Six Characteristics Of Naturally Seductive Men and Women

This is what I always say to men and women who come to me asking for my help approaching, attracting, seducing or playing hard to get with the opposite sex.

“You cannot RELAX and you cannot ADOPT THE FLEXIBLE UNAFRAID ATTITUDE that anything “sexual” calls for if you are not confident in your own sexual self”.

You may be technically good looking, fun, intelligent, socially charismatic and a really “nice” person but if your SEXUAL SELF is poisoned with neediness, disillusion, sense of inadequacy, need for control, low self esteem, bitterness and resentfulness, your AUTHENTIC SEXUAL INTENSITY will be held back, unnecessarily aggressive or superficial.

When the opposite sex sense that there is no AUTHENTIC SEXUAL INTENSITY in your words and actions they’ll treat you as someone who has no “relationship value”. This is when you really have to try hard and hang in there just to sustain a conversation or date, let alone a relationship. You try this pick-up line and that conversation starter, this flirting body language and that sexy pose, this seduction technique and that sexual position, to no avail. You can only helplessly watch as the man or woman in front of you or in your life slips away into someone else’s hands and life.

Granted, if you are really good looking, slap-knee hilarious, have great personal charisma (it’s possible to have personal charisma and no sexual charisma, those two are different) or if you have lots of money, you may be able to fool a man or woman for a few dates or even months. But if you are like most, after a while, carrying on with the “sexy” facade when deep inside you feel sexually inadequate gets really exhausting. You find yourself wondering and even resenting the fact that you have to pretend to be who you are not and do all those things just to please a man or woman — who may not even be showing any appreciation for your efforts and will in a moment take the next better offer.

What makes some men and women so intensely and effortlessly seductive is not a technique, good looks or even smart brains… what makes them so irresistible is that THEY ARE THE SEDUCTION!

1. They do not just PERFORM seduction, seductiveness is part of their makeup

Men and women with this kind of SEDUCTIVE PULL are so in touch with their sexual energy and so in sync with their sexual selves that seductiveness is WHO THEY ARE and not just what they say or do. This moment-to-moment awareness of the electrifying sexual energy flowing inside them makes it possible for them to walk around like MAGNETS. This is in contrast to what is commonly known as “hot woman” or “sexy man” where “being hot” or “being sexy” is a pose, an act, a tool entirely divorced from the sexual energy that directs behaviour and creates an AURA of sexual intensity.

2. They are confident in a way that inspires the other’s confidence and trust in them

They are certain of who they are, what they want, what they have to offer and the value of what they have to offer, yet they neither show off nor are they too eager to impress and please. This is very different from the “alpha-male” or “hot babe” all puffed up, detached or aloof confidence. This is a confidence that includes others — especially the woman or man they are seducing.

3. They operates on a personal and emotional level

Their seductiveness comes from their ability and tendency to focus on the personal and emotional state of others. They set the tone of “passionate” by demonstrating that they like who they are, that they enjoy the person they are with and that they appreciate the experience. This brightens the outlook of the man or woman they are seducing and heightens their responsiveness ultimately lifting the quality of the experience at hand.

4. They refuse to play a part — that of the Player or Trickster– and owe their seductiveness to this refusal!

They are NOT bound to any externally-driven techniques or egotistically designed rules and scripts, but instead have developed their own internally-driven self-regulation system (INNATE SEXUAL INSTINCTS) that informs and confirms their behaviours and responses in a given situation.

5.They are from tip to toe comfortable seducing – reveling in their own seductive energy and every bit immersed in the depth of their beingness!

For them, this is all part of living life in the most fully human manner possible. They make the earth (and life) feel like one great big playing field where their playful seductiveness come out to play and to eroticizes everything else in their magnetic field including the people that come in contact with their energy. They are interesting and fascinating to other people because they inspire others with their “let’s-live-life” intensity.

6. They are constantly changing and constantly emerging a new — always fresh in their words and actions

Nothing they say or do is rehearsed or scripted, everything happens in the unfolding moment of right now, right here, now-as-it-is-happening. This adaptable, flexible, innovative and creative ever-changing quality leads to a sense of personal mystery (thus “Mysterious”).

When you RECLAIM your AUTHENTIC SEXUAL SELF and give yourself the freedom to do things your own way — you become a conduit for a very powerful primal force. What you’ve done is given your primal sexual power the permission to stimulate your innate creativity, courage, tenacity and your CAPACITY TO STIR THE PRIMAL EMOTIONS and desires of others.

There is a natural seducer already inside all of us. Use your own natural instincts, sensations, emotions and desires to create very strong attraction.

How to Dress a Mannequin in 10 Easy Steps

In the world of Retail Clothing, dressing mannequins and displays are an integral part of promoting Clothing Ranges and accessories. Dressing a garment on a mannequin and setting it within a display has proven to increase sales by up to 70% in some instances – so great idea for promoting poor selling lines! But the sales lift cannot just be put down to better visibility within the store i.e dressed on a mannequin – it also has a lot to do with the lifestyle that they create, the way they make the customer feel, think and act when they see the garments displayed on mannequins. Sometimes it can be seen as an endorsement to the shopper that if the store has selected these garments for display then they must be credible, stylish or on trend – so i’ll have one too!

When dressed on a mannequin the garment is presented immaculately (ironed without a crease in sight!) and draped on a perfect figured mannequin – then it suddenly becomes something more than just visibility and seeing more of the garment – its about prompting the suggestion to the customer: ‘that looks great on those models, i want one of those’.

The average customer is physically shopping when they are in a store, however few of them are actually engaged in shopping mentality – their minds are on a whole lot of other things, such as thinking about what they need to get in for dinner, remembering to pay a bil…etc etc. most are browsers simply because most are not mentally shopping. For this reason it is the power of display that makes them stop in their tracks and think – wow that looks fantastic!. A dressed mannequin or a display will always catch the customers eye before any garment on a hanger.

Now that we have established the importance of Mannequins and bustforms or tailors dummies, here is ten top tips to a successful display.

Top Tip – Always dress mannequins from bottom to top and the finishing off should always be from top to bottom.

1 – Carefully select garments and outfits to be displayed. It is important that the dressings co-ordinate especially if there is more than one mannequin in the display. Accessories that compliment the selected garments can also add ‘finishing off’ and ‘attention to detail’ to a display. Take time to select the outfits because what might seem like a small error of garment choice whilst dressing the mannequin in the back area will be a huge noticeable error out on display.

Note for point 1: Always select the garment size that perfectly fits your mannequin. Do not use oversized garments as these will give an inaccurate image of fit, drape and styling.

2 – Iron or steam thoroughly all garments and outfits to be included in the display. If ironing remember to iron on reverse side of all garments as a sheen will be left on the facing side making your garment look cheap and distressed under display lighting. Displays will amplify the good but also the bad.

3 – Ensure that the mannequin to be dressed has been separated into its separate components at the arms, legs and torso. Always begin with the legs and feet area. Fit the socks and shoes that have been chosen to compliment the outfit put them on the mannequin first before attempting to dress with clothing. The last garment to be dressed should always be the one that is most visible in the display (e.g jacket or top, dress etc) – dressing it last will ensure minimal creasing during dressing.

Note for point 3: This will mean that you may have to turn the legs upside down so the feet area are closest to you for dressing. Then flip it back on its feet again to add torso and continue dressing.

4 – Dressing from the bottom to the top, the next item should be the ‘bottoms’ – skirt, dress or trousers. Note for trousers these should be slotted over both feet just before putting on the shoes – the turned upright again and torso secured. For a skirt or dress the torso would have to be secured back on top of the legs/hip section first before draping the skirt or dress over the head of the mannequin.

