwise be hard to do. Grease, smoke and steam are all extracted by a range hood, meaning the environment gets less saturated with pollutants.

The extent of this benefit, however, is often underestimated – all the by-products of cooking mentioned above can actually have a detriment to human health. Hot grease inhaled and on the skin is unpleasant at the very least, causing nasty burns in a worst case scenario. Steam and smoke can also case major eye, nose and throat irritation as well as lung damage.

It is also worth mentioning that your aluminium or copper hood also rids the area of carbon monoxide. This noxious gas in very present in kitchen areas, with serious health consequences for people who are exposed to a high level of it in the short and long term.

A range hood will also protect the user of the cooker from excess heat. As any amateur chef knows, it can often get very steamy in the kitchen, especially when preparing a meal for a large dinner party for family or friends. An aluminium or copper hood can provide a great deal of relief when preparing food, sucking the excess heat out of the kitchen and therefore giving you fresher air to breathe.

In this way, a copper hood cannot only be a health benefit, but improve comfort in the kitchen. This is especially true in an area that is not exceptionally well ventilated with windows or doors to provide a refreshing through draught. Those with smaller kitchen spaces would therefore be well off considering investing a range hood for this very reason.

In addition to making working the kitchen a lot more pleasant and making the environment safer to work in, a range hood also has the added benefit of making for a cleaner space. As mentioned previously, grease and other pollutants can make your cooking environment grimy, so proper ventilation provided by a copper hood can minimize how much cleaning you have to do.

It is also worth noting that many ranges themselves are actually very simple and easy to clean. A copper hood is an excellent choice as these are naturally anti-bacterial and often coated in a protective lacquer, making not only for a healthier environment, but also minimizing the amount of deep cleaning you have to undertake to rid your kitchen of mold and bacteria.

A range hood also provides additional lighting, which can make your kitchen a great deal more practical to cook and clean in. A steel or copper hood can light your space in all the right places, so you can work more precisely, avoiding investing in costly separate light fittings.

Finally, a copper hood or other type of range hood can improve your home resale value. As well as making for a considerably cleaner, healthier and safer environment, a hood also adds style to a kitchen – all of these are factors that real estate agents look at when valuing a property, and can make or break a sale with potential buyers.

There are many advantages to investing in a range hood in your kitchen, from health benefits to monetary ones. Whatever type of hood you opt for – a copper hood or a steel or aluminium one – you can rest assured that you will definitely get a return on investment in terms of enjoyment, comfort and practicality.

Printing With Thermal Printers in Cold Weather

Thermal printers are types of printers that print using carefully controlled heat generated by the print head. There are two types of thermal printers. Direct thermal and thermal transfer printers. Direct thermal printers, as their name implies prints directly on to the media. The media has a chemical coating that changes color with the heat of the print head. Thermal transfer printers use a ribbon that makes contact with the print head and the media. To create an image the heat from the print head is “Transferred” through the ribbon melting the ink in the pattern generated by the printer. The ribbon usually consists of a plastic lining that is coated ink on one side. Thermal transfer ribbons can come coated inside, or coated outside depending on the make and model of the printer the ribbon is used with. The ink is usually made of a wax and/ or resin. Wax ribbons are good for printing on natural paper media. Resin blended ribbons are usually reserved for printing on synthetic media that is very smooth. The higher the resin content the more smudge resistant the printed media will be. Since both of these printers rely on precise temperatures to create an image, both print technologies are affected by very cold conditions.

Direct thermal printers have an advantage when it comes to printing in cold conditions. Since the print head makes contact directly with the media, it can tolerate temperatures a little colder than thermal transfer printers can. Direct thermal printers can work in temperatures in the low 40 degrees Fahrenheit. In contrast, thermal transfer printers may have print quality problems below the mid 40 degrees Fahrenheit temperature range. Most thermal printers will give a low head temperature warning. If the temperatures are not below freezing levels, the printer will warm up at it starts printing. If the temperatures are below freezing levels a space heater or portable warming lamp can be placed to face the direction of the thermal printer. You do not want to put a heater too close to the printer or turn the heat too high because metal parts could concentrate the heat and do more harm than good. A distance of 4 to 6 feet away should suffice. In addition, a target temperature in the 50-60 degrees Fahrenheit would be good for cold weather days. Just warm enough is better than too warm. If the printer is being used in an environment that is refrigerated, a box can be obtained or created to maintain an environment for the printer separate from the outside refrigerated environment.

If thermal printer print quality is important in cold conditions, make sure to keep it in its normal operating temperature range.

Throwing a Shipwrecked Island Party Makes The Most of Summer’s End

Rather than being sad when the end of summer rolls around, I say, it’s party time! Instead of feeling like your boat has run aground by the end of summer, why not throw a summer’s end soirée that’s fun for the whole family…maybe even the whole neighborhood!

If the thought of throwing a party is akin to walking the plank and jumping into the dark abyss, then think of me as your life preserver! I’ll take you through the process of putting a party together using my simple formula for creating memorable events. When we’re done organizing the details of your summer party into six easy-to-remember elements, you’ll be sailing smoothly into an experience that your guests will treasure for many summers to come. Ahoy matey!

Element #1 – Theme, Mood, & Color: Carry Out Your Theme in Everything You Do

Every great party starts with a great theme! For your summer’s end soirée throw a Shipwrecked Island Party! What is s a shipwrecked island party? Well, it’s a not an island luau, although a luau-style feast could certainly be a part of the festivities. It’s not a pirate party, although a few pirates in attendance might add a bit of fun, and it’s not a beachcomber party, although you’ll want plenty of sand and seashells in your décor. Think of a deserted island inhabited by a group of tattered castaways hoping for rescue and you’ll get the picture.

When creating the theme for this party, I found it helpful to use my “imagination board” to perform a “brainstorming” exercise. An imagination board is a large dry erase board that affords you plenty of room to write and allows a free flow of ideas. To begin with, I wrote my theme name, “Shipwrecked Island,” in the center of the board and then around it wrote down everything that came to mind such as boat, sails, treasure, stranded, beach, shells, trunks, chests, mosquito nets, fishing nets, palm trees, flowers, coconuts, fish, and crabs. Then, to help get my creative juices flowing, I thought about all the great movies, TV shows, and music that had to do with shipwrecks, islands and castaways, like “Titanic,” “Lost,” “Swiss Family Robinson,” “Castaway,” “Survivor,” the “Gilligan’s Island” theme song, and tunes by Jimmy Buffet and Bob Marley. I used these ideas as inspiration for my invitations, decorations, menu and signature drink, activities, and special touches.

Element #2 – Invitations: Make Them Inviting

If you were on a deserted island somewhere and needed help, something you might do is write a message in a bottle and cast it out to sea in hope that someone would get your SOS. This is both a fun and easy idea because there are many places you can find message-in-a-bottle type invitation kits both online and in brick and mortar craft stores, or you can make your own using real glass bottles.

Most craft kits include paper, but if you don’t like the paper choice, you can opt for your own. Start your invitations with a great opening line that ties into your theme. Something like: “Come Get Stranded for a While” (taken from my brainstorming exercise). This opening line sets the tone for the party and let’s people know they’re in for some fun. Be sure to include the who, what, where, when, and why details. Encourage guests to wear tattered clothes, their castaway best, to add a fun and casual feeling to the party and another layer of authenticity. Add interest to the inside of the bottle by including some sand and a few tiny seashells. Finish the invitation off with a twine embellishment simply wrapped around the neck of the bottle, adhere your mailing label over the ends of the twine and your done! You’ve created a fun invitation that will make people want to come and get lost for a while!

