Low Voltage Lighting vs Solar Lighting

There is a growing debate over which type of landscape lighting is better:

Solar Lighting or Low Voltage Lighting.

This article highlights some of the pros and cons of both based on my own personal experience.

Low Voltage Lighting

This type of lighting is available in a variety of brightness levels and styles. The light emitted varies from fixture to fixture, but is usually very good. A transformer provides the electricity and can be controlled by an automatic timer. Low voltage lighting is shockless and safe to use around children and pets. It’s also cost effective and the hardest thing about the installation is burying the wires.

Some of the benefits of low voltage lighting systems are listed below:

A professionally installed lighting system has been known to increase the value and resale of properties. Showcasing your house at night with low voltage lighting helps potential visitors find your property easier too.

Compared with line voltage, low voltage is easily installed, safe to operate, extremely economical, and casts beautiful light.

As a homeowner, you can enjoy more hours outside entertaining friends and family. Low voltage lighting can even be wired on your deck giving you great ambient light or even direct light for your grill.

Low voltage lighting systems are expandable so they can be adapted as properties are expanded and/or owners’ needs change.

Proper lighting offers increased safety and security.

Some of the cons:

Bulbs burn out and need replacement.

Wiring can be damaged and need replacement.

Timers need to be reset with daylight savings ti

Solar Lighting

Solar lights use LEDs instead of traditional bulbs. LEDs last longer than any other light source, sometimes lasting as long as 10 years. This type of lighting requires no wiring and is the most energy-efficient lighting because it uses the sun’s energy to recharge batteries. It costs nothing to operate and is easy to install. However, it should not be used to illuminate large areas brightly or for activities such as grilling and socializing.

Some of the benefits of Solar Lighting:

Lasts longer than other light sources. With LEDs there is nothing to break, rupture, shatter, leak, or contaminate.

Unlike typical conventional light sources, LEDs are not subject to

sudden failure or burnout. There is no point in time at which the light source ceases to function; instead, LEDs gradually degrade in performance over time.

Reduced Maintenance Costs – Since LED based light sources last at least 10 times longer than a normal light source, there is no need to replace the light, reducing or even eliminating ongoing maintenance costs and periodic bulb replacement. This is especially nice if you have an area that is difficult to access to change bulbs.

Energy efficiency – You can rest assured knowing that you aren’t contributing nearly as much to global warming or the energy crisis when you use Solar products.

There is no mercury in the light source. Eliminating Mercury from your lighting system will enable you to meet new and future increasingly stringent environmental regulations.

Some of the cons:

The solar panels that typical lighting fixtures use need to be small. This means they collect less energy from the sun to recharge the batteries.

Areas that are frequently shaded or get little sun geographically also affect the recharging capabilities of the fixture.

The lighting is typically dim and does not cover much ground. It also tends to look blue even though it says they use “Super Bright White” LEDS.

The dim lighting means you have to use more fixtures, which creates a sort of landing strip look, or if you are using deck light fixtures they end up looking like a bunch of bug zappers, (without the ability to zap the bugs).

No matter how long they say that LEDs last, it has been my experience that the solar panel usually becomes covered in dirt and the batteries don’t last nearly as long as they are supposed to. You have to keep that solar panel clean or it won’t work, this means more maintenance more often.

Fixtures are usually set to come on at dark and off at light. Not much control there.


I tend to prefer low voltage lighting for the simple fact that it is better quality light and can be controlled better with timers. LED landscape lights will probably always be dim. Solar lights just don’t harvest much energy from the sun, so no matter how efficient their LEDs, they will never be really bright. In comparison to your cheapie solar lights, low voltage is likely to be a huge improvement, and the low-voltage installation process is not really that much harder than it would be for solar fixtures.

I say, low voltage is the way to go until the technology can improve solar panels ability to capture energy and LEDs ability to output more light.

Two Things to Consider When Installing Perimeter Barriers

Concrete security barriers are used to regulate and control gatherings, whether big or small. The history of these barriers began in Belgium, when a French photographer in the late 1800s, who was also a balloonist, used temporary barriers to keep visitors away from the balloon. Ever since, modern day barriers came into existence and they have found extensive use in commercial venues too.

The Physical and Psychological Effect of Perimeter Security

Maintaining site safety is one of the basic necessities of any big infrastructures. It should always come first on the checklist especially when those sites need constant perimeter checks. To maintain restricted access, any site must have an effective perimeter barrier so as to prevent unauthorized entry. Installing these barriers not only gives additional physical protection to the site, but it also gives a psychological protection. The reason for this is that physical barriers give psychological deterrent to anyone who sees it. One such example is if a person passed by a nuclear plant installed with nuclear power plant security barriers and perimeter protection along with a “keep out” sign, most likely people who are unauthorized will think twice before entering the premises. Knowing how to provide the right perimeter barrier is crucial so that the best barrier gets installed at the appropriate location.

Two Aspects to look out for Before Installing Discount Used Barriers

There are two things that you need to consider to effectively choose the right Barriers for Site Safety. The first thing is to scan the perimeter itself and know the type of target your establishment is in the neighborhood. You should know about things on your site that might catch the interest of intruders. This way, you get a clear idea and assess the type of perimeter barriers you need to install. Having knowledge of what you are up against will improve your readiness and increase the overall safety of your site.

After securing the needed information, you can immediately start looking for companies that will provide you with the installation service of concrete security barriers. You can also add in extra features for the perimeter barriers to heighten the security that it provides. You can consider including perimeter alarms and other high security features offered by a reputed security provider. Installing these security products along with the perimeter barrier will certainly put your mind at ease and lets you focus more things that matter most. It will make you ready for any security contingencies that your establishment or site will undergo.

So What Is an ‘RCBO’?

RCBO stands for Residual Current Breaker with Overcurrent. An RCBO is actually a composite unit of two separate electrical devices, and so to understand what one is and what its purpose is, it is necessary to first look at the two devices that have spawned its development.

