Simple Residential Construction Schedule – Create Flow Chart

In the last article we discussed creating a list of work items for your construction schedule. In this article we will discuss creating a flow chart of your work items.

Before we begin I would like to make a few comments of commercially available scheduling programs including Microsoft Project. These programs are based on a scheduling process called Critical Path Method (CPM) which was developed prior to the widespread use of computers. CPM is a great tool.

The programs that are based on the method are complicated to use. When we tried to switch to one of these programs we found we were spending far more time on updating the schedule than working the schedule. The updating process often produced unexpected results. And printing the schedule was time consuming and it was difficult to see the overall picture from the printouts. The title of these articles includes the word "Simple" and the method I am proposing is far easier to create and control.

I have always preferred the low tech approach which is writing each work item on one of those little yellow sticky notes and then arranging the notes in the order the work is preformed. If you do this on a large sheet of paper you can then connect the yellow sticky notes with lines and you have your flow chart. The advantage of the sticky notes is you can see the whole project as it develops and move the sticky notes to make corrections and revisions.

For the purpose of this exercise assume you complete one operation before you start the next. For example, list the rough plumbing; rough HVAC and rough electrical one after the other even though you are likely to overlap these items. In fact I highly recommend overlapping these trades because it will help them work as a team if they know each other. We will adjust for the overlap as we progress with the schedule.

Construction of the home, of course, does not take a single path from start to finish. When you have completed the roof interior construction and exterior construction take separate paths. Each will have its own path to completion. In our case the interior took much longer than the exterior

Once you have the entire schedule completed and you are confident it represents a practical schedule go back and add to each box (or sticky note) the number of days each work item should take and in parenthesis or with a different color the number of none overlapping days.

In the mechanical portion of the schedule the Plumbing, HVAC and Electrical would take fourteen work days if the work items were done one time at a time but can be completed in nine days by overlapping the work.

Next add up the non-overlapping days to complete each item on the flow chart so you have a starting work day for each work item. In the chart above the start work day is shown in bold just outside the upper left hand corner.

You now should have a practical road map to build the home but you are only half way there. Next you need to make sure all the materials are there when you need them. Go back to your list of work items and for each work item list any materials that need to be ordered and require a lead time. Some items will be obvious such as doors, windows and cabinets. Some are not so obvious. Do not absorb that items performed by subcontractors will be ordered by them. If you use a bath tub that requires three weeks lead time include it in the list.

I recommend you place orders for all critical items at the same time you start the project. Assuming you order all materials on day one of your schedule are there any items that will not arrive in time to be installed? When we started to use prefabricated wall panels and roof trusses we discovered that to get the drawing completed, approved by the municipality (many wanted to see design drawings on the trusses), into production and delivered took longer than building the foundation. We needed to order the wall panels and trusses more than ten days before we started the home or we had to wait for the materials. You can add boxes to your sticky note schedule (blue boxes on chart) if it helps you identify the flow and any lead time problems. I always add a box for confirming the order of critical item. To determine the start calculate backwards from the day you need to item on the jobsite.

Assuming I have made all this clear enough to follow you should have your complete road map of the construction project for your typical house. In my next article on scheduling I will address putting this all into an easy and usable format.

Original Content copyright 2011 Thomas Robinson

Types of Kitchen Flooring

The right kitchen flooring can not only make your life easier, but it has the ability to set the mood for the entire room. The three main factors to consider when deciding on the type of flooring for your kitchen are durability, use, and style. We'll start by taking a closer look at some of the most popular choices in kitchen flooring.

Hardwood Flooring
With its warm and inviting tone, hardwood flooring creates a traditional feeling in any kitchen. Hardwood floors are known for their beauty and prestige and are sturdy surfaces that are easy to clean. One of the most popular types of hardwood floors is oak which is neutral in color and very durable. Other popular types of wood used for flooring are ash, cherry and walnut.

Hardwood floors come in two types: solid and engineered. Solid flooring is cut from single pieces of wood and worked into desired shapes. Solid hardwood floors come in strip flooring which are nailed to sub-flooring, plank flooring which has wider boards, and parquet flooring which comes in squares or geometric shapes to create different patterns.

Engineered flooring is created by laminating thin sheets of wood together in a crisscross pattern for strength. They are then topped with a veneer of hardwood to add strength. Engineered flooring holds up better than solid flooring when exposed to changes in moisture and humidity. This makes it a good choice for below-ground floors. Engineered hardwood floors come in strips and planks.

When purchasing hardwood floors for your kitchen, you want to make sure that it has already been finished. Pre-finished hardwood is your best bet for several reasons. First of all, pre-finished wood flooring is less prone to damage and easier to maintain than its unfinished counterpart. Secondly, it is more durable and will in most cases come with long-term manufacturer warranties. Lastly, pre-finished hardwood floors are offered in a wide variety of stain colors and can be easily re-stained to match future remodeling projects.

Laminate Flooring
Laminate is a cost-effective choice for kitchen flooring that is both long-lasting and easy to maintain. Although not considered to be on the same level as wood and marble flooring, laminate can be created to imitate such looks. It is made of several layers and can be installed over
existing floors.