Element #3 – Decor & Ambiance: Set and Setting Are Everything

The trick to decorating for my summer’s end Shipwrecked Island Party was keeping in mind that it was all about creating illusion. My house was the ship and the yard the island. To board the ship, guests had to walk the plank which was surrounded by an interesting display of washed up treasures including a small antique chair, some sand to give the illusion of the shore, an old hand mirror, jewelry, tarnished pewter candleholders, and other items that looked water damaged and time worn.

To enhance the island feel, around the perimeter of the outdoor party space I placed a vinyl “Scene Setter” of the sun setting brilliantly over the ocean titled “Sunset Beach” (available online from Party City). A few potted palm trees, dried palm fronds, and lush bouquets of tropical flowers completed the look I was after.

However you go about creating your summer’s end theme, there are two things to keep in mind to maintain the authenticity of your party: (1) Remember if you were on a deserted island, you would be surrounded by water; and (2) When selecting decorations, choose items that are found in nature, things you might actually find on a deserted island, like palm fronds, shells, leafs, driftwood, and tropical flowers, and use natural colors and fibers such as brown raffia, twine, and brown rope.

Element #4 – Food & Beverage: Never Stress About Food and Drinks

The menu for my summer’s end Shipwrecked Island Party included a signature cocktail I created called “Blue Lagoon.” Made with blue Curacao, a liqueur flavored with the dried peel of the laraha citrus fruit grown on the island of Curacao, this delicious drink, with its lovely deep blue color and served in a large clam shell punch bowl, is reminiscent of a tropical lagoon. If you’ve taken the time to prepare a great cocktail, the best way to do it justice is to serve it in an appropriate glass. Using the right glass for the right drink can accentuate the smell, texture, and flavor of the beverage. So for my signature Blue Lagoon cocktail, I chose coconut cups, although another fun idea would be to use mixed-matched glasses, mugs, and cups that have seemingly washed ashore after a shipwreck. Both are reusable, environmentally friendly options over plastic or paper cups.

Which brings me to serving pieces — to create a clever and unique buffet table for this shipwreck party, use mix-matched serving pieces that again, have seemingly washed ashore or that you would find in nature, such as palm fronds, tropical leaves, bamboo mats, driftwood, and shells. Luau fringed place mats are fun, as are beachcomber hats, which also make great serving bowls when turned upside down. Additional table décor might include an eclectic mix of clear-glass bottles wrapped with twine and filled with seashells and flowers.

Element #5 – Activities: Engage Your Guests in An Activity

“Ahoy Matey! This is the spirit of Captain Blue Beard of the once dreaded pirate ship the Marine Pearl. If you are reading this [ARGH] it means you’ve found me treasure maps! So, make two teams and give a map to each. If you wants to find me gold, you gotta first find me clues. The maps will show you the way. When all the clues are found, join teams to unscramble the words. This shall point the way to me treasure chest and your reward!”

A treasure hunt can be great fun at a party yet challenging to pull off. I’ll break it down, however, into seven easy peezy steps using the treasure hunt created specifically for this Shipwrecked Island Party Plan.

For this activity, you’ll need: – 2 blank treasure maps – A Sharpie pen – Gold coins – A treasure chest with booty or treasure – 2 pieces of note paper – Twine to tie up the scrolled maps.

Step 1 – The maps. Start with a blank map (which can be bought online). Customize it to reflect the key areas of your party space where the treasure hunt will take place. Make a copy so that you have two identical maps, one for each team.

Step 2 – Decide where to hide the treasure chest and make up a clue that describes the location. I hid my treasure chest in a back corner of my yard so my clue read: “Between two gates on the Southwest shore.”

Step 3 – Using a Sharpie pen, write your clue using letters, combinations of letters, and words on 16 gold coins, so that there are 8 clues/coins per team.

Step 4 – Separate the coins into two piles. While hiding one set of coins, mark one of the maps with each location of the hidden clues. Repeat the process with the other map and set of coins using another part of the party area.

Step 5 – Roll up the maps and tie them with twine.

Step 6 – Type the above note from Captain Blue Beard and attach it to the maps so that everyone knows the rules of the game. If you’re working with small children, it’s a good idea to have at least one older child on each team who can read and help the others understand.

Step 7 – Hide the booty-filled treasure chest.

For a variation, put a lock on the treasure chest and ask your guests to do something fun or silly to win the key to open it. Done right, this treasure hunt can be fun for adults too. Think of all the creative things you could put inside the chest. I’ll leave that to your imagination.

Element #6 – Special Touches: Set Your Party Apart, Give Them Something From the Heart

Get your guests in the mood for your summer’s end Shipwrecked Island Party with a favor to enhance their experience during the party itself. Upon arrival, give each of the adult men a lei made of tropical fern leaves, orchids, or seashells; the women, flower hair clips. Give the children something extra special. Fill goody bags with a pirate hat, an eye patch, a hoop earring, a telescope, chocolate gold coins, and a few other fun costume pieces that will transform them into pirates. Outfitting the kids as pirates ties in beautifully with the treasure hunt they’ll be doing later as an activity. To enhance their pirate experience, create a Pirate’s Cove or a place where they can congregate and play during the party.

A clever and simple way to tie in a birthday element is to have your young buccaneers sing Happy Birthday to the birthday guest of honor in exchange for the key to the treasure chest at the end of the Treasure Hunt.

Tips to Create an Effective Social Media Marketing Plan

Social media has become one of the most important platforms to engage with current customers and reach new customers. Having a social media account for your business is essential. Creating a marketing plan to reach your business goals can be challenging. Here are some steps to create an effective social media Marketing Plan.

1. Set a Goal

• What do you plan to accomplish

• Quantify your goal. Example: Engage a 15% more a month with current Instagram followers.

• Be clear with what you want to accomplish. No more than 2 sentences.

• Be realistic. Don’t set goals that you know are way to hard to reach.

• Have a set budget of money you are willing to invest.

2. Set Objectives

• Here you are going to be more specific and explain more detailed what your goals are.

• Quantify your objectives. Always talk numbers. Example: Growth of 10 followers per day.

• Each objective is one short sentence. DON’T WRITE A PARAGRAPH!

• Use bullet points for each objective.

3. Know your audience

• Who is your primary Audience?

• Who is your secondary Audience?

• Who is your target market?

• What social media platforms do your target audience engages with the most.

4. Strategies and Tactics

• Write down every objective

• Describe how are you going to accomplish each objective

• Use bullet points to explain the strategies and tactics that you are willing to use.

• Be detailed.

• Estimate how much money you need to accomplish those goals.

Your marketing plan should not be longer than one page. After you have created a plan, now you are going to create a calendar or checklist to monitor your posts, and write down the stats and results of your progress. One good free website to get information of social media stats is fanpagekarma.com. Other helpful paid measuring tools are Hootsuite, Sprout Social, Buffer, and Simply Measured.

What should my social media calendar have?

1. Create different columns

• Date

• Social Media platform (Twitter, Facebook, Instagram)

• Post/Content

• Engagement (%)

2. Create a whole month in advance.

• Set the pictures you are going to use.

• What are you going to write each day?

• Use inspirational quotes or fun facts.

• Give out incentive prizes to engage with your audience.

• Schedule your posts using Hootsuite or other similar helpful tools.

3. Results

• At the end of each month write the results.

• Where you started and where you finished.

• Page growth (%)

• Engagement (%)

Analyze your data and your posts. See what worked best for you and what did not work. Keep doing what worked for you, and find a way to modify what did not work to make your social media marketing effective.

Historic Real Estate: Revival of the Curtis-Foster House

Neighbors cheer as award-winning preservationists help restore the black sheep of the block to its original beauty. Over the past several decades, the historic Curtis-Foster House, located on North 6th Street in Wilmington North Carolina, has fallen into significant disrepair and turned into an eyesore on a street of historical homes. This came to a halt in late 2005 when Osprey Holdings LLC bought the property, ending its tenure as an unauthorized, low-rent boarding house and began to restore the property to its original grandeur.

