How the Relay Board Works

The relay board is what powers the switching mechanics on your electronic devices. It contains a power supply circuit, regulatory circuitry and of course the relays that you need to turn parts or all of your device (or devices) on and off – or to switch them between states.

Normally speaking, the relays on your relay board will be solid state, unlike the mechanical relays that you may see in larger electrical applications (like, for example, the switch you throw to turn off a phased power relay, or the breakers in your home’s circuitry). Solid state relays are reliable over a longer term than electro mechanical relays thanks to the simple fact that they have no moving parts (hence the name solid state), which means of course that nothing can seize up or break off and prevent successful operation.

The SSR on your relay board will contain a transistor or a number of transistors, through which the switch of state is made. Early solid state relays suffered a drop in voltage across their transistors, but modern SSRs are capable of carrying switching loads with much higher currents.

The terminology with which your relay board will be described and/or discussed in manuals, advice and literature is the same terminology that you will find for the discussion of any electronic or electric switches. The basic function of the relays on your relay board is to flick between one or several poles. This is done by throwing contacts between them (“pole” and “throw” are the electrical switching terms we’re interested in here).

Most of the terminology describing the state of the contacts in your relay board is compressed into acronymic form: NO (Normally Open); NC (Normally Closed); and Change Over or Double Throw (referred to either as CO or DT, both of which mean the same thing).

A Normally Open contact is one that is usually disconnected – so in its resting or inactive state the contact is open. A Normally Closed contact has the opposite characteristic: in its resting state the circuit is connected and active because the relay has closed on the contact.

A Change Over or Double Throw contact connects two linked circuits – one Normally Open and the other Normally Closed. The switch on your relay board throws the pole between the Normally Open and the Normally Closed circuit when the switch is activated.

The functions of the switches on your relay board depend (naturally) on your application. In general terms they are commonly used to increase power where there is a weak power source (amplification, usually of a signal); to isolate a controlled and controlling circuit from each other; to switch to a standby power state; to implement a time delay; or to control logic within your electronic circuitry. A series of Normally Open contacts on a relay board is equal to AND; a parallel connection of Normally Open contacts becomes OR.

Natural Way to Relieve Sinuses

Question: My l4-year-old daughter is made miserable by a constant sinus problem. Her nose is congested and runny and classmates at her boarding school tease her. Teachers are unhelpful. Could you tell us what is causing this and suggest remedies to help her? I’ve been told that she should cut out cow’s milk products, which would probably cause problems with school catering, so I would welcome your opinion.

Answer: This is a common problem and I am sorry that your daughter is suffering as a result of the condition and her classmates’ unkind remarks.

Sinuses are cave-like chambers, at the front of the skull drat open into the nasal tract. They are sited under the front part of the brain on either side of the bridge of the nose, extending above the eye socket and behind the nose, cheeks and forehead. Their primary function is to keep the nasal tract moist through their lining of mucus membrane, but this can also be the source of problem, if the mucus becomes thick and sticky. If the sinuses become inflamed, it can lead to the outlet into the nasal tract becoming blocked. The result is throbbing pain, which occurs primarily in the check and forehead areas and is worse in sunshine as warmth dilates the blood vessels. Another common symptom is sore, watery eyes, which are often sensitive to bright light.

In general, a blocked or-runny nose indicates that the sinuses are inflamed behind the cheekbones. If there is a mucus drip into the back of the throat the frontal or forehead area of the sinuses is involved. Post-nasal drip, as it’s called, often means that the sufferer involuntarily swallows the thick discharge. If this condition is chronic (long term), the constant swallowing can cause repetitive strain injury to the muscles and ligaments of the throat making them permanently sore.

Mucus discharge in the sinuses is usually caused by one of the following; a viral or bacterial infection, toxins in the body due to a poor diet, smoking and passive smoking, sniffing cocaine or snuff, and allergies. People who are constipated often have sinus problems because toxins that are not eliminated by the bowels are reabsorbed into the bloodstream and then got rid of through the sinuses. The problem of mucus is made worse by consuming foodstuff that trigger the body to produce it.

Try the following…

Diet

* Avoid mucus-inducing foods as much as possible, including cow’s milk and all products made with it, banana, ice cream, ice cubes, chillies, citrus fruits and mangoes.

* Switch to sheep’s or goat’s milk or oat, rice or almond milk. Try soya milk, but some people are allergic to that

* Eat homemade chicken broth.

* Take a calcium supplement as l4-yer-old go through an intensive period of bone growth. I recommend Coral Calcium, which contains m4gnesium_andm any other trace minerals.

Remedies

* Sinus Oil: put two drops in each nostril at bedtime for one month to help drain the mucus. This blend of herbal oils forms a lining on the mucus membrane and reduces the body’s response to allergens.

* Lauq Sepistan: take a half teaspoonful twice daily after morning and evening meals for l5 days. This helps to reduce mucus discharge and relieve sinus congestion.

Breathing exercises

* Blow the nose, inhale and look up to the ceiling then exhale forcefully by sucking in the abdomen. Repeat ten l5 times. Look down to the floor and repeat.

* Alternate nostril breathing position your right thumb over your right nostril and your middle finger over your left. Close your left nostril and breathe in through your right then close your right nostril, open the left and exhale. Now breathe in thorough your left and out through your right keeping the other nostril closed as before. Repeat sequence ten times.

Nasal douche

This natural method of clearing the nasal tract sucks mucus out of the sinuses. Use a Neti pot fill with lukewarm saline water (add three quarters of a teaspoonful of salt to 250ml of water). Breathing only through the mouth (very important), tilt the head to the left and put the nozzle into the right nostril so a stream of saline water pours in. It will pass through the right nasal tract and trickle out through the left, bringing the mucus with it. Repeat with the other nostril. You will find more details and an illustration of this in my book Therapeutic Yoga co-written with Jiwan Brar.

Complementary therapy

Cranial osteopathy and acupuncture are excellent for draining sinuses. Vicky Vlacho at the IMC has very good result.

5 Effective Ways to Attract a Shy Pretty Filipina Woman to Notice You – Know the Do’s and Dont’s

To attract a shy pretty Filipina woman, you should be aware of why she is shy in the first place. The contributing factor why a Filipina is shy, especially if she was born and raised in the Philippines is her culture. If you know the Filipino culture, then it will be easy for you to get to the first base. This simply means that being shy is not merely a facade but really part of the Philippine woman’s way of life.