Laminate flooring has an impressive life span. In the lifespan of one laminate floor, carpet would need to be replaced 2 to 4 times, solid hardwoods would need 3 to 5 refinishing treatments, and vinyl flooring would need to be replaced 3 times. Most laminate flooring comes with a manufacturer's warranty of 25 years or longer.

Laminate flooring is extremely durable, which makes it a great choice for families with busy kitchens. It will resist damage from traffic, spills, and scrapes and it makes cleaning and maintenance very simple. Laminate flooring will not lose color over time, while flooring such as hardwood tend to fade. It is offered in many different styles and patterns, and can imitate other types of flooring such as wood, rock, gravel, and concrete.

Vinyl Flooring
Vinyl flooring is an affordable and aesthetically pleasing choice for kitchen flooring. Because of its durability and moisture resistance it is primarily used in busy areas of the home such as kitchens and bathrooms. Another reason for its popularity is that it can, much like laminate, be made to imitate other flooring materials such as stone, marble, and wood. Vinyl flooring is often referred to by the popular manufacturers' trade names Linoleum® and Congoleum®.

Vinyl is made of plastic, or more specifically polyvinyl chloride – abbreviated PVC – to which other compounds are added. It can consist of either multiple layers of material or just one layer.

It is manufactured using one of two processes: inlay or rotovinyl. With inlay vinyl, color and pattern are imbedded into the vinyl layers, while with rotovinyl only a single layer of vinyl is printed with color and pattern. Both manufacturing processes require a protective coating overlay in order to boost durability.

Inlay vinyl flooring, which is only available in tile form, offers great wear resistance since the colors and patterns go all the way through the flooring material. Rotovinyl comes in both sheet and tile form. Resistance to wear is dependent on the type of protective coating used during the manufacturing process. Vinyl floors are very easy to maintain. Sweeping or using a dust mop is often all that is needed.

Marble Flooring
Marble flooring is known for its natural beauty and unbeatable durability. Marble is a type of metamorphic rock that is formed beneeth the earth's crust. Although the preferred choice for some, marble flooring is not the optimal choice for kitchen flooring as it is porous and prone
to staining.

Marble flooring comes in many styles and always adds a unique look to a room because no two slabs of marble are identical. It comes in a variety of colors such as pure white, deep green, brown, gray and blue. It is ranked in grades A through D, A being the strongest with the least natural imperfections and D being the softest with most faults. Although grade A marble is the most expensive, it is the recommended choice for kitchens because it is the most durable.

When choosing marble for your kitchen floor, there are a few things to keep in mind. Since marble surfaces can become very slippery when wet, you should choose finishes to help create transaction for your floor; these include tumbled and honed finishes. Marble flooring also requires regular maintenance to last a long time. Because it is porous, marble is impossible to stains from common household liquids so it is important to apply a sealant to protect it.

Ceramic Tile Flooring
Ceramic tile flooring is a very popular type of kitchen flooring in the United States – it is one of the oldest and longest-lying flooring materials known. Ceramic tile is especially well suited for areas with high traffic and exposure to water and dirt, such as entryways, bathrooms, kitchens and hallways.

There are four basic decisions to make when choosing ceramic tile for your floor: size, shape, color, and finish. Ceramic tile ranges in size from 1/4 "square to 12" x 12 "squares and even larger. Shapes include square, rectangular, diamond, hexagon, octagon, triangular, round etc. – depending on your budget, you can get ceramic tile in any shape you can possibly imagine.

Color choices are endless, from black and white to everything in-between, and as far as finish is concerned most people opt for the glazed finish. Glazed tile is simply more water resistant and easier to clean than any other finish. It does tend to be more slippery when wet, but you can easily get tiles that are glazed with a non-slip material, which should take care of that problem. Ceramic tiles are very strong, durable, cost-effective, and require little maintenance – making it an attractive alternative to many other flooring materials.

Tile Flooring
Stone tile flooring has a natural look and is strong and durable. It comes in several textures and colors and no two pieces are the same. Stone tiles can look traditional and rustic or contemporary and elegant. Although this flooring option can be expensive, stone tiles have the potential to last a lifetime.

Stone tile floors are generally easy to maintain, usually requiring only a mop for cleaning. For extra durability, stone should be periodically sealed. Since kitchens can become busy and messy places, you should choose stone tiles that are resistant to moisture damage and staining.

Granite tile flooring is one of the better options for kitchen flooring because it is denser and more durable than other stone options. Granite is still suspectible to stains so it should be sealed and periodically resealed for regular maintenance.

Factors such as room size, layout, materials used and amount of labor required will all affect the cost of your kitchen remodeling project. Your project is going to cost more if you are starting from scratch with a complete remodel rather than just replacing a couple of items.

A kitchen remodeling project can cost anywhere from $ 5,000 to $ 50,000 or even $ 150,000 – you can regulate the cost of your kitchen remodeling project by making product choices that fit your budget.

A new kitchen is a major investment, so take your time choosing colors, finishes and features – and remember to have fun. Work closely with your professional contractor and do not hesitate to ask for help and creative ideas – this will bring you one step closer to the kitchen of your dreams.