110 North 6th Street, named the Curtis-Foster House after its original owners, was built circa 1865 for George Curtis and his wife, Melvina Ann Medley. The couple married on November 23 1849 and had three children, one of whom, Katie, died from measles age six February 2, 1869. Curtis died a year later, leaving his wife to care for the home until 1881 when she leased the property to Gertrude Foster for five dollars a month (in today’s market, a house of this type could rent for over $1000 a month!).

Tim O’Callaghan of Osprey Holdings LLC began work on the 5000 square foot home last summer. His first step was to take a sledge hammer to the walls in search of asbestos, a hazardous material used for insulation up until the 1980s. To his relief, O’Callaghan found only cedar lap siding, a sign of solid construction.

Patching and coating the original tin roof with Hydro Stop to prevent leaks was next, followed by restoring the windows. To re-tie, re-weight, scrape, clean, and prime just one window is a full-day project. Still on the list: refinishing the original hardwood floors and cherry banister.

“The most exciting step is restoring the floors,” said O’Callaghan. “The entire room will reflect off them.”

Though not yet complete, renovation of the Curtis-Foster House has already had an impact on neighbors’ comfort and the salability of the area. Since March 2006, four homes on the block sold for an average of $197 per square foot, a huge increase in activity and value since the years before. The Curtis-Foster house will join the selection of Wilmington historic homes for sale in the late spring.

How to Put an Army IRR Packet Together

Packet requirements, what you need to include in your IRR packet:

1. IRR packet checklist, based on Figure B-59 of USAR Pamphlet 600-5.

2. DA Form 4561, Request for Reserve Component Assignment or Attachment. Completely filled and signed by the Soldier and the Commander.

3. Your statement/justification letter and backing documentation. This is based on the reasons listed in AR 140-10.

4. Chain of Command Recommendation.

5. Cogent Personal Reason. If the specific reason isn’t listed in AR 140-10, it requires an exception to policy by your OFTS.

6. Counseling Statement (DA Form 4856). This is from the commander to the Soldier and is face to face. Are you in receipt of a bonus? This counseling statement must warn you about bonus termination or recoupment.

7. Counseling Statement (DA Form 4856). From the Soldier’s servicing career counselor to the Soldier; it’s also face to face.

Valid reasons for transferring from the Troop Program Unit (TPU) to the Individual Ready Reserves (IRR):

As a TPU Soldier, you can forward an IRR transfer packet up the chain of command. There’s no guarantee for that packet’s approval, or for your transfer to the IRR.

If you want to improve your TPU to IRR transfer chances, refer to the valid reasons listed in AR 140 -10, Chapter 4, Paragraph 9. If you have enough documentations, and facts, to support one or more of these reasons, include them in your IRR packet. This’ll help you make your case for transferring to the IRR.

Employment Conflict:

Let’s say that your employer all of a sudden can’t release you from the work schedule so that you can drill… as your absence would cause an adverse impact on your employer’s operation. Before, this wasn’t an issue. Your employer released you for a weekend, and was able to continue his operation. When they couldn’t release you, you were able to reschedule.

Now? Your employer needs you, on the days you need to drill, in order for the company to continue on with its mission. Conditions had changed since you started working with this employer.

Or, you’re in a company that restructures and eliminates your job. They move you to another part of the company. In this new job, you’re on call to go to different parts of the country, and your schedule is random. You’re not able to do rescheduled training. Your employer can’t spare you for any reserve drill without negatively impacting company operations.

These are just two examples, of which there are many, on how your employment could evolve into something that makes it hard for you to meet TPU requirements.

In your Soldier’s Statement of Justification letter, provide an objective picture of how your employment schedule makes it impractical for you to continue with the TPU. Include statements from your employer to back this justification.

Change of address:

You accept a new job within your company. It’ll pay you more, it’s something that you love doing, and it represents a move up in your civilian career. The catch? You have to go somewhere that’s two days away from the nearest Army Reserve center. Your employer isn’t able to spare you enough time to get to, and return from, the nearest Army Reserve unit.

In this scenario, you’re a TPU Soldier that can’t drill with any Army Reserve unit.

Or, you get a promotion that sends you overseas. Your job location is a long flight away from the nearest Army Reserve Center.

For something like this, you’d be able to submit a packet to transfer to the IRR. In your statement of soldier justification, include employment orders, employment promotion documentations, new job description, an objective picture that details your new job location, your new residence, etc.

Cogent personal reasons:

This is sort of a “catch all” to cover other reasons not specifically covered in AR 140-10.

What you think is a very good reason to transfer may not be what the Army thinks it is. You also have to see this from your unit’s perspective.

You’re asking them to release you, when they need you at the unit during drills and summer training. They don’t have a guarantee that they’ll get a replacement Soldier. You have to convince them to “sign off” on your IRR packet.

Let’s say that you’re “burned out” from doing drills. You just want to “sit around” in the IRR until the “burnt out” phase ends. In your unit’s eyes, this is a subjective reason. They could work with you to where you wouldn’t need to submit an IRR transfer packet.

In this example, your soldier justification letter needs to provide an accurate, objective, picture of how your Army reserve duties contribute to you being burned out. You’ll need letters from your medical professionals to help bolster your justifications.

Whatever the personal reason that you choose, make sure that you could provide an objective picture. Make sure that you could provide factual information from subject matter experts involved with your situation.

You also want to prove that there’s no other way to “solve” your current issue other than to transfer to the IRR. Before you do this, you have to exhaust the means to resolve this with resources that your unit could reference you to.

You completed the TPU portion of your contract, now you’re ready to transfer to the IRR:

As of this writing, everybody that joins the military, for the first time, signed an eight year contract. When a first time enlister signs a 6 year Army Reserve contract, they’re not just signing up for 6 years. When those 6 years are over, that Soldier has an additional 2 years of commitment. They can request transfer to the IRR after their TPU commitment.

This concept applies even if the TPU part of the contract was 3, 4, or 5 years.

Once the TPU portion of the contract is over, they can request transfer to the IRR. They have to continue drilling with the unit until they receive their IRR orders.

Surviving son or daughter:

You’re in the reserves, and pursuing your civilian career. Two years later, your last remaining sibling passes on. You’re now your parents’ only surviving child. This is an unfortunate event, but one that gives you an opportunity to transfer from the TPU to the IRR.

When you write your Soldier justification letter, include documentation proving that you’re now the last/sole surviving child for your parents.

Dependency or hardship makes it impractical to participate in TPU:

Let’s say your family situation changes, and you have to provide extra care and supports to one of your family members. This family member is someone on your dependents list. You don’t have an alternative care plan… nobody else could afford to give up a lot of their time, and sacrifice their employment, to help you out.

This dependent family member needs your presence. Without you, this family member’s welfare is negatively impacted.

Two examples of this category is an “assisted living” situation and a “direct support provider” situation. In these scenarios, a family member is unable to care for him or herself. The family member requires a soldier’s attention, supervision, and direct support to do basic functions.

Statements from doctors, social workers, case managers, and other related people should be included in this packet. Their statement should focus on the nature of the dependency hardship, and on the need for you to be consistently available.


If you’re pregnant, you may be able to transfer to the IRR. You have to be MOS qualified, and you can’t be within 3 months of your ETS.

Non selection for retention:

This impacts TPU Soldiers that have received their “official notification of eligibility to retire with pay at 60” letter. This is the “20 year letter.” By regulation, these Soldiers are subjected to a Qualitative Retention Board.

Prior to this board’s convening, the impacted Soldier receives a “pre board” packet. The Soldier is given a couple of options. If the board removes the Soldier from the TPU, which control group would the Soldier like to transfer to?