Residual Current Devices

A Residual Current Device (RCD) is an electrical component which detects imbalances in the electrical current of a circuit and then immediately disconnects the electricity supply to the circuit. RCD’s are designed to protect against accidental electrocution when a person touches the live wire of an active electrical circuit. They work by detecting any variation between the live and neutral conductors. If a variance is detected then the electrical contacts are quickly forced apart and the circuit is broken. This process takes place within a matter of milliseconds, stopping the flow of current before it can do any serious damage.

Miniature Circuit Breakers

A Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) on the other hand is designed to protect appliances and larger electrical circuits from overloads or short circuits. Operating on a similar basis to an RCD, the MCB detects faults in the power flowing through a particular circuit, and upon doing so separates the electrical contacts, breaking the circuit, and thus preventing damage to the device or appliance.

An RCBO combines both of these devices into a single unit. It is designed to interrupt the electrical circuit in the event of a current imbalance caused by an individual touching the live wire, and also if an overload or short circuit is detected.

RCBO’s- a single module solution

An RCBO is an effective means of protecting against both overloads and earth leaks, while only using a single unit. This can be particularly useful when space is limited. Depending on the specific application they are being used for, it may be more cost-effective to use individual Residual Current Devices and Miniature Circuit Breakers together. If in doubt, its best to consult a qualified and knowledgeable electrician.

Newlec Single Pole RCBO’s are available for a range of power ratings, and are a practical and economical solution for a range of wiring and circuitry needs. For ease of installation, the unit features raised mounting feet designed for uneven surfaces. The Wylex NSBS Type C Single Pole RCBO also provides a single module solution for circuitry protection.

The Type C DPN Schneider RCBO meanwhile features two pole switching of phase and neutral, and is suitable for providing protection against both overloads and short circuits for domestic, commercial and industrial purposes.

An RCBO can be used to protect both people and equipment in a cost effective way. RCBO’s are suitable for a range of applications in the home and in commercial and public buildings. They provide a vital failsafe system for electrical circuits, and peace of mind for the user.

Rights of Passage, Or, What’s Yours is Mine, Too

First, a visual. Your screen (you may want to use the wallpaper with that green hills background) is a 100-acre parcel owned by Kong. (Okay, if you use the wallpaper, you’ll have to visualize a 15 foot-wide, mostly linear creek that divides the two parcels about equally into two, 50-acre tracts.) While Kong owns the land, he accesses it only from the far western (left side) edge of the property. In 1993, Kong sells the left “half” to Dolt; and in 1995, he sells the right “half” to Pope. Pope and Dolt are neighbors, separated only by the creek, but they don’t see each other much. Pope starts a cattle ranch on his piece, but Dolt’s tract is vacant most of the time; Dolt uses it for a retreat during the pleasant-weather months of the year, and builds a cabin far back from the public road that runs along the tool-bar portion at the bottom of your screen.

Scenario 1: Pope figures that he’s got a little more pasture land at his disposal if he moves his fence west across the creek–about 50 feet from its left bank. He puts up a three strand, barbed-wire job with support posts, and puts a concrete bridge acros the creek in 1996, so the cows can cross over. He never talks to Dolt about his activities, and keeps a few head of cows grazing across the creek for the next decade, that meander up to the fence line now and then. In 2007, he sues Dolt in a declaratory judgment action seeking to quiet title, meaning establishing his outright ownership of the land inside his fence line. You all know the result. That’s what adverse possession is about.

Scenario 2: Pope decides in 1997 that cattle-raising isn’t his métier. (I fancy the notion of a cowboy having a métier.) And, he’s not fond of barbed wire either; it’s a bad aesthetic for him, so he takes down his fence. A year later, he decides to grow cotton on his land, but to get the maximum benefit from the creek water, he grows his crop from stem to stern, planting right up to the bank and covering his 50 acres so that he can’t access his fields (except between tight rows of the crop, which would get mangled by tires) by driving onto his property from the public road. So, he rents a grader in 1998 and blades across the east boundary of Dolt’s dirt adjoining the creek bed a path that’s wide enough for a single vehicle, thereby connecting the public road to the bridge across the creek. Pope puts pea gravel on the pathway at first, but lets the spinning of tires and occasional rainfall wash the gravel mostly away, and the drive “improvement” turns into a mess, though the vegetation where he drives stays mashed-down. A vacationing Dolt at first uses the driveway to get to the creek for fishing on his bank-side, but eventually Dolt tires of Pope’s indecision about his agricultural pursuits and Pope’s spendthrift ways, and all the dust stirred up by Pope’s pickup, too, so he erects a picket fence across the gravel driveway. Pope sues for trespass and to quiet title in 2008; Dolt counter-sues for the same relief. Who wins, and how? And what does the winner have, actually?

Easements, other than those established by an express grant, are a weird construct in Arizona’s law. There’s at least four ways a landowner can establish an easement involuntarily (as to the fee title holder) here: By implication via prior, existing use; by implication via necessity; by prescription; or, rarely, by estoppel (where usually an irrevocable license is found to exist by the court, rather than an easement). Let’s begin with some thoughts on the two types of implied easements.

An easement created by implication arises from an inference of the intentions of the parties to a conveyance of land. The factors determining the implication of an easement, according to the Third Restatement of Property (Servitudes) at §2.11, et seq. are these:

a. whether the party claiming easement rights was the conveyor or the conveyee of the land through which the easement is claimed;

b. the terms of the conveyance;

c. the consideration given for it (if any);

d. whether the claim is made against a contemporaneous conveyee (meaning if two parties got their lands at about the same time from the original overall owner);

e. the extent of necessity of the easement to the claimant;

f. whether reciprocal benefits result to the conveyor or conveyee;

g. extent to which the manner of prior use was or might have been known to the parties.