5 – To enable smooth dressing of the top section (most visible section) it is necessary to first insert and secure one of the mannequins arms into the shoulder socket on the torso (make sure its the correct arm! right on the right side left on the left side). After securing one of the arms, open the blouse,shirt etc and slip it onto the secured arm – letting the excess fabric drape from the shoulder whilst you secure the other arm in place.

Note for point 5: If the garment will not open – such as a t-shirt, then it should be popped over the torso before any of the arms are inserted and secured. Once over the head, slip the mannequin arms up the short sleeve if width of arm allows, and secure to shoulder socket. Otherwise slip the arm through the neck and along to the shoulder to secure in the shoulder socket.

6 – The other arm should be slipped down the sleeve (insert from the neck line down the length of the sleeve hand facing downwards. Then once fully inside the sleeve the arm can be secured.

7 – Once the top garments are on and all components in place, the main ‘dressing can begin. But first check to ensure that the full mannequin is firm & secure to the base (usually through a hole in the calf or foot for the sprigot to fit in). Once full dressed and styled the mannequin should be handled very little to avoid creasing so positioning accurately beforehand is advantageous.

8 – Dressing and styling should start at the top and work down to the feet. Starting with the neckline and collars, ensure that they are straight and that buttons are lined up symmetrically on each side. For styling purposes collars can be flipped up, or just a single collar flicked up at the ends. If the neckline is straight or styled this will instantly give a good impression.

9 – Continuing down the dressing to the waistline and hips. The styling of the garment will depend on its length and whether it has a fitted waistline or not.

10 – Finishing off and attention to detail are the things that are done lastly but are the most crucial part of the dressing. If the finishing off isn’t sharp then the impression is gives to the viewer is untidiness and sloppiness, therefore spending a little more time on the finishing off could reap rewards.

Finishing off starts with standing back from the dressing and identifying areas that are unsightly or untidy – such as: unexpected creasing on items, necklines off centre, inside seams on arms facing out instead of in towards the body, accessories not straight or don’t match or maybe more required.

Ultimately dressing a mannequin is just like dressing yourself! You wouldn’t go to work with one collar in and one collar out or your buttons not in line etc. This how to guide and tips is simple yet crucial to the perception the customer will have on your display, brand and ranging – if displayed well and dressing is sharp this will increase the perceived value of the item and the customer may be willing to pay more for it!

Trading and Profit and Loss Account

Trading Account

As already discussed, first section of trading and profit and loss account is called trading account. The aim of preparing trading account is to find out gross profit or gross loss while that of second section is to find out net profit or net loss.

Preparation of Trading Account

Trading account is prepared mainly to know the profitability of the goods bought (or manufactured) sold by the businessman. The difference between selling price and cost of goods sold is the,5 earning of the businessman. Thus in order to calculate the gross earning, it is necessary to know:

(a) cost of goods sold.

(b) sales.

Total sales can be ascertained from the sales ledger. The cost of goods sold is, however, calculated. n order to calculate the cost of sales it is necessary to know its meaning. The ‘cost of goods’ includes the purchase price of the goods plus expenses relating to purchase of goods and brining the goods to the place of business. In order to calculate the cost of goods ” we should deduct from the total cost of goods purchased the cost of goods in hand. We can study this phenomenon with the help of following formula:

Opening stock + cost of purchases – closing stock = cost of sales

As already discussed that the purpose of preparing trading account is to calculate the gross profit of the business. It can be described as excess of amount of ‘Sales’ over ‘Cost of Sales’. This definition can be explained in terms of following equation:

Gross Profit = Sales-Cost of goods sold or (Sales + Closing Stock) -(Stock in the beginning + Purchases + Direct Expenses)

The opening stock and purchases along with buying and bringing expenses (direct exp.) are recorded the debit side whereas sales and closing stock is recorded on the credit side. If credit side is Jeater than the debit side the difference is written on the debit side as gross profit which is ultimately recorded on the credit side of profit and loss account. When the debit side exceeds the credit side, the difference is gross loss which is recorded at credit side and ultimately shown on the debit side of profit & loss account.

Usual Items in a Trading Account:

A) Debit Side

1. Opening Stock. It is the stock which remained unsold at the end of previous year. It must have been brought into books with the help of opening entry; so it always appears inside the trial balance. Generally, it is shown as first item at the debit side of trading account. Of course, in the first year of a business there will be no opening stock.

2. Purchases. It is normally second item on the debit side of trading account. ‘Purchases’ mean total purchases i.e. cash plus credit purchases. Any return outwards (purchases return) should be deducted out of purchases to find out the net purchases. Sometimes goods are received before the relevant invoice from the supplier. In such a situation, on the date of preparing final accounts an entry should be passed to debit the purchases account and to credit the suppliers’ account with the cost of goods.

3. Buying Expenses. All expenses relating to purchase of goods are also debited in the trading account. These include-wages, carriage inwards freight, duty, clearing charges, dock charges, excise duty, octroi and import duty etc.

4. Manufacturing Expenses. Such expenses are incurred by businessmen to manufacture or to render the goods in saleable condition viz., motive power, gas fuel, stores, royalties, factory expenses, foreman and supervisor’s salary etc.

Though manufacturing expenses are strictly to be taken in the manufacturing account since we are preparing only trading account, expenses of this type may also be included in the trading account.

(B) Credit Side

1. Sales. Sales mean total sales i.e. cash plus credit sales. If there are any sales returns, these should be deducted from sales. So net sales are credited to trading account. If an asset of the firm has been sold, it should not be included in the sales.

2. Closing Stock. It is the value of stock lying unsold in the godown or shop on the last date of accounting period. Normally closing stock is given outside the trial balance in that case it is shown on the credit side of trading account. But if it is given inside the trial balance, it is not to be shown on the credit side of trading account but appears only in the balance sheet as asset. Closing stock should be valued at cost or market price whichever is less.

Valuation of Closing Stock

The ascertain the value of closing stock it is necessary to make a complete inventory or list of all the items in the god own together with quantities. On the basis of physical observation the stock lists are prepared and the value of total stock is calculated on the basis of unit value. Thus, it is clear that stock-taking entails (i) inventorying, (ii) pricing. Each item is priced at cost, unless the market price is lower. Pricing an inventory at cost is easy if cost remains fixed. But prices remain fluctuating; so the valuation of stock is done on the basis of one of many valuation methods.

The preparation of trading account helps the trade to know the relationship between the costs be incurred and the revenues earned and the level of efficiency with which operations have been conducted. The ratio of gross profit to sales is very significant: it is arrived at :

Gross Profit X 100 / Sales

With the help of G.P. ratio he can ascertain as to how efficiently he is running the business higher the ratio, better will be the efficiency.

Closing Entries pertaining to trading Account

For transferring various accounts relating to goods and buying expenses, following closing entries recorded:

(i) For opening Stock: Debit trading account and credit stock account

(ii) For purchases: Debit trading account and credit purchases account, the amount being the et amount after deducting purchases returns.

(iii) For purchases returns: Debit purchases return account and credit purchases account.

(iv) For returns inwards: Debit sales account and credit sales return account

(v) For direct expenses: Debit trading account and credit direct expenses accounts individually.

(vi) For sales: Debit sales account and credit trading account. We will find that all the accounts as mentioned above will be closed with the exception of trading account

(vii) For closing stock: Debit closing stock account and credit trading account After recording above entries the trading account will be balanced and difference of two sides ascertained. If credit side is more the result is gross profit for which following entry is recorded.

(viii) For gross profit: Debit trading account and credit profit and loss account If the result is gross loss the above entry is reversed.

Profit and Loss Account

The profit and loss account is opened by recording the gross profit (on credit side) or gross loss (debit side).