The Soldier could elect to be transferred to the retired reserves, or to the IRR. Should the qualitative review board decide to remove the Soldier from the TPU, orders will be generated transferring the Soldier to the control group that the Soldier selected.

This is also applicable to TPU Soldiers subjected to the actions of other types of retention boards. In this situation, a Soldier may have the option to transfer to the IRR.

Enrollment into a non-scholarship ROTC:

A “non-scholarship” ROTC program is one that offers the student a chance to participate in an ROTC program without financial benefits. These students don’t get a monthly stipend. These students pay for their own tuition, fees, and other expenses.

Soldiers that get accepted into this type of ROTC program can submit an IRR packet.

Merchant Marine Academy:

If you get accepted into the Merchant Marine Academy, you can submit an IRR transfer packet.

Army Regulation 140-10:

For details on each of these categories, and how to apply under them, read Army regulation 140 -10, Assignments, Attachments, Details, and Transfers.

Counseling statements from the commanding officer and servicing career counselor:

Did you get a bonus for enlisting into your current TPU contract? If your IRR transfer gets approved, you could lose the remainder of your bonus. Depending on your bonus stipulation, you could end up having to pay back the part of your bonus that you received.

If you’re receiving a bonus, you need to be informed of this fact when you submit your IRR packet.

This counseling statement should also inform you of your IRR responsibilities. The commanding officer will include any information that’s important to you. This includes the fact that you must continue to drill with the unit until you receive transfer orders to the IRR.

The career counselor will inform you of opportunities that are available to you in the IRR, including opportunities to reclassify and transfer back to the TPU when personal conditions favor such a move.

IRR transfer packet tips:

1. Are you on your initial contract, with IRR time following your TPU time? By regulation, you’re not supposed to submit your IRR packet until your TPU obligation is complete. You can submit your IRR transfer packet the day after your “TPU ETS” date.

2. After you submit your IRR packet, you have to drill with your unit until you receive orders transferring you to the IRR.

Don’t simply go by what somebody at your unit says. Some Soldiers have stopped drilling after they “completed” their “TPU years,” because they thought they were automatically in the IRR. This wasn’t true, they had to report back to drill.

3. Follow up on your packet. If HRC doesn’t get your packet, they might extend your TPU status to the end of your military service obligation. In this case, you’ll have to drill until your 8 years is up.

4. If you have unresolved medical issues, you have to have these issues resolved before you can transfer to the IRR.

5. IRR Soldiers still have obligations and point requirements to make. However, you could consider the active standby reserves instead of the IRR if you want to “get away” from the TPU temporarily.

In the IRR, you have to get at least 50 points a retirement year.

In the active standby reserves, there’s no requirement for you to get at least 50 points. You maintain your military affiliation, but you’re generally not required to maintain a good year. The active standby reserves is what most people assume the IRR is.

Additional References:

1. AR 140-10; provides details on the above categories as justification for IRR transfer.

2. AR G1 Policy Letters.

3. USAR Pamphlet 600-5.

Different Types Of Ancient Greek Helmets

Ancient Greek war helmets are some of the most recognizable in the historic war machines. The term “Greek helmets” is quite broad. There is really no one helmet that signifies the Greek culture. Trojan helmets, Spartan helmets, and Corinthian helmets are all under the heading of Greek helmets. In the following paragraphs, you will learn a little bit about each.Some of the most popular helmets for collectors and reenactments are the Trojan war helmet.

There are several different designs that are sold in stores, but they are very similar. The biggest difference between them is the color of the helmet and plume itself. For example, you’ll find Trojan helmets in silver, black, brass, and bronze. In fact, one even comes in a war paint camouflage color. The plumes will come in a variety of orange, red, and black.

If you are looking for the most historical Trojan helmet, the black and bronze were the most common in ancient days. That in combination with a black or red plume will finish up your costume nicely.Spartan helmets are also a very popular sort of helmet. Recently made famous in the movie “300”, these helmets come in two basic designs. The first is a plain silver (made of iron and steel) helmet in a basic design. No plume is attached. This was worn by the common Spartan foot soldiers who did the brunt of the fighting.

Some of the elite soldiers or leaders of the Spartans wore a helmet with a red plume. This helmet retained the same design as the foot soldier helmet except that it had a large plume with a tail end. This was to increase the apparent height of the soldier and add to the intimidation factor.Corinthian helmets had a very similar design to Spartan helmets in terms of the “face” of the helmet. Where they differ is that the frontal cheek guards a bit longer than the Spartan helmets. Also, these Greek helmets are usually made of brass or a black metal. These also had a plume often made of horse hair. Today’s replicas will be made with a synthetic hair or more expensive ones will come with real horse hair.

Disadvantages of Online Bus Booking

The idea or trend of online bus booking has steadfastly climbed the popularity graph, and has the potential of scoring over its physical counterpart in the very near future. However, as akin to a coin, there is another side to this success story too. There are a number of facts that you should be consciously aware of while out shopping for the best deals in the transportation arena. Even though there are numerous advantages of hopping on the web-based reservation bandwagon, callousness in selecting your firm or reading the fine print may land you in serious trouble – both financial as well as legal.

Recent news, though, has been positive as far as online bus booking is concerned, with GTDC (Goa Tourism Development Corporation) embracing the trend. With government authorities also recognizing the brighter side of web reservations, the darker side of the same is being pushed farther away from public notice.

However, here are a few drawbacks of the online bus booking service, which at times mar the enjoyable experience of reserving a place for yourself on a transport vehicle from the confines of your home:

  • Authenticity

– A lot of portals use the facade of the web as a wall to present fake licenses and registration documents, often convincing the clients of their non-existent authenticity. Make sure you check with the local authorities or with that of the state of origin of the agency, to avoid being conned by the latter.

  • Hidden Costs

– Potential clients often miss out on reading the fine print or hidden terms and conditions stated in the quote. This allows the agency to charge a much higher sum (hidden costs) than the quoted price.

  • Restricted Options

– Some web-based bus reservation sites provide a much restricted outlook – some may offer a cheaper quote on a package tour, conveniently missing out on half of the tourist spots you may have wished to visit had you visited a local travel or booking agency.

  • Special Requirements

– Very few online bus booking services take into consideration special needs of aged or handicapped people. This creates problems for such individuals.

  • Direct Support

– The absence of authentic customer care support, one-on-one interaction and similar after-sales support may cause communication as well as troubleshooting turn limp, even while you are on a trip.

Therefore, even though online bus booking has been a boon for customers who would rather enjoy a quiet laze in their homes, it may turn into a menace too.

Only a handful of online portals provide the standard of service ideally demanded by customers. You can also look up a firm like Ezeego1, which provides online bus booking services in over 4000 pan-India routes, all in a jiffy!

If You Decide to Buy an Electric Kettle

The first electrical kettle was invented in 1891 by the Carpenter Electric Company. It boiled water in about 12 minutes. In 1922, the Swan Company improved on the Carpenter Electric Company’s design by having the heating element, a metal rod, inside the kettle. This helped the kettle heat water faster.

Today, an electric kettle can boil water in as little as five minutes. Most modern tea kettles are also cordless, meaning the pot sits on a base and it’s the base that’s plugged into the wall socket, not the kettle itself. This makes the cordless electric kettle as convenient as a stove top kettle.

You can use electric tea kettles to boil water for tea, instant coffee or instant hot cereal. They trump stove top kettles when it comes to portability. If you want to sit in your living room and enjoy a cup or two of tea, you can take the electric kettle into the living room with you and enjoy as many cups of tea as you like with the amount of water available in the kettle. The fast boiling time allows you more time to enjoy your morning drink or breakfast.