Common Repair Problems

This article focuses on the some common repair areas in auto repair, and provides a good starting of what brake repairs need to be made.

Brake Problem

The common brake problems are:

1. Low Brake Fluid Level
2. Contaminated Brake Fluid
3. Worn Brake Pads
4. Bad Brake Power Boost Unit
5. Vacuum Problems
6. Brake Line Obstruction
7. Air in the Brake Fluid
8. Master Cylinder Bad
9. Bad Brake Disc
10. Car Out of Alignment
11. Worn Front Suspension
12. Bad Wheel Cylinder
13. Parking Brake Fails to Release
14. Brake Pads Vibrating
15. Loose bolts and nuts
16. Worn or Broken Suspension Components

No Start Problem

Possible starting problems are:

1. Blown automotive fuse
2. Battery corrosion
3. Dead battery
4. Bad ignition switch
5. Bad starter connection
6. Bad ignition coil
7. Faulty distributor cap
8. Broken or shorting coil wire
9. Loose electrical connection
10. Bad fuel pump and relay
11. Clogged fuel filter
12. Loose starter
13. Bad injector
14. Faulty cold start valve
15. Chipped flywheel or ring gear
16. Bad ECU or MAF

Automatic Transmission Problems

The most common auto transmission problems are:

1. Low automatic transmission fluid level
2. Leaking automatic transmission fluid
3. Clogged automatic transmission filter

Steering and Suspension Problems

Possible steering and suspension problems:

1. Low or uneven tire pressure
2. Uneven or excessive tire wear
3. Bad alignment
4. Bad steering components
5. Sticking brake caliper
6. One or more wheels out of balance
7. Worn shocks or struts
8. Broken or slipped leaf spring
9. Low power steering fluid
10. Loose or worn power steering belt
11. Bad power steering pump
12. Leaking power steering rack
13. Broken steering rack mounts
14. Wheels out of balance
15. Loose wheel bolts
16. Worn or broken tie rods or steering rack
17. Worn strut bearings
18. Loose power steering belt
19. Worn power steering belt

Engine Problems

Possible engine problems are:

1. If you have a carburetor (there are still a few out there), the choke may not be set properly, or the choke may not be working correctly
2. The engine may be running too hot
3. The fuel pressure regulator may be operating at low pressure
4. The ignition timing may be set wrong
5. Ignition system problem
6. There may be a fault in the computerized engine control system
7. The fuel filter may be partially clogged
8. Torque converter (automatic transmission only) may not be locking at the right time, or it may be slipping
9. There may be a vacuum leak
10. Possible internal engine problems
11. EGR valve may be stuck open
12. Drive axles may be loose or worn
13. The fuel injectors may be dirty
14. Dirty air filter
15. The spark plugs may be dirty or worn
16. The ignition wires may be bad
17. You may have water in the gasoline
18. If you have a carburetor, you may have a bad accelerator pump or power circuit
19. The fuel filter may be clogged
20. Your catalytic converter may be clogged

Body Composition Key to Your Healthy Eating Plan

So the question is this: if you plan to change your eating habits to lose weight or just for health reasons, what is the baseline against which you will measure your progress and, perfectly, success?

Whilst you may know your weight, do you know what your weight enterprises? Is it fat? Lean tissue? Cell mass? Water? And how healthy are you? Do your cells function properly? Are nutrients readily absorbed into your body? Are toxic waste products efficiently removed from your cells? Does the amount of water in your body constituency healthy hydration or water retention? Does your chronological age match your biological age?

A common measure associated with diet, weight loss, and health is Body Mass Index (BMI). This has been used for a long time as an indicator of whether or not we are a "healthy" weight for our height. It still governs so much of the thinking not only within the healthcare services, but also the diet industry. However, it is acknowledged to be a flawed measure. Flawed because it takes no account whatsoever of your bodily make-up. You can have a fabulously toned and muscular body yet be declared "obese" according to the BMI measure. Conversely, you can be light, but predominately composed of fatty tissue, yet be considered to be an appropriate weight and therefore by association thought to be healthy. We know, of course, that the muscular person is the one much more likely to enjoy good health, a great quality of life and longevity!

Other measures such as calliper tests, hip: waist ratios etc. will still tell you about the state of the outside of your body, but they will tell you very little, at best, about what is going on benefit your skin. Fundamentally these tests tell you little more than what you can readily judge by looking in the mirror or from the fit of your clothes – are you enjoying your ideal body image?

And what about your health?

It's time to introduce you to your BODY COMPOSITION.

"Body Composition" is essentially the technical term used to describe the balance of the different components that make up our bodies. At the most simplistic level, some people in the diet and fitness industry consider it to be a measure of the relative ratios of fat mass to fat-free mass. If you investigate this further you will find that others expand on that to include muscle, bone, organs and other bodily tissues. A medical dictionary definition breaks this down further into the relative proportions of protein, fat, water, and mineral components in the body.

