Uses of Pure Lead, Refined Lead

There are many different uses of Lead. It may be used as a pure metal, alloyed with other metals, or as chemical compounds.


The principal consumption of Lead is for the Pb Acid storage battery in which grid or plate is made of Lead or with other metal more commonly with antimony.

Rolled Extrusions

Lead Sheet is used in the building industry for flashings or weathering to prevent water penetration & for roofing and cladding. By virtue of its resistance to chemical corrosion, these are also uses for the lining of chemical treatment baths, acid plants and storage vessels. The high density of Sheet makes it a very effective material for sound insulation purpose. Plumbum clad steel has also found use in radiation shielding.


Recently the use of Pb in paints has been drastically curtailed to eliminate or reduce health hazards. White Lead, 2PbCO3 Pb(OH)2, is the most extensively used in pigments. Other Plumbum pigments of importance are basic Lead sulfate and chromates.

Cable Sheathing

Because of its high ductility, good extrusion ability, relatively low temperature & excellent proven corrosion resistance when in contact with a wide range of industrial and marine environments, soils and chemicals, Alloys are used extensively as sheathing materials for high voltage power cables.


Use of ammunition with Bullets, which are commonly used in sport shooting with small arms

Lead alloys

Lead forms alloys with many metals. Alloys formed with tin, copper, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, cadmium, and sodium are all of industrial importance.

It is used to make bearings, solder, antifriction metals, and type metal.

Soft solders are largely Lead-tin alloys with or without antimony while fusible alloys are various combinations of Lead, tin, bismuth, cadmium and other low melting point metals.

Lead Shot is an Alloy of Pb, Antimony, and Arsenic. Pb Foil is made with Pb alloys. Lead is added to brass to reduce machine tool wear.

Security Issues With Online Hotel And Ticket Booking Websites

The Internet has quietly revolutionized the world. It has made completion of tasks easy and fast, making us dependent on it heavily for almost every aspect of our life. One of the earliest revolutions took place in the banking industry, followed by the ticket booking services, after the US military made their ARPANET project public and allowed universities and businesses to take advantage of this wonderful technology.

Interestingly, computer and programming nerds create primitive web based ticket booking systems with the Java language, which is considered by many as the language of the internet. They do so for their academic projects in their schools and colleges and these applications are insignificant with respect to the commercial versions. However, the case was discussed to make the reader realize the popularity of theses internet based ticket booking applications.

Now, coming to the main point, online ticket booking and hotel reservation systems often provide the option of paying the required amount online, which is referred to as wire transfer in common man’s language. These websites use third party plug-ins through APIs, that integrates their website’s database with the bank’s computer systems and servers through a software-defined network device called the Payment Gateway.

Generally, these payment gateways are extremely secure environments that employ Secured Socket Layer or SSL algorithms, which can be 64 bit or 128 bit encryption algorithms, based on the requirement. 128 bit SSL algorithms are the most secure algorithms deployed in public domain for the purpose of securing fund transfer environments and encrypt the sensitive information with a highly secure process that is extremely difficult to crack by present standards.

The problem, or rather the loopholes lie with the internal data storage mechanisms deployed by the third party ticket booking websites. Sometimes, to reduce the cost associated with maintaining the security standards high, these websites do not take adequate measure to ensure that the payment related information are safe in their servers. It might also be the fact that their server or database administrators are not skilled enough to ensure stringent security measures are deployed.

It may happen that while no security breach takes place on part of your bank’s transfer system, security loopholes might exist in the hotel’s or the airline’s own website. If their servers are hacked and the data is appropriately mined by any expert hacker, your entire details regarding the financial transaction, including your credit card details, will be in front of the hacker.

The hacker can simply download or copy the information to some other system of his own and use the same to perform unauthorized transactions and fund transfers. Although banks deploy double-layered verification methods to mitigate such frauds, the process is far from being full-proof.

Thus, think twice before you trust third party hotel and ticket booking service. Even the best hotel booking service providers are vulnerable to such server attacks by cyber experts and they do very little to plug the loopholes in their systems and servers.

Tax Strategy Problem – Home Products Universal

Your client, Home Products Universal (HPU), distributes home improvement products to independent retailers throughout the country. Its management wants to explore the possibility of opening its own home improvement centers. Accordingly, it commissions a consulting firm to conduct a feasibility study, which ultimately persuades HPU to expand into retail sales. The consulting firm bills HPU $150,000, which HPU deducts on its current year tax return. The IRS disputes the deduction, contending that, because the cost relates to entering a new business, it should be capitalized. HPU’s management, on the other hand, firmly believes that, because the cost relates to expanding HPU’s existing business, it should be deducted. In contemplating legal action against the IRS, HPU’s management considers the state of judicial precedent: The federal court for HPU’s district has ruled that the cost of expanding from distribution into retail sales should be capitalized. The appellate court for HPU’s circuit has stated in dictum that, although in some circumstances switching from product distribution to product sales entails entering a new trade or business, improving customer access to one’s existing products generally does not. The Federal Circuit Court has ruled that wholesale distribution and retail sales, even of the same product, constitute distinct businesses. In a case involving a taxpayer from another circuit, the Tax Court has ruled that such costs invariably should be capitalized. HPU’s Chief Financial Officer approaches you with the question, “In which judicial forum should HPU file a lawsuit against the IRS: (1) U.S. district court, (2) the Tax Court, or (3) the U.S. Court of Federal Claims?” What do you tell her?