For earning net profit a businessman has to incur many more expenses in addition to the direct expenses. Those expenses are deducted from profit (or added to gross loss), the resultant figure will be net profit or net loss.

The expenses which are recorded in profit and loss account are ailed ‘indirect expenses’. These be classified as follows:

Selling and distribution expenses.

These comprise of following expenses:

(a) Salesmen’s salary and commission

(b) Commission to agents

(c) Freight & carriage on sales

(d) Sales tax

(e) Bad debts

(f) Advertising

(g) Packing expenses

(h) Export duty

Administrative Expenses.

These include:

(a) Office salaries & wages

(b) Insurance

(c) Legal expenses

(d) Trade expenses

(e) Rates & taxes

(f) Audit fees

(g) Insurance

(h) Rent

(i) Printing and stationery

(j) Postage and telegrams

(k) Bank charges

Financial Expenses

These comprise:

(a) Discount allowed

(b) Interest on Capital

(c) Interest on loan

(d) Discount Charges on bill discounted

Maintenance, depreciations and Provisions etc.

These include following expenses

(a) Repairs

(b) Depreciation on assets

(c) Provision or reserve for doubtful debts

(d) Reserve for discount on debtors.

Along with above indirect expenses the debit side of profit and loss account comprises of various business losses also.

On the credit side of profit and loss account the items recorded are:

(a) Discount received

(b) Commission received

(c) Rent received

(d) Interest received

(e) Income from investments

(f) Profit on sale of assets

(g) Bad debts recovered

(h) Dividend received

(i) Apprenticeship premium etc.

Ways to Make Your Cornhole Set Stand Out

Customizing cornhole sets has become big business. Call it pride, bragging rights, or an expression of the creator, but people love customizing cornhole boards and bags to make them, well, more of them. If you are mulling customizing your boards or bags, take a look at the following ideas that can add to your set’s personality.

Custom Paint Job or Decals

The easiest way to add character to your cornhole boards is by painting them. You can paint them solid colors, create patterns, or even turn your boards into sports logos. If you are low on cash or time, using decals can be a good idea. Decals add character for little time and cost and are readily available online.

Branded Bags

If you decorate your cornhole boards with a branded logo, such as that of a sports organization, you should consider branding your bags to match. You can purchase licensed cloth and make the bags or buy them.

Solid Walls

Boards with solid walls look impressive. In addition to being visually appealing, the solid walls and legs reduce erroneous bag bounces. This is because the legs are not adjustable and do not move as the bags hit the boards. Although solid walls have their benefits, they do have drawbacks. They add weight to the boards and make travel difficult.

Pacer Cord

Tired of measuring the distance between your boards when placing them for play? Me too! The upgrade with the most bang for the buck is definitely attaching a measuring cord to the two boards. Using two fastening clips, you can attach a cord between the two boards. When you get the boards out to play, you can place one board in its spot, extend the cord, and then clip it to the other board. Once the cord is pulled tight, you know you have the correct distance.


Having to quit playing due to darkness is a pain that all cornholers encounter. There is nothing worse than having to end your fun because you are out of daylight. For little money, you can purchase hole lights to light up the board hole. If you want the board lit up, you can purchase Christmas lights. Drill holes in the board-face along the edges and then insert the Christmas lights through the bottom of the holes.


Although stand-alone scoreboards are cheap, building them into the boards can add a lot of flavor and easily impress friends. You can build them into your board by making a score card on either the back or side wall of the board. You can purchase a magnetic scoreboard and mount it to the board. For markers, simply get two magnets of differing colors.

Cup Holders

Cup holders can be incorporated into your boards with ease. Put a 2×4 horizontally between the two legs. You can then drill the cup holder holes into the 2×4 and conveniently store your drinks in the back of the board.


If you are tired of carrying your boards by grabbing the edges, you can put handles on your board at no cost. The two most common types of built-in handles are rope and cutouts. For rope, simply drill two holes into the side of each board and run rope through the holes. For a cutout handle, just cut a slit into the side of each board.

What Are We Missing?

If you have an idea that is missing from the list, leave a comment letting us know.

Qualities of a Good Teacher

“Learners love me, I love my lovers,

Searchers look me in unseen sheet of papers,

I am knowledge. “

An American definition of ‘Teaching’ envisages that ‘ Teaching is the consistent and effective transfer of appropriate behaviors which lead to the achievement of predetermined and specified results’. Hence in order to substantiate the purpose of teaching that is the transfer of knowledge to the students properly so that after receiving teachings they can acquire expected knowledge and pre-determined results. Hence a good teacher is he who teaches the students how to lead their lives cleanly and controlled towards acquiring knowledge. A good teacher is vitally important for ideal teachings to the students. He should know the correct way of teaching where the students are inspired to learn and devote themselves to study. A good teacher is an architect for building a good citizen in the country.

According to Comoneius, a famous educationist, in order to make teaching successful, the three things are vitally important. These are Good teacher, Good method and Good books. Indeed, a good teacher plays a vital role in making teachings to the students successful. Being a teacher, he should behave in such a way by dint of his own image, voice and body use so that interaction and transfer of behaviour between the teacher and the student are accelerated in a systematic manner.

About the image, he needs to behave like the following:

– Well-dressed

– Well rested and calm & quiet

– He has to arrive before the students

– He has to greet the students as they arrive

– He needs to be enthusiastic about teaching in relevant field

– He has to identify and help the less able students

– He should remain alert and concentrate on how his students are behaving

– He should be an attentive listener

– He should think before he speaks

– He should remain calm and quiet

Assuming in a teaching classroom, computer class on Visual Basic is going on. The students are feeling boring because the teacher was not well dressed and well rested. Rather he has arrived late and he has not greeted them. Some students do not understand his lecture. He is running fast. He is not identifying and helping the less able students. In this case, despite his sound knowledge in the relevant field, he may not be treated as a good teacher. Henry Fayol defines a teacher as an active student of the students who can play very much attractive and fascinate role upon overall performances in the class. Besides this, in order to make our teachings memorable by good preparation, we need to follow as appended below apropos to the use of Voice:

– A teacher must start with Bang and end with Bang.

– In between check and interaction, a teacher should understand one thing that the students are learning.

– To plan for accurate timing

– To choose a suitable teaching methods in respect of the students and topics with a great care. And to help the students learn, especially those who are with problems.

An ideal teacher needs to play a vital role in active advisor among the students. He needs to be careful about the criteria on Control, Guide, Consult and Facilitate.

– Control: To draw up and issue instruction, and stay with the students, closely supervising its action.

– Guide to clarify what is required, hand over ownership to students and offer to give advice when they call you.

– Consult: To give a broad outline, ask students to discuss ideas and agree actions, using us as a separate expert reference point.

– Facilitate to give overall direction, co-ordinate the group’s discussion and expect it to produce a progress report.

Being a teacher, we need to be very careful in using our voice for effective teaching class. A good teacher need not be excited and agitated towards the students. We should give chance to ask question to the students so that transfer of behaviour is made possible in a significant manner. Sometimes, we forget that we are a teacher and we have a particular job for the students on the concept of learning. According to Franchise Bacon, there are two types of learning: One is Pedagogy- children’s learning and the other is Andragoggy- Adult learning. In case of adult learning, we cannot teach anybody, we only help him or her to learn. So in the case of using our voice we need to be responsible and tactful. Hence Somerset Maugham says ” It is difficult to pass over the razor’s edge, but the wise say the path to salvation is hard “

An ideal teacher needs to be well conversant about using the language. It is indispensable to create awareness and congenial atmosphere on the part of a teacher. In order to develop lecture, group discussion is a vital thing. As a teacher, we have to ensure that group performance is effective.