Let's consider a more sophisticated view of body composition: we'll define it as the balance of your bio-chemical make-up, in terms of:

  • Fat, which is made up of:
  • Essential fats / lipids
  • Non-essential fats
  • Water
  • Fat-free mass – which enterprises:
  • Muscle
  • Bone
  • Organs
  • Tissues

It's also essential for us to recognize that muscle, bone, organs and other tissues are all made up of specialized cells, and that they are in turn made up of proteins / amino acids, fats / lipids, minerals / trace elements and water.

Why is it important to think of body composition to this level of detail? Well, our bodies require nutritional support for all these things – and if we do not properly understand these building blocks, then we will not properly understand how to nourish ourselves properly, or to provide all the tools our bodies need to develop, maintain , repair themselves.

Because most weight loss or healthy eating regimes fail to take into account body composition – either to protect it or even to improve it – they have a great potential to cause harm. Ensuring you know your own body composition at the outside empowers you to plan your diet accordingly to ensure you consume all the nutrients that your own unique body requires. There is no one-size-fits-all diet where body composition is concerned. Body composition is totally unique to each of us, and there before our diets need to be individually tailor.

11 'Twist Tilt Umbrella – A Complement For Your Patio Decor

A well designed patio with the right furniture and accessories to complement it will make your outdoor relaxation time an experience to look forward to each day. To transform your patio into a more appealing environment outdoor umbrellas are a great option.

As the sunset of spring calls for an enticing patio, the 11 ft Twist Tilt Umbrella from Treasure Garden will be of great use. You can chill under the umbrella, or socialize with people or just relax in the evenings enjoying a cup of tea. We think that with these outdoor umbrellas you can enjoy the beauty of nature comfortably. On a hot sunny day you would not be too enthusiastic about sitting directly under the sun in your patio. But with the Umbrella you have an economic option to enjoy a wonderful day in your patio without the sun's rays directly staring at you.

We feel that the 11 ft Twist Tilt Umbrella can be used to cover a wider area than ordinary umbrellas. Thus, the shade that it renders can be shared by many people at the same time. You can even think of a family gathering under the umbrella with a garden table and chair arrangement.

We also think the Umbrella is very convenient as it gives you the option to tilt it as and when necessary to escape from the rays of the sun. This helps you avoid the unnecessary act of moving your chair now and then.

Your individual taste and purpose needs to be kept in mind while choosing the right outdoor umbrella. As Treasure Garden umbrellas are well renamed for their sophisticated style, they would add color and enhance the look of your patio while serving the actual purpose.

Natural Skin Care – 8 Natural Ways For Healthy Skin

Taking care of your skin naturally without using any artificial chemicals is known as "Natural Skin Care". This recommends taking care of your skin only with natural ingredients not using any artificial or synthetic chemicals. By adopting good healthy habits to live your day to day life without much stress. Natural skin care is nothing but taking care of your body in general.

These natural measures are:

1. First is drinking plenty of water. Around 6-8 glasses per day is a must. This helps not only in flushing out toxins naturally but it also helps in keeping the body fit and healthy and skin glowing.

2. Another natural way is opting for general cleanliness. Bathing daily at least once, wearing clean clothes and using clean mattress and pillow all is part of cleanliness. A healthy and glowing skin also keeps away all the skin disorders.

3. The next is exercise which accelerates the blood flow helping to get rid of body toxins keeping you healthy and robust. Exercise helps in overcoming stress which is the real enemy of robust health.

4. Healthy food habits that is keeping away from oily food and eating plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, is another way of having natural skin. Oily food causes acne and hence avoiding it is the best way. Eating healthy food containing variety of nutrients. Fresh vegetables and fruits ward off toxins from body and provide freshness.

5. A good night's sleep not only helps in maintenance of good health but beats stress too. Good night's sleep also lasts aging of skin.

6. Another way of healthy natural skin is to avoid stress. Stress is the main cause of bad health. A warm bath, hearing music and enjoying the sport you like as well as doing yoga are good stress busters and are getting popular these days.

7. Getting adequate protection from exposure to sun is another way of taking care of your skin. Using good Sunscreen lotions is also a good way of protection from harsh sun rays. You can also use a parasol or sunshade to protect you from sun rays.

8. Home made traditional natural care products are very good. These procedures are simple and also quite cheap and can be made by locally available ingredients.

Apart from this, there are many natural skin care products in the commercial market these days. These include lavender oil, aloe Vera etc., which without side effects. You can choose the one best suited to your skin type.

Carefree Awnings – Colorado's Finest

Located in the Denver suburb of Broomfield, Carefree Awning is
considered one of the finest awning companies in the country.
Using only the highest quality materials and the finest
workmanship, awnings are available for several industries to
include marine, RV, and residential. With a 140,000 square foot
facility, Carefree Awning drives every day to create awnings
that people will be proud of owning. With gorgeous designs and
high-tech processes, everything made is top notch.

Carefree Awning has been around for more than 30 years. In
fact, the first automatic roll-up awning for RVs was introduced
by Carefree Awning. Making travel more convenient and
comfortable, this awning design was a huge success. Over the
course of several years, a couple of business changes occurred,
making Carefree Awning an all-American based and owned company,
providing consumers quality solutions for awnings.