Electric tea kettles come in a variety of colors and styles. They are often made of stainless steel, glass or plastic. People who worry about the toxins in plastic often prefer the glass or stainless steel varieties because no plastic ever comes in contact with the boiling water. Another drawback to plastic tea kettles is that they sometimes make the water taste like plastic. Some electric kettles look like their stove top cousins, some look like old fashioned coffee percolators and some have very modern, streamlined designs. People who have hard water have the option to buy electric tea kettles with water filters inside for an even better tasting cup of tea or instant coffee.

The only real drawback to using an electric kettle is the fact that it’s electric. If you have a gas stove in your home, then when the power goes out, you can simply boil water on the stove. But if you don’t have a gas stove or a backup generator and your power goes out, you will have a hard time boiling water.

If you decide to buy an electric kettle to save yourself some time, make sure you read reviews of the brands you like best. After all, you want the best quality kettle your money can buy.

The Do’s & Don’ts Of Performing A Successful Seance

Do not tamper or play with the spirits and spirit world unless you are prepared for all the ramifications that come with it. Always ensure your own safety as well as the others who sit in the circle with you. Always set your boundaries when performing a séance.

1: Séance participants gather in a circle around a comfortable table.

2: Place a white candle and an symbolic symbol of protection in the center of the circle that you have blessed and said a prayer of protection over.

3: Turn off the phone and anything else that creates loud disturbing sounds and noises as well always remove pets to another room. Remove any potentially distracting objects (such as wind chimes) to avoid unwanted noises.

4: Dim the lights to a comfortable level or you can actually turn them off if you choose and use a couple of candles in the room to create soft comfortable lighting, go with what ever feels right and comfortable too you.

5: Ask all participants that are gathered sitting around the table to place their hands upon the table, with their fingers slightly spread to allow each pinkie finger on each persons hands too gently touch with his neighbor on either side.

6: Begin with a pre chosen opening prayer which should be short and sweet, designed to state benevolent purposes and to offer protection for all involved.

7: Concentrate then on opening your circle to the arrival of spirits for a few moments. Give this a sufficient amount of time, ask if there are any spirits present.

8: Continue to keep focusing always upon the spirits in the room. Ask the spirits relevant questions which can be easily answered by the easy indications of “yes” or “no” answers.

9: Always communicate with the spirits to the best of your abilities and with common sense, ( It is not a joke so keep all puns out of the séance ) until you feel that it is time to end the session, or until you begin to feel tired.

10: Always end the séance by bidding a farewell to the spirits in the room, and state your gratitude for their participation in your meeting and send them back and on their way.

11: Always end the séance with a closing prayer similar to that which you opened with.


1: Always remain alert at all times, some spirits can be false and terrible manipulating liars and I cannot stress this enough always remain calm and stress free, because Spirits do sense tension in a person, just as earthbound creatures do. Display a feeling of alertness and serenity.

2: If you should contact a harmful spirit which joins your séance, ask it to leave immediately and recite your opening protection prayer. If it doesn’t work the first time repeat the process with firmness but not with anger in your tone of voice or in your feelings.

3: Be very wary and careful when dealing and handling spirits from another place and time. Treat them with respect and use your instincts by knowing when it is time to put the event to a halt.

4: Don’t ever allow participants who you think wont or couldn’t handle a séance psychologically., especially children, you should never involve them.

5: Never break the circle by letting go of hands in the middle of a séance, this will allow the spirit to remain on the earth plain and cause havoc if it chooses too.

6: Always end the séance by sending the spirit back too whence it came and always close the circle and end it with a closing and protective prayer. If you don’t do this it can remain on this earthy plain to create havoc if it chooses too.

7: Never trust a spirit on faith, as I have said, they can fool us with manipulative lies. If they claim to be someone you know, test the spirit with questions only that person who once knew you with questions only the real person can answer. WARNING : When testing a spirit with such questions to prove validation, keep the answers from your mind as they can read your thoughts.

8: Never provoke a spirit, especially a spirit who appears troublesome.

10 Simple Home Security Tips

It’s a good idea to think about home security, even if you are a renter or live in a condominium with a guard or in a gated community. Anyone can be a victim of theft, and if you are home when a burglar intrudes, the crime can escalate into something even more dangerous.

For the safety of you and your family, you may want to consider having a home security system installed, but there are also a lot of common-sense things you can do that don’t involve spending a lot of money on fancy alarms or security cameras. Let’s take a look at some basic tips:

1. Secure garage doors and windows

While most people have solid doors and locks for front and back home entrances, they sometimes forget that garage doors should be of good quality as well. This includes walk-through doors and the doors for cars. Older automatic garage door openers were relatively easy to hack, so if your model is more than 15 or 20 years old, you may want to upgrade to a newer system that employs rolling codes.

Most garages have windows, and because this area tends to be father away from your living area than other parts of the house, a broken window is less likely to be heard. You may want to consider upgrading your windows to use security glass or shutters, but at least make sure locks are secure. Also watch out for entry doors with windows in or next to them, as these can be broken to allow a thief to stick an arm through and unlock the door from within.

2. Lock detached garages and storage sheds

Even if you don’t keep anything particularly valuable in your garden shed, realize that thieves can walk in and grab tools such as hoes, axes, and shovels which can be used in breaking windows to allow entry into your house. Also, unsecured ladders should be locked up somewhere inside, as they can allow burglars access to second story windows, which many homeowners forget to close and lock.

3. Keep windows and doors locked

Speaking of windows, it’s a good idea to keep them closed and locked when you’re not at home (and if you live in a high-crime neighborhood, you may want to keep them locked when you’re there as well). Also keep doors locked, even when you are home. In addition to regular knob locks, consider adding deadbolts for extra security against having a door kicked down.

4. Don’t tempt burglars

Got a big plasma tv? A fancy car? Jewelry? That’s fine, but don’t tempt people into crimes of opportunity by allowing these items to be easily seen by anyone passing by your home. If you have valuable cars in your garage, consider curtains for the windows so people can’t see in. Likewise, don’t place expensive (and portable) items right in front of bedroom or living room windows.

5. Keep your yard well lit

Burglars prefer to work in dark and shadows, since they’re less likely to be seen that way, so make sure your yard doesn’t provide thieves a place to hide. Install outdoor lights with motion- or heat-detecting sensors, so they will turn on at night when someone approaches the house. The backyard, front yard, and side yards should all have security lighting. (For energy efficiency, get lights with motion/heat sensors rather than units that simply stay on all night.)

6. Cancel deliveries when out of town

Nothing invites a theft so much as a house with no one home. If you are going out of town, don’t make it obvious to passing thieves. Have the paper and mail put on hold (in most areas, the post office will hold mail for up to 30 days, and you can simply go to the post office to pick it up when you get back) or have a sitter pick them up for you. Automatic lights that come on at night will also help fool burglars into thinking someone is home.

7. Change locks when moving into a new home

Even if you’re a renter, it’s a good idea to have the door locks changed when you move into a new house or apartment. Unless you are moving into new construction, you have no idea of knowing how many keys have been made over the years that fit your door.

8. Don’t put your name and address on your keys

Keys get lost all the time, and you may think it’s a good idea to have your name and address on your key ring (to help speed recovery), but all that really does is let the finder know where your house is, and now they have the keys that open the front door. They could call you and tell you they’ve found your keys and to meet them at such-and-such a place and even as you’re heading off to meet them, they are back at your house, letting themselves in to steal your valuables.

9. Don’t leave keys outside the house

To this day, a lot of people still leave spare sets of house keys under doormats, above door frames, under pots, rocks, etc. No matter how tricky you think you are being in choosing a concealing spot, a burglar can find it. Thievery is what they do for a living so of course they know all the tricks. If you’re worried about losing your keys and not being able to get into your house, consider installing biometric door locks (these open your door with a thumbprint) or locks that open when PIN codes are entered.