Home Products Universal (HPU) is a distributor of home improvement products to retailers nationwide. The management of HPU wants to explore the possibility of opening its own retail centers. HPU hired a consulting firm to study the feasibility of expanding into retail sales. The consulting firm billed HPU $150,000 for services rendered. HPU deducted the charge on its current year tax return. The IRS disputed the deduction saying that since the cost is related to entering into a new business, the cost should be capitalized. HPU’s management contends that since the cost is related to HPU expanding its existing business, the cost should be deducted. The management HPU has considered legal action against the IRS. The Federal Court in HPU’s district has ruled that if a company expands from distribution into retail sales that the cost of the expansion should be capitalized. The Appellate Court ruled that in certain circumstances switching from product distribution to product sales is considered entering into a new trade. In a separate case involving a taxpayer from another circuit, the Tax Court ruled that the cost of expansion should be capitalized. In considering legal action against the IRS, HPU’s Chief Financial Officer has raised the question of which judicial forum the lawsuit should be filed: the U.S. District Court, the Tax Court, or the U.S. Court of Federal Claims.

The appropriate forum for filing the lawsuit against the IRS would be the U.S. Tax Court. The U.S. Tax Court, established in 1942, has national jurisdiction and hears only tax-related cases. In considering its lawsuit against the IRS, HPU would not want to file its lawsuit in U.S. District Court due to that fact that the company distributes products to companies nationwide. Each state has at least one U.S. District Court and the courts are independent of one another. Due to this fact, the decision made by the U.S. District Court in one state may not apply in another state. Since HPU distributes products nationwide and wants to expand nationwide, the company would want the case to be heard in a court that has national jurisdiction.

The U.S. Tax Court specializes in handling tax disputes that occur before the Internal Revenue Service has made an assessment of a formal tax. HPU can decide to file their lawsuit in another court forum. However, the U.S. Tax Court is the only forum where HPU can have its case heard without having to pay the amount in dispute. If the case was tried in the United States Court of Federal Claims or a U.S. District court, the tax would have to be paid before the lawsuit could be filed. The Legislative Branch of the United States government makes the U.S. Tax Court unique and singular. By having the case tried in the U.S. Tax Court, the management of Home Products Universal can have the company’s CPA’s represent them in court even though the CPA’s have no legal training.

U.S. Tax Court is a court of national jurisdiction and its rulings are uniform for everyone regardless of their place of business or residence. The Tax Court is not bound by the decisions of the U.S. District Court or the U.S. Court of Federal Claims even if the U.S. District Court has jurisdiction over the taxpayer. Cases in the U.S. Tax Court are decided by judges, who are experts in the field of tax law, without jury trials. Judges in the Tax Court are appointed by the President and serve terms of 15 years. The U.S. Tax Court is more relaxed in comparison to other formal courts which helps facilitate dispute settlement more cooperatively.

Going to the Toilet in the Bush

Going to the toilet is a sensitive subject, and for good reason. Everyone loves the toilet that they have at home, but unfortunately when you head miles from civilisation you can’t take one of these with you. However, you can take a number of different options, which are all considerably better than squatting over a hole in the ground! I’d like to remind people of the importance of going to the toilet correctly – at least 100 metres away from any water source, and by digging at least 30 centimeters down to bury the waste. There is nothing more off putting than arriving at an amazing location only to see bits of toilet paper sticking out of the ground. Do the right thing and make sure that these great places are kept open for everyone to enjoy.

There are a few options when it comes to toilets in the bush, and the cheapest is literally a camp chair with a hole in it. You can purchase these for around $20, and you simply put the legs around a hole in the ground, and then you can sit on the toilet and do your business. When you are done, fill the hole in and leave it like it was before. If you want something even more luxurious, you can purchase a chemical toilet. These are a bit bigger, but don’t require you to empty the ‘stuff’ into the ground. Some chemicals keep the toilet smelling nice and they last for several days before you need to empty them. If the chemicals are biodegradable, you can tip it out down a big hole, or you take it to a waste disposal station.

The other option is a toilet that is connected to a bag. You can take special bags that are designed to degrade in the dirt, and these are allowed to be buried (at least 30cm!). Alternatively, some people leave the bag in the toilet and take it home. Whatever your choice, there are plenty of ways to comfortably go to the toilet in the bush. I know a lot of people that are put off camping purely because they are unable to go to the toilet in comfort!

The last option (least preferable) is to dig a hole in the ground, and crouch over it. This is easily done, but it is uncomfortable and really not that pleasant. I’d suggest spending a bit of money on a decent camping toilet – you will be thankful for it, believe me!

How To Kill Stink Bugs – Thwarting The Kamikaze Attack

What is the difference between a kamikaze warrior and a stink bug?

Both will swoop down out of the sky to impact an object on the ground, but the only difference is that whereas the kamikaze warrior is willing to die, we wish stink bugs would die.

Indeed, one of the characteristic features of stink bugs is that they sure know how to make an entrance onto the scene: They will swoop down from on high and impact a particular object or surface on the ground, as though they were gearing up for a kamikaze attack. (It is not unheard of for stink bugs to die in the process of doing this, but typically most stink bugs survive the process.)

Stink bugs are deemed by many people as being more annoying than just about any other typical household insect. Unlike flies, mosquitoes, and ants, they bear a distinctively “reptilian” appearance, considering that their entire back is covered by a protective exoskeleton shell. What makes them such an annoying nuisance is that they are seemingly stubborn and resilient when it comes to seeking shelter in a warm place. They will quite literally stop at nothing to do whatever it takes to gain entry into the protective confines of your house, no matter what it takes. They are hardwired instinctively to seek out warm places to hide during the autumn and winter seasons, and unfortunately for us humans, our homes are considered prime real estate for them to seek refuge in during these cold seasons.