Although Carefree Awning is known around the country for many
things, their traditional or creating innovative, stylish, and
quality awnings is at the top of the list. Additionally, this
company backs every awning sold with exceptional customer
service and on-going support well after the sale is made. With
this, you have confidence in your purchase and the company.

Without doubt, Carefree awnings are made to last. This coupled
with the beautiful colors and designs, sets the company apart
from its competition. Every single awning made uses superior
materials and workmanship. Owning a Carefree awning means
traveling in your RV, camper, or enjoying your backyard patio or
deck in absolute comfort. With this, you can eliminate the hot
sun's rays, spend time outdoors even in the rain, or avoid dusty

With Carefree Awning, quality is the most important thing. This
means that each employee is specifically trained not just to
understand the importance of quality but also to uphold the
standards. Setting the bar high, each awning created meets and
exceptions this level of quality. Even if the design or
functionality of the awning is changed to a small degree, the
employees are all retrained to again, understand this change.
In other words, the owners of Carefree Awning keep the employees
in the loop at the lowest level.

This company is a mass producer of custom products but to keep
the degree of personalization, service is again a huge factor in
what makes Carefree Awning so successful. This starts with the
product design, going to the sale, to the factory, making sure
shipments are both accurate and on time, that all awnings are
backed for customer satisfaction, and that customer support is
in place should there be a problem. The entire operation of
Carefree Awning makes this an excellent place to buy your new
awning, providing you with customer reassurance like none other.

Backhoe Bucket – Different Types

Backhoe bucket is a type of backhoe attachment. Backhoe attachments are important pieces of equipment that can increase the effectiveness and flexibility of your backhoe, and it allows you to complete more jobs in a short period of time. Backhoe bucket is available in many types, sizes, and shapes. The sizes usually range between 12 inches to 60 inches. Although some are smaller than or larger than these usually sizes. Here are some of the different types of bucket.

General Purpose Buckets
This type of bucket ranges from 5 cubic meters to 34 cubic meters in size. Its design typically include: welded gussets in all stress areas (for structural strength), fully welded seams. It is made of Hi-Tensile steel all through. It has side cutters, wear plates, and hardened cutting edges.

Rock Bucket
Rock bucket is designed for toughest jobs such as sorting unwanted objects (such as rocks, caliches) from soil, cleaning up debris, and other general use like lifting concrete, debris, frost, hay bales, etc. This type of bucket is very popular for its versatility. It is made of Hi-strength steel; tines are fully guseted.

Cemetery Bucket
This is specifically designed for digging graves. It is not to be used for normal trenching or tough digging condition. Cemetery bucket has incorporated extra bucket rotation to enable operator to dig straight vertical walls and flat bottom (cuts 90 degree corners). Its capacity ranges from 1.5 cubic feet to 7.1 cubic feet of different widths. Hi-strength steel is used in critical components. Gussets and wear straps are utilized for extra strength.

High Capacity Sand Bucket
This is specifically designed for moving lighter materials such as sand, gravel, ash, looms, light soils, etc. The advantage of using this is that it increases production by 50 percent and decrees operating cost by 30 percent. High capacity sand bucket is usually made of lightweight Hi-strength alloy steel that allows operator to use the total power of the machine.

Pavement Removal Bucket
This is the only bucket designed to tear down asphalt and concrete. There are special designed pavement removal bucket that enables you to hold and load all uneven material material.

"V" Ditching Bucket
This bucket cuts ditches in one pass. It weighs 12,000 lbs and is 13 feet wide, 9 feet high. Its V-shape design was built to create a sloped ditch so that workers will not get buried in case the ditch starts to collapse.

Ditching and Leveling Buckets
This is the ideal tool for ditching, reclamation, sloping, and precision leveling jobs. It is commonly 36 inches to 72 inches wide.

Cribbing Buckets
Cribbing buckets is used for narrow trenching jobs like railroad maintenance and digging in narrow quarters (water or sewer lines). The long lip design permits the operator to efficiently clean under the rails. It is typically 8 inches wide and 58 inches long. Pin width is 6 in inches; center to center pin is 14 inches.

Frost Bucket
This is ideal tool for frost, shale, rock, and coral. Its' twin sharp tips is designed for ultimate penetration on hard and frozen ground. It digs flat or v-bottom channels.

Harajuku Bridge To Yoyogi Park

On a Sunday morning in Harajuku, specifically the bridge leading from Harajuku to Yoyogi Park, there's plenty of interesting sights to be seen. For those in the know they are aware that for many years youngsters dressing up in various Lolita costumes litter the streets. For those unaware making their way over to Meiji Jingu and Yoyogi Park they're often surprised.

These days there are as many foreigners as there are youngsters, all eager to take a photo on what is interesting viewing to say the least.