Here is an illustration of each type of implied-in-law easements:

Easement implied from a prior use: In the case of Van Sandt v. Royster, the easement is implied on the basis of an apparent and continuous (or permanent) use of a portion of the tract existing when the tract is divided. It is also called a “quasi-easement.” This is imposed by a court to protect the probable expectations of the grantor and grantee that the existing use will continue after the transfer. In truth, this is an implied reservation, not an implied grant. This is an implied reservation because she reserved a right for her own property when she sold the other property. It would have been an implied grant, if she would have remained on the “quasi servient tenement” and sold the “quasi dominant tenement.”

Easement by necessity: In the case of Othen v. Rosier (1950), the plaintiff and defendant own tracts of land which were formerly part of one larger parcel. To reach a public highway, the plaintiff had to cross over another’s property, and used a road that ran over the defendant’s property, that he kept in repair. Because of drainage issues that had water encroaching, the defendant erected a levee, which made the road muddy for weeks on end. The plaintiff filed suit for injunction, to compel the plaintiff to eliminate the levee. But the court found in favor of the defendant, asserting that the roadway was not a necessity at the date of the division of the parcel by the original grant deed. So, in the necessity scenario, such an easement is implied when the court finds the claimed easement is necessary to the enjoyment of the claimant’s land and that the necessity arose when the claimed dominant parcel was severed (separated by ownership) from the claimed servient parcel.

In Arizona, the case of Tobias v. Dailey, 196 Arizona 418, 422, 998 P.2d 1091, 1095 (App. 2000) is a “necessity case” that arose under the state’s private condemnation statute, but the court of appeals ruled that the landowners failed to show that they lacked an adequate alternative outlet to their parcels.

Here are the essential elements of an easement by prescription in most jurisdictions:

1. Open and notorious use of the land of the other (that is, it’s visible–the user isn’t sneaking around)

2. Adverse and under claim of right (that is, the user knows that he wasn’t originally vested with the right to use the other’s land, and that he wouldn’t be welcome to use it if the owner were asked for permission)

3. Exclusion of the owner; in Arizona, however, this is not a requirement for a prescriptive easement, so long as the claimant is not staking his claim on the basis of being a member of the general traveling public but rather as an individual making somewhat consistent use of the easement tract, see Ammer v. Arizona Water Company, 169 Ariz. 205, 209, 818 P.2d 190, 194 (App. 1991). (As a matter of fact, this issue of exclusion strikes me as the single biggest “difference maker” in understanding the distinction between adverse possession and prescriptive rights in Arizona.)

4. The passage of 10 years of continuous use, see Harambasic v. Owens, 186 Ariz. 159, 160, 920 P.2d 39, 40 (App. 1996).

Additionally in Arizona, if the use is open and obvious (the courts say that the owner must have “notice,” but that has been construed to include constructive notice where the adverse use is obvious), there is a presumption in favor of the claimant that the use is adverse, see Harambasic above; it then becomes the burden of the owner to prove that the use was permissive. But proof that the use was expressly or impliedly with permission of the fee title owner will defeat a claim, and no number of years of use will lead to a prescriptive easement, see LaRue v. Kosich. (What constitutes an implied grant of permission is a whole ‘nuther discussion, I suspect; a recent Court of Appeals case, Spaulding v. Pouliot, 218 Ariz. 196, 181 P.3d 243 (App. 2008) stands for the proposition that when the claimant uses the tract acknowledging its use “in subordination to the owner’s title”-whatever that means-such an acknowledgement will support a finding of permission, even if it never were expressed.

The Spaulding court said this: “if a use is shown to have begun with the owner’s permission, any subsequent use is presumed to have remained permissive. That is, a use that begins permissively cannot “ripen into a prescriptive right” by the mere passage of time. Consequently, in order to overcome the presumption of continued permissive use, the party claiming the easement must show that, despite the initial permissive nature of the use, his or her later actions indicated to the owner that the use had become hostile and under a claim of right.”

So, how does that work? Suppose Dolt had said to Pope when the latter first put down the driveway, “Yo, Pope, thanks for the improvements on my land–and hey, feel free to use that sucker all you want, ’cause I’m sure enjoying the ease of takin’ the truck over by the creek, and I aim to drive along that path every time I’m in the neighborhood.” Does Pope now have to “fence off” the 1998 driveway along its west side, to prove that he’s not using it “in subordination to” Dolt’s title? Is it enough only to tear down Dolt’s picket fence and proceed with Pope’s use? How about if everyone in the county starts using the driveway to get to the bridge to fish the creek?

An easement by estoppel is the rarest bird. Perhaps that’s because it’s like a consolation prize for someone deserving but who cannot claim prescriptive rights. In a 2006 Ohio case, Kienzle v. Myers, 167 Ohio App. 3d 41, 2006-Ohio-2765, the Ohio appellate court said this: “While permissive use may prevent an easement by prescription from arising, in another context an owner’s grant of permission for land use may act as an inducement for another to act, especially when the permission granted is for an act not easily undone.” Twenty-one years after Myers had installed a line, counsel for the Kienzles sent a letter to appellants advising them that the Kienzles had “decided to terminate the revocable license” by which Myers’ sewer pipe crossed the Kienzle property. The letter directed appellants to “make other arrangements” within 30 days. Subsequent letters from the Kienzle family threatened to “cap” the sewer line absent certain concessions from Myers.

Another example of easement by estoppel is Holbrook v. Taylor, decided by the Kentucky Supreme Court in 1976. There, for years Holbrook tacitly was given permission to use a road which ran across the defendant’s property. In reliance upon this, the plaintiff made improvements on his land, like a building of a home. The court found for Holbrook, holding that the right to use a roadway over the land of another can be established by estoppel. This is not, remember, an easement by prescription that fundamentally is acquired by adverse possession. Holbrook had received permission, however desultory, to use the property, so the use could not be ruled adverse. In this case, an irrevocable license was formed by estoppel and it has the potential to last forever or be used “to extent necessary to realize upon his expenditures.” The irrevocable license formed here is the equivalent to an easement by estoppel-and evaluating the respective hardships to the relying party and the “permissive” party likely is the determining factor in a court’s decision.