Why is it that they seem to emerge out of nowhere? You could be minding your own business, sitting at a desk, or sitting at the dinner table, or cooking dinner in the kitchen, and then all of the sudden, out of the blue, without any prior warning, you hear a unique buzzing sound, and then bam! A stink bug will suddenly appear, having made an abrupt and hard impact onto the surface after crash landing, kamikaze style, from a higher surface or from the ceiling, a wall, or an overhead air duct. (Stink bugs make buzzing sounds, similar to the common housefly, but a little bit louder.)

Indeed, they are extremely resilient creatures. It is like a bad horror movie: You see one bug in the house and you kill it, only to find another bug in the house that very same day or some time a few days later has taken its place. If it seems as though your house is being overrun by stink bugs, then it is no doubt time to take some sort of action to do something about them and taking whatever preventative actions are necessary in order to prevent future infestations as well.

Once they gain access into your house, typically you will find them lingering and loitering around windows, window sills, doors, skylights, crevices, cracks or gaps in the walls, or near sources of abundant light in your house, such as lamps.

And if you haven’t already figured it out through first hand experience, you should be made aware of the fact that these bugs can fly. Yes, indeed, stink bugs are flying insects. They may be creepy crawlers, but they are also insects. And one of their characteristics, as mentioned above, is that they sure know how to make an entrance into a room! Very often, you will find stink bugs suddenly swoop onto a table or other surface, seemingly out of nowhere. Their arrival is preceded by a distinct buzzing sound. Yes, they make a buzzing sound when they fly. And then they will land with great force onto the surface.

The manner in which stink bugs will make an entrance into a room, sweeping down from on high, is very similar to the way a Japanese kamikaze World War II pilot would swoop down from out of the sky, resulting in a surprise attack upon the enemy. Of course, the main difference between a real Japanese kamikaze attack versus the kamikaze style entrance that a stink bug makes into the room is that the stink bug doesn’t do it with the intent to kill any prey, let alone to kill itself. (The Japanese kamikaze air force pilots of yore were conditioned to take on these stunts with the full knowledge and intention of engaging in a suicide mission, for the greater good.)

It is rather sadly ironic that these bugs are natives of Japan, the nation that relied heavily on kamikaze dive bombers, and that these bugs themselves also engage in dive bombing by instinct. While other insects will make a graceful and soft landing onto whatever surface they wish to land upon, stink bugs will very often “dive bomb” their way from place to place, particularly from high to low.

For this reason, you must be very vigilant about protecting your home if you suspect or are aware of the fact that there is a population of these bugs in your home. They do not discriminate or have any deliberate intention, there is no rhyme or reason to where, why, and how they choose their targets for dive bombing.

Many people will report that stink bugs have dive bombed right into their pots while cooking in the kitchen, or that they will end up on their shirt. As far as food is concerned, it is extremely important, for this reason, that you cover any food or refrigerate it, so that stink bugs cannot dive bomb onto these fruits and feed off of them. Or they might even dive bomb onto your person, seemingly out of nowhere at random. If you suffer from entomophobia (fear of insects), this might no doubt freak you out of course.

The good news is that while the mere thought of stink bugs staging “kamikaze” style entrances into a room, you can actually also take this kamikaze dive-bombing behavior and turn it around to your advantage as an effective means for how to kill stink bugs:

For example, you can set up bug traps to entice and lure them toward the trap. They will kamikaze right into the trap, and never be able to break free. For example, one type of trap that you could set up would consist of a light source adjacent to a bowl of dish soap…. If the stink bug dive bombs toward the light source to seek its warmth and illumination, it will land in the dish, and when the dish soap makes contact with the bug’s belly, it will poison it. (Dish soap is among a number of different household solutions that have been determined, through trial and error, to be lethal to stink bugs.)

There are other types of traps you can set up as well, but the use of dish washing detergent has been proven to be extremely effective at paralyzing and killing these bugs, for the most part. Other traps might be ones that cause the stink bugs to become confined into a box or a container in which they will eventually starve, suffocate, and die. Another type of trap might simply be a bug zapper, that kills the stink bug as soon as it makes contact with the light source.

There is no way to prevent stink bugs from dive bombing. It is in their nature. As stated above, their dive bombing does not appear to be deliberately aimed toward any particular targets such as food or light, as they have been known to dive bomb directly onto people’s shirts or onto desks or tables, even though there is no food present.

So the best prevention in this case is to be prepared to deal with them and to capture them when this dive bombing does occur.

There are many ways how to kill stink bugs. One way is to set up traps for them when they engage in their “kamikaze attacks”. While it is not possible always to predict when and where a stink bug might emerge and engage in this type of dive bombing activity, it is possible to lure them and entice them to dive bomb toward a light source, a source of heat, or towards fresh fruits that they thrive on.

How to Use Patio Umbrella Lights With Low Voltage

One of the more clever forms of patio lighting there is, is what is known as umbrella lights. A lot of us have patio umbrellas and when you think about it, they make excellent stands for a bit of lighting. Especially with the type of umbrella which is combined with a table (round table with the umbrella in the middle, typically), patio umbrella lights make a lot of sense. You can get several designs which simply clamp to the umbrella pole; some are solar panel powered, others come with batteries. Both can be nice enough – although they may not provide as much light as you would like. No matter how those batteries are charged – from a solar panel or via mains voltage – they have to be fairly large to provide any real light power for a usable amount of time. But if you want some more light, and you don’t usually move your umbrella around a lot, there is another option for you.