10. Install a safety spy hole or “peep hole” at your front door

Even as a child, you were probably told never to open the door for strangers. This is prudent advice even for adults. In order to see who is at the door, consider installing a safety spy hole or peep hole. This makes it easy to see who’s outside without them seeing in, and it’s a relatively inexpensive home security upgrade.

As you can see from this list, there are a lot of home security precautions you can take that will make your house less of a target for thieves. In addition, they cost little or no money to implement, so what are you waiting for? Make your home safe!

The Symbolic Meanings of Numbers

Learning numerology involves two stages or phases-learning the meaning of the numbers and calculating the various personal number values. This article is about the first-learning the symbolic meaning of the numbers. Once you learn these symbolic values, you can apply their meanings to number expressions of the numeroscope. These meanings can also be applied to astrology, cartomancy, and metaphysics in general. They can be applied in the course of your daily life to discover the underlying purpose of whatever event is occurring or whatever activity you are performing.

In numerology, every point in the universe, the infinite mind, or divine intelligence has access to information regarding all other points regardless of distance in space and time (past, present, and future). This information is contained in the archetypes of numbers, which are only partially comprehensible to humans. Knowledge of the number archetypes allows a person to align his or her will and ego with the purposes of the universe. Knowledge of number archetypes may also allow one to participate in and direct the ongoing processes of the universe or of his or her life.

Just like the zodiac, every number symbolizes a step in the process of creation. The first step is symbolized by the number one. The second step is symbolized by the number two, and so on. For example, if the numbers of a particular day add up to the number three, you know that this day favors the third step in whatever process you are engaged. If the address of a building you are in adds up to the number five, you know that this building favors the fifth step of any process. If you encounter someone whose name adds up to the number eight, you know that the energies of this person favor the eighth step of any process.

Interpretation by the Numbers

The meanings for the numbers 1 through 10, 0, and the master numbers 11, 22, 33, and 44 are given below, accompanied by personality traits and behaviors commonly associated with each number. Where applicable, the Pythagorean meanings and associated geometric shapes are given. Also where applicable, the planets, urges, and elements of C. C. Zain’s esoteric psychology and the crises and resulting personal power of Erik H. Erikson’s identity development are included. In general, odd numbers are masculine, active, and positive. Even numbers are feminine, receptive, and negative.

Number 1 — Individuality, Purpose

Pythagorean numerology begins with the number 1. Called the monad, 1 is represented by a point. It is the source of all numbers, the origin of all things. It symbolizes the primal state of unity, indivisibility, and oneness. Some say that it is both an odd and an even number. The 1 is the number of God, the Prime Masculine Number, and the Yang. It manifests as the active principle, the number of consciousness, light, the ego, the father, and authority. The Pythagoreans considered 1 to be good, desirable, essential, and indivisible. The 1 is associated with the Sun, fire, and the colors red and red-orange.

Wherever the 1 is found in the numeroscope, it indicates the beginning of a new cycle, beginnings in general, creation, individuality, and selfhood. In esoteric psychology, the 1 signifies the Sun and the power urges, i.e., the desire to survive and to be something. In identity development, the 1 signifies the trust versus mistrust crisis from which arises the power of hope.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 1 include: adventure, aggressiveness, aloneness, ambition, arrogance, assertiveness, bossiness, confidence, courage, creativity, desire, determination, dignity, direction, dominant, egotism, egotistical, false pride, independence, individualism, individuality, initiative, intolerance, leadership, loneliness, masculinity, newness, obstinate, optimism, originality, pioneering, pomposity, powerful, prestige, resistance, self-assurance, self-centeredness, selfishness, solitariness, strength, tyrannical, and willpower.

Number 2 — Polarity, Union

The number 2 is called the dyad and is represented by a line. It indicates the loss of the primal unity. The 2 is duality, and the Pythagoreans believed that 2 is a number of excess, the first feminine number, and a defective number. The 2 represents the principles of matter, manifestation, and material evolution. The 1 has been separated into 2. With the 2, a new relationship is now possible. Something has been created which is external of the 1. 2 is both the forming of dichotomies, the division of things into two categories, and the initial emergence of life. Awareness of the other creates tension and makes union and partnership possible. The 2 is the prime feminine number, the number of polarities, pairs, partners, opposites, and antithesis. The 2 is associated with the Moon, water, the oceans, and the color orange. Sometimes 2 is associated with blue.

Wherever 2 is found in the numeroscope, it indicates externalization, separation, tension, conflict, union, partnership, cooperation, rhythm, attachment, nurturing, femininity, and motherhood. In esoteric psychology, the 2 signifies the Moon and the domestic elements of self-preservation and race preservation. In identity development, the 2 signifies the autonomy versus shame and self-doubt crisis from which arises the power of will.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 2 include: absorption, adaptability, apathy, appeasement, attachment, awareness, balance, bonding, caution, conflict, cooperation, cruelty, deceit, dependence, diplomacy, emotions, empathy, expedience, feelings, females, femininity, fluctuation, friendship, gentleness, home, instinct, intuition, hypersensitivity, kindness, maliciousness, marriage, mediation, motherhood, neediness, nurturing, obedience, parental, partnership, patience, peace-making, pettiness, petulance, reaction, receptivity, relationship, rhythm, self-consciousness, self-effacement, self-sacrifice, sensitivity, separation, shyness, submissiveness, tension, touchiness, understanding, union, and withdrawal.

Number 3 — Interaction, Synthesis

The number 3 is referred to as the triad. It is represented by a plane, is composed of unity and diversity, and restores them to harmony. It is the first odd, masculine number. The 3 is the principle of spirit and the process of spiritual evolution through reconciliation of opposites by finding common elements or points of agreement. The 3 is the process of synthesis. The 3 represents the trinity or triune god found in most religions. The 1 is the thesis, the 2 is the antithesis, and the 3 is the synthesis. The 3 harmonizes dichotomies and is considered to be an extremely lucky number. It is ease, flow, grace, happiness, abundance, and rest. The 3 is associated with Venus, love, harmony, balance, intelligence, and the color yellow.

When 3 is found in the numeroscope, it indicates the possibilities of growth, relationship, understanding, equilibrium, ease, and peace. In esoteric psychology, the 3 signifies Mercury and the intellectual elements of adequate adaptation. In identity development, the 3 signifies the initiative versus guilt crisis from which arises the power of purpose.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 3 include: animation, artistic, artistry, arts, beauty, brilliant, charm, communication, conceit, conversation, cooperation, creativity, cultivation, ease, energetic, enthusiasm, entertainment, envy, equilibrium, expansive, expression, extravagance, flirtatiousness, friendship, frivolous, good luck, grace, greed, growth, happiness, harmony, humor, indecision, imagination, inspiration, intelligence, joy, laziness, love, lucky, luxury, optimism, outspoken, peace, pleasure, poetry, popularity, relationships, romance, rhythms, self-expression, sociability, sociable, spirituality, superficiality, triviality, understanding, vanity, versatile, vision, wasteful, witty, words, and writing.

Number 4 — Construction, Creation

The number 4 is the tetrad. It is represented by a solid and is the first feminine square. The 4 represents justice, is steadfast, and a perfect square. It is also the number of the elements, the seasons, the ages of man, lunar phases, and virtues. It represents the power to manifest ideas in the material world. It is said to be the root of all manifested things. In many ancient cultures the 4 symbolized the world, the Earth, and any Establishment. It is the number of foundations, solid matter, the points of the compass, the seasons, the (classical Greek) elements, the winds, completion, solidarity, stability, equilibrium, the (classical Greek) four kingdoms of matter. The 4 is action, activity, energy, power, strength, crisis, sacrifice, the square, the cross, and processes of building and creating solid, concrete forms in the material world. It is the four psychological functions in Analytic Psychology (Jungian). The 4 is associated with Saturn and/or Mars, the Earth, and the colors red, green, or brown.