So, what does the prevailing claimant for an easement or irrevocable license get from a court, more often than not? It’s a useful question because–more often than not–a court forgets to indicate that aspect of the outcome, especially if the use is ill defined, such as when a road bed washes away. Courts that do speak to the matter seem intent upon realizing the Jagger-Richards unified theory:

You can’t always get what you want, no!

You can’t always get what you want (tell ya baby)

You can’t always get what you want (no)

But if you try sometimes, you just might find

You get what you need

Oh yes! Woo!

Did I wake you up? [Sorry] So, what you probably “get” is what the community standards are for the dimensions of the type of pathway (driveway, utility line right of way, etc.), often established by building or development codes, plus any access needed to maintain the easement tract. If Pope wins his 2008 case, whatever a private drive minimum width (curb cut and pavement) is in that community will be what is granted, probably-if for no other reason than concern for public safety. And that is what you need, just in case there’s a zoning enforcement authority in the jurisdiction of the dispute. But will Pope win?

How to Repair High Gloss Laminate Flooring Scrapes and Scuffs

Laminate flooring is enjoying unprecedented popularity because of its exceptional ability to resist fading, staining, and deterioration due to normal wear and tear. When you add affordable prices and easy DIY installation to the mix, the result is a winning combination that is irresistible to consumers.

As great as today’s high gloss laminate products are, however, they are not completely impervious to all minor damage. Over time, you might start to notice some scrapes and scuffs spoiling your floor’s appearance, chiefly in areas that are frequented by pets and small children.

Fortunately, you don’t have to pull up the blemished planks and replace them with new ones. Instead, you can repair high gloss laminate on your own using the following everyday items that you probably already have on hand.

  • Pencil eraser. Skid marks left on laminate flooring by certain types of shoes and toys can often be removed by rubbing a pencil eraser over the area using gentle, circular strokes. In lieu of an eraser, you can use the rubber sole of a tennis shoe for the same purpose.
  • WD-40. While most folks are aware of the lubricating properties of WD-40, not many realize that it is also a terrific household cleaner. To remove scuffs from your high gloss laminate, apply a bit of WD-40 to a soft cloth and lightly scrub until the marks disappear. Be sure to wipe up the lubricant residue with a wet rag to prevent any potential slip-and-fall accidents.
  • Baking soda. Baking soda is celebrated for having a multitude of uses, so it should come as no surprise that it helps remove scrapes and scuffs from laminate flooring. Mix a couple tablespoons of baking soda with some warm water until you end up with a pasty substance. Next, use a cloth to dab paste onto the scuff marks and rub them away.
  • Toothpaste. If you don’t have any baking soda at home, there’s no need to run to the store. You can often get the same effect by using plain toothpaste to touch up your floor.

The methods listed above work best on light scuffs, scrapes, and skid marks. For deeper, more stubborn blemishes in your laminate flooring, you might have to turn to commercial cleaning products to get the job done. Many manufacturers now make nonabrasive cleansers especially for high gloss laminate, so you don’t have to worry about damaging the finish.

Don’t let minor scuffs and scrapes turn your floor into an unattractive mess. Instead, you can restore its natural beauty in no time by treating the problem using these simple solutions!

Pump Paintball – Why Play Pump Paintball?

Non-pump players ask this question a lot. They don’t understand why anyone would want to actually play with a pump. There are lots of reasons why someone would want to play with one though.

A pump paintball marker is a disadvantage on the field, in terms of rate of fire. That is the simple truth about them. You can’t shoot nearly as fast as an electronic marker. The low BPS (balls per second) ability of a pump makes others wonder why in the world anyone would want to use one. Below are just a few reasons why players choose to play with them.

First off, playing with a pump is a huge money saver. It is no secret that paintball is expensive. It is extremely expensive if you play regularly and have the latest and greatest gear. If you don’t want to go the route of chasing the newest upgrades, and the latest fastest marker, getting a pump is a much cheaper option. CCI, Tippmann, and Arrow Precision make durable and dependable pump guns. They are much cheaper than a brand new high-end electronic gun too. Besides saving money on gear, you also will will drastically save money on paint because you can’t shoot 15+ balls in a second. With all the money you’ll save, you’ll be able to play more frequently, and longer.

Playing with a disadvantage isn’t for the faint of heart. When you are going up against electronic guns, this is especially true. Some people out there thrive on this challenge though, and for that reason they choose to play disadvantaged with a pump. They love the fact that they are the underdog, and that the odds are against them. This makes paintball much more exciting for them.

Besides the challenge that pump play offers, it also helps train you to become a better paintballer. Some people debate this, but I see no debate. It is quite simple really. Without the ability to spray paintballs and hope that it may hit someone you are forced to move and find better angles where you can hit someone. You are also forced to make your shots count. This means you train yourself to take better shots. With an electronic marker it is easy to sit in the back and unload, while with a pump, not so much, because with your inferior fire power, you will get destroyed. You have to compensate for your slower rate of fire by playing smarter and more effectively, which in time will make you a better paintball player.

There you have just a few of the reasons why someone would want to play this way. Playing with a low rate of fire helps you save a ton of money on expensive paintballs. It also gives you an exciting challenge, and helps you build up your skills. Snap-shooting, moving on the field, strategy, and accuracy are all skills pump play can help you build up.

Learn How To Lose Fat and Get Lean With High Intensity Interval Training

Ready to get as fit as a fiddle and lean as a…erm lobster? OK well then you’re ready for HIIT or High intensity interval training. It’s what all the slim jims are doing to get fit and super lean. The good news is you get the benefits of this type of training in as little as 20 minutes; the bad news is it’s jolly hard work!