Low voltage lighting is just the thing. Yes, most solar – and battery driven umbrella lights are also low voltage lights. The difference is not in the voltage, but in the available electric current. Batteries can store only so much power in watts, and watts are electric current over time. The more watts you spend, the faster you discharge the battery. Now, a good, strong source of light would be something like halogen bulbs, or some of the more powerful LED arrays. These like to be fed some current though, so batteries are not practical. Instead, you could use a low voltage lighting transformer to power them. This would give you all the power you could want, since the transformer is connected to mains voltage. So if you chose 12v bulbs, you would need a 12v transformer. You could power any amount of bulbs with it – just buy one powerful enough. It wouldn’t give in, until your fuses do.

How would you go about the installation in a practical way? Basically, there are two paths. One is to mount the low voltage transformer close to the light fixtures, like at the base of the umbrella. In that case, you would run a mains cable to the foot of your umbrella. The other way is to put the transformer further away, like in a waterproof box under the patio – or elsewhere. This way, you might get away with using a much thinner cable running to the umbrella, a cable you might hide under a carpet – or simply route directly down through a hole in your patio floor. Which one you choose is up to you. Perhaps you also have other lighting installations on your patio requiring low voltage, which could make it practical to have a single, large transformer – and then run cables from that.

If well-planned, your patio umbrella lights could become part of a large, flexible and energy efficient lighting system, which would make a lot of jaws drop. Why not go for it?

Top Barriers to Effective Listening and How to Overcome Them

Effective listening is every bit as important as effective speaking, and generally much more difficult. Although numerous barriers to effective listening can make the practice difficult, there are several habits one can adopt that will lead to a higher level of listening proficiency.

Listening is the most important part of the communication process. However, listening skills do not come naturally to most people; they require willingness, practice, and patience to develop.

There are many reasons individuals fail to listen successfully. These include:

1. Interrupting

2. Judging

3. Faking Attention

4. Becoming Emotional

5. Tuning Out

6. Jumping to Conclusions

7. Becoming distracted.

Interrupting is a problem for many reasons. First, it is aggressive behavior and will most likely bring a negative response from the speaker being interrupted. Second, it is difficult to listen and speak at the same time. When the listener is interrupting, he or she is certainly not listening fully.

Faking attention (often associated with tuning out) can be offensive and is usually hard to hide. This is hurtful and sends the message to the speaker that the listener doesn’t really care about what the speaker is saying. If an individual cannot listen actively in the present moment, it is best to let that be known and suggest that the communication process be put off until a point when there are no distractions.

Becoming emotional can hinder one’s ability to listen. It is important that the receiver be aware of his or her emotions. If the sender is sending a message that is offensive, it is important to acknowledge that fact and be aware of the fact that something is threatening a breakdown in the process. When a receiver is angered, it is easy for him or her to miss the most important part of the sender’s message.

To avoid jumping to conclusions, it may be helpful for the listener to wait until the speaker is finished before responding. It can also be helpful to ask questions throughout the conversation to clarify issues, or to let the speaker know that he or she is communicating in a way that suggests a certain thing, which may not be what they are intending to say.

It is easy to become distracted while trying to communicate. Often one has many tasks to do or there is a lot of other activity taking place while someone is trying to communicate. This can be a problem because it leads to miscommunication, faking attention, and tuning out all together–all of which threaten future communication.

Although the reasons for listening breakdowns are numerous, there are many ways to improve listening skills. These are:

1. Provide clues that you are actively involved

2. Concentrate

3. Refrain from formulating an immediate response

4. Try to prepare beforehand

5. Be prepared to accept revisions

6. Be sure the environment is conducive to listening.

Clues that one is actively listening can go a long way. It is important to the speaker to feel like the listener cares about what the speaker is saying. This is because it tends to send a message about whether or not the listener cares about the speaker in general. When people don’t feel like you care about them, they don’t trust you and the communication process quickly breaks down. Therefore, it sis important to use verbal and non-verbal clues that you are listening, including eye contact, gestures, and acknowledging statements.

Concentration requires willingness and practice. Practicing active listening helps with concentration but there are other elements that contribute to your ability to concentrate on what someone is saying. When you’re involved in an exchange of information, you can’t be multi-tasking. It’s important to position yourself in a way that maintains eye contact while allowing you to watch for body language and other non-verbal forms of communication.

It is important to refrain from formulating an immediate response. You won’t be able to fully concentrate on forming a genuine understanding of what the speaker is trying to say if you are too busy thinking about what you are going to say in response to them whenever it is your turn to talk. Instead, it is important to approach the communication as a dialogue. Dialogues help us to learn what others have to say by forcing us to think about their message and to acknowledge what we have heard rather than just responding with our own opinions.

Preparation can have a huge impact on the outcome of a dialogue or any form of communication. To prepare for an interaction where effective listening will be important, it is essential to keep in mind the purpose of the exchange. What decisions need to be made and how the collaboration between sender and receiver relates are important factors to keep in mind. It is also helpful to approach the situation with the attitude of really caring about and wanting to know the truth. The dialogue should be viewed as an opportunity to uncover the truth and make progress, rather than as a challenge or conflict.

A willingness to accept revisions will keep the communication process running smoothly. Often people are so busy trying to defend their positions that they fail to really stop and think whether they could be improved upon or viewed in a different way. This is what is often referred to as “spending 90 seconds expressing an opinion and 900 seconds blindly defending it.”

Choosing the right environment is important because it will help the listener focus and avoid distractions. Although there is no set environment which is best for all communication, in general it is best to avoid areas where there are high levels of activity, loud noises, an uncomfortable temperature, poor air flow, etc.