Wherever the 4 is found in the numeroscope, it indicates the presence of activity and strong energies needed to overcome obstacles, conflicts, and crises. The power to manifest one’s dreams in the material world and/or to actualize important relationships is present. In esoteric psychology, the 4 signifies Venus and the social elements of the ability to band together. In identity development, the 4 signifies the competence versus inferiority crisis from which arises the power of competence.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 4 include: achievement, action, activity, aloofness, application, bitterness, building, calm, creativity, crises, energy, concentration, conflicts, conservation, construction, dedication, dejection, dependability, depth, determination, discipline, dull, economy, efficient, enduring, follow-through, form, foundation, fundamentals, gloomy, goal-orientation, growth, hardness, hard-working, ill health, impersonality, individuality, industrious, industry, joyless, limitation, management, melancholy, monotony, narrowness, organization, painstaking effort, patience, perseverance, planning, power, practical, practicality, repressive, respectable, restlessness, restriction, self-discipline, skill, stable, steady, strength, and struggles, and suspicious.

Number 5 — Intelligence, Originality

The number 5 is called the pentad and represents man or humanity, especially in regards to creativity, intelligence, talents, and self-expression, i.e., especially those qualities that are most uniquely human and separate man from the rest of the animal kingdom. Thus, the 5 represents the Quintessence, humanity, the magician, magic, the (Western) senses, and the (Chinese) elements. The 5 is the masculine marriage number, because it unites the first female number and the first male number by addition. It has the virtue of being incorruptible, because all multiples of 5 end in 5. The 5 is associated with Mars and/or Uranus, the Air, and the color blue.

Wherever the 5 is found in the numeroscope, it indicates the presence of intelligence, creativity, special talents, uniqueness, individual expression and possibly genius. In esoteric psychology, the 5 signifies Mars and the aggressive elements of the ability to defend and secure. In identity development, the 5 signifies the identity versus role confusion crisis from which arises the power of fidelity.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 5 include: activity, adaptability, adventure, adventurous, belligerence, change, changeableness, clever, conceited, courage, creativity, criticalness, curiosity, discard, enterprise, expansiveness, experience, flexibility, freedom, haste, impulsiveness, individuality, intelligence, intuition, invention, irresponsibility, lustful, magnetism, movement, nervous, progress, promotion, resilient, restlessness, resourcefulness, sarcastic, scattering, sensuality, sexual, strife, temperament, thoughtlessness, uniqueness, unpredictability, unstable, variety, versatility, and vitality.

Number 6 — Responsibility, Success

The number 6 is represented by the hexad. The 6 is the feminine marriage number, because it unifies 2 and 3 through multiplication. It is also considered the first perfect number and is the area of a 3-4-5 triangle. The 6 represents the benefits that come from activity and productivity. To the Pythagoreans, 6 was the perfect number since, when multiplied by itself it results in the number itself (6 X 6 = 42 ~ 4 + 2 = 6). The 6 was also considered to be a perfect number because ~ 1 + 2 + 3 = 6. The 6 combines the ease, harmony, good luck, synthesis of the 3 with the polarity and awareness of the number 2. The 6 is an active, productive, and successful number 3. It brings good fortune, but through effort, productivity, and activity. The 6 is also related to the human soul, harmony, creation, love, marriage, domestic happiness, and matters of the heart, by some numerologists. The 6 is associated with Jupiter, the Earth element, productivity, and the color indigo.

Wherever the 6 is found in the numeroscope, it indicates a high likelihood of success and prosperity through work efforts. In esoteric psychology, the 6 signifies Jupiter and the religious elements of faith in leadership and tolerance. In identity development, the 6 signifies the intimacy versus isolation crisis from which arises the power of love.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 6 include: beauty, burdens, carelessness, comfort, complacent, conscientiousness, conservative attitudes, creative, domesticated, domesticity, educational, legal, religious, and/or spiritual interests, exaggeration, expansion, family, friendliness, gossipy, harmonious, harmony, healing, honest, hypocrisy, idealistic, interfering, joyfulness, justice, loyal, luck, meddling, morale, morality, optimism, over-concern for others, over-expansiveness, overindulgence, parental, passion, productivity, prosperity, protection, reliability, responsibility, selfish, self-righteousness, service, social and artistic balance, trivial, trust, understanding, and wisdom.

Number 7 — Thought/Consciousness

To the Pythagoreans the number 7 is represented by the heptad and is associated with the Greek maiden goddess Athene. They considered 7 to be a virgin number because it has no products, and a circle can never be broken into 7 equal parts. The 7 symbolizes the cosmic process of creativity. It combines the divine trinity of the 3 and the power of physical manifestation of the 4. The 7 represents the stages of manifestation and the seven aspects of God as manifested through the seven stars or angels. It represents creation, divinity, and religious and fated activities. It symbolizes occult mysteries, magical ceremonies, and psychic and clairvoyant powers. The 7 is considered to be a difficult number to interpret in a specific and accurate manner. The 7 is associated with Saturn, religion, devotion, authority, royalty, the Earth element, and the color purple.

Wherever the 7 is found in the numeroscope, it is very likely that religion and spirituality figure prominently. Either the exoteric and/or the esoteric aspects of religion may be present. Strange and fated occurrences are likely as well. In esoteric psychology, the 7 signifies Saturn and the safety elements, and the abilities to escape from enemies and provide security. In identity development, the 7 signifies the generativity versus stagnation crisis from which arises the power of caring.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 7 include: aloneness, aloof, analysis, authority, bureaucracy, calculation, confused, conservative attitudes, contemplative, depressive, dreamy, efficiency, escapism, exactitude, example, faith, fear, fussiness, impractical, intellectual snobbery, intelligence, introspection, intuition, investigation, knowledge, lazy, legal, religious, and/or spiritual interests, loneliness, malice, melancholy, metaphysics, moody, mystery, mystical, nagging, nervousness, perception, perfection, perfectionism, pessimism, philosophy, pride, psychology, religious or spiritual development, realities, reason, research, responsibility, science, secrecy, self-knowledge, self-righteousness, skepticism, silence, solitude, suspicion, thought, understanding, the unseen, verbosity, vision, and wisdom.

Number 8 — Power/Sacrifice

The 8 is referred to as the octad or ogdoad. It is the first cube: 2 x 2 x 2 = 8. Because it is the 4 (action, activity, energy, and crisis), divided by the 2 (externalization, separation, tension, and conflict), the 8 symbolizes the point of maximum dynamic activity, the point of the greatest energy and power. It is considered to symbolize material success and worldly involvement. The 8 is associated with the Sun and Uranus, activity, frustrations, busy work, and the colors rose and the transitional color between red and violet.

Wherever the 8 is found in the numeroscope, it indicates intense energy needed to finalize the details of and structure. At times the 8 can be very frustrating. At other times, it may feel exhilarating when our consciousness flows with the work we are performing. In esoteric psychology, the 8 signifies Uranus and the individualistic elements, and the abilities to depart from the past and develop better ways. In identity development, the 8 signifies the integrity versus despair crisis from which arises the power of wisdom.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with the 8 include: administration, authority, broad, business, busy work, capability, carelessness, comprehension, concentrated effort, control, cruelty, eccentric, efficiency, energy, extravagance, executive ability, extreme individualism, frustration, greed, guilt-ridden, haughty, hard work, impatience, lack, improvidence, leadership, loss, management, material accomplishment, materialism, money, obstinate, organization, power, promotion, rewards, ruthless, self-reliance, skill, strain, strength, struggle, success, tenacity, thoroughness, tough, unscrupulous, vindictiveness, and waste.