So, now that you are in the situation that you meet this Filipino girl maybe in a party or event or other social functions, and knowing she is shy, your acrobatic tricks will not work for you to get noticed. In fact, she might all the more shrink back. Try this 5 ways in attracting a shy pretty Filipina woman:

First is, be creative and a bit funny yet original with your pick up lines. Your pick up line is important. It can either let you have her name or she will slip away before you can even touch the tip of her finger. Once your pick up line get her sweet smile, then it is a sign that you are off to the next base.

Second is, you may introduce your name but do not jump right away to ask a shy pretty Filipino woman about her personal information like where she lives, how old she is, and other personal stuff. You will not make her talk. Try to avoid asking her for a date right away but instead find a common thing to talk about, maybe the place or venue you are in together. You might make a comment about the background music or the food, anything about the place that she may add her opinion as well. As she started getting relaxed with your presence, move on to the next step.

The third is, offer her a drink or something to eat. If she declines, call the waiter still and order a refill of what she was having or if it is a party, you may get her a dessert. Filipina ladies love men who are caring and thoughtful. They have a soft spot for those qualities and it will ignite her attention and curiosity about you.

Fourth is, though a lovely Filipino woman also love being given full attention, take it slow. Most especially on a first meeting, if it is not a set-up date and you just happen to meet her in the same place in that specific event. It is appropriate that you involve the other people around you if you are sitting with a group of people or group of friends. In this way, she will not feel awkward and uneasy. This will also give her a chance to look at you closely. If it is the first time you have talked to each other, most Filipino women will not look at you eye to eye though they would like to take a look at you. Mostly, they do this when you are not looking.

Fifth, be a real gentleman all throughout the time you are around her. Many Filipino girls have an ideal man in mind. And one of the qualities they search in a man is a gentlemanly character. By doing these 5 ways, it will definitely help you attract a shy pretty Filipina woman to be more interested in you.

Depression Glass – Tips For Newbie Collectors

For the newbie collector, the huge variety of colors and patterns of depression glass may be a bit overwhelming! Time and experience, and a good depression glass encyclopedia, will help the novice learn how to choose pieces for their collection, and how to tell an authentic piece of depression glass from a reproduction. In the meantime, here are a few tips to help you get started on the right path!

Many collectors have the goal of collecting a particular pattern or color, although some just enjoy the variety and will pick up whatever they find attractive and within their budget. A full setting of a single color and pattern can be striking, but a mixture of patterns and colors has its own esthetic beauty. The choice is really up to the collector.

You may have decided to fill out the set of depression glass that Grandma left you, or set your sights on a particular style. The first thing you need to be aware of is that certain patterns and colors of this vintage glass were made in limited amounts and you may not be able to find enough pieces to create a place setting, let alone enough to set the table with. Before you start investing good money in a lost cause, do some research. There are many excellent collectors’ web sites and reference books that can give you information on the availability of the pattern or color you are searching for.

Know the value of the pieces that you are seeking. As with all collectibles, some pieces may be rather pricey, while some may be picked up for a song. It can be frustrating to find out that you simply can’t afford to finish a collection you have started.

Depression glass manufacturers were concerned about quantity, not quality, and the newbie may notice flaws in the glass and think it is an inferior piece. Depression glass is poorly made and flaws are to be expected. They don’t necessarily detract from the value of the piece. It was mass produced and often given away at movie theaters, gas stations, and other businesses as a premium to attract customers. It could be found inside a box of laundry detergent or cereal flakes. Depression glass could be purchased inexpensively at grocery stores, hardware stores, and the local five-and-dime. The attraction of depression glass was that it was available in so many beautiful colors, which brightened up the drab homes of the era.

You may find that a piece of depression glass is out of shape, or wobbles, or leans to one side, or there may be color variations within the same pattern. Welcome to the world of depression glass!

Depression glass was not hand-finished, unlike higher quality glassware which had imperfections removed after it was released from the mold. The surface may have a “straw mark” as a result of the manufacturing process. A straw mark looks like a crack, but it is not, and will not get larger. A crack will catch the light and may look silver or gray, while a straw mark will only show up if the piece is tilted a certain way in the light. There may be a bump of extra glass, especially along the mold line. Mold lines may be prominent. Chips are undesirable, but it’s possible that a spot that appears chipped may only be an imperfection where the mold was poorly filled (known to collectors as a “flea bite”). Small air bubbles in the glass are common. Minor flaws are normal occurrences and won’t affect the value.

Glass that is cloudy or has lime deposits is considered “sick” glass and cannot be cleaned. If you are browsing through depression glass at an early morning yard sale, don’t mistake sick glass for that which is dew-covered. Condensation can mask the real condition of the glass.

Due to its increase in popularity with collectors, much depression glass has been reproduced. Many pieces have been reproduced in color and pattern combinations that were never originally made. “Fantasy” pieces exist in objects, often pitchers, which were never in the manufacturer’s inventory. Carry a reputable depression glass reference guide with you on your excursions to aid you in your purchases.

Depression glass is easy to find. Yard sales, flea markets, and thrift shops are good places to start. Many people who have no interest in depression glass or its potential value to collectors may dispose of it this way, and it will be as cheap as you’re going to find anywhere.

Antique stores, retail web sites and online auction sites sell depression glass at higher prices than you’ll find by rummaging. Keep in mind that antique stores and retail web sites will often set prices somewhat higher than the actual value of the piece. They know that if a collector has been looking for that item for a long time, they will pay the price!

Online auction sellers may misrepresent collectible glass and describe an item as “vintage” or “antique” when it may only be a reproduction. They may not necessarily be trying to rip off customers, but may only be amateurs who are not knowledgeable about vintage glass. Be careful only to deal with reputable sellers who have good feedback ratings.

If you are collecting for sentimental or esthetic reasons, the value of a piece may not be of particular importance. Buying glass as an investment, or with the intent to resell, is a different matter. Enjoy collecting depression glass, but start slowly to avoid making mistakes and getting stuck with reproductions that have little value.

Dealing With Racquetball Injuries

Playing any type of sports always entails risks of injuries. Racquetball is one sports activity that can be risky looking at the speed of play and the equipments used (racquets and balls).

Nevertheless, it is a presented with that sports injuries C severe, superficial or critical C can always be avoided, if you take safeguards. Apart from the protection gears you need to wear, the next are some reminders for you to deal with your racquetball-related injuries.