This type of training consists of short intense bursts of activity followed by longer recovery periods of steady state activity. To get the real benefits from this method it’s important that you can push yourself beyond your upper aerobic system, into your anaerobic system. Dipping into your anaerobic system means working at 80-90% of your max heart rate (MHR). A crude way of working out your MHR is to minus your age from 220. So mine would be 220-21(ahem) = 199 beats per minute(bpm). So the range for a 21 year old would be 159-179 bpm.

All well and good if you have a heart rate monitor, this makes it easy to see how hard you’re working but if you don’t have a monitor then you need to rely on your own perceived amount of exertion. The RPE (rating of perceived exertion) scale is used for just this with 0 at zen like meditation state and 10 going all hell for leather. You should aim to be 8-9 on here. Easy to cheat this way but really what would be the point? As Mrs Lund (my old math’s teacher) used to say ‘you’re only cheating yourself!’ she was right. I’m rubbish at math’s now. You’ll know when you hit your maximum effort as the tell tale muscle burn will kick in.

So to go over the benefits before you decide to opt out after reading of muscle burning: If you do HIIT training you will:

1. Burn more calories during and after the session as it takes your body longer to recover.

2. Get metabolic adaptations that enable you to use more fat as fuel

3. Improve endurance levels

4. Get lean

5. Limit muscle loss (which often happens during steady state cardio training)

6. Feel more energetic

7. Save time

Try this 20 min interval for starters. If you’re just beginning with this type of exercise then its best to keep the recovery periods quite long. Do this program three times during the next week, then start to decrease the recovery times by 1 min every week. This applies to any type of cardio training – running, elliptical, rowing etc.

Warm up: 5 mins at 60-70%MHR or 6-7 RPE

Interval: 1 min at 80-90%MHR or 8-9 RPE

Recovery: 4 mins at 60-70%MHR or 6-7 RPE

Repeat the interval and recovery again

Cool down: 5 mins at 60-70%MHR or 6-7 RPE

I’d love to know how you get on. Let me know.

‘It’s a deep burn!’ Name the movie and the actor…

Treatment of Bent Penis Due to Over Masturbation

Minor bend in penis is found in 4% of males above the age of 40 years but it can happen to young people too and particularly to those who are engaged in over masturbation however treatment of such problem is possible. Bend in penis makes penetration very difficult and in some cases almost impossible, this situation can be very disheartening and depressing. Some people by birth, due to injury, disease or over masturbation can damage the scar tissue of the male organ to create a bend towards left, right or down, this bend is evident when male organ is erect. Peyronie’s disease, urethral strictures and hypospadias are few other medical conditions which are known for promoting such problem. Minor bend is not harmful but it may cause some pain during penetration and if bend is more than it can create lot of problems in the act.

Masturbation has been practiced by both men and women since ancient times and is considered as safe alternate way of satisfying sexual desires. However over doing it may give rise to some physical and mental disorders which may restrict a person from deriving real and complete pleasure from the actual act. Bend in male organ is also an outcome of excessive hand practice in men as lots of people who visit a doctor for the treatment of this problem have been indulged in the habit of excessive hand practice. Generally masturbation is safe and even helpful, but over doing it can cause damage to the delicate tissues of the male organ which may lead to a curve in the organ.

Generally people who are in habit of masturbating more than 3 times a week may develop problem of curvature. Hand practice more than normal cause abrasions and bruises to the upper skin as well as the inner tissue of the organ, which may even swell, repeated hand practice can damage the tissues which can cause the curve when the organ is erect. People adopt few techniques of masturbation which are actually abusive to the male organ like brushing or pressing against hard surfaces, bending and rubbing it while wearing tight underwear. These practices are more responsible for causing curvature then normal hand practice.

Feeling of pain during penetration or when erect are symptoms of curvature and earlier treatment and precautions can correct the problem very soon. Mast Mood oil has been used to cure various disorders related to sexual behavior including abnormal bend in the male organ. It promotes blood flow and also acts as curative remedy to provide treatment to the injuries and inflammation caused by excessive hand practice. Booster capsule is another herbal supplement extremely helpful in treating the problem of bend in penis due to over masturbation or any other issue. This supplement is renowned for promoting healthy sexual behavior. Ashwagandha or withania somnifera is also called as Indian ginseng due to its curative and strengthening properties; it relaxes muscles, improves blood flow and strengthens sexual organs to cure various disorders and problems.

Reading Blueprints – 15 Tips to Help You Understand Drawings, Elevations and Floor Plans

Blueprints are nothing more than copies of the final plans drawn up for the home owners’ approval. Highly detailed, these documents contain a wealth of information. Typically, a blueprint package includes a set of drawings called elevations, illustrating exterior and interior walls. But that’s not all. The package contains other drawings. One is of your building site, and another drawing illustrates the foundation of the house. The reflected ceiling plan reveals where light fixtures are to be placed.

In addition, each blueprint incorporates a materials list with sizes and quantities of all necessary components required to construct the building features. This information enables the contractor to compile building costs. There is one additional category of blueprints-the floorplans-with which people are probably the most familiar. Here’s an insider’s guide to reading the plans to your dream home.

1. Scale and dimensions are clearly indicated.

The scale of blueprints may be 1/4-inch or 1/2-inch to the foot. Whatever the scale, it will be noted in one of the lower corners of the blueprint. All blueprints to the house are drawn to the same scale. Dimensions are noted in feet and inches. In most cases, the length and width of all the exterior walls are shown in addition to dimensions of each room. With this information in hand, you can easily determine which rooms are best sized for various family activities. You can also plan for the arrangement of furnishings.

2. Exterior walls are represented by thick parallel lines, and interior walls are represented by thinner lines.

The placement of the walls, particularly the decisions you make regarding the interior partition walls, greatly affect the layout of your home. And, if you can understand the exact placement when you first receive the blueprints, you’ll likely make fewer changes as the process evolves, cutting down on unnecessary and unforeseen expenses to your project.