Apropos to the teaching method, the following are important to apply in teaching the students virtually.

1. Telling is not teaching

2. Age is not a bar to learn

3. Meaningful learning experience

4. Voice, image and body use

5. Practically oriented way of teaching

6. Repeat, Recap and Review

In view of the above, a good teacher selects any method to teach the students but according to Franchise Bacon, most of the good teachers select the sixth Rule of teaching that is ‘ Repeat, Recap, Review ‘ which is the most important one to make the teaching vitally effective, meaningful, fruitful and up to the mark

The reasons in support of the argument are stated as follows.

(a) Repeat: According to Franchise Bacon, ‘when you tell something in the class to a group of students, it is only a saying but when you recapitulate it, repeat it and ask the question on the progress, it will be interacted and if you further emphasize the concept, they will be conversant with the relevant knowledge’. Indeed, in case of delivering an important message, if it is stated once-only 10% will be memorized but if it is stated 6 times then 90% are memorized after one year. So, reiteration/repetition is the most important tools for the teaching to make the topics memorable. If the message is not remembered and understandable then the whole thing will be treated as useless.

(b) Recap: It is generally meant by recap to go over again the vital point of the relevant contents. Using FULLE-R and VHF for better memorization can do the recap. As the first events are best memorized so to start with big message. Thereafter unusual event like cartoon, exercise etc. be used. Thirdly, linked event, here mnemonics or analogy can be used and lastly to end with big messages of fascination towards the topics. In this context, summing up the ideas to arrive the conclusion that is the gist in question to be communicated to the students as a good communicator of the teaching course. We should remember one thing that ‘ Telling is not teaching; we need to make teaching active and interesting; get students involved; see it from the student’s view; we should use VHF and FULL-R. According to Comoneus, a famous educationist, for an effective teaching, ‘only lecture is immaterial but in order to ornament it for better memorization, ideal approach, demonstration, visual display and varieties of attractions of the students are needed’

(b) Review: A proverb always goes like ‘ To err is human’. It is human nature to forget the things/message, which is not reviewed that are we losing what we don’t review. To review we are to regularly sum up where we have reached and invited questions. At the end of every topics if the teacher repeats, recap and review, ask questions and help them to answer properly, the students will be more motivated and conversant with the subjects and grasp it properly so that teaching will be effective and fruitful. That is to say, a teacher’s behaviour will be in such, which must attract the students for effective and efficient teaching.

In delivering lecture, there are limitations, which may create hindrance to learning on the part of the students. Sometimes the lecture may be monotonous and boring due to continuous saying. If there exists dryness amongst the students, the teacher should change the policy of his lecture. He should ask open-ended questions. Open ended question help get students involved. Assuming to know a particular thing, one may get interested if he is intended to know those particular items. An ideal teacher needs to be well conversant about using the language. It is indispensable to create awareness and congenial atmosphere on the part of a teacher. Otherwise, we have to live in the midst of frustration and unlawful activities where there will be no light of education as a symbol of blaze illumination and peace and prosperity of life. In this context, William Shakespeare says:

“Out! Out! A brief candle,

A life’s but a walking shadow,

A poor player!

That struts and frets his hour

Upon the stage!

And then is heard no more,

It is a tale;

Told by an idiot,

It is full of sound and fury;

Signifying nothing.”

Green Dental Office Design – Improving the Lighting

One of the biggest areas of concern in dental office design is making sure that there is proper lighting, especially in the operatories. Traditionally, fluorescent ceiling lighting has been used to provide general purpose lighting. One of the challenges, however, is to do so with color correcting lamps (bulbs) so that the lighting does not affect the color of the patient’s teeth and the best possible color matches can be obtained.

If the dental office was not built with a dental office designer involved that watched for this, often times low-cost general purpose fluorescent fixtures and standard lamps were installed and the dentist and hygienist have had to deal with the poor illumination and quality that they produce.

Today, as we move toward higher efficiency and green dental office design, there are better options. Moving to T5 lamp fluorescent fixtures can improve the energy by as much as 28%. For example, a 35W T5 lamp puts out 3650 lumens with an efficacy of 104 lumens per watt. This compares to a 40W T12 lamp at only 3,050 lumens and an efficacy of 81 lumens per watt, or a 32W T8 at only 2,700 lumens and an efficacy of 89 lumens per watt. (source: 1)

If your dental office design makes use of can lighting rather than tube, replacing the lamps with compact fluorescents (CFL) or LED’s is a great way to reduce your energy usage and “green” your office. LED’s generally score 92 on the Color Rendering Index as compared to 80 to 85 for other light sources, giving a “truer” white light. The sun is measured at 100 CRI. As far as efficacy goes LED’s can generate as many lumens at 15W as a fluorescent produces at 35W. That’s over a 50% reduction in energy usage.

Another green design advantage LED’s have over incandescent and fluorescent lighting is that they contain no hazardous chemicals. Most fluorescent and CFL’s contain mercury, lead, sodium, or other hazardous materials that can end up in land-fills and leach into the water supply.

Lastly, in addition to reduced energy usage LED’s last a long time. Since they don’t really burn out, their life is measured in lumen depreciation, and most LED’s can last 50,000 hours or more before their lumen output depreciates to 70% of its original output. This is the point at which the Illuminating Engineering Society says they should be replaced.

So, if you are planning a dental office remodel or a design for your new dental office, be sure to ask your dental office designer to make use of higher efficiency, greener lighting in the design. If your not currently doing a remodel but are looking for ways to green your office and reduce your energy usage, converting your lamps or fixture to T5 fluorescents or LED’s is a great place to start!

Source 1:

Barrier Methods of Contraception

The barrier methods of birth control work by preventing the sperm from reaching the egg. The idea of inserting something into the vagina to prevent pregnancy is not new. Such devices were called pessaries and they were used by the ancient Egyptians.

Pessaries were mentioned as early as 1850 B.C. in the Petri Papyrus. The formula then was a mixture of crocodile dung and honey which was placed in the vagina prior to intercourse.

“Interestingly, this mixture not only acted as a barrier to sperm, but had some broad spermicidal effects. If a convenient crocodile wasn’t available, elephant dung could be used,” said Dr. Niels Lauersen, a diplomate of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Steven Whitney in “It’s Your Body: A Woman’s Guide to Gynecology.”

Various formulas of pessaries were used throughout the world. Elephant dung and honey was the preferred combina¬tion in India and Africa. In Persia during the 10th century, pessaries were made of mixed rock salt and an oily material.

The most popular pessary, however, was invented by Walter Rendell, a London chemist who lived in the late 1800s. Seeing how many people suffered from the burden of having too many children, Rendell developed a pessary containing quinine which he distributed freely to customers at his pharmacy.

“The results of this new pessary exceeded his expecta¬tions. Requests were logged so rapidly that the pessary was marketed commercially in 1886. By the turn of the century, the product was a best seller throughout the world. In fact, until the 20th century, quinine was the only recognized spermicide which could be used with complete safety,” Lauersen and Whitney added.

With the popularity of pessaries, new formulas were developed using less irritating substances. Today’s barrier methods of contraception include the diaphragm, vaginal sponge, condom and cervical cap. These are often used together with chemical barriers such as creams, jellies, foams and suppositories. Let’s examine them one by one.


The diaphragm is a molded rubber cap which blocks sperm as it covers the cervix and the back of the vagina. It must be inserted for each act of intercourse and left on for six to eight hours afterward.

A smaller version of the diaphragm is the cervical cap which covers only the cervix but works the same way. Unlike the diaphragm, however, this device must be fitted by a physician. Women may find it difficult to do the same because the cap must be inserted deep within the vagina.