Eye protection

Racquetball is reckoned a lightweight sport when equated with others which can produce some terrible critical injuries. Alternatively, it is one of the most injury-prone sports because of the speed of the ball traveling within the small confines of the playing court.

Ninety- 5% of these injuries contains being hit in the eyes by the ball. Interior bleeding in the eye socket, lacerations, bleeding eyelids, abrasions, swollen eyes C these are the a lot off the most commonplace eye injuries.

Wearing correct eye gear prevents fundamental injuries to the eye. Be certain to check if your goggles are the right way recommended by the American Standard of Testing and Materials, and the Canadian Standards Association.

Feet protective cover

Racquetball is one game where you do a lot of running. It follows that you need to maintain your feet all during the game.

Ankle sprains can sideline you for in any case 7 days and disrupt your activities. Achilles tendon injuries are rare but they need correct medical care.

Blisters and calluses occur most often if you possess the wrong footwear or if they are a new pair and had not been broken in yet. Dont throw the old pair until you have the new ones fit your feet just right. Afterwards, you can play a hard game with them.

Elbow protective cover

They might call it tennis elbow, but this injury also happens to racquetball players. (Only 5% of all cases happen to tennis players.)

Manifestations incorporates pain around the elbow joint, with tenderness occurring on or underneath the bony bump. Natural expansive arm movements (even simple grip movements) can lead to pain and exacerbate the injury. Follow your physicians advice.

Next, talk over with your racquetball expert for incorrect technique in racquet handling. Is your grip wrong? What about the mass and type of your racquet?

Shoulder protection

Shoulder injury is caused by utilizing the shoulders C and not the right way using the side of the body C in swinging your racquet. These injuries generally develop from a past fall or a slam on the wall.

Remember: Use the entire side of the body in swinging the racquet, NOT the shoulders.

Knee protective cover

All the running and pivoting around on your feet is tough on your knees. In racquetball, all kinds of knee injuries are possible.

These injuries are sneaky, too. They commence with a dull ache somewhere around the sides or back of the knee right after playing. Later, the anguish arrives before, during, and after your play.

Get yourself a professional to teach you the proper stretching and conditioning program for your knees. (While you are at it, you may incorporate all the necessary conditioning moves for all the parts of the body that complement your racquetball playing.)

Racquetball is supposed to be fun. Avoid injuries before they can happen.

Tips and Traps of Starting Your Online Yarn Shop

I was recently asked if I could offer some tips about starting an online yarn shop. I was keen to help, as I have recently made the leap into my own online venture. So here are some of the tips and traps that this not so young player experienced in the wonderful journey that became my very own yarn shop!

These tips apply to all types of online business and are not intended to be a complete guide. I urge all potential business owners to use the many resources available both online and in the greater community. It is a hugely challenging and exciting step to take but being a one person business doesn’t mean you have to do it alone! So here are my top tips for anyone thinking about starting their own online business and living their dream.

1 – Learn about business. It’s not just buying and selling. While you may have strengths in some areas, there are specific things that you must learn. No-one can be an expert on every aspect of running a business. Get training (local college courses, government funded programs etc) and make sure you have at least a basic understanding of all areas of business. I started my business with the assistance of an Australian Government funded program called NEIS (New Enterprise Incentive Scheme). It is a program for people who are registered as unemployed and who want to start their own business. The program offers training (Cert 4 in Small Business Management, which is a Nationally Accredited course), a fortnightly payment which is paid for 12 months, and regular mentoring sessions. I found the learning process extremely valuable and eye-opening, as I was introduced to many business concepts that I was not aware of. Without this training, my business dream would have remained just that.

2 – Know what is involved. There are many facets of running a business and if you go into this blind you will almost certainly fail. Make a close friend of your local Small Business organisation. It is one of the smartest things you will ever do.

  • Startup funding. Do you have savings that you can put towards setting up a new business? Or will you need to apply for finance, in the form of loans or grants?
  • Regulations – Does your local Government have rules about running your type of business, eg, home business regulations, insurance?
  • Taxation – This one is probably the most challenging of all. Get some basic advice from your taxation regulator. Their websites are usually packed with good information about starting and building a business and complying with taxation laws. If this is not one of your strengths, budget for an accountant to help you with this. Even if it is, you should have an accountant on hand for annual returns.

3 – Website and supporting systems – Be prepared to spend time and money on your website design and implementation. Online businesses are booming, but that doesn’t mean they are easier to set up than traditional stores. You can’t just slap up a website and expect visits and sales from day one. You need to optimise your site so all of the major search engines can find you and customers can reach your site based on their chosen search terms. If you use a website designer ask them about SEO (Search Engine Optimisation). It can add a significant cost to the build, so learn as much as you can and do as much as possible yourself if you can.

Know what you need from your business systems. Do you have web design experience (which is quite different to knowledge, as I found out!). Do you know what you need in a website/shopping cart? Again, talk to people, check out web design firms and contact their clients for feedback. Don’t assume that a website/shopping cart will have the features that you assume are standard, eg, stock control, email and newsletter facilities.

The same goes for accounting and office software. If you have bookkeeping experience you are ahead of many. If not, consider taking a short course or employing a bookkeeper. Yes, this will add to your operating costs, but so will being stung with a huge tax bill!

Make sure your computer skills are up to date, as you will be doing lots of word processing, budgeting and emails. You may also want to invest in a writing course, as you will be shocked at how much time you will spend banging away at the keyboard, replying to emails, social networking posts, preparing newsletters and blogs.

4 – Do your market research. If you don’t do this you won’t have a market to sell to. Obviously you are going into business because you have a passion for something, whether it be knitting, gardening, or any other reason. You may excel in one or more areas, but don’t assume you know what customers want based on your beliefs.

I spent weeks researching yarn websites, checking what they were selling and seeing what other services they offered (blogs, freebies, tutorials etc). I looked at their design and overall feel. I also visited local yarn shops to see how I could translate the physical shop front into a virtual one. The main message I drew from this was that I had to provide a friendly, easy to use and informative website with plenty of variety and ways for the customer to interact with the store.

You need to know who your competitors are. Direct competitors are those who sell the same type of product that you want to sell. Indirect competitors can be retailers who sell mass produced knitwear or cheap non-branded yarns. Your business plan should include a general description of your competition and outline how you will fit into the current industry and how you will stand out from the crowd.

You are looking to offer a USP (unique selling proposition). This can be selling a product that no-one else carries that is in demand, or providing a service that isn’t available, for instance, coffee shop facilities, delivery service, classes etc. It’s all about developing your business as a brand. Think of some big companies and note down what comes to mind when you hear their name. It is as much about how they do business as the products they sell.