The themes range from Gothic Lolita, often heavily pierced with morbid black make-up and leather clothing. Classic lolita, this look can be seen as the more sophisticated, mature Lolita style because of its use of small, intricate patterns, as well more muted colors on the fabric and in the overall design. Lastly there is Sweet Lolita, focusing on the child and fantasy aspects of Lolita, the Sweet Lolita style adopts the basic Lolita format and uses lighter colors and child fantasy themes in its design

In the 1980s large numbers of street performers and wildly dressed teens including takenoko-zoku (nnP,, "bamboo-shoot kids") gathered on Omotes an dM and the street that passes through Yoyogi Park on Sundays when the steets were closed to traffic. The streets were reopened to traffic in the 90s, and a great number of teens stopped collected there. Today there are still teenagers hanging out in Harajuku, mostly on the bridge across the train tracks from Harajuku station to Yoyogi Park.

As with any public gathering there's likely to me some more eccentric people in the crowd, Sundays in Harajuku is no different, take this fella for example, getting on the "Free Hugs" campaign that swept the world a few years back.

The Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants

The Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants textbook is composed for students ofboth biology and biochemistry. The contents are built around five major, but broad, topic areas. Among these topics, students will find valuable material on cell reproduction, energy flow, metabolic and developmental integration as well as plant environment.

Chapter Contents

The first chapters cover cellular concepts and other topics without the assumption of prior knowledge to precursor components. The contents are generally explanatory and provide understandable material. Intended for beginner students, the textbook of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants is rather mild and not at all too thick. It has 24 chapters that contains C4 metabolic cycle diagrams, micrographs of Krantz anatomy and close-up images of cells involved in C4 photosynthesis. More detailed presentations are found in the book to help students further understand the topic. The textbook is a great source for research material and is also considered to be a very reliable reference or handbook during class lectures. In some colleges and universities, it is compulsory to own at least one recent edition.

The chapters in the Biochemistry & Molecular Biology of Plants textbook include topics on Compartments and Cell Reproduction. Under these topics, the student will find comprehensive details on the membrane structure, membranous organelles, the cell wall, membrane transport and cytoskeleton. Under the Cell Reproduction chapter, students can learn more on the activities of nucleic acids, amino acids, expression & organisation of Genome and the assembly and degradation of protein synthesis.

Prerequisite and Helpful Subjects

Despite the subject matter of the textbook, there are other concepts presented in an attempt to compare how non-plant systems are similar or dissimilar to biological systems. Other subjects may seem incomprehensible as the topic escalates to a level beyond the college chemistry and biology. Students are more likely to understand certain difficult parts if they have had advanced coursework. Students without enough biochemisty experience may not be able to interpret data shown in the textbook, for example; gels and patch-damp traces. A course or class in cellular or molecular biology could help students catch up with the difficult topics, those who have had advanced biochemistry lessons will not have much to worry about. The rest of the textbook, however, is completely comprehensible and does not usually require prerequisite subjects, provided that the student is in training to become a biologist or is taking up a class with that topic.

Available Nationwide

This textbook is available nationwide in almost all educational bookstores as well as online. Depending on the university, the textbook may be purchasable in the library or within school grounds. It is meant for students of biochemistry, cellular biology and molecular biology. The book is edited by three distinguished plant biologists; Wilhelm Gruissem, Russell L. Jones and Bob B. Buchanan. It has been credited as a major contribution to the literature of plant science and widely used as a handbook in biology classes.

Covering the themes of compartment, cell reproduction, energetic, metabolism and development, the textbook is a primary source for students to understand the biochemistry & molecular biology of plants.

Solar Panel Mounting

Solar panel (also known as pv panels) mounting come in all sorts of shapes and sizes depending on their purpose. Some can be stand-alone, where as others can be mounted on a pole enabling them to track the sun through the day. Here I will advise the main types pv panel mounting and what is best for your solar power system.

Main Solar Panel Mounts

There are 3 main types of pv panel mounts.

  1. Flush Mounts
  2. Roof – Ground Mounts
  3. Pole Solar Mounts

Each has their advantages and disadvantages to take into consideration before you make your decision how to mount your domestic solar panels.


This is the cheapest and easiest way to mount your local solar panels. You can do this by fastening a couple of metal brackets either side of your solar panel and raising it a few inches from the surface underneath.

Advantages: Do not cost much, simple to install, low wind resistance and light weight. Suitable small sized panels on roofs and those you see a top of RV's (Recreational vehicles)

Disadvantages: Not suitable for large solar panels, can not be used in some types of roofs. No flexibility in tilt or orientation. Solar panel (s) have to be pre-wired before installing.


As the name exemplifies this type of mount can be used on both your roof and on the ground. It consist of a metal triangular frame with a set of telescopic legs. This enables you to change the angle your solar panel is pitched at. This allows you to optimize their vertical orientation for greater amount of solar exposure during the day.

For example:

If you live in Portland (Oregon), with latitude of about 45 degrees, your domestic solar panel should be set at an angle of 45 degrees from the horizontal.

Advantages: Reasonably priced, common fittings to a wide variety of panels. Can be positioned almost anywhere and available with adjustable tilting for best sun angle.

Disadvantages: May require heavy duty fastenings in areas with very high winds. Not the most pleasant of mounts on the eye and some states may have restrictions on what you are able to erect.


Pole mounts come in three types.