The first real diaphragm was created by Aetius of Amida in the 6th century using the fruit of the pomegranate tree. After removing the seeds and pulp of that fruit, Aetius told women to insert the hollow end into the vagina before intercourse.

In 1883, Dr. Frederick Wilde, a German physician, described how a rubber cap could block sperm, but it was Dr. Wilhelm Mensinga, another German, who popularized the method. (Next: Disadvantages of diaphragms.)

Error 1335 "Data1 CAB Is Corrupt" Fix – How To Repair Error 1335 On Your PC

The 1335 error is a problem that’s caused by the way in which Windows will not be able to correctly process the settings that it needs from an installation. The problem is specifically caused by the way in which Windows will not be able to load up the “” file from the installation application. .CAB files are known as “cabinet” files – files which are used to help installation programs to place a large number of files onto your system from a single file – making it vital that your system is able to read all of these files to help with the installation process.

The error you’re seeing will likely show in this format:

“Error 1335-Cannot copy cab file The file may be corrupt.”

The 1335 error will most typically be caused by a corruption with the Windows registry settings which are used to help your computer process all the important files that it needs to run. The registry is a large database which stores all the settings that Windows computers will use to run, and is where your PC keeps the likes of your desktop wallpaper, most recent emails and even your passwords – making it a very important part of your system. Despite the importance of the registry, it’s continually being damaged & corrupted – leading to a large number & variety of errors forming, including the likes of the 1335 error.

The way to fix the 1335 error is to first ensure that your computer is able to correctly process all the important settings & options which it requires to run from the installation. You should attempt to copy the files from the installation CD and then place them onto your hard drive – making sure that Windows will be able to read them when it requires them.

It’s highly recommended that you also use a registry cleaner program to fix any of the problems that your system may have. A registry cleaner is a program designed specifically to fix any of the errors that may be inside the “registry database” of your PC – making sure that Windows is able to specifically process all the important settings and options it requires to run. You can use a registry cleaner to scan through your computer and get rid of any of the problems that your system may have inside, which should resolve the 1335 error for you.

How to Choose Floor Tiles For Your Home

Your home is your very own personal space where you can give a free run to your creative ideas. And choosing good floor tiles can indeed seem an easy and challenging task, especially if you do have a creative bent of mind! The size and design required for your flooring should be calculated before choosing a quality floor tile set for your home.

The size of the flooring is very important, for example larger tiles can be easily laid and needs little maintenance. But, you should make sure that your flooring is flat and even before choosing large sized ones, as even slight deviations can look ghastly and very much noticeable.

Tiles design should also be chosen with care and should suit your home environment. Ceramic, granite, marbonite, mosaic, sandstone, vitrified or porcelain tile are very popular and can produce a wondrous effect on your home flooring. Similarly, there are numerous floor tiles design in ceramic range such as ornate, artistic, check board, square, rectangle, triangle, fusion geometric, circles, etc.

If you’re planning on laying granite flooring, you can avail or choose from a plethora of designs and colors. Granite, being a natural high quality stone is very durable and looks extremely appealing with a polished finish.

Many people also prefer to use vitrified tiles to beautify their floors. These are created artificially by vitrifictaion procedure and processed (for making it water resistant and stain proof). These tiles have superior features as compared to granite or marble. Choosing floor tiles design in vitrified varieties can be real fun as there are endless possibilities such as designing your very own personalized print image through digital printing for them.

A visitor or guest entering your house is likely to notice your floor immediately as he steps inside. So if the flooring is exquisite and impressive, it will leave a great impact on the visitors. Tiles are natural home ornaments that actually give it a real feel and beauty. Nowadays, many homeowners are opting for designer tiles on their home flooring to produce a personalized look to the whole house.

Actually, when it comes to choosing floor tiles design, there is innumerable choices and varieties in the market. You can take the valuable help of an interior designer or flooring expert while laying the flooring of your home. There are wide range of choices in styles, types, textures and designs in floor tiles. It is best to study about the different types of floor tiles and their usefulness. Some types can look extremely beautiful without being durable, while others may look dull but guarantee long lasting durability.

You should be clever enough to choose a flooring that is tough and beautiful in appearance also. Good planning is main key to buying the correct type of floor tiles for your house. You can start by leafing through online sources for different ideas and design structures. You can also compare prices and opt for a competitive and affordable priced floor tile set.

Selecting John Deere Part Numbers For John Deere Equipment – It’s Not As Simple As it Sounds

The identification of John Deere Parts at times, are not as simple as providing a serial number of a machine, or a serial number of an engine, and then the parts are looked up in the parts catalogue. Experience has proven that this method is not as straight forward was many, including myself, would prefer it to be.

To begin with, lets start with John Deere water pumps. Using a 4045 John Deere engine as an example, perusing the parts manuals would reveal many different water pumps that may fit a 4045 engine. Taking into consideration that there are 4045, 4045D, and 4045T engines, the number of water pumps available will increase. In some instances, the application (e.g Ag,or Construction) will assist in zoning into the correct pump. However, in almost most cases, the combinations of pumps would require additional information. In this case, the number that is casted on the old water pump is needed. This is known as a “Casting Number.” On the housing of the pump, a number will be embossed.

Typically, this begins with the letter “R” or “T.” Thus, both T29701 and R55971 are John Deere water pump casting numbers.

The 4045 John Deere engines made in Dubuque, with no turbocharger, will have a water pump part number of RE21177. The part number of the housing is AR80109. John Deere will list both of these numbers as having a casting number of R59049.

The turbocharged John Deere Dubuque engine will have a water pump part number of AR77142. The housing part number is AR80116. This engine water pump has two different casting numbers, R90784, and R104648. Provide these numbers to your aftermarket parts dealers when requesting a new water pump, or a water pump overhaul kit.

This casting number phenomenon is not restricted to water pumps only. When ordering an engine overhaul kit, the piston number, and the connecting rod casting numbers are sometimes required to identify which components are compatible.

Marine engines, as compared to construction engines, will have slightly varying components. An engine block for the marine engine for the 4045 engine can be slightly different from the engine block for a 4045 tractor engine. Both are made for different applications, and can be different. Marine engines are specially designed for continuous operations.

To answer the question as to whether an engine block from the marine can be interchanged for an engine block from a generator, for example, two things must be done.

One, compare the casting numbers on both blocks. This is embossed on the side of the cylinder block. If the two numbers are identical, then the interchangeability is possible.

Two, compare the SAE housings of the two engines. It’s no use switching engine blocks around, to find out at late that the SAE housings are different, and therefore, the transmission cannot be bolted on.

While writing on the issue of John Deere casting numbers, other relatively simple information is invaluable in identifying correct parts and part numbers. A simple as it may sound; the exact model of the machine is needed. A 310 backhoe is not the same as a 310G backhoe. The serial number of the machine is also needed. A serial number will include the engine model, and the machine type. John Deere’s online system offers a free service whereby the serial number of the machine is inputted, and JD’s data is provided.

What is the Kaizen Promotion Office?

Lean and Six Sigma methodologies have developed to the stage where, in many companies, they have been combined into some sort of operations excellence function, usually headed up by a manager, director, or vice president. There is often a small staff of experts in lean (Lean Sensei, Lean Black Belt/Green Belt/White Belt) and six sigma (Master Black Belt, Black Belt, Green Belt, and Yellow Belt).

This function is called the Kaizen Promotion Office…..a group of experienced facilitators who can assist anywhere in the company with it’s Lean and Six Sigma activities. It’s purpose is to provide the resources for continuous improvement. Ideally, this would always be in the context of a value stream

The two types of activities supported by the KPO are:

1) Lean Kaizen Events (with Lean training)

2) Six Sigma Projects (with six sigma training).