3. Rooms are clearly labeled by function- kitchen, living, dining, etc.

Built-in items within rooms also are presented in a logical fashion. For example, as you study the documents, fireplaces, closets and built-ins become obvious. Also apparent are the placement of kitchen and bathroom fixtures, counters, sinks, cabinetry and kitchen appliances.

4. It’s easy to determine ceiling configurations and two-story rooms.

A series of parallel dashes across a room denotes a ceiling beam; an arrow accompanied by the word “sloped” marks a cathedral ceiling. A double-height room is easy to spot. The blueprint of the lower level bears the notation “open to above” and the upper level “open to below.”

5. Doors are represented by a straight line.

When you study the blueprint of the floorplan, pretend that you are walking through the actual house. Visualize the two-dimensional blueprints in a three-dimensional form. This technique helps you transform the data and symbols into something more real. A good place to start is at the entryway. From there, you can clearly see the overall organization of the home’s interior. In houses designed today, rooms are placed into one of three zones dedicated to living (family room, dining room and living room), work (kitchen, laundry and utility rooms) or sleeping (bedrooms and corresponding bathrooms). They appear as if open with a thinner, curving line showing the space required for them to close.

French doors have two straight and two curved lines. Two overlapping sets of straight lines is the symbol for sliding glass doors. Parallel solid lines within walls are windows. Like doors, overlapping lines indicate sliding window units. As you study the placement of windows and doors, you can determine if they will permit good ventilation and natural lighting of the interior, as well as make the most of exterior views and provide sufficient access to the outdoors.

6. On the blueprints of a two-story house, you will encounter a staircase, revealed by a group of parallel lines.

The number of lines is equal to the number of steps. The lines are accompanied by arrows. Those labeled “up” mean that the staircase leads to a higher level; conversely, those labeled “down” lead to a lower level.

7. Letters on the drawings serve as keys to the information listed in the margins.

For example, on the blueprint of the floorplan, a series of circled letters beginning with “A” refer to the types of doors selected. This “door schedule,” as it is called, coordinates the location of each door, as well as the style and size. A closet door, for example, has a circled letter at the proper place on the blueprint. In reading the blueprint, the corresponding margin notation may read something like “2′-0″ solid core flush door, paint-grade veneer.”

8. Openings on the blueprint for windows bear a number within a circle.

This marking refers to the list of window styles and sizes cited in the window schedule in the blueprint margin. As an example, a bathroom window may bear the designation of “1” in a circle. Looking at the window schedule, the circled 1 may be listed as a “3’0″ x 2’10” awning window.”

9. The same approach applies to electrical symbols.

Here are some common examples: A capital “S” stands for a wall switch that controls an overhead light fixture. A capital “S” with a subscript “3” refers to a three-way wall switch. A capital “J” in a box marks the location of a junction box. A capital “L” in a circle is the site of an exterior light fixture. A triangle indicates the location of a telephone receptacle.

10. Large letters accompanied by carets (>) pointing toward each wall refer to an elevation, or drawing, of the wall as it will appear when built.

An exterior elevation is illustrated by a large letter and a 90-degree, angled line to the side.

11. The placement of appliances and fixtures is easy to determine.

The symbol for a kitchen range or cooktop is four circles within a square. Bird’s-eye drawings are used to represent the refrigerator, kitchen sink, bath sinks, toilets and showers. In the kitchen, a series of dashes accompanied by the notation “DW” mark the location of an undercounter dishwasher. Look carefully to see that the appliances have been placed where you want them. Again, visualize yourself inside of the home, preparing meals (or doing the dishes).

12. Tile flooring also is easy to spot.

It is illustrated by an expanse of small squares in the bathroom or in front of a fireplace drawing.

13. Elevations represent how the walls of the house will appear when built.

Interior wall elevations include drawings of fireplaces, cabinets and shelving, windows, doors and other desired built-in elements. Exterior elevations note the location of windows, doors and other items such as roof eaves.

14. Accompanying the elevations may be some drawings which outline the construction details.

Frequently, you’ll find drawings outlining the configuration of exterior corners. Or, you may be given the foundation footings and column bases, indicating depths and widths.

15. Sections provide a see-through representation of the house.

You can visually see how various elements of the house will align when construction is completed. This is helpful in visualizing porticos and other details of the facade, as well as outdoor decks, arcades and any decorative aspects. If this seems too overwhelming, don’t try to absorb all of the information that blueprints provide at one sitting. Study them in a leisurely manner, allowing the house to reveal itself to you gradually over time. Then, when you have a firm idea of what your new log home will look like and how it will function, you’ll have much more confidence in your leap of faith to start building.

Nude Hiking in a National Park – Know Before You Go!

Nude Hiking in a National Park – Coronado National Forest

National Parks may have secluded areas where nude hiking is totally possible – even frequently occurring. Of course, one must be cautious not to offend visitors that do not appreciate nudity or who might even dial 9-1-1 to report your activity. But if you chose areas where nude hiking typically occurs, the hikers you encounter will probably be as nude as you.

If you are among the many that like to get-back-to-nature by finding a remote (spelled private) area where you can take your clothes off and meander au naturel through the outdoors, there are many hidden places around America where you can make this happen.

Unlike Europe, our American Puritan instincts make outdoor nudity more difficult in the United States, but one of my favorite spots for nude hiking is located at Tanque Verde Falls. It’s been a popular naturist area for many years.

Tanque Verde is just east of the city of Tucson, Arizona in the Coronado National Forest. After leaving the pavement, a dusty road takes you into the park and to an area where naturists take it all off. Although I don’t recommend it, some visitors do hike nude from the parking area to the popular spots.

