Roofing Cement – It’s All In The Mix

Why are some modern build roofs suffering ridge loss in heavy winds while older adjacent roofs stand firm? Similarly, roofs built in the last 10 years are suffering from more cracking of the roofing mortar. What can we learn from roofing practices of the past?

The most obvious difference between today’s roofing mortar and that used in the past is the mix. Traditionally lime was added to the mortar. A traditional lime mortar mix comprised of 1 part lime to 2 parts sand/aggregate mix. Horse hair was added to reinforce the ridge bedding.

Portland cement

The introduction of Portland cement has virtually eliminated the use of lime mortar in roofing situations. Its compressive strength and faster curing time make it ideal for roofing applications. Portland cement is a lot easier to mix and with added Plasticizers easier to trowel.

Up to the mid nineties it was common practice to include 4 parts cement to 1 sand/aggregate. Recent recommendations advise increasing the cement to 3:1 in order to strengthen the mortar and promote a secure bond.

The increase in cement proportions could be the reason modern roofing pointing is suffering from cracking and poor bonding. Increased cement content leads to a faster curing time or hydration. The mix simply dries out too quickly.

Slow down

it is important to ensure that the curing time is controlled especially during periods of warm weather. I use soaked Hessian draped over the roofing to slow the process down. Bungee cords are attached to the edges of the Hessian. The cords hook under the roofing tiles to keep it secure and away from the pointing. The Hessian will also protect against “wash outs” should the weather change. In warmer weather I constantly spray the Hessian to keep it damp.

To promote an adequate bond it is necessary to stop too much suction from the substrate. If the roofing tiles and ridge are too dry they will suck the moisture from the mix before a sufficient bond is made. Where possible the ridge tiles should be primed. Soak them in a large tub for an hour or so and wet down the top course of roofing tiles. If this is not possible a mixture of one part PVA to 3 parts water should be applied to the bonding area. This will prevent the roofing tiles from drawing too much moisture away from the mortar.

Pointing a roofing valley

If you have tried pointing a roofing valley on a hot day you will know the problems associated with cement slumping. You return to a beautifully pointed valley to find the mortar has slumped leaving a gap between tile and mortar. A drier roofing mix is often used in an attempt to alleviate the problem. This is not advisable because the cement mix requires sufficient moisture for successful hydration.

Take a tip from “back in the day” and reinforce the mix. You can use stainless steel products used in the plastering industry. This strengthens the valley and stops the mix slumping. I lay a length of L shaped stainless corner bead each side of the roofing valley. It’s fitted just behind the face of the valley clear of roofing batons and underneath the roofing tiles. Do not hole the valley with your fixing.

If you use the correct mix and control the curing time your mortar will remain secure and durable for many years to come.

10 Ways to Make Money With Body Painting

Are you considering making a living (or at least a little money on the side) doing body painting? Is it even possible to make a living doing body painting? Yes, you can make good money as a ‘pro’ body painter, and even kids as young as twelve have made good money (like $500-$400 in an afternoon) doing simple painting techniques like airbrushed temporary tattoos at fairs and festivals.

It may be difficult to believe that there are so many different ways to make money doing body painting. I know that when I first discovered the art of body painting, I thought maybe you could make some temporary money at a party or fair. But there are many, many more possibilities, as you will see.

Here are just 10 of the ways you could get paid to do body painting:

1. Doing body painting at parties. You could hire yourself for a night or a day and get paid either by the hour or a flat fee for the event.

2. Painting party-goers before they go to a party or event. Themed or holiday parties would be a good opportunity for this. Make sure you mention that you could body paint their friends, too!

3. As a professional body painter for the theatre. You could do one show for a discount to get in the door and get some recognition, if you don’t have a track record yet.

4. Travel with the circus as their ‘in house’ makeup artist.

5. Become the official body painter for a dance company. Again, you could work for a low fee or even free to get in the door.

6. Face painting alone opens up several opportunities: parties, festivals, fairs, and special events all are possible places for you to set up shop. Just make sure (as with all these options) that you are using proper, non-allergenic paints meant for face painting alone.