The Kaizen Promotion Officer, as leader of this group, would typically report directly to a senior manager, someone like the COO, or perhaps the CFO.

If companies have evolved these two methodologies to this point, they’re in pretty good shape for the challenges and opportunities facing them in the future. If not, there’s going to be trouble.

Some (many?) companies still have only a six sigma function. Some (fewer?) only have a lean function. Some (even fewer?) have both lean and six sigma, but they’re operating separately and often fighting with each other over who’s more important. Some companies (still far too many) have no lean and no six sigma capabilities at all. Enough already! Something needs to change!

The Kaizen Promotion Office is the integrating body that puts an end to the bickering and aligns both lean and six sigma people for a common cause….that of assisting the company with continuous improvement.

So, if you don’t currently have a KPO how do you get started? Good question.

First, you’re going to need to get some people trained in lean and some in six sigma. There are many resources (books, seminars, trainers, consultants, colleges and universities, the internet, etc) available for that. You just need to budget some money and time and get going on building your own internal resources.

Second, you should identify a leader for this newly-emerging KPO. This is going to have to be a person with the technical skills (lean and/or six sigma) plus the passion for changing the company.

Third, you’ll need to give them a home address….a place where they can reside together and work as a team.

Fourth, you’ll have them deployed on lean and six sigma projects…always best done in the context of value streams. If you don’t yet have value streams, this could be the very first thing the KPO people work on.

Fifth, their “care and feeding” will have to be taken care of. They’ll need their own operating budget, training programs, and career development process so they can be effective.

Sixth, the senior officers (CEO, COO, CFO) need to get personally involved in promoting the use of the KPO. Middle management won’t do it just because the KPO is there.

Seventh, the KPO needs to achieve some short-term victories…..some early wins in the company.

Eigth, the KPO needs to be actively advertised throughout the company. Put stories about them in the company newspaper, on posters, in corporate communications of all types.

Nineth, the KPO needs to grow by adding new members and expanding it’s “reach” throughout the company.

Tenth, the KPO begins to work at the macro-value stream level by integrating suppliers and customers in improving the entire supply chain.

So there you have it! Ten steps to get a Kaizen Promotion Office up and running in your company. Try it, you’ll be glad you did.

Ergonomic Chair Review – Herman Miller Equa XR Ergonomic Work Chair and Aeron Chair Review

Herman Miller is well known for its wide range of high quality ergonomic mesh chairs and also considered to be an innovative pioneer in the industry. You can choose from chairs with adjustable arms, multi-adjustable height and lumbar support that uses the latest advances in technology coupled with the science of ergonomics. Herman Miller ergonomic chairs comes with a twelve year warranty that covers all electrical components as well as any labor costs.

Herman Miller Equa XR Ergonomic Work Chair

The chair is available in leather with polished aluminum and it comes in large or medium size. Featuring thick, foam padding and continual back support via the one piece shell, the Equa XR also has a knee-tilt mechanism to reduce pressure and swelling in the legs, a benefit noted in more than one ergonomic chair review by consumers.

Like all chairs from Herman Miller, the Equa XR ergonomic work chair is covered by their exclusive twelve year parts and labor warranty. The large Equa XR chair measures 25.5 inches wide by 17.7 inches deep and is 17.5 to 22.5 inches high and has a weight capacity of 300 pounds. The medium Equa XR measures 25.5 inches wide by 16.7 inches deep and 15.5 to 20.5 inches high.

Herman Miller Aeron Chair Size C

Easily recognizable by the patented mesh fabric, the Aeron Herman Miller ergonomic chair is said to be one of the best ergonomic chairs available today with features such as its adjustable arms and superior lumbar support.

The Herman Miller Aeron Chair size C, which is the largest of the three sizes, is available in thirteen different Pellicle fabrics and measures 28.25 inches wide with a maximum height of 45 inches overall. The actual seat of the chair measures just over 21.6 inches wide and 18.5 inches deep with a height of 16 to 20.5 inches.

According to ergonomic chair review and reports by consumers, this model’s material allows you to stay comfortable and cool, regardless of the indoor temperature or time of year, and instantly align to your figure, giving premium support where needed while evenly distributing pressure.

The Measuring Wheel

The measuring wheel is a device consisting of a wheel of known circumference with a handle attached by which the wheel can be pulled or pushed and a device which measures the number of times the wheel turns on the ground.

The measuring wheel has been in use for hundreds of years. It was re-introduced as a device for measuring distances in the 17th century. The earliest devices were made of wood and some of them had iron rims to provide strength and durability. They were made like wagon wheels and often by the same makers. Modern measuring wheels are made of aluminum with tires on the wheel.

How the measuring wheel works

This device operates on a simple principle: since the circumference of the wheel is known, the distance covered by the wheel is equal to circumference of the wheel multiplied by the number of times the wheel turns. For example if the circumference of the wheel is 1meter and the wheel turns 100 times in moving from A to B, then the distance between A and B is 1meter multiplied by 100 which is 100meters.

Note: Circumference means the distance round a circle

If the wheel makes an incomplete turn or the number of turns is not a whole number, the distance is measured using the same principle. For example, if the wheel turns 50 times and then makes a ¾ turn, the distance is measured as 1meter multiplied by 50¾ which is 50¾meters or 50.75 meters. The wheel is marked round in segments starting with a reference point, so a fractional turn can be observed easily.

Uses and limitations of the measuring wheel

The measuring wheel is used primarily for lower accuracy surveys by farmers, underground utility workers or road maintenance crews for quick measurement of distances too long to be measured conveniently with a measuring tape.

Distances measured by the measuring wheel are usually longer than those recorded in conventional land surveying because the wheel measures the distance along a surface while in land survey, the distance between points is measured horizontally.

The measuring wheel gives a fairly accurate measurement on a smooth surface, such as pavement but on rough ground, it could bounce, slip or climb over obstacles on its path, all of which reduce its accuracy by either adding to or reducing the real distance covered. Soft sandy or muddy soil can also affect the turning of the wheel. For a more accurate measurement, take note of any circumstance along the path of the wheel that could affect accuracy and either measure it separately (with a tape or some other instrument) or correct for it mathematically.

Various modifications of the wheel are in use today, with more sophisticated measuring devices and some of them can even be folded up for easy transportation but the principle by which they operate remains the same. These modifications vary according to the kind of professionals who use them.

Poker Cards and Bridge Cards: Should Feminists Make the Sizes of All Playing Cards Equal?

Everyone knows that bridge cards are smaller than poker cards. In general, bridge cards are about ¼ inch (or about 5 millimeters) slimmer than poker cards. The question is: why? A person could very easily play a game of poker with bridge cards and vice versa. And other card games like euchre, pitch, hearts, and spades can be played with either size deck (an additional question might be: why is there not a different size deck for each of these card games, as well?)

Clearly, size does not matter!

There are many different theories as to why these playing cards are sized differently.

· One of my favorite theories is a feminist theory – bridge is a game for women and poker is a game for men. Women have delicate, small hands while men have big, burly hands, and this is why bridge cards are smaller than poker cards – how can a wee woman handle such manly cards as poker cards? To break free of this playing-card-oppression, women ought to (1) encourage men to admit their femininity by playing bridge (2) encourage men to renounce their manhood by playing poker with bridge cards (3) start playing more poker, or (4) start playing with jumbo-sized cards to show that women are not just as good as men, but better!

Perhaps the question should not be, “Why are bridge cards so small,” but, rather, “Why are poker cards so darn big?”

· The Texas theory – Texas is a big state, right? And Texas Hold ‘Em, perhaps the premier poker game, is named for this big state, right? Well, it only makes sense that poker cards are as big as Texas!