5 – Develop a business plan. This can be done on your own or with the assistance of Business Support Centres. A business plan is essential for obtaining finance, as well as being your “bible” that you refer to frequently, both to see if your business is performing as per the plan, and also to remind you why you did this crazy thing in the first place!

A well prepared business plan gives you an edge when you are negotiating finance and getting started, as it shows that you are serious and professional in your approach. It should include results of market research, your biography as it relates to your intended business and a set of start up and projected financials.

6 – Develop an effective marketing strategy for your business. Letterbox drops may not be the most effective way to promote an online business, but well placed posters and flyers in shopping centres, libraries, community centres, retirement homes, hospitals may work well. Print advertising doesn’t have to be restricted to just yarn magazines. Consider parenting, craft and lifestyle magazines as well.

Use social networking sites. I have a Twitter account and a Facebook page. Out of the 2 Facebook has been the most valuable, as it offers the viewer a look inside my business and its core values. This relates to building your brand. I didn’t realise the relevance of this at first, but after attending a couple of business seminars and doing my market research, I realised that my “brand” is the core of what I do. My aim is to assist knitters of all skill levels but particularly new and inexperienced knitters, who may be afraid to approach a high-end store for advice. This is becoming my “brand”.

Identifying your brand is a key feature of your business plan, so try to get this established as early as you can. And do remember, your original business idea may well evolve and change as you respond to customer demands.

7 – Be prepared to generate no income for at least a year. Although I receive an allowance for the first 12 months, I still have to rely on my savings to survive. You may have to consider running your business alongside a “real” job for a time. I haven’t resorted to this yet but I do feel the time may come fairly soon. In the meantime I am doing everything I can to prevent this, but have to be realistic.

8 – Network. Talk to people! If you want an insider view on the type of business you want to run, talk to someone who runs a similar one. Obviously you could scare some operators who perceive you as a potential threat. Why not talk to someone who runs a non- competing business, for instance, if your business is knitting yarn, talk to a scrap booking or other craft shop owner. They are usually happy to answer questions and take an interest. You can also contact the same business type in a completely different location, as they are unlikely to be a direct competitor.

Participate in forums and subscribe to newsletters and magazines to keep up with trends and gather feedback from people who use the products you want to sell. When I was first looking at starting a yarn business I wanted it to be a physical shop, containing a coffee shop and play area as well as an extensive yarn selection. I posed the question “What would your dream yarn shop look like/have?” to a local forum group and they came up with exactly what I had envisioned. This was really encouraging, but after a lot of thought and soul searching, I realised that I wasn’t ready for the challenge of such an ambitious operation. Starting online is in no way a compromise, or practice run, but it may well lead to me opening a retail outlet in the future.

9 – Last but not least, stay positive and passionate about what you are doing! Most people who have dreamed about opening their own yarn shop (or any business for that matter) focus on one aspect of that business. For us yarnies it is the dream of being surrounded by beautiful fibres every day! While this is always going to be the case, there are so many other facets of owning a business that can overtake your dreams.

The day to day pressures of small business are always going to be there, so keep reminding yourself why this was so important to you. And if you sometimes forget what it was that made you want to do this, remind yourself by picking up your needles and yarn and escaping to your dream world even just for an hour – you’ll soon remember what madness lead to opening your very own yarn shop!

Mice and Rats Are Moving Inside Soon – It’s Time For Your Fall Rodent Pest Control Inspection

As I cleaned out a storage unit a couple days ago I sensed movement in my peripheral vision. I turned my gaze toward the area of motion just in time to spot a long, slender tail disappearing into a hole. The incident alerted me to the fast approaching seasonal invasion of mice and rats.

Soon the rodents will move to their winter residence in homes everywhere. Are you ready?

I haven’t seen the signs of rodent activity in my house yet, and thinking about that I find myself slightly surprised because temperatures lately are colder than normal. I turned my furnace on around two weeks ago. Most years I wait until the end of October or early November before I do that.

With temperatures so far below the usual upper 60s early rodent signs in the house wouldn’t surprise me. A few always seem to find their way inside no matter how many preventative steps I take to block their entry.

You can take action to keep the majority of mice and rats out of your house, though if you live in an area where their numbers are large you’ll still need to deal with a few. Especially if you live next to a field where farmers just harvested their crops. Those little rodent critters have food dropped from the machines to last them a while, but soon that colder weather will drive them into nearby buildings.

Most often you only need concern yourself with invasion from mice.

Walk around your house paying particular attention to the foundation, and look for any openings. Remember that a mouse only needs a small crack to get in. They squeeze through spaces where you wouldn’t think an insect could pass through.

Seal off all those openings you find with metal. Steel wool works fairly well for this. Mice easily chew through softer materials if they sense an opening.

I once turned on my dishwasher and flooded my kitchen floor. After a couple hours of mopping and clean up an inspection revealed a hole in my dishwasher drain hose that a mouse chewed in order to get to the other side of a cabinet wall the hose passed through.

I widened that hole with a jigsaw before replacing the hose just to makes sure I didn’t run into that problem again.

Inside the house always watch for those calling cards that mice leave behind. You know what those are don’t you? They’re the little black droppings with the pointed ends that mice expel from their bodies as waste.

By the way, if those droppings are blunt on the ends you have cockroaches, not mice. Roaches have no sphincter to squeeze the droppings out so the ends won’t have points.

If you find mouse droppings it’s time to catch those little pests before they start multiplying (which doesn’t take long).

Pest control techniques for eliminating rodents include setting traps, putting down glue boards, and/or positioning poison baits. Whichever method you use make sure you place the catch tool near, but not directly on the mouse’s path of travel, they shy away from new items that suddenly appear.

If you use baits remember that after the rodent eats it he’ll run back into his hole, and die inside the wall. That means you’ll suffer through a smell that lasts three days to a week (for mice), longer for a rat.

Rodent control isn’t difficult, and their habits never change. Once you learn those habits, and keep an eye out for rodent signs, you’ll quickly get control of infestations.

The key is to start your mouse and rat pest control inspections early.

The Green Palette

Pakistan has inherited many things from the colonial rule when it became the sovereign state on 14th August 1947 as there was no source of developed knowledge and information other than what the rulers have adopted and then left behind for themselves.