A note of caution: Tanque Verde Falls is situated in a narrow canyon. At the north end of the canyon, the rocky terrain flattens out and becomes a giant funnel that feeds sudden rainfall into the canyon. After a heavy rain (which may seldom occur at Tanque Verde itself), the water levels can rise rapidly, and few people have the strength to swim in the currents. There are reports of several hikers who have been swept to their deaths in an unexpected surge. So have a quick exit route planned out before you become sleepy in the day’s sunshine.

As you hike into the canyon, the first naturist area will be found where the falls is located. In a dry season, the cliffs are about 30 feet tall. These become the location of waterfalls when water rises as mountain snows melt or heavy rain falls upstream. Otherwise, typically there is a sandy beach or large flat rocks to sunbathe on. This area is the easiest to access and is frequented by straight singles and couples.

Gays and lesbians generally hike about half a mile further up the canyon following well-beaten paths to an area above Tanque Verde Falls itself. Descending the main path is not difficult, but it’s a steep climb down, and presents a more demanding climb out of the canyon after hikers are tired from exposure to the hot sun.

Once you have reached the riverbed, off with the clothes – keeping your hiking boots on. (I recommend you take an old pair of canvas walking shoes since you may have to wade through some pools of water a foot deep.)

This area is like a Garden of Eden in the middle of the desert. Just be sure to pack water and perhaps some beer or wine. And don’t forget a sandwich or snacks. There are no services nearby.

Enjoy yourself. But beware of nature’s dangers. I’ve been watched by a rattling rattlesnake, and I once almost stepped on a hissing gila monster. You will observe white frogs, beautiful song birds and birds of prey, and of course many saguaro cactus among other desert plants and flowers.

Have a naked hike!

Intermodal Transport and Land Bridges

While most people are unaware of it, intermodal freight transport has been around for quite some time, going all the way back to the 1780s in England. The method of moving a container holding freight from one vehicle to another without having to handle the freight itself has grown from ships and rail to include trucks and barges as technology has evolved. The use of standardized containers, or ISO containers, has allowed shipping across country and nations to flourish, thanks to the time and money saved by crossing land bridges.

Land bridge is a reference to an intermodal freight shipment that starts on a ship then crosses a body of land for a significant part of the trip en route to its final destination. The land portion of the trip is referred to as the land bridge, with rail typically being the method of transport while crossing. There are, of course, different types of bridges – standard bridges, mini bridges, and micro bridges.

Land Bridge

A standard bridge is when an intermodal container shipped by ocean vessel from point A to point B crosses over an entire country before reaching its final destination. For example, a container is being shipped from Japan to England is loaded onto a ship in Japan which then docks in Los Angeles where the container is transferred to a train and taken to New York where it is put on another ship and completes its journey to England.

Mini Bridge

A mini bridge is when a container is similar to a standard land bridge with a minor change. Whereas a standard bridge involves the container starting and ending its voyage on a ship, only crossing over a country in an effort to get to another ship, a mini bridge takes the second ship out of the equation. Using our example from above, a mini land bridge would be if the containers final destination was in New York instead of England.

Micro Bridge

A micro bridge is close in definition to a mini land bridge, with the exception being that, still using our example from above, that whereas a mini bridge would extend to New York, a micro bridge would see the container end up somewhere like Chicago or Denver, an interior land destination.

Global Shipping

Thanks to intermodal shipping and land bridges, moving freight that once would have had to make large detours to avoid land masses is now possible via the most direct route. This allows companies to save time and money which can then be passed on to their customers.

How to Clean the Blades on Your Oster Clippers Properly

The steps involved in cleaning the blades of your Oster clippers are not really that difficult to master, when you consider them carefully. The point is that you have a quality and professional product that demands regular cleaning and oiling to retain proper cutting efficiency. The design of the Oster clipper may involve both attached and detachable blade assemblies so cleaning them become much easier.

Here are a few basic steps to clean your clipper blades so they will remain in top working condition so they cut rapidly and effectively for smooth and precise trims:

Step #1
You should lay out some type of rag or clean towel on a flat work surface. Then you’ll place the Oster clippers down on the towel so any dirt or hair is caught as you begin to clean it.

Step #2
Next, remove the blade assembly from your Oster clippers. Now, you can tell whether you have an attached or a detachable model by certain parts of the casing. For detachable Oster clipper blades, you would see a small black latch that right below where the blade assembly is located. If you want it off, then press up from the ledge on the back into the latch until it clicks. You will be able to remove the blade. Now, the attached assembly will be recognizable by the absence of this latch and the presence of two screws. Just remove them and pull out the stationary and movable blades from the clipper.

Step #3
You are ready to clean the clipper blades. Depending on what type of blade assembly you have, the cleaning process will be slightly different. Basically, the detachable assembly lets you slide the blades out in order to clean the surface on each side. The attached assembly requires you to completely removing the blades from the clipper casing before clean each individual piece.

Step #4
Once the Oster clipper blades have been thoroughly cleaned with a piece of microfiber cloth, you are ready to oil the blade assembly. For detached types, you will slide the blade to the left or right and then oil the rails. This process is repeated in the opposite direction. Attached blade assemblies are a different matter. With them, you would replace the blades on the clippers and reinsert the screws. After that, you would add two drops of oil to the blade teeth and to each corner of the assembly. Finally, turn the clipper on for about a minute to distribute the oil evenly on the blades.

Step #5
The last step involves the removal of excess oil from your Oster hair clippers. You can use either a towel or a lint-free microfiber cloth to finish the job. If you follow the previous steps, you should have no trouble keeping your Oster clippers operating in fine form, delivering a quality hair cut every time.

Mounting Solutions For Your iPod

If you own an iPod, you must be well aware about the efforts you need to put into the protection of your iPod from all sorts of damage. My article would provide you two basic mounting solutions for your iPod which would truly be useful for you.