Implementing these techniques takes willingness and patience. The effort is worthwhile however, as the long-term benefit of improved communication skills will greatly increase one’s chances of success in the business world. Effective listening is the most important part of the communication process. It is probably the most difficult to master also. There are many barriers to effective listening, but practicing listening techniques will help one overcome these barriers and become a good listener.

Fire Prevention in Healthcare Facilities

With a large amount of residents physically unable to move themselves, fires are a particular problem for the healthcare industry. Many facilities have been designed to be fireproof, however because burning materials often release toxic vapors fire prevention has and always will be a top priority. All employees can make a difference with fire prevention. With the proper training all healthcare facilities can become much safer institutions.

To help prevent fires employees need to know what starts them. All fires involve three elements: Heat, Fuel and Oxygen. Removing any of these elements will stop a fire. Fires are started with heat as the ignition and heat can be generated by anything that is hot – open flames, chemical reactions, Faulty electrical, overheated equipment and hot surfaces. Once a fire starts it will grow hotter and it will not stop until one of the three elements has been vanquished.

Flames are created by vapors coming off of a flammable material. The temperature at which a material gives off flammable vapors is known as a flashpoint. The flashpoint can change depending on how much oxygen is in the air. For instance an ordinary cleanser that would have a high flashpoint in normal air might be flammable in an area where a patient is being given oxygen.

What fuels a fire determines what will be used to extinguish it. Anesthetic gases can be extinguished by shutting off the gas, however most fires are extinguished by applying a material that eliminates the oxygen or the fuel. Applying the wrong substance can be devastating though. For instance, using water can cause burning liquids to spread and water conducts electricity at electrical fires.

Fires are separated into four classes: A, B, C & D. Class A fires involve normal substances like wood, paper or cardboard. These fires can be extinguished with water. Class B fires are fueled by flammable liquids and gasses. Chemical foams are the best way to extinguish these types of fires. Class C Fires are electrical and involve electrical equipment. They are extinguished by non-conductive agents. Class D fires are fueled by combustible metals. These type of fires are extremely difficult to put out and must be left to professional to take extinguish.

When a fire starts healthcare workers need to act quickly. The best way to insure this is an emergency action plan. The plan will carefully define how to report a fire, who will fight the fire, who is responsible for patient safety, evacuation procedures and lastly care of patients during an emergency.

The R.A.C.E. acronym is an easy way to remember what to do.

The first thing you should do is RESCUE. If anyone is in immediate danger get them out of the room and shut the door. ALARM is next. Make sure the fire alarm is activated and 911 has been called. Thirdly CONFINE the fire. Make sure doors are shut and the flames or smoke won’t spread to other parts of the facility. The last step is EXTINGUISH. If you have been trained to use a fire extinguisher this is the time to use it, but make sure you are not in danger first. Always, evaluate whether you will be safe during the extinguishing process. Never try to put out a fire if you are not trained, the fire has grown too large, or if you have to open the door to where the fire is.

In office and industrial settings all staff is advised to exit immediately during a fire situation, however in healthcare facilities this is not practical. All non-essential personal and visitors are advised to follow posted escape routes, but in most cases patients are “defended” from the fire and not moved. In many cases, moving patients is more dangerous than the fire. When evacuating make sure you NEVER use the elevator, make certain the all doors are cool to the touch and if smoke rises crawl on the floor if necessary.

The best way to fight a fire is to make sure it doesn’t start in the first place. Cigarettes are by far the most common cause of fires in healthcare facilities. Laundry areas, kitchens, storage closets and nurses stations are some of the most common areas for fires to start. You need to be very careful around flammable liquids and in areas where oxygen is being administered.

In conclusion, everyone is an important part of your facilities fire prevention plan. Employee training on fire prevention is crucial and can save lives. Have an emergency plan with clear instructions and make sure all employees know their part in a fire emergency.

How to Tell If You Have Silverfish

In order to get rid of silverfish in your home, you need to know first of all if you have silverfish in your home.  There are some telltale signs of silverfish damage which are easy to identify and locate.

First is actually being able to see the little critters. Silverfish typically come out at night.  They like to hang out around damp areas, especially in the kitchen around food, Silverfish love cereal and starches.  I recommend using air tight plastic containers which will also keep your cereal fresh.  You can also locate them in the bathroom in damp areas around the tub and sinks.  You can even catch them when you turn the light on and see them scurrying around.

Another sign that you have silverfish is they had fed on something you will see notches, holes and scrapings with irregular shapes, particularly on wallpaper since Silverfish will try to get at the paste. Check your books and newspapers for any notches or holes.  Get rid of old magazines and newspapers. Silverfish also like synthetic fabrics so look for yellow stains on your shirts and pants in your closet and even your curtains.

You can even mix water and flour together to a thin paste.  Put the paste on an index card and let dry, place the index cards where you think you have silverfish.  If you find notched edges, irregular shapes or scrapings, these are tell tale signs of Silverfish.

Now that you know you have Silverfish, there are easy, non toxic ways to get rid of Silverfish. 

Should I Buy 3 Ply Real Wood Flooring or Multiply Engineered Wood Flooring?

Customers often ask me “When buying wood flooring should I get 3 ply or multiply engineered wood flooring?” The answer comes down to 3 things.

1. The difference in cost

The cost of wood flooring has many variables. So for an example, lets say that both wood boards are oak, of the same length and width, and have the same finish. Roughly speaking the wider the board with a longer length is more expensive because it wastes more wood in the manufacturing process.

Then it comes down to the thickness of the boards. Those that are made for economy tend to be 15mm thick with a 3mm thick top veneer of oak. The first ply is the veneer, the second ply is a block board making up the bulk of the product, the third ply is a thin layer of wood on the base. A 3 ply board can come up to 20mm in thickness, with the veneer making up 6mm of the board. Buying a thicker board adds to the rigidity of the floor and prevents twisting and warping prior to installing.