7. Special events like graduations, celebrations, fundraisers, and reunions.

8. Sports events: painting fans in their team colors and symbols has had a long tradition.

9. Festivals around the world. There are several festivals specifically for body painting around the world, but there are many more that would be a great place for body painting. Look up the festivals in your area and find out how to become a vendor and what their requirements and rules are.

10. Teach others how to do body painting. You could hold a one-time workshop, give ongoing group classes or even do an online body painting course (as I am doing).

I hope this gives you some good ideas about how you could make money as a body painting artist. Maybe you have even thought of some ways that I didn’t include…great! Choose one method, research what you need to do to get started, and go for it!

Bonus Tip:

Here’s a secret hint…as you are considering one of the possibilities above. Don’t choose what you think would make you the most money…choose what you think you would happiest and best at doing. You will always make more doing something you love doing, in the long run!

Tips For Buying a Chandelier

Everyone dreams of making their homes incomparable and elegant. Did by any chance you ever paid attention to the word Chandelier? For your homes chandelier can be a very good piece of art that can be used to increase the beauty of your room in a manner that is stylish and elegant.

In chandeliers murano glass is used from ancient times and it is even used today. This glass has a history of over thousand years in the use for chandeliers. This glass is manufactured using a very special process and this process is transferred from one generation to another. However, now a day the chandeliers made of murano are not as they were before. This is primarily because the process has been refined a great deal.

Chandelier should not be considered as an object or thing of lighting; however, it is also great work of beautiful art. This kind of chandelier is produced after a long and creative process. The technique used in creating murano chandeliers is very unrepeatable and unique. The important thing to remember over here is that these muranon chandeliers are handmade i.e. these are produced by people without using any significant machinery.

So if you are thinking of buying a chandelier than you should consider a lot many things. It is important that you but the right type of chandelier that goes with your design and interiors of your room. A good and perfect chandelier can drastically change the feel and look of your house or room.

Unlike earlier times it is not necessary for you to go to Italy to buy a good quality chandelier. You can always use internet shopping for getting the one of your choice. Not only this, individuals can select the chandelier based on your quality and price criteria. However, before buying make sure that the seller’s website is authentic and secured.

You should also consider other things before buying a chandelier. It will be a smart and intelligent idea if you spend some time doing surfing on internet. You should try and find as much information as possible on chandeliers, discuss with your designer. Interior designers can help you in selection by informing you about latest trends and designs.

Information About Biker Patches

Biker patches are used to distinguish biker clubs from one another. While their main purpose is to denote affiliation, the design can be used to express one’s belief, achievement or certain deeds the biker has done.

The One, Two and Three Piece Patch

The one-piece patch usually refers to motorcycle associations; the two-piece often means the rider belongs to a club (this convention is followed by most motorcycle clubs). The outlaw motorcycle clubs use the three-piece patch.

Outlaw clubs are not recognized by the American Motorcycle Association (AMA). The design of the patches will vary per club. However, the top and bottom shapes are almost always shaped like crescents. They are called rockers. It should be stressed however, that the three-piece biker patch are also worn by some non outlaw bikers.

Common Patch Designs

The 1% patch is worn by outlaw bikers as reference to the AMA claims that only 1% of US bikers disobey the law. A patch with an Ace of Spades serves notice the biker will fight for what they believe in till death; a flag patch can denote the biker’s place of birth or lineage.

There are also patches that denote the biker’s position in the club. There are specific patches for club president, vice president, secretary, sergeant-at-arms etc.

Other Types of Patches

A lot of patches come with wings, but the meaning varies. The wings and colors can mean a lot of things, but most of the time it can refer to sexual acts or crimes committed by the biker.

The F.F. patch means ‘club name forever, forever.’ There are several versions of this patch. Hells Angels, for example, uses the patch A.F.F.A. The 9er means the rider has Indian blood.

The Number 13 Patch

This patch has several possible meanings. Almost always, the 13 stands for M, the 13th letter of the alphabet. But the meaning of M depends on the clubs. Some say it stands for marijuana, others say it means motorcycle while others state it is methamphetamine. However, a lot of clubs have hidden meanings for the letter M, known only to its members.