The British took control over a state which was very much a monarchist under the Mughals, but when they left, it had to adopt the all famous democratic system of politics; the thrones, where once the emperors used to sit, fastened the governor general, presidents and prime ministers for the time to come. The army, social institutions, music, sports, couture, cuisine, architecture and administration, in short all walks of life absorbed and displayed a prolific plethora of post colonial western influence as this doctrine was considered the best and the most appropriate one owing to its association with the ruling and powerful class.

The language embraced the modern and non traditional style due to a total extrication from Persian, and partially from Arabic; the two pivotal languages which had remained a mark of distinction and wisdom for the Muslim community, from Neil to Kashghar. Modern Muslims, especially after being put in status with the modern politics by virtue of entirely new and liberal policies of Mohammedan Anglo Indian Conference and the academics of Aligarh College, which later became a university, were well aware of the new philosophy, psychology, architecture, sciences and all other branches of literature and arts, this class actually took over after the birth of new state Pakistan on 14th of August 1947. Therefore, what we introduced to Pakistani arts in common was mostly an inspiration of western modern art of the early 20th century; the fragments of post-modern American or post-war European art.

In the early days of Pakistan Anna Molka Ahmed was in Lahore, a migrated artist from THE UK who also cradled the first generation of Pakistani artists at Fine Arts Department of the Punjab University that she had founded in 1940. This department produced the first batch of four teachers who later shaped early years of Pakistani art; they were Anwar Afzal, Zakia Malik Sheikh, Razzia Feroz and Nasim Hafeez Qazi.

On the other hand, there was Zubeda Agha, who was trained under BS Saniyal and an Italian prisoner of war Mario Perlingieri. Later, she received art education in the west so, she was under immense influence of western style and technique. Zubeda rejected the traditional painting style and emerged as the first modernistic colourist despite resistance from the native critique.

At the same time, Anna Molka was trying to capture the indigenous topics related to religion and folklore, but since she was an expressionist in her technique, the local fauna and flora got ablaze after being expressed through the ‘knife and palette’ technique of her. Anna at times, just squeezed the colour tube on the canvas and dragged it with her knife to get the desired spontaneity and embossed texture. Therefore, what she produced was indigenous in subject but very much western in terms of technique.

Given that the native style was attributed to the Mughal school of Miniature painting that later got popularity up on the hill states of Himachal Pardesh (Basohli, Chamba, Guler, Kangra and Bilaspur) until the Sikh era. Ustad Haji Sharif was one of the exponents of the court style painting owing to the long association of his forefathers to the royal court of Patiala, an important Sikh state of the now Indian Punjab. After his migration to Lahore, Ustad Sharif imparted his knowledge and passed on the ultimate skills of book illumination and illustration at the Department of Fine Arts and the Mayo School of Arts (NCA) Lahore.

Another Ustad, Allah Bakhsh, in the line of traditional and realistic style of the east, contributed to the infancy of Pakistani painting. Allah Bakhsh painted the rich culture and folklore along with a touch of romanticism in subject, especially when he put on canvas the folk love-stories like Heer Ranjha and Sohni Mahiwal and at the same time he, under the influence of modern art and romantic painters of the west, put on a show the mystic canvasses like “Talism-i Hoshruba”.

During this process of evolution, the secular style Miniature painting was breathing at Calcutta, where Abhiander Nath Taygore was a great proponent of the gauche technique. This style inspired the free-flowing hand of Abd al-Rehman Chughtai, who evolved the Bengali style of Miniature painting to unmatched heights. Other than Chughtai, no one could, actually retain the standards of that lyrical line-quality, soft layers of diffused pigments and the stylized approach, although few tried to get acquainted with the technique, but the wisdom and education, Chughtai acquired in the field of art locally and from abroad, and the intelligentsia around him in the shape of his renowned friends, made him the sole example of a style of his own; the Chughtai Style.

Later, Pakistan was spell-bound by a Magician from, Sadequian: a painter with theatrical qualities, dramatic themes and very crude line quality that hatched the texture within the frame to give vent to the philosophical and poetic themes the artist was inspired at a great level. The urge to communicate loudly and more clearly made Sadequian to switch to Calligraphic painting, which later became his identity and was displayed on the large scales like the ceilings and murals at the Lahore Museum and Mangla Dam respectively. Ismail Gulgee was the other advertiser for Calligraphic painting style which, being conceived as “Islamic Art” contrary to the figurative art, attained popularity in the religious groups. Ultimately non-figurative art earned acceptance in the market and flourished in the unfavorable circumstances of the military-Islamic rule of the 1980s.

If we look upon the academic inspirations, other than Anna Molka, we may find Shakir Ali standing tall and exclusive in the scene with his very simple and rhythmic paintings in flat shades of reds, oranges and blues along with varied lines. His textures within the flat colour areas were simple but masterly fashioned and skillfully balanced. His presence at the National College of Arts Lahore made many to follow him in acquiring new and modern techniques that he had his hands on, during his academic stay at London.

In western art, Cezanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin are taken, subsequently as initiators of Cubism, Expressionism and Fauvism. On this pattern, we could divide Pakistani art in three dimensions, the followers of Chughtai, Sadeqauin and Shakir Ali. However, since the latter was the principal and teacher of a renowned Art institution, his impact was immense. For that reason, we could see his followers in the shape of Panj Piyare (the five loved-ones), on the pattern of Akbar’s Navratna (Nine Jewels). These were Raheel Akbar Javed, Sheikh Safdar, A.J. Shamza, Ali Imam and Moyene Najmi. Another reason of this popularity was the style and themes that Shakir introduced to the new generation of late sixties and early seventies, which were more practical and corporeal in execution, even to depict the most abstract and intangible ideas, contrary to the Miniatures of Chughtai or the poetically thematic canvases of Sadequain.

Pakistani institutes imparted education on western lines while the old masters of native conventional styles, mostly took their art to their graves with a little exception of a few numbers of their students.

In Calligraphy, Ahmed Pervez and A. J. Shamza are the names who contributed towards the collective shape of Pakistani art on the grounds of their individual style, but some others made a difference at greater degree. Khalid Iqbal is one, who could be called as the maestro in Landscape painting, with his local colours and western technique of creating enchanting foregrounds and depth in the backgrounds by virtue of his control of tonalities formed through diffusing shades. He introduced Modern Realism to Pakistan, which compelled many to be inspired. Khalid’s presence, first at the Department of Fine Arts and later at the NCA, academically inspired a generation of artists under his fatherly attitude. His immersed but yet soft canvases recorded the different shades of Pakistani soil.