A 3 ply board should be about 20% cheaper than its multiply counterpart. If you are installing this type of floor, in a straight forward room, with a dry level surface, then you can be confident to use an economy board.

2. Ease of fitting and stability of setting

Multiply engineered wood boards are normally 20 mm thick. The top veneer of oak is 6 mm. The other 14 mm is made up of 1mm layers of wood, with the grain of the wood placed at a 90 degree angle to the next layer. This makes the boards more stable when affected by a change of temperature or moisture levels. As the center of 3 ply is block board, the tongue is often rough and uneven, where as multiply is sanded and regular throughout the whole length of the board, making it quicker and easier to fit to the next plank.

3. Under Floor Heating

Real wood floors are a natural product and therefore can be affected by a change of temperature. In winter, because of the dryer conditions created by central heating, the wood contracts. In summer, windows are opened letting a good flow of air through a building, increasing humidity and a real wood floor starts to expand again.

This expansion and contraction is made greater when using underfloor heating, as the wood flooring has to deal with greater temperature and larger amounts of moisture loss. This is why I would recommend a multiply engineered board when choosing real wood floors to go over under floor heating Because of its stability and ease of fitting.

So to summarise

If you are fitting in a straight forward room to fit, that covers an existing flat wood floor, I wood recommend 3 ply engineered wood flooring.

If you are fitting over a concrete floor, under floor heating or rooms with a lot of temperature variation throughout the year, for its stability and easy of fitting, I would recommend multiply engineered wood flooring.

Using Lymphedema Pumps

There is no known cure for lymphedema, although the condition can largely be kept in check with a few treatment methods. One of them is Manual Lymph Drainage or MLD, a part of the complete decongestive therapy. MLD is a light massaging procedure where the flow of fluids is stimulated in the right direction. Lymphedema pumps are sometimes used to direct the pooled fluids to the blood stream. Massage therapists may sometimes use the pump, but it is an essential aid for people who cannot avail of the services of a massage therapist.

Using a lymphedema pump involves two stages, which are: Preparatory Phase and Drainage Phase. The lymph vessels need to be prepared to receive the fluid that the pump stimulates. This is the preparatory stage, which has to be done properly. If not, the lymph will enter the surrounding tissues, causing complications instead. The therapist always prepares the patient first by giving a gentle massage. While using the pump at home, the patient must perform a self-massage to prepare the body for the therapy.

The lymphedema pump is used at the drainage stage. While using the pump, it needs to be adjusted for the right pressure level. The patient is then required to wear the garment and position the limb correctly before starting the pump. The pump’s action pushes the fluid accumulated in the limb towards the blood stream thus reducing the swelling. To keep up the flow in the right direction the patient must wear the compression garment after the MLD session is completed. This will prevent the fluids from entering the tissues and promote a smooth flow of the lymphatic fluids.

Lymphedema pumps come in two varieties. One is the Sequential Gradient Pump where the air is automatically pushed into the inbuilt channels of the garment. It is an imitation of how the natural lymph flow moves from the limbs towards the trunk of the body. Here the preparatory phase, that is the massage, has to be performed manually. The second variant of the pump is the FlexiTouch Pump wherein the whole process of MLD is fully automated. All that is required is to adjust the setting to the necessary level and activate the pump. Here the complete process may take a good part of the hour. However, the whole process needs to be completed in one sitting.

The pneumatic lymphedema pump has been used for a long time to treat lymphedema. It has been a proven method of treatment with positive results. Buying a pump may turn out to be quite expensive as a good quality pump might cost anything between 5000 to 6000 dollars. Insurance firms include it in Durable medical Equipment hence the patient may be reimbursed for the expense. There is also the option of renting out the pump from a supply store. Lymphedema pumps are a great help for people who have no access to a therapist. They could easily learn the techniques of using it to manage lymphedema.

Benefits of Whey Protein: How Whey Protein Can Help You Gain Lean Muscle

Athletes, body builders, or fitness fanatics are spending hours in the gym a week in order to build muscle. However many of them are not receiving enough protein in their diet to receive the maximum benefits from there training. The benefits of whey protein in the form of shakes or bars is that it provides a convenient way to consume the amount of protein that your body needs to recover. Protein powder specifically whey protein isolates can give your body the protein it requires after an intense work out.

After heavy training a persons body is in a catabolic state (meaning that your body is trying to reduce muscle mass). To fight this you need to ingest fast acting carbs (i.e. dextrose or maltose, Gatorade works great), and fast acting protein such as whey. To receive maximum benefits of whey protein one should use a protein powder that contains whey protein isolates because they are fast acting and your body absorbs them quickly. Whey protein isolates are the highest quality, purest protein powder, and they do not have added fats or carbohydrates.

One of the great benefits of whey protein is that it has an abundant amount of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) which provide fuel to working muscles and stimulate protein synthesis. Studies have shown that those who consume whey or milk protein have a larger amount of lean muscle mass. Other studies have shown that one of the benefits of whey protein could be that it helps fight free radical damage and defend against toxins, due to the amount of antioxidants that it provides.

Another one of the benefits of whey protein is that it can be consumed in the morning immediately after waking up. In the morning your body as gone several hours with out food and it is important to provide it with the proper nutrients.This is another time that your body is in a catabolic state, your body is starving for nutrients especially protein. Again this is especially important for those who are doing strength training.