The first mounting solution for the iPods is the dashboard brackets. The dashboard brackets are easy-fit mounting solutions which enable the damage free installation of iPod cradles, mobile phone car kit cradles and other portable devices. These dashboard brackets allow you to place your iPods in the most perfect manner. They can be installed within minutes and do not require any drilling or gluing. They protect your dash providing a quick, easy and secure installation giving an integrated look with your car dash and interior. Detailed installation instructions are usually included with each bracket. You can assure the safety of your iPods once you have mounted it on the dashboard bracket.

Another method of mounting your iPod is using the Brodit ProClip Brackets. These are made from a robust black plastic. The Brodit ProClip Brackets are also used for placing the iPods in order to ensure their protection from all sorts of damages while you are driving your car. An iPod is a delicate gadget and so you need to take its special care to ensure its durability.

Hence, these two mounting solutions for the iPods can actually turn out to be extremely useful for you if your profession requires you to drive for a maximum number of time during a day.

Use a Titanium Hammer for Framing

These days there are so many types of hammers that can be used that you often have one hammer for each type of work you want to do with it. There are special hammers for drywall, for framing, for demolition, or for metal work. Each carpentry project has a hammer that is just right for it. One use of hammers is for framing. When doing this the hammer used must be just right. A framing hammer is usually one that has a long handle and is heavy because that adds to the power that it has to make sure the nails go in far. Sometimes the weight of these hammers was a problem for those who were doing framing work. But that was solved by the advent of the titanium hammer.

Now there are lightweight titanium hammers for framing that make doing the work easier and faster. The lightweight hammer can move faster. That means it gets a stronger hit on the nail. This means fewer hits necessary to make the nail go all the way in. This lighter weight also means less tiring by those working with the hammer. It means less muscle strain and so a more productive worker. They are also known to be less stressful on a person's elbows which are known to be a point of strain. Whereas most steel hammers weigh around twenty two ounces the hammers made from titanium frequently weigh only sixteen ounces.

Titanium hammers come with the regular features of any other hammer. They have a claw for removing any nails that did not go in straight. They also have a magnetic holding slit for the nails. These hammers are a little more expensive than the regular steel head models but the less arm strain and better hammer range seem to make up for it.

Mosaic Decor: In With the Old

It is said that history repeats itself – A truism from fashion to auto design. It seems that what was once in vogue will eventually return to popularity. How many times have you heard someone say "Do not throw that out, it will be 'in' again in ten years." Admit it most of you have a few choice items hanging in your closet, with the faint hope that the Dynasty or Miami Vice look will meander its way back into the mainstream.

We see the same trends in commercial and residential architecture and décor. Arched facades, tapestries, pillars and columns, are all reminiscent of styles that have repeated themselves from times of antiquity.

So what's next? Perhaps we need look no further for inspiration than, say, the 4th century BC – and the advent of mosaic art. When we hear the word mosaic, many of us think of small square tiles, often used in bathrooms and typically installed in monochromatic sheets. True mosaic art could not be more different.

Originally ancient artists formed their mosaics from water-smoothed pebbles, then from non-symmetrical pieces such as broken pottery and other scrap material. The mosaic would be a picture, perhaps a landscape, or mythological event. Churches throughout Europe incorporate intricate mosaics in their ceilings, walls, columns and floors depicting biblical events.

No one can say exactly when or precisely where the art of mosaic was born, but there is evidence of this form regaining popularity throughout the ages by various civilizations. The Greeks developed the first school for mosaic artisans. Originally created to decorate floors, the Romans took the popularity of the art to new heights using mosaics to decorate their walls. Archaeological evidence in Pompeii suggests that even common people would have simple mosaics adorning the walls of their homes. Over the centuries mosaics have experienced renewed popularity time and time again.

Far from little bathroom tiles, today's incarnation of mosaics are the works of art so valued in previous ages. Intricate pictures and designs in motifs from ancient to contemporary genres, the mosaic can make a unique addition to almost any décor.

Dean Avey, owner of Artisan Mosaics in Toronto, Canada, points out that mosaic can find their way into almost every room of your home, as floor or wall coverings. His gallery displays a wide variety of mosaics, in various sizes and shapes. "All made meticulously by hand," boasts Avey. Artisan carries a wide range of mosaic sizes that can be used in small applications such as the centrepiece of a kitchen backsplash on up to mammoth mosaic carpets with the look and feel of an Oriental rug. Most of Artisan's mosaics are made from tiny, hand-cut pieces of marble, in a variety of textures. According to Avey, tumbled marble and slate mosaics are currently in vogue, as well as highly polished almost seamless patterns that are reminiscent of Italian wood inlay.

The practicality of ceramic tile, and its ever-increasing array of colour and texture choices, makes it popular with home and business owners. The status of hardwood flooring, for its warmth and richness, is also at a peak. Setting mosaic medallions or 'emblemata' within your tiles or hardwood is certain to set your choice of floor covering apart.

Mosaic carpets offer the rich beauty of a Persian rug in formal areas and foyers, with the practicality of stone for durability and ease of cleaning. The mosaic carpet has the added safety benefit of being set flush with the floor – particularly valuable in high traffic areas, and in spaces where accessibility is important.

Beautiful and practical, the mosaic is ideal for walls in kitchens and baths. No need for rooms that require frequent clean-ups to look clinical or utilitarian. Mosaics will add warmth and charm to these spaces where typically little art is found. Outdoors mosaics can be used in swimming pools and fountains, or as the centrepiece of a porch or patio.

Commercial applications are limitless. Restaurants and hotels, business foyers, and elegant restrooms; all will welcome the air of distinction mosaic art can bring to their décor. "Custom insignias will be popular with businesses, clubs and institutions," says Avey, whose company will custom order a mosaic of your crest, coat of arms, or business logo.

The revival of mosaics means authentic art will find its way into less conventional spaces, like floors and patios, bathrooms and kitchens, as well as in commercial applications; a welcome opportunity for professional decorators, home and business owners. So once again, it is in with the old, the really, really old …