· The American theory – Americans are generally wider than the rest of the world, it only make sense that their poker cards are, as well! (In many countries, the standard size deck is a bridge size).

· Poker is a gambling game, and there are some people that try to win by cheating. Therefore, to discourage cheating, poker cards are larger, making sleights of hand more difficult (of course, at the same time, it is slightly harder to conceal larger cards).

The most likely reason that bridge cards are narrower than poker cards:

· In bridge, you generally have to hold more cards in your hand – around 13 compared to just 5 for poker. It is easier to hold the smaller cards and to keep them concealed. In poker, on the other hand, it is easier to hold the larger cards, since you have so few to hold onto.

Further information on playing cards:

· Magicians generally prefer bridge cards – because they are smaller, they are easier to manage for many different magic tricks and sleights of hand.

· Most licensed cards, like a deck of Coca Cola playing cards, are poker-sized.

· Jumbo index cards are not cards that are even bigger than poker cards – rather, they have large print in the corners so that the numbers are easier to read.

· In many casino poker games, bridge-sized cards are used!

Can a Legistor Cross Carpet and Still Keep His Seat Under Nigerian Law?

Our chief concern here is to discuss the legal consequences of the current spate of party defection by members of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) to the All Progressive Congress (APC). We shall leave the task of recounting Nigeria’s history on carpet crossing to historians and shall not be bordered by it. We shall also not allow ourselves to be drawn into arguments as to the morality/propriety of carpet crossing.

The media is awash with the news of the defection of 37 PDP members of the House of Representatives to the APC. Already, five PDP governors have dumped the party for the APC. The collapse of the PDP as the ruling party in Nigeria and as Africa’s biggest political party seems imminent as unconfirmed reports say that twenty-two senators are planning to also dump the party for the APC.

Nigerian law on carpet crossing begins and ends with the provisions of Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1)(g) of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. These sections provide that:

“a member of the Senate or House of Representatives or State House of Assembly shall not vacate his seat in the House of which he is a member if being a person whose election into the House was sponsored by a political party, he becomes a member of another political party before the expiration of the period for which the House was elected.

Provided that his membership of the latter political party is not as a result of a division in the political party of which he was previously a member of a merger of two or more political parties by one of which he was previously sponsored.”

It is interesting to note that unlike the purport of above provisions, Sections 135 and 180 of the said Constitution which provides for circumstances under which the President or his Vice, and a Governor or his Deputy could cease to hold office does not mention party defection as a ground for vacating or ceasing to hold office.

From the above provisions therefore, Nigerian law on carpet crossing could be summarized as follows:

1. A Legislator in Nigeria could lose or vacate his seat in parliament if he defects from the party that sponsored him into the Legislative House to another party.

2. A Nigerian Governor, Deputy Governor, President or Vice President cannot vacate or cease to hold office for defecting from the political party that sponsored him into office to another.

3. Before a Legislator in Nigeria could be made to lose his seat in parliament for defecting to a party other than the one that sponsored him into the House, the principal officer of that Legislative House( the Senate President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives or the Speaker of the State House of Assembly as the case may be) or a member of that Legislative House must first present evidence satisfactory to the Legislative House concerned that a member has defected from the political party that sponsored him into the House to another political party and has by operation of law vacated his seat in Parliament.

4. It follows from the above that if there is no satisfactory evidence presented to the Legislative House on a member’s defection, the member who is alleged to have defected can still retain his seat. He will however continue to be known and addressed as a member of the party that sponsored him into the House.

5. A Legislator in Nigerian can cross carpet to a party other than the one that sponsored him into the House and still keep his seat if he can prove that his defection was as a result of a division within his former party.

6. Also, a Legislator in Nigeria will not lose/vacate his seat even though he has defected from the party sponsored him to another party if he can prove that his membership of a new party is as a result of a merger of two or more political parties or factions by one of which he was previously sponsored.

The position that while a Legislator in Nigeria is liable to lose his seat in parliament for cross carpeting to another party, the President, Vice President, Governor or Deputy Governor is not liable and cannot be forced to vacate or cease to hold office for the same reason was endorsed by the Nigerian Supreme Court in the case of AGF V. Atiku Abubarkar (2007)4 S.C (pt.11)62 where the issue before the court was whether the Vice President’s defection from the PDP( on whose platform he was elected into office) to the Action Congress of Nigeria(ACN) meant that he had automatically vacated and ceased to hold that office.

The Supreme Court held that it is only Legislators that are liable to vacate their seats in parliament for defection to a different party from the one that sponsored them into office. The supreme held that the constitution does not envisage or provide for the vacation /cessation of the office of the President, Vice President, Governor or Deputy Governor for defection from the party that sponsored them into office to another party. The Apex court held therefore that Vice-President Atiku Abubarkar was entitled to keep and/or in office even though he had effected from the PDP to the ACN.

Again, the position that a legislator may lose his seat in parliament for cross carpeting to another political party has been affirmed by the court in some decisions. For instance, the Federal High Court of Nigeria sitting in Akure in the case of Hon. Ifedayo Sunday Abegunde v. The Ondo State House of Assembly & Ors. sacked Mr. Abegunde, a House of Representatives member representing Akure North and South, Ondo State for defecting from the Labour Party to the ACN. Mr Abegunde had been elected into the House under the auspices of the Labour Party in the April 2011 General Elections. He however, defected to the ACN during the currency of the tenure of the House. The court held that Mr Abegunde had vacated his seat and ceased to be a member of the House by operation of law. This decision was affirmed and upheld by the Court of Appea in Re Hon. Ifedayo Sunday Abegunde v. The Ondo State House of Assembly & Ors. (2014) LPELR-23683(CA),Appeal No.CA/AK/110/2012.

Again, in the case of Hon. Michael Dapialong v. Chief (Dr) Joseph Chibi Dariye, Appeal No. S.C 39/2007 the Supreme Court took judicial notice of the fact that between 25th and 26th July,2006, fourteen members of the twenty-four members of the Plateau State House of Assembly including the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker thereof defected from the PDP platform on whose they were elected to the House in 2009 to the Advanced Congress of d Democrats(ACD) as a result of which the said 14 members were held to have vacated their seats by operation of law.

Relying on the Supreme Court decision in AGF V. Atiku Aburbakar therefore, we can safely conclude that the five PDP Governors that had defected to the APC can validly do so without being liable to vacate or cease to hold their offices. This is because the Constitution simply does not penalize the President, Vice President, a Governor or Deputy Governor who dumps the party that sponsored him into office for another party. Also, unlike Legislators, these members of the executive arm of Government are not required to proffer explanations or reasons to justify defection.

However, some persons have argued that even though the Constitution does not penalize defection by Governors, the Supreme Court decision in Rotimi Amaechi v INEC Appeal No. SC 525/2007 could be relied upon to effect the vacation from office of Governors who defect from the parties that sponsored them into office to another political party before the expiration of their tenure. Acording Mr Dan Nwayanwu, Chairman of the Labour Party of Nigeria, the Supreme Court’s dictum in Amaechi’s Case to the effect that it is the political party and not the candidate for which the electorate cast their votes could be interpreted and applied to mean that Governors who get elected into office only to dump the party that sponsored them into office for another party should vacate or cease to hold office upon defection.

Mr Dan Nwamyawu in an interview granted to Sunday Trust Newspapers in 2007 advocated that Governors who defect to parties other than the ones that sponsored them into office should be kicked out of office on the basis of the decision in Amaechi v. INEC. We humbly disagree with this position. This is because the Constitution does not impose any penalty or legal disability on carpet crossing by Governors. Secondly, the Supreme Court in Amaechi’s Case did not decide the issue of the consequence of a Governor’s defection from his party. Rather, the question in Amaechi’s case was whether a person who did not contest an election could be heard to challenge an election or be declared as Governor. The decision in AGF V. Atiku Abubarka for all intents and purposes remains the authoritative exposition of the law on party defection in Nigeria.