Saeed Akhtar, was another talented graduate from NCA, a draftsman of competency who solved his drawing problems by adopting and applying the observations, he came across while molding sculptures; a way to get adept in three dimensional figurative and portrait painting. The realistic and accurate rendering became his mark of respect.

Zahoor al-Akhlaq, with his philosophical and abstract approach, strengthened the conceptual foundation of modern art in Pakistan and caused NCA to adopt modern styles and techniques in painting.

Punjab University produced Collin David, the most talented and undoubtedly, the most controversial student of Anna Molka for numerous reasons, but a wonderful draftsman of divine linearity he was blessed with. His figurative work showed his anatomical expertise that enabled him to introduce Pakistani art with the flair, on an exaggerated note, of Rubens and Raphael.

Zulqarnain Haider, started as an extension of Khalid Iqbal, by adopting Landscape painting in almost the similar style, but gradually, the Kashmiri restless blood accepted new challenges that nature put ahead of him in changing light, intervening twigs and stretched earth; he captured them from his feet to the vanishing point at horizon, or even beyond.

Ghulam Rasul added the stylization in his Landscapes and enriched the colours of his paintings. He also used the small hills of Potohar as the grey backdrop behind the lush green fields.

Contrary to the Modern Realism of Khalid Iqbal and company, Zubeda Javed emerged as a painter with strong imagination. She is one of those rare female painters of Pakistan, who adopted modern technique of painting Landscapes and Cityscapes, in a manner, that was considered by many, as closed to semi-abstract and Impressionistic. She, with an intuitive colour palette and painterly brush, produced a unique and aesthetically strong display of colours, coming out of deep backgrounds. Her painting style encouraged the modern approach towards colour, composition and light.

English Literature inspired Mian Ijaz al-Hassan to think and act in accordance with the new ideologies that were in vogue in the seventies, his thematic and radical paintings based on communist doctrine disturbed the sound sleep in the upper halls. However, he dug out the fragile soil of Pakistani land with the ‘red scythe’ and sowed the seed of the yellow Laburnum (Amaltas) tree; a pivotal symbol of his paintings.

Iqbal Hussian threw light on the burning and rotten issues related to an abode of notoriety; the red-light area. His Cityscapes might take you to the dark alleys and whispering walls of the old city while his portraits of the bulky and carefree looking women, made a social comment on the unaccepted side of the society.

On the other hand, Ghulam Mustafa crafted a labyrinth comprised of the narrow and shady paths of the walled-city and the lush green mountains of the northern areas with his soft pastels on the textured surface of pastel-sheets or on the well stretched large areas of coarse canvases with oil colours.

Bashir Ahmed initiated the Department of Miniature painting at NCA that inspired many young painters to adopt this conventional painting style. Bashir’s strive to restore the tradition of Miniature painting resulted in Contemporary Miniature that revolutionized this genre in Pakistan.

With torches in the hands of all mentioned above, there were many others along with them, passed on the Pakistan palette to the new generation of painters by stepping into the 21st century.

Benefits of Installing LED Flood Light Fixtures

If you are looking to lighten up your outdoor space or lawn area, you should definitely consider installing LED flood lights. LED flood lights offer an aesthetic lighting experience with environmentally friendly features.

Before describing the various benefits of LED flood lights, let us tell you what LED is. LED (Light Emitting Diode) is made up of semiconductor diodes that emit light. These solid state devices do not have moving parts or fragile glass components. They don’t even have any mercury, toxic gases or filaments that are being used in fluorescent bulbs. So, there is nothing to break, shatter or leak that can harm you or your environment.

Now, we come to the various benefits of LED flood light fixtures. The foremost advantage of using LED flood lights is their energy efficiency. They consume much less electricity than the incandescent bulbs leading to lower electricity bills. Secondly, it offers a long lifespan that is approximately 11 years for 12 hours a day. You may consider 50 incandescent bulbs for one LED approximately. Hence, lower replacement costs and lesser e-waste to be dumped into landfills.

Another benefit of LED lights is low heat production that is ultimately good for the environment and your plants, if LED lights are installed in the garden area.

Apart from the energy conservation and environmental benefits, a major advantage of using LED lights is the aesthetic appeal it adds to your property. Implanting right style of flood light at the right place, you can make your outdoor area look as magnificent and beautiful as possible.

LED lights are also being used inside the buildings in the form of LED tube lights. They are best to use in the bathroom, drawing room and living room where you need to create a soothing ambiance and do not require bright light to do eye-intensive work.

Other benefits include lower maintenance cost, easy and flexible installation and ultra high efficiency. Also, LED flood lights do not cause eye fatigue and helps protect eye health.

There are many vendors who supply various types of LED lights at reasonable prices. LED flood lights are available in various designs with generally 10W, 20W and 30W power specification while in the case of LED tube lights, T8 tube light is more popular. While there are many design options available in the market, you need to choose the one that suits your needs and budget.

At last, we can say that LED lighting is a great way to add creativity and flavor to the outdoor space. Plus, the energy savings make it an attractive option for the same.

Visualizations and Terminal Illness – Crossing the Barrier

There is a great deal of fear that goes along with terminal illness and the questions come to the surface. “What happens after we die?” I worked for many years as a medical social worker with dying patients. They were usually the first to accept the truth. Often, the person with the illness, knows that their end is near. What I observed in many of them was an extreme fear of the actual process of “crossing over”. Depending on religious beliefs and personal experience, that means different things to different people. I do know, however, that any visualizations that I did with the terminally ill, seemed to bring comfort and reassurance. The visualizations can be seen as a form of crossing over. When we close our eyes and “travel” somewhere inwardly, we can imagine that this is what it is like after we die. For many, the reality was peaceful and serene. I usually used a variation of the following visualization. The results were always different with each person. What a person sees is unique to their experience.

After doing a few relaxation techniques, such as breathing and muscle tension/release, I would have the client imagine that they were traveling upward and eventually they reach a “healing temple”. This is not a place to cure their illness, it is a place “to heal”. Healing and curing are two vastly different terms with different goals. In the healing temple we walk through a beautiful, serene garden and imagine the sounds and smells of being there. We then enter a healing temple. It’s important not to describe this temple because people will create their own. There is no speaking or exchange during the exercise. After it is over I would discuss the details of their experience. When this exercise was done on a weekly basis, I would add more items to the visualization. If there were a group of “healing masters”, one week, I would bring them back the following week and the patient would quickly return to the previous scenario. Then I would add a new twist to the story depending on what would come to me at the time and what was going on in the person’s life. I have always allowed myself to be led wherever my intuition leads me in the moment. The client usually tells me afterward that I was right on point and that the symbols or metaphors had some special meaning to them.