  1. Top of pole mounts
  2. Side of pole mounts
  3. Poll tracking mounts

Top of Pole Mounts are made up of a rack and rail component that is fastened to a metal sleeve that sits on top of the pole

Sides of Pole Mounts are essentially similar to top of pole mounts the only difference being the mechanism is fastened side on

Again Tracking Pole Mounts are similar to top of pole mounts, the only difference being they have a device allowing them to follow the suns daily path.

Advantages: Your domestic solar panels are easy to wire up due to the easy access to them. Panels can be raised to a height where by they avoid shading from other obstacles.

Disadvantages: construction costs, digging a hole and making sure your pole is anchored securely.

How to Make Hammered Coins

Old hammered coins were made in the first millennium BC using the hammered production method. As well as using the hammered method, many earlier coins were also made using a mold, where one mold was able to produce up to as many as 30 coins at one time. The mold method is well known to have produced, what is known as, a tree of coins which would normally have a central hole. From there the coins were individually broken off and called cash. The word cash, as we know it today, originated from its colloquial use in China many centuries ago. Although this method was used in China up into the 19th century, the technique is no longer used today.

In England coins were made using the hammered technique all the way through the reign of Charles II in the year 1662. Although that was the main method of production up until then, around a century before milled coins were slowly evolving in both the standards which they could be made to, and the methods that were being used to make them.

In order to make a hammered coin a blank piece of metal, also known as a flan or planchet, is placed between two dies. The type of metal that is used can alter depending on the output that you require. For example, you should require hammered gold coins or hammered silver coins then you can simply use the metal of your choosing as the flan. The weight of metal that is stuck between the two dies alters depending on the value of coin that the manufacturer wants to make. After the die is stuck between the two dies, the upper die is hit with a hammer which in turn imprints an image on both sides of the coin which is derived from the embossed image on both on the dies.

The flan is usually taken from a mold in order to ensure that the measurements are exact. Permanent efforts to make everything exact, that is not always the case as we can see from the output. Many Celtic hammered coins, and English hammered coins, appear less than perfect such as ones that are off-center, have letter missing and some even have misspellings!

As well as making hammered coins, some people made some money through taking as much as 1 gram off of the weight of a 6 gram coin. In fact, the amount to which this went on can be best understood by the sheer volume of old Charles 1st coins that are not fully round, and that do not have their legend fully in view.

The process by which hammered coins are made has played a role in the evolution of other manufacturing technology. Much like anything, there is usually a clear demand for a certain method of production which can then be applied through other manufacturing processes. Today, many museums allow tourists and visitors to make a coin through sticking a modern day coin, the flan, in a machine and then pulling a handle, which operates the hammer like function, which in turn produces a souvenir.

Glass Mosaic Tile Art – How to Make a Permanent Signature on Glass

Making wonderful glass mosaic tile art is easy! Let me show you how.

Ever wonder how to sign your indoor glass mosaics so the signature will not rub or wear off? Nothing sees to stick permanently to glass. Permanent marker is not permanent. Acrylic and enamel paint rub, chip, or flake off. Nothing works!

Until recently, I signed my indoor glass mosaics with enamel paint. I covered the entire mosaic (except the signature) with old rags and towels, and then lightly sprayed on two light coats of clear acrylic sealer to protect the paint. That method works okay, but it does not seem to be as permanent as my new idea.

I had an epiphany a while ago and I've been signing all my indoor glass mosaics with this method ever since. Try it and see how it works for you. Use this method only for indoor mosaics. Do not use this method for outdoor mosaics or mosaics that will be displayed in a wet environment (eg, a sauna or shower area).

CAUTION: Try this method on a piece of scrap glass before trying it on your mosaic art. Trying it on scrap glass first will let you know if this is how you actually want to sign your mosaic art. It will also give you practice before doing it on your mosaic art.

Using a fine-tip permanent marker, sign your name on the glass. I usually put my signature on the bottom-right corner of my indoor mosaics. Put yours where you like it best. I find a piece of tessera big enough to hold my entire signature so I do not have to write on any grout lines. If I have to write small to fit it on a single piece of tessera so I do not cross any grout lines, then I write small.

Lay your indoor mosaic art on a flat surface. Do this so the wet glue will not run or drip. If your mosaic is flat, the glue is thick enough so it stays where you apply it (ie, it will not run or drip). With your indoor mosaic lying flat, carefully apply plain white Elmer's Glue-All over your own signature. Do not touch the tip of the glue bottle to the signature or the ink might smudge. Slowly squeeze out enough white Elmer's Glue-All to cover the entire signature. (White Elmer's Glue-All is the stuff we all went to school with. I can usually buy a big 7.625-oz bottle at Walmart for about $ 1.50.)

Allow the glue to thoroughly dry overnight. White Elmer's Glue-All dries clear. When wet, the glue does not absorb or blur the ink. Instead, the ink positions intact and the signature looks good after the glue is dry and clear. The glass color also shows through so the glue does not affect the mosaic's appearance. The ink is entombed in the glue and the glue provides strong, permanent protection for my signature on my indoor mosaics.