The amount of protein that a person requires depends on their activity level. For those people who do spend a lot of time in the gym or training for a sport they require more protein to feed there muscles. A good rule of thumb to follow is one should consume 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight. As stated before many people who do heavy training to do not receive the proper amount of protein. Protein shakes with whey powder are a great way to get all of the protein that your body NEEDS after heavy work outs.

If you do decide start taking a protein supplement it is very important that you are drinking plenty of water. High protein diets can be hard on the kidneys so it is important to continuously flush out your system. To recap the main Benefits of whey protein are that it is convenient, it is fast absorbing and helps increase in size/strength.

Wireless IP Camera System Explained – Camera Surveillance Technology

A wireless IP camera system uses technology to communicate live video through the internet. It uses your camera that is recording in real time to deliver a signal over the internet to your email so that you can see what is occurring wherever the camera is. This is camera surveillance at its best and at its simplest. Wireless IP cameras are digital cameras that come with a web server built in and can be used indoors or outdoors, daytime or night time, for personal or business use. As the owner all you are required to do is to plug the camera into an internet connection and live video is then visible to anybody who uses the IP address of the camera. This makes camera surveillance not only reasonable but easy. You will not incur the cost of paying someone to permanently watch a monitor screen instead the wireless IP camera allows you to record and view your home or business with the click of the mouse from any location in the world as long as you have an internet connection.

The connection for the wireless IP camera can be connected online with the use of any wireless router, dependent upon your signal the camera can sit any distance, and it is a lot more difficult for an intruder to destroy any cables that would be present during a traditional camera surveillance system. The Wireless system is an excellent choice when choosing camera surveillance. It has all the makings of traditional camera surveillance such as full tilt, pan and zoom operation that is remotely controllable; IR heat detection, can work with alarm systems, and motion detectors. The Wireless IP camera system can be used in areas where there is an electrical connection, but is not closely or conveniently located near an internet connection.

When you think of video surveillance you probably think of expensive but the wireless IP system is inexpensive because of the simplicity connected with its use. You have the option of using battery cameras as they can even dispense with the electrical connection. You can use more than one camera just like you can with traditional camera surveillance systems. Using more than one camera adds extra protection so even if an intruder finds and possibly disables one camera the second camera would record this and send out an alarm.

In simple terms wireless IP camera is a form of security surveillance that allows you to check out the security of your home or business online from wherever you so choose anywhere in the world as long as you have a internet connection. The wireless IP camera allows cameras to be situated in places that were once not possible for traditional security surveillance systems that need a hard connection from camera to monitor, and a long range can be achieved from wireless IP camera to IP connection and also from receiver to computer.

The Laws of Physics and How They Affect Driving

Increased speed makes the laws of physics become more and more important to the driver. These laws, although not enforced by a policeman or written by a law producing body, are absolutely binding on all drivers, and no one can relax their effect. The laws of physics control any and every object that moves. The particular laws which apply to driving cover areas such as friction, centrifugal force and inertia, impact, and gravity. You should always remember that these laws apply to city driving as well as to driving on the highway, because their significance increases proportionately with the speed at which you are travelling. However, this article on highway driving would seem the best place to discuss their importance.

Proper sight requires sufficient light and time for a picture to impose itself on the retina of the eye, be relayed to the brain, and thereby trigger a reaction by the driver. This means that traffic signs, signals, and pavement markings become increasingly important when driving at higher speeds. These give the driver advance warning of any curves, hills, intersections, or railway crossings that may be ahead, as well as intended maneuvers by other drivers. A driver must learn to recognize all signs and signals instantly, for at higher speeds the time for recognition and reaction becomes shorter and shorter. To facilitate recognition, signs and signals throughout the United States are standardized by shape and color and can reflect light to be seen at night. Remember, it takes time to observe a sign, signal, or condition, and then react to it. Reaction time for a given driver is fairly constant, but the distance travelled in this time is directly related to speed. Therefore, stopping distances and distances required for evasive action become greater as speed is increased.


Friction is the force which opposes the motion of one surface over another, and is the means through which a vehicle may move in a straight line, or may turn or stop. This force is exerted entirely through four small friction areas, also known as, tires. If we assume that the average reaction time is 0.75 seconds than common sense tells us that the faster the car is travelling, the greater the distance it will take to stop. The difference in stopping distance from 40 miles per hour to 70 miles per hour is approximately 3.5 times greater. This means that if you can stop within 100 feet at 40 miles per hour, you will need 350 feet of leeway to stop travelling at 70 miles per hour.

These conditions only occur part of the time, however: should the force of friction be reduced by ice, snow, rain, oil, mud, loose gravel, a rough surface, or poor tires, then stopping distances will increase drastically and evasive maneuvers will become much more difficult, or even impossible. Because stopping distance increases more rapidly than speed, it is important to allow a greater distance between your car and the car in front as your speed increases.

Inertia and Centrifugal Force

If at any time the frictional force, or traction, between the four small areas of the tire and road surface are lost, control is lost as well, and one or both of the following physical forces may determine the situation: inertia, the tendency of a moving body to keep moving in a straight line unless an outside force acts to change its direction of motion; and centrifugal force, the tendency of a moving body turning about a center to fly away from that center. Centrifugal force can be demonstrated by placing a weight on the end of a string and swinging it in a circular motion. If the string is release or breaks, the weight will leave the circular path and continue in a straight line.