What is the point of doing these weekly exercises with someone who only has a few weeks to live? They will often let go of and release some particular issue that they have not previously be able to let go of. They will come to terms more quickly with the issues that need to be dealt with immediately. They will make peace with the events in life that they are going to miss, like future graduations, weddings, etc.

The “healing temples” in the visualizations and the “healing masters” that come to participate during these guided imageries, are extremely reassuring at a time when the individual is face to face with the unknown. The process of death should not be one of terror and loneliness but instead it can be a time when families come together and people tie up loose ends and release old resentments.

Don’t Throw Out Your Old Taps

Whether you have just moved into a new house, or have been in your current home for several years, you may be thinking of making some changes to your property. Maybe some new wallpaper, paint or carpets. How about new taps in the kitchen or bathroom?

If you have ever replaced any of the taps in your home, you will probably be aware that they are not the cheapest of things to buy. Despite this fact, so many of us simply throw out the old ones, even though they may work perfectly well.

Believe it not, you can get very good money for your old taps if you spend a little time and effort. For instance, next time you go to a car boot sale, keep your eyes peeled and you will usually see somebody selling taps. Now, it will rarely be somebody who is simply selling their old taps. In most cases the person selling them will have a whole range of second hand taps on offer.

You may be wondering where they got so many taps from. There is normally a clue hidden for the eagle eyed among you such as a builder’s or plumber’s van which they packed their wares in to sell to the Sunday morning boot sale crowd. Yes, these people selling taps are quite often builders or plumbers who have installed new taps for customers and taken the old ones away at their customers’ request. Little did these people know that they were literally throwing money away, along with their taps.

Even though used, taps that are in working order can easily fetch half of their retail cost when sold second hand. With new taps costing upwards of £50 it is easy to see why your old taps have value. In rarer cases, older period taps can even be worth more than new ones. A good example of this would be the old brass taps from a cast iron bath. Once cleaned up and fitted with new washers etc. somebody with a period home would be more than willing to pay very well for an authentic addition to their home.

There are even more people with average homes who simply cannot warrant paying a large amount for brand new taps, when they can get the look they want and refresh their home interior for a fraction of the price second hand. Think about it, why would you go and spend over twice as much for something when you could achieve the same result for a fraction of the price?

A word of warning before you go rushing out to buy your next set of taps from a boot sale though. It is always beneficial to check the taps thoroughly and perhaps replace the inner workings such as washers etc. before you install them. Or if you are not sure how to do this, simply pay a visit to your local plumbers’ merchant who will be happy to point you in the right direction.

So, next time you change the taps in your home, don’t just throw them in the bin. As the saying goes, one man’s rubbish is another man’s treasure.

A Look at the Benefits of Blackbutt Timber Flooring

If you are that kind of a person who is very particular with what you show case in your home, then the Life wood range was designed for you. An external feature tells a lot about your lifestyle, things like the landscape and the quality of your floor material. For many home owners; style, quality and stability is important, and that is where Life wood comes in, to show the difference between good-looking finish and great- looking finish.

WA Blackbutt.

Life wood has a broad spectrum of timbers ranging from Golden Mahogany, Jarrah, Marri, Rose Jarrah, WA Blackbutt and WA walnut. Take WA black butt for example. It is pale yellowish brown or gum and veins look with a hardness of 6.9. It is commonly known as ‘yarri’ and is almost as widely used as Jarrah. Black butt is mainly used for flooring, but originally used for construction, sleepers, case manufacture and paneling and flooring. However, its availability is limited due to the conservation of the resource in the stream reserve, making it a highly priced possession for home owners. It is therefore only available in minimal quantities in Western Australia and that is exclusive to life wood. Black butt is available in standard and better features that are the sizes of 85-12mm and 105-12mm.

WA Blackbutt design.

The mechanism behind life wood products is that, they constantly pick the best timber quality for your floor; the ugly shavings are simply used in the underside of the boards. To continue giving quality, they source only local timbers with quintessential wood character for the range, hence being able to provide an exclusive West Australian look for any given home. WA Black butt have hand-graded boards that can achieve maximum uniformity in colors between the show room and your home. A process that was only possible with existing flooring installation. With WA Black butt it has also been possible to produce floorboards long and wide, which is considered the premium look all over the world, but has not been achievable until now. That has therefore eliminated the use of thin, short, highly -varied and mixed grade boards. That is to say, installation by Perth’s largest team of craftsmen, with the inclusion of 150 years of experience, will ensure that all the finest details are attained.

In addition, timber flooring is hard long lasting, hard wearing, easy to clean and can be resurfaced a number of times. It’s also good for those suffering from asthma because it does not keep dust mites and associated allergens. That makes it good for the environment since it’s world’s most renewable resource and it last for a long time once laid. Wood flooring offers the perfect finish.

Two Types of Electronic Air Pump – High Pressure-Low Volume and Low Pressure-High Volume

Have your tires gone out of shape? Save those sweats and do not let your day get the best of you. Let this article give you a break from literally pumping yourself out by using an air pump in inflating some things by sparing your extra time of reading this. Nowadays, electric air pump is highly suggested for people who waste their breath, time and effort for those manual air pump. Now you can just sit back and relax yourself from those tiring things. Just a piece of advice, electric air pump is now capable of avoiding those unnecessary things. But of course, there are still matters such as “complementary things”. Like for example, peanut butter and bread, which is just a simple analogy that things really do need to avoid mismatching. By using electric pump, there is also a consideration about it, and thus, this thing would follow.

Because it is electric, it does not mean it is compatible for every inflatable. There are tow type of pump, the high volume/low pressure and the low volume/high pressure pump. Like in a bicycle, the volume it encompasses is small, it goes with low volume. However, bicycle tires require high pressure (up to 100 pounds of pressure), so make sure to use the appropriate pump for it because if you would not match the concept of complementing air pump to inflatable, it will not serve its own purpose.