Do not try to get cute by using a cotton swab or other tool to spread out the glue evenly. While trying to spread out the wet glue, if you press just a hair too hard and touch the ink, it will smudge. If you leave the ink alone, it will not smudge or blur, but it will with the slightest touch. Therefore, I suggest that you do not try to even out the glue lines. Instead, hold the tip of the glue bottle close to the glass and carefully squeeze out the glue. The edges will look a bit ragged (ie, not perfectly straight and square with each other). In my opinion, that's okay, they do not need to be perfectly smooth, straight, and at perfect angles with each other. When the glue is dry and clear, I do not notice the raggedness without my nose is right up to the mosaic.

As noted, do not use this method for outdoor mosaics or for mosaics that will be displayed in a wet environment (eg, a sauna or shower area).

This process is explained on my website for free with lots of pictures, so if you do not quite understand it, go to my website and look at the pictures. Try this method on a piece of scrap glass and see if you like it. If you do, then you'll know a neat trick that allows you to sign your indoor mosaic art masterpieces and be comfortable that your signature will not rub or wear off over time.

Remember, making mosaic art is easy. You can do it. Yes, you can!

How to Install Marine Carpet Onto Your Boat

We have had a couple of requests for information about installing carpet on your boat. First let me give the advice that installation of marine carpet should be installed by a professional installer. Also, this guide is for glue down boat carpet only; snap in carpet mats can only be made by a professional with the proper tools. Now that we have that out of the way … Here is a list of tools needed.

carpet knife
Needle nose pliers
marine glue
1/16 trowel
tape measure
shop vac

Start in a corner by grabbing the carpet with the pliers. Gently pull back slowly, as to not tear through the carpet. Once the old carpeting is completely rolled out; set it aside for later. Use the scraper to remove the remaining dry carpet glue from your boat. If it is not working, try using a piece of wallpaper. But do not overboard and ruin the bottom of your boat.

Now grab your new carpet and roll it out. If it is stiff and curling, leave it in the sun for a little bit to soften up. Now flip the carpet over so the backing is upright. Place your old carpet over the top of it with the backing facing up as well. Use the marker and trace out the old carpet on top of the new carpet. Once that is done, use either a knife or scissors to cut your carpeting out. For those who do not have existing carpet, you will have to lay the carpet inside your boat and cut the carpet to your fitting. It is not difficult but can be time consuming.

Now set your new marine carpeting inside your boat. Adjust it to fit exactly as it should when it is glued down. Set down something heavy like a toolbox or a case of beer on one side of the boat. Now flip the other side over. Start spreading the glue onto the boat using the 1/16 trowel. Do not use to much glue or else the carpet will bubble feel much different under your foot. Once the entire side has been glued; gently set the carpet over the top. If you have the ability to rent or borrow a 100 pound roller; use it to go over the glued carpet. This will prevent air bubbles and ripples. Now repeat on the other side and your all done. Enjoy your new carpet.

Satya Paul – History About a Big Indian Designer

The designer behind the global brand Satya Paul was originally born in Leigha, Pakistan and came to India during the division of the country. Satya Paul is one of the pioneer designers in the global fashion industry who established the designer brand with the same name in 1985. He was especially renowned for working with weavers in their own villas turning their craftsmanship into designer products.

Launched in 1985 Satya Paul is one the premier designer brands in India with an international presence. The label is celebrated for ingeniousness in design and a vivid color range, known for sensual womanly pieces, signature prints and ageless style. The brand has developed over years to a globally famous Indian fashion label, present across 27 locations in India and selected high street boutiques abroad. The evolution of the brand to an international fashion label is mostly based on the fact, that Satya Paul has always responded proactively to their own environment.

The carefully crafted collections are always centered around a theme of what is trendy and fashion forward, being totally up to date with the current season's styles and trends. Every garment created by the Indian designer team mirrors impulsive, vital colors, distinct patterns and outlines and grand creativity.

The variety of the Satya Paul womenswear is fabulous, including gorgeous Indian couture, trendy ready to wear clothing, beautiful Indian sarees and a big diversity of Indian fashion accessories like clutches, scarves and handbags. The Menswear of the label especially concentrates on trendy and new age accessories for business and casual occasions. The offers for men range from cufflinks and belts to wallets and ties.

Beside menswear and womenswear, the Indian designer label creates beautiful Indian bridal collections including sarees and lehengas in vivid colors, gorgeous embroidery and sophisticated patterns. Each garment emanates amazing beauty, elegance and resplendence in every way, which fulfills every imagination of a woman about her own bridal wear.

The Satya Paul Signature Series symbols the conception of discreet luxury with every piece created using wonderful prints, embellishments sensual fabrics and materials and flawless craftsmanship. Each garment in the Signature store is given unrepeated attention and thoughtfulness. Furthermore the store is hosting an exclusive and limited edition of Satya Paul designs incorporating customized services for every customers convenience. The first Satya Paul Signature store was inaugurated at DLF Emporio Mall in New Delhi. The diffusion line "Satya" exhibits the most exquisite designs in terms of prints. The line concentrates on selected design sensibilities and affordability to be aimed at the saree market.