Obviously, a similar effect can happen to a turning vehicle. A car driving around a curve must overcome the centrifugal force in order to make the turn. If the centrifugal force is greater than the friction between the tires and the road, the car will not be able to turn, but will skid off the highway. The key point is that the friction increases with speed, but the centrifugal force increases even more rapidly. Therefore, the faster your speed, or the sharper the turn, the greater is the chance that you will be unable to get around safely. If you remember this principle, you will realize that you must slow down before entering a curve, especially if the road is slightly slippery

Brakes should never be applied after entering a curve, as this has a tendency to reduce the friction between the wheels and the road. Remember, friction enables you to move your car, control it, and stop it. When you consider that for each tire the area touching the road surface is about equal to the size of your hand, it is understandable that many factors can cause loss of friction, and resultant loss of control. The greater the speed, the greater the possibility this may happen – and the greater the consequences. Speed must always be adjusted to suit road conditions.

As well as the speed of the car, another factor determining whether or not you will be able to make a turn safely is the angle at which the road is banked through the curve. The easiest is a banked turn (similar to a race track); the second, a flat road surface; and the third, a crowned surface. The flat road surface is dangerous at high speed, and in comparison, in a turn, the crowned surface can only be negotiated at low speeds because the car is tilted against the direction of the curve. On entering sharp curves, there is usually an advisory speed sign posted, telling you the speed at which the curve may be safely taken. One who ignores these signs is indeed a very foolish driver.

Kinetic Energy and the Force of Impact

If control of a car is lost, the usual result is collision, either with another car or with a fixed object. The all important variable in this situation is the force of impact. The force of impact itself is a function of the speed and the weight of the car. If you double the speed of a car before a collision, the force of impact is four times as great. If you triple the speed of the car before collision, the force of impact is multiplied nine times! Weight also has a part to play here; if the weight of the vehicle doubles, the force of impact doubles too. The total result of doubling the speed and the weight of the vehicle would be to increase the force of impact eight times. Therefore, any collision would necessarily be eight times as damaging. In effect, the impact of hitting a solid object at 30 miles per hour is like driving off a three story building.

Highway engineers use several techniques to reduce the force of impact in cases of unavoidable contact with surrounding objects. Smooth metal guard rails allow a car to glance off rather than hit solidly. Wide road shoulders, free of obstacles such as trees, culverts, and bridge abutments, help to reduce the hazard. Where light and sign standards are essential, these poles are designed to sheer or break off easily on contact. The best way to make sure that the force of impact does not act upon your car is to drive at all times in a manner which will avoid collision with any and all objects!

The Force of Gravity

Gravity – the force which attracts objects downwards towards the center of the earth – will cause cars to lose speed going up hills, thereby decreasing their stopping distances; and to accelerate going down hills, thereby increasing their stopping distances.

A good driver will cut his speed when descending a hill; on steep grades, he should put his gear selector into low, so that the engine of the car will act as a brake. Hills are potential driving hazards for other reasons also. They limit visibility; the driver should not pass on or approaching a hill, no matter how slowly the vehicles in front are moving, unless there is a passing lane. At the crest of a hill, the driver must be alert for approaching cars not in their proper lane, or for obstacles in the road ahead, such as a car stopped while waiting to make a left turn. Remember that you must be able to stop your vehicle in the distance you can see ahead either day or night.

The Difference Between Acol Bridge And American Standard Bridge

You’ve decided that you want to learn to play bridge. Every year thousands of people take up playing bridge – it’s fun, it’s sociable, it’s a challenge. But there are several different bridge systems. How do you decide which system to learn and what are the obvious differences?

There are two main systems that are played. Acol bridge and American Standard bridge. As a general rule, Acol is the system that is played in the UK, Ireland and Australia, whilst American Standard bridge is widely played around the world.

A wee aside – when I started learning I was convinced that Acol was an acronym and that each letter must mean something. It isn’t and they don’t! It’s named after the road in London where it’s originators used to meet and where they developed the system.

Many people learn to play bridge by attending classes. If you are going to join a class, then you probably won’t have a choice of which system to learn. If you then progress to joining a local bridge club, again you probably won’t have a choice and your club will play whichever system is widely used in your country.

It gets a little more complicated if you want to learn to play bridge online – and if you intend to join an online bridge playing community. Some sites offer a choice of systems. Some don’t. So it might be worth doing a little research and identifying the site where you want to play before signing up for your online lessons.

So what are the main differences?

The most obvious difference, lies in one part of the initial bidding. This makes it easy to decide which system is being played. It’s the point range required for an opening bid of 1NT (one No Trumps). In Acol bridge an opening bid of 1NT means you hold a balanced hand with 12 – 14 points. In American Standard bridge the same opening bid would mean your hands is balanced but contains 15 – 17 points.

The points are worked out in the same way. Before the bidding commences each player adds up the points in their hand. They count 4 points for each ace they hold, 3 points for each king, 2 points for each queen and 1 point for each jack.

The next difference comes if a player wants to make an opening bid of 1 of a major suit. There are four suits in a pack of cards, spades, hearts, diamonds, clubs. They are ranked in that order, with spades and hearts being the major suits and diamonds and clubs being the minor suits.

In Acol bridge a player will make an opening bid of 1 of a major suit if they hold 4 (or more) cards in that suit. So an opening bid of, say, 1 Heart, tells your partner than you hold at least 4 cards in that suit.

In American Standard bridge it is most common to play 5 card majors. In other words, an opening bid of 1 of a major suit tells your partner than you hold at least 5 cards in that suit. If a player only holds 4 cards in either major suit they will commonly make a minor suit opening bid – which just tells their partner that they don’t hold a 5 card major.

In AS bridge it is common to include length points when valuing your hand. This means adding one extra point for each card held above four in a suit. Acol bridge players rarely include length points. Both systems offer the opportunity to add shortage points (additional points for short or void suits) for some bids. AS players would then count shortage points instead of length points.