Take for example, in inflating a boat, it takes about 35-40 pounds of pressure, but the volume is greater than that of tire of the bicycle. Inflating the boat manually requires a great deal of effort to reach the required pressure due to increasing volume. You may have a choice on whatever preference of pump you may use like using either manual bicycle tire pump or car tire pump to inflate an inflatable boat will take a long time since you are only getting low volume and the chance of over pressuring the product and you are producing high pressure. In other sense, if you are going to use gasoline station to pump air, which produces high pressure, to inflate a marine inflatable product, it will go quickly even with the proportion of lower volume, which in chance that the marine inflatable could over inflate and explode.

The point here is simple. You must not interchange both high volume/low pressure to a low volume/high pressure or the opposite way either, as this may cause eventual over inflation of the product. More or less, this concept is important in using your air pump, which is why electronic air pump is suitable for many inflatable, because it has greater option of specific use. However, you still must be particular to the pump you are using with inflatable.

Process Balancing

“Process Balancing” is a procedure whereby a set of process steps are “equalized” in terms of time required to accomplish them (note “effort” may not be the same!).

Process balancing tools are used where the process is contained in a defined area. Examples include:

– Order Entry Department

– Mortgage Application Process

Key tools used in process balancing are the time study and takt time chart, but other tools such as skill matrix, etc., may play a significant role in the analysis.

The Process Balancing techniques are not exclusive to “one-piece flow” – small batches may be necessary between certain steps – but use of the process balancing tools is meant to drive the process to one-piece flow.

Primary Issues in Typical Transactional Environments

– Excess “stuff in process”

– Poor space utilization

– Low employee efficiency

– Long/erratic cycle times

– Poor balance of labor content across process steps

– Conveyance, standby and motion waste

– Disorganized workspace and component/supply storage

– High variability of demand on multiple processing centers

e.g., call centers/customer arrivals

– High variability of task content (non-standard work/procedures)

Where Process Balancing activities occur along the Lean Six Sigma Roadmap: Define Phase:

– What is the Goal of balancing the process?

– Capacity improvement without adding resources

– Productivity improvement without sacrificing quality

– Space reduction

– Day-to-Day scheduling

– Long-term resource planning

Measure Phase:

– What tools will be used to gather, present, and analyze data?

– Time Study and Task Times

– Historical data: Process exits, Productivity, Customer Demand, Staffing, etc.

– Layout and spaghetti flow

Analyze Phase:

– Task Time Chart with breakdown of customer value-add vs. non-value-add activities

– Time Traps and Constraints (if any)

– Variability of Demand

Improve Phase:

– What steps will be taken and in what order?

1. Reduce non-value-add time of Constraints and Time Traps to meet Customer Demand

General Rule is that Max Task Time of Time Trap should be no more than 90% of Takt Time for low variability

2. Reduce NVA of non-Time Traps

General Rule is that Max Task Time of all other non-Time Traps should no more than 90% of Takt Time (customer demand) for highly predictable environments or 80% of Takt Time for processes with variability

3. Reorder/Re-sort tasks to balance work content, alter staffing

4. Modify Layout to accommodate new staffing; Implement work controls

5. Iterate on reducing non-value-add time, then customer value-add time and rebalancing/re-staffing until goals are achieved.

Control Phase:

– Implement visual control tools to sustain the improvements

– Takt Boards for the Time Trap and overall process

– 5S & Issue Boards for problem resolution and process control

Operational Definitions:

Customer Value Add: A task or activity for which the customer would be willing to pay, done right the first time and the unit moving through the process physically changes in fit, form, or function towards completion.

Example: Electronic funds transfer via credit card

Required Business Waste: A task that is required to support the business but for which the customer is not willing to pay

Example: Financial Services employee writing customer credit history on a credit application

Non-Value Add: A task that is not required and should be eliminated because it is wasteful Example: Financial Services employee having to look for missing information needed to complete credit history

Review Sources of Waste: TIMWOOD

Transportation (moving items from one place to another)

Inventory (items/paperwork/information waiting to be processed)

Motion (excess movement and/or poor ergonomics)

Waiting (delays caused by shortages, approvals, downtime)

Overprocessing (adding more value than the customer is paying for)

Overproduction (The grandfather of all other forms of waste)

Defects (rework & scrap – doing the same job more than once)

Note: Another waste is: People (untapped and/or misused resources)

Yoga and Stress Management – Four Barriers to Reducing Stress

Yoga exercises and relaxation techniques are the best ways to reduce and manage stress. If you are a solo-entrepreneur, a parent with small or teenage children or in charge of a busy team at work then your day can be full of frustration and stress.

Once you are relaxed and stress free from worries life is much more enjoyable and fun. There are many stress management techniques available to help you reduce stress and feel more peaceful and calm.

Yoga provides you with a range of easy to do exercises, breathing practices and meditation techniques to help you completely rest and relax the central nervous system.

Even though you realise you need to rest and relax, there are often many barriers in your way that can prevent you from using these practices to reduce your stress.

Four Barriers to Reducing Stress

1. Lack of Time

As a working parent, your time is precious. If you feel stressed and overwhelmed, it can be challenging to fit in a full regular yoga exercise practice. However you can relax and release muscular tension in as little as 2 – 10 minutes. For example, inhale and as you exhale slowly turn your head to look over your right shoulder. Keep your chin level. Inhale again and as you exhale turn your head back to the centre. Repeat to your left shoulder. Repeat this sequence 3 – 5 times in each direction.

2. Lack of Space

If your job is demanding and you feel tired, frazzled and over burdened by demands from your colleagues, you can practice easy relaxation exercises at your desk or work station. For example, sit near the edge of your chair with your feet flat on the floor and your hands resting on your lap. Lengthen your spine, slowly arch your back and tilt your head back. Relax and take three deep breaths. Slowly return your body back to centre. Repeat 3 – 5 times before resuming work.

3. Lack of Privacy

When you have small children it can be hard to find the privacy and peace and quiet you need to practice relaxation exercises. Children have an uncanny knack of knowing when to disturb you – particularly when you wish to have me-time. Even at a gym or health club you may feel self conscious about practicing yoga in front of others. Have no fear as you can gain the same benefits by practicing in bed. As you wake, take a long deep breath. As you exhale, slowly stretch your body awake. Keep your legs straight out on the bed and gently point and flex your toes back and forth 5 – 7 times.

4. Lack of Practice and Planning

Like most things in life, to gain the maximum benefit from yoga and relaxation exercises, you need to develop positive relaxation habits. That way you can easily reduce the times you feel stressed and know what to do when you are stressed.

In the long term, if you wish to learn how to manage stress, you have to make the time to include stress busting tips into your every day routine.

The rewards? You will have more time, energy and space to do the things you enjoy.