It is by now beyond doubt that the five PDP governors who had defected to the APC are entitled to do so without any attendant penalty or legal disability. But can the same be said of the 37 members of the House of Representatives members who have defected to the APC? Can they validly dump the PDP for the APC without losing their seat in parliament?

By a letter addressed to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, titled ‘Communication of Change of Political Party’ and dated the 18tth December, 2013, the 37 defecting Federal Lawmakers explained that their defection from the PDP to the APC was as a result of the internal crisis within the PDP. The Lawmakers also premised their defection from the PDP to the APC on the fact that the PDP has broken into two factions: the New PDP and the Old PDP. The so-called New PDP consisting of the dissatisfied and disgruntled members of the party, the majority of whom have defected to the APC.

It is to be recalled that in Agundade’s case, he had argued that given the internal crisis, division and factionalization within the Labour Party, he was entitled by virtue of the proviso in Section 109(1)(g) of the 1999 Constitution to defect from the Labour Party to the ACN without losing or having to vacate his seat in the House. The court however ruled that since he could not prove division or factionalization within the Labour Party, he was not entitled to keep or retain his seat after he decamped to the ACN. That he vacated his seat upon defection to the ACN by operation of law.

The proviso to the provisions of Section 68(1) (g) and 109(1) (g) of the 1999 Constitution are to the effect that although a Legislator would ordinarily lose his seat if he defects to a party different from the one that sponsored him into the Legislative House, he is entitled to keep his seat if he can prove that:

1. He defected to a new party as a result of division within the party that sponsored him into the house.

2. His membership of the new party is as a result of the merger of two or more political parties or factions by one of which he was previously sponsored.

Before we proceed to examine whether the internal crisis rocking the PDP falls within the proviso to Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1) (g) of the Constitution, it is pertinent to determine what constitutes division in a political party. The constitution does not define word “division”. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, 6th Edition, defines division as a disagreement or difference in opinion or way of life etc especially between members of a society or an organization.

According to Professor Okey Okon of the South Central University, California, USA, division could arise from:

1. Ideological differences and

2. Organizational differences.

Organizational differences denote conflict, division, crisis etc arising as a result of the way and manner the party is run, operated or managed. In fact, all conflicts and crises arising from the management and operation of the organic structure of the political party fall under the category of organizational differences. Conflict, division or crises arising from organizational differences bordering on such issues as internal democracy mechanism of the party, conduct of primaries election, funding, election of principal officers of the party, adoption of candidates as party flag bearer for election, handling of party finances, planning and execution of election campaign strategies etc come under organizational differences.

It is a notorious fact that the PDP has from inception been bedeviled by internal crises caused by the occurrence of undemocratic practices within the party. The defecting 37 Federal Legislators have alleged that their defection from the PDP to APC was as a result of division and internal crises within the party and that they are entitled to keep their seats in parliament. We do not know the particulars of the alleged division or crises within the PDP but if their allegations are true then they are entitled to keep their seats in parliament.

We shall now turn our attention to the issue of whether ideological differences constitute division as to entitle a defecting legislator to retain his seat in parliament. Ideological differences relates to conflict, disagreement, crisis or division arising from a conflict between a party member’s ideas, beliefs, conviction, principles, philosophy or policy with those of his political party. When a member disagrees with his party’s ideas, policies, programs, philosophy or principles on socio- political or economic issues does this disenchantment or disagreement with his party entitle him to defect to another party without having to lose/vacate his seat in parliament? Does this conflict or disagreement with his party constitute division as envisaged by the proviso in Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1)(g) of the 1999 Constitution?

Professor Okey Okon is of the opinion that ideological differences constitute division within the meaning of Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1) (g) of the Constitution and at such empowers a Legislator to defect to another party without losing his seat whenever he disagrees with the policy and philosophy of his party. According to the learned Professor, ideological differences are a form of division which should justify a legislator to defect to another party without having to lose or vacate his seat. He opined that any interpretation of the law to exclude ideological difference as constituting division is erroneous. The learned Professor further posits that failure to treat ideological differences as division will deprive Legislators of the sense of safety and protection they need to stand up for what they believe in. He held that such a narrow reading of the law will provide perverse incentives for Legislators to emphasize compliance at the expense of principles and conviction to expediency.

We however beg to disagree with this position. With due respect to the learned professor, the proviso to Section 68(1) (g) and 109(1) (g) of the Constitution cannot be objectively interpreted to mean that whenever a legislator disagrees with the policy or philosophy of his party on socio-economic political or other issues he can dump his party for another party and still retain his seat in parliament. Such an interpretation of the law cannot be the intendment of the drafters of the Constitution. It is important to note that the relevant provision reads… “As a result of a division in the political party”… This shows clearly that what the law envisages is a situation where there is a conflict or disagreement within the party that leads to internal crisis or instability in the party. In other words, ideological differences alone cannot justify defection.

However, for ideological differences to justify defection, they must be of such magnitude and intensity as to lead to crisis, instability, factionalization and conflict within the party. The Noscitur Associis rule of construction of statutes states that the company a word keeps suggests its meaning. The word “division” as used in Sections 68(1)(g) and 109(1) (g) of the 1999 Constitution are accompanied by the words “merger” and “factions” which words denotes a change or alteration in the organic structure of a political party. We therefore agree with Professor Okey to the extent that ideological differences can constitute division which can justify defection only when such differences are of such magnitude and intensity as to lead to instability or crises within the party. A mere difference in opinion or belief will not suffice to justify defection.

Indeed, legislators do not have to defect to a new party to express or hold opinions or views contrary to those favoured by their party unless of course doing so would result and actually results to instability and crisis/conflict within the party. It is submitted that to allow defection merely on the ground that a legislator disagrees with the policies or ideological position of his party on certain socio-economic cum political or moral issues would defeat the intention of the framers of the constitution. The constitution clearly intends to discourage and penalize legislators for defection except on rare and exceptional circumstances. Making mere differences in opinion and belief a ground for political defection would provide legislators an excuse for political prostitution.

It is interesting to note that the 37 defecting legislators have also sought to justify their defection on the ground that the PDP was divided into two political parties; the old PDP and the new PDP which consist of the defecting and disgruntled member. They alleged that the new PDP has formally merged with the APC. We are of the opinion that if these allegations are true then the 37 defecting legislators are entitled to so defect without having to lose their seats. It is pertinent to note that the PDP has obtained a court order declaring the so-called new PDP illegal and restraining its members from parading themselves as PDP members. The question that arises from this development is, what is the legal effect of this order on the rights of these defecting legislators to keep their seats. It is our humble opinion that the court order has no effect whatsoever on the rights of the defecting legislators to keep their seats. The order merely prohibits the use of the name PDP by the defecting faction. It does not mean that the defecting faction is an illegal group because they are not a group of criminals or bandit.

Indeed, Sections 39 and 40 of the 1999 Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of expression as well as the right to freedom of association. The court order therefore cannot operate to deprive or in any way prejudice the defecting members’ entitlement to keep their seats.

The PDP has reacted to the defection of its member, especially the 37 Federal lawmakers by saying that any member of the party that renounces its membership of PDP shall be made to vacate his seat. There are also reports in the media that the PDP has gone to court to obtain a declaration for the vacation of the seats and offices of the defecting legislators and five governors. Let’s keep our fingers crossed as we watch the drama unfold.