Number 9 –Completion

The number 9 is referred to as the nonad or ennead. It is the first masculine cube. It is also considered incorruptible because no matter how many times it is multiplied, it reduces to itself. The 9 can be thought of as a very spiritual number or as a very lucky number because it is three 3’s. The 9 is similar to the 7 in that it is a very spiritual number and one that prefers isolation and withdrawal. It is actually the last number in regards to numerology because all other numbers can be reduced to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9. The 9 represents the human gestation period, ending in the completion of one cycle and the beginning of the next. It is also similar to gestation in that the actual activity of creation is not visible to the material world. The 9 is may be associated with Uranus, Neptune, or Pluto. Because of its universal qualities, it may be associated with all the colors of the spectrum, bright blue, and psychedelic colors.

In the numeroscope, the 9 suggests creativity, spirituality, withdrawal, and completion. A 9 in the numeroscope indicates that the person will give birth, probably several times, to the development of spiritual ideas, mysticism, and psychic phenomena. In esoteric psychology, the 9 signifies Neptune and the utopian elements, and the yearning for better conditions.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 9 include: attainment, benevolence, compassion, completion, creativity, dedication, devotion, disruption, emotion, expulsion, extremes, generosity, genius, imagination, impersonality, intellect, intensity, intuition, limitless power, meditation, mysticism, personal loss, philanthropy, psychic phenomena, regeneration, religious devotion, service, selflessness, shyness, ulterior motives, understanding of the spirit, upheaval, universal awareness, and universality.

Number 10 — Rebirth

The number 10 is called the decad. It represents completion, infinity, and rebirth. It is also the number of our fingers and toes. The 10 is said to contain all the numbers because after 10, the numbers repeat themselves. The number 10 is generally not used in numerology because the 10 is reduced to 1 in numerology (1 + 0 = 1). The 10 has characteristics of both the 0 and the 9. In esoteric psychology, the 10 signifies Pluto and the universal welfare elements, and preservation through cooperation among individuals.

Number 0 — Everything and Nothing

The 0 is not included in Pythagorean numerology. It represents God unmanifest, i.e., Spirit without Matter and without things. It is God before creation, especially physical or material creation. It is Divinity without awareness. The 0, or circle is divine potential upon which no action has been taken. It is the cosmos before the cosmos comes into being, before the Big Bang, or whatever. It is also a symbol of infinity. The 0 also reminds us of the positive value of powerlessness. In metaphysical symbolism, a circle with a dot in its center indicates that creation or physical manifestation has begun. It especially symbolizes that the Spirit or God, has divided into individual parts so that it may come to know itself. This division is not real. It is the false perception of mater or material objects. In astrology, God manifest is represented by the symbol for the Sun. The Sun is the individualized spirit that sustains each of us. The 0 is not used in most numerological calculations or in the numeroscope. The reason is that 0 + any number = the number. The 0 has its own significance, but it does not add anything to numerological calculations.

Master Numbers

The term master number refers to two, three, or four numbers which are considered to be above and beyond the normal spectrum of the average human being. These numbers imply genius and superior accomplishments brought over from previous lives. Master numbers may possess greater potential or higher vibrations than other numbers. They may be highly charged and difficult to handle. They may take great effort to integrate into one’s personality. Realizing the power of master numbers may require time and maturity. After interpreting a number as a master number, it is usually reduced numerically to a single digit, and the standard interpretation is applied as well.

The numbers 11, 22, 33, and 44 have all been referred to as master numbers. Master numbers are interpreted before they are reduced to single digits. As previously mentioned, most numerologists recognized 11 and 22 as master numbers. A few use 33 as a master number, and even fewer use 44 as a master number. Some numerologists do not use any master numbers.

Number 11 — Inspiration/Illumination

The number 11 refers to idealism and outstanding accomplishments that are largely intellectual or mental in nature. It often indicates artistic or musical talent. The individual with an 11 is said to be inspired, and he or she is usually an inspiration to others. An 11 may also display characteristics of a 2. Of course, not everyone with an 11 is capable of manifesting the talents and characteristics of an 11. In such cases, the 11 becomes an ordinary 2.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 11 include: altruism, aviation, creativity, confusion, debauchery, deception, delusion, destruction, dreamer, ecstasy, elation, electricity, escapism, evangelism, faith, fame, fanaticism, greatness, idealism, ideals, illumination, impracticality, independence, inner conflict, insight, inspiration, intangible, intuition, limelight, mysticism, nervousness, obligation, originality, peace, perversity, phobias, principles, psychic, radicalism, rebellious, religion, reverence, sacrifice, self-destruction, sensitivity, shyness, spirituality, spiritual vision, subconscious, tactlessness, truth, understanding, and uselessness.

Number 22 — Masterful/Master Builder

The 22 is interpreted as a number of great material accomplishments, often through the use of spiritual or magical abilities. It is the most powerful of all the numbers. A person with a 22 turns dreams into reality. He or she is referred to as a Master Builder. A 22 may also display characteristics of a 4. Of course, not every with a 22 is capable of manifesting the talents and characteristics of an 22. In such cases, the 22 becomes an ordinary 4.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 22 include: achiever, ambition, broad vision, discipline, distribution, intense, limitless, materialistic, methodical, pressure, practicality, resourceful, self-confidence, strong, and success.

Number 33 — Initiate/Master Teacher

The number 33 symbolizes the principle of guidance. It is the most influential of all numbers. The person with a 33 has made great spiritual accomplishments in previous lives. He or she has successfully integrated the 11 and the 22 and has risen to a higher level. He or she has become the Master Teacher, and his or her dharma or spiritual purpose is to uplift humanity spiritually by communicating the wisdom of the ages. He or she must forsake all personal ambitions.

The Master Teacher displays a high level of devotion to truth. He or she must seek understanding and wisdom before preaching to others. The Master Teacher must find original ways to encourage spiritual evolution. The arts, medicine, or some unconventional form of healing are possible mediums through which the Master Teacher addresses the public. He or she must share the truths he or she knows. If not, the Master Teacher may stagnate. His or her opportunities for further growth dwindle away until he or she performs the duties of the Master Teacher. A 33 may also display characteristics of a 6. Of course, not every with a 33 is capable of manifesting the talents and characteristics of a 33. In such cases, the 33 becomes an ordinary 6.

Personality traits and behaviors associated with 33 include: artist, blessing, bravery, Christ-like, compassionate, courage, discipline, educator, guidance, healing, healer, honest, inspiration, love, martyr, monk, physician, protection, self-sacrifice, teacher of teachers, and truth.

The 33 manifests only when the birth day, the birth month, and the birth year (day/month/year) each add up to 11, when the month and day add up to 22 and the year to 11, when the month and year add up to 22 and the day to 11, or the day and year add up to 22 and the month to 11. For example, during the 21st century the years 2009, 2018, 2027, 2037, 2045, 2054, 2063, 2072, 2081, and 2090 add up to 11. During the 20th century, only the year 1901 adds up to an 11. Years like 1991 add up to a 2. 1991 = 1 + 9 + 9 + 1 = 20 (1 + 9 = 10, 10 + 9 = 19, 19 + 1 = 20, 2 + 0 = 2).

The master numbers 11, 22, and 33 are said to represent a triangle called the Triangle of Enlightenment. In relation to the Triangle, the number 11 represents the vision, 22 combines vision with action, and 33 offers guidance to the world.

Number 44 — Masterful/Master Manager

The 44 is the number of the Master Manager. The Master Manager is extremely rare. He or she is a conscious bridge between the physical plane and higher planes or realms. The Master Manager is capable of manifesting whatever he or she focuses on with desire. He or she is learning to be a creator. A 44 may also display characteristics of an 8. Of course, not every with a 44 is capable of manifesting the talents and characteristics of a 44. In such cases, the 44 becomes an ordinary 8.