Meaning of Other Patches

Men of Mayhem patches are given to a biker who has killed on behalf of the club. Rally badges (or pins) are given out to those who attend bike rallies. The rally can be for a number of reasons, but most do it for charity work.

Skull and crossbones mean the biker has gotten involved in a fight and probably killed someone. The skull and bones can also refer to other crimes committed on behalf of the club.

Some bikers also use the Swastika and Nazi symbols. These do not necessarily imply the biker is a Nazi. Rather it is used to invoke outrage among authorities and citizens. The patches are also used by outlaw bikers to ridicule people not in their club.

As the information above makes plain, biker patches can mean different things. Although the types vary, they all symbolize something of the biker and club, whether they are outlaws or law abiding citizens.

Types of Construction Equipment and Their Uses

Construction equipment range from the very heavy equipment to the portable and mobile lighter equipment, some of them with a precise description of their functions are detailed below.

Engineering equipment with a front bucket/shovel and a small backhoe in the rear combined with a tractor is known as backhoe loader. It is mostly used in small construction sites and in urban engineering such as fixing city roads.

A crawler, which is very powerful and attached with a blade, is called a bulldozer. Even though any heavy engineering vehicle is known as bulldozer, it is actually a tractor with a dozer blade.

Combat engineering vehicles are used for engineering work in the battlefield and for transporting sappers. They are mostly armoured vehicles.

A compact excavator is a wheeled or tracked vehicle with a backfill blade and swing boom. It is also known as mini excavator. The functions and movements of the machines are carried out by transferring hydraulic fluid. This makes a compact hydraulic excavator different from other construction equipment. Find more info at [http://www.construction-equipment4u.info]

To compact gravel, dirt, asphalt and concrete in construction work and road laying a road roller which is also known as roller-compactor would be used.

A motorized cultivator with a rotating blade to work in the soil is known as rotary tiller. They are either drawn behind a tractor or self-propelled.

A crane is a derrick or tower equipped with pulleys and cables for lowering and lifting materials. The cranes used in construction industry are mostly temporary structures.

Dragline excavation systems are heavy equipment mostly used in surface mining and civil engineering. The smaller type of dragline excavator is used for port and road construction. The larger type dragline excavator is used in strip-mining operations for coal extraction.

In the building industry, to make foundations, a drilling machine is used. It is also used in oil wells and water wells.

An excavator commonly known as a digger is an engineering vehicle, with a cab mounted on a rotating platform or pivot, and a backhoe on top of an undercarriage with wheels or tracks.

In untamed regions which are being reclaimed for construction, a feller buncher, a machine having an attachment, which fells trees, is used.

A forklift, lift truck or forklift truck is an industrial truck used to pick up and transport heavy material using steel forks under the material to be lifted. The most common usage of a forklift is to move materials stored on pallets.

A loader also known as a bucket loader, front-end loader, scoop loader, shovel, or front loader is a type of tractor using buckets, which can be tilted to lift and move material.

A paver is used to spread asphalt on roadways.

Types of Automotive Lifts

Here are the different types, available from garage equipment supply dealers:

In-Ground

This type of vehicle lift is assembled below the garage floor. It consists of one or more pistons, depending on the maximum weight capacity. Lifts with one or two pistons are used for compact, mid-sized and full-sized cars. Lifts with three or more pistons are used for larger vehicles, such as buses and RV’s.

Two Post Surface Mounted

The most common vehicle lift utilized today is called a Two Post Surface Mounted lift. On each column, there are lift arms. These are controlled mechanically, electronically or hydraulically.

Multi-Post Runway Automotive Lift

The most common type is the four-post mounted lift, which is extensively used by oil change, transmission, and muffler service shops. You’ll find this type of auto lift in wheel alignment service stations as well. The car is driven onto the two runways and raised, exposing its underside.

Low/Mid Rise Frame Engaging Lift

This type of vehicle lift engages the vehicle’s frame in lifting. There are two ways this type may operate. One way is scissors-style, moving straight up. Another is parallelogram-style, moving forward or backward, while raising or lowering. This type is commonly used for brake, tire, and wheel services as well as auto body repair.

Drive-On Parallelogram

The Drive-On Parallelogram is a surface-mounted vehicle lift. It has two runways where the wheels of the car should be placed. It has a lifting mechanism that moves the vehicle a short distance forward or backward while raising or lowering. The direction depends on the way the lift is mounted.

Scissor Lifts

The Scissor Lift can either be of a fixed pad type or a roll-on frame/underbody engaging type. It has a lifting mechanism that’s similar to the parallelogram lift. Their main difference is that the scissors lift goes up and down on a straight vertical path.

Movable-Type Wheel Engaging Lift

This type of vehicle lift is used for vehicles that are longer than conventional cars, such as buses and trucks. It consists of several lifting columns in sets of two, four, six, or more. The columns can be moved and connected with the other columns so that their movements are synchronized.

ADA-Compliant Small Elevators For Commercial Buildings

ADA compliant small elevators for commercial buildings are great accessibility options for mobility challenged individuals who find it difficult to climb stairs. These devices ensure safe and reliable vertical transportation of the physical challenged or mobility impaired in a commercial setup.

Features of ADA Compliant Elevators

An ADA compliant elevator will maintain all the safety standards that the ADA (Americans with Disability Act) insists on. Such elevators feature automatic operation, emergency call buttons and a number of other value added features. You can also find automated door opening and closing facility in such accessibility devices. The floor area will be such that there will be enough room for wheelchair users to enter these elevators.

A Variety of Options to Choose From

Elevators are very much in demand these days with increase in high rise buildings, as well as improved life standards. Consequently, elevator manufacturers have started coming up with different models and types of elevators suitable for any sort of commercial environment. Savaria Concord, Federal Elevators and ThyssenKrupp are well-known manufacturers in the industry. Some of the popular models they supply include Orion LU/LA, Prolift SCL and Prolift Voyager. Most of these are available in a wide variety of sizes, colors and finishes.

A Perfect Solution for the Mobility Impaired

For the safe transportation of the mobility impaired, ADA compliant elevators are advisable. These are ideal for hospitals, schools, lodges or any kind of commercial enterprise. Most of them are built with strong materials with good weightlifting capacity. Durable design, variable speed as well as, noise free operation are some other notable features of these devices. Backup lighting, inter locking facility and emergency battery that provides flawless power supply ensure complete safety of the users.

An ADA-compliant small elevator is not only a convenient accessibility device but also a luxurious addition to your commercial building.

Pros and Cons of Plate Heat Exchangers

In 1923, Dr. Richard Sellingman invented the first plate heat exchanger, and forever revolutionised the process of indirect heat transfer. Now, these products can be found in many homes, commercial institutions and manufacturing plants of various industries. Their inherent design give them a distinct advantage over other types of heat exchangers, like shell and tube types, adiabatic wheel types, etc.

Advantages

Let’s take a look at the different advantages of plate heat exchangers that make them arguably the best devices for many heat transfer applications.

Compactness. They use thin sheets of metal to transfer heat from one liquid to another. These metal plates are lined with corrugations that give them a large surface area for a very small volume. This gives them a very small form factor as compared to other types of heat exchangers, saving valuable floor space that can be used for other purposes. It is possible for it to have the same thermal coefficient as that of a tubular type up to five times its size. This is particularly helpful in small homes, offices, and manufacturing plants that need all the space they can get.

High Thermal Efficiency. They operate at higher thermal efficiency than other heat exchangers due to the large surface area of the plates. The cooling and heating liquid spread over the plates, giving them more contact for heat transfer. The narrow chambers between each plate also seek to maximise the volume of fluid in contact with the metal plates.

Economical.  These exchangers are relatively simple and cheaper to produce than other types. Because of their size, they require less material to fabricate. They also give the highest thermal capacity for relatively low-cost. This makes them the most economic choice for heat transfer tasks.

Flexibility. They are very flexible in that they can be used in most applications with only minimal modifications. And if modifications are to be applied, they can be implemented with relative ease, negating the need to buy a new heat exchanger. They also work on a wide range of fluids and thus, make them compatible with a wide range of industrial applications.

Easy Installation and Maintenance.  They look relatively similar on the outside; this makes installation of new devices relatively easy as one would not worry about incompatible gasket sizes, varying input and output valves and pipes, etc. Given the right tools, these robust machines are also easy to dismantle and take apart. This makes cleaning and other maintenance tasks easier to perform.

Disadvantages

Leakage. Although the plates and gaskets in them are sealed tight, there is a greater potential for leakage than shell and tube types heat exchangers. But as long as you don’t run them outside of normal operating regions, one shouldn’t worry too much about this.

Temperature Difference.They work well with fluids with minimal to normal temperature differences. However, it does not work as well as a shell and tube type heat exchanger for fluids with huge differences in temperature.

In the end, the advantages of plate heat exchangers make them ideal for general heat transfer applications. The next time you need heat exchangers for your home, office, or industry plants, why not try getting a plate heat exchanger?

5 Common Sense Wood Burning Stove Tips

Tip # 1 Check Local Ordinances Before Purchasing a Wood Stove

Since wood stoves produce smoke that is deposited outside your home into the air, it is imperative that you check the local ordinances on the legalities of installing a wood stove in, or outside, your home. Some cities ban woodstoves altogether, while others insist on a certain type of stove that meets strict EPA standards. A quick call to your local government office will give you the answers you need before you make the purchase.

Tip # 2 Purchase the Stove That Fits Your Needs

Once you are given the go ahead by your local government, you will soon learn that there are a variety of wood stoves available in the marketplace today. One important factor in choosing which stove you ultimately buy is the area in which the stove will operate. Do you want it to heat the whole house, or just a portion of the house? Is there ample room for the stove to be installed in the room you are considering, or would an outdoor wood stove be a better option? Do you want to cook on your wood stove? When purchasing a wood stove, be sure to explain to the sales professional the way in which the stove will be used. This will give them the critical information they need to direct you to the stove that will best suit your needs.

Tip # 3 Make Certain that Your Wood Stove is Properly Installed

Proper installation of your new wood stove is paramount for the device to function safely and correctly. Remember that your stove not only burns at a high temperature, but it also creates harmful smoke and gases that, if not properly vented, can cause serious problems inside the house. It is adviseable to have a professional install the stove. Choose someone who is reputable and has experience working with a wide variety of stove types.

Tip # 4 Choose Optimum Wood to Fuel the Stove

Your the if wood burning stove the uses traditional logs folder (rather than wood pellets), your selection of wood types will have a Considerable effect on its efficiency. Remember this general rule when dealing with wood logs: the denser the wood, the more heat they will eventually generate when they burn. Wood such as oak and maple will burn longer and provide more total heat than softer woods.

Tip # 5 Be Sure Wood is Thoroughly Dry Before Burning

The moisture content of wood will determine the success with which it burns. Wood that is cut and stored for 6-12 months will be a contain less moisture than wood that is freshly cut. This type of wood, which is often called "unseasoned" should be avoided. "Seasoned" wood are logs that have a moisture content of less than 20%.

Advantages of Using Pressure Cookers

Here are some reasons to using a pressure cooker.

First, it saves cooking time. Using the rapid cooking feature, you will be able to have a meal cooked quicker than it normally would over the stove, and you would not even need to be watching over it. This feature also uses less energy; thus, would save you money when it comes to any energy usage. To get the best deal out of the cooking, always refer to the cooker’s manual, or you can check online for the manufacturer’s Website for the timetables of different types of food. Different brands may have different timetables as their cooker may be designed differently.

No one likes to eat meat that does not tear apart easily with the chew of your teeth. Thus, meats should be tenderized so that we can enjoy the meat without whine. Over the stove, tenderizing would require specific spices, energy from beating with mallets, and time for meats to become tender. However, pressure cookers can eliminate that problem as the mechanics of its pressure is designed to tender meat to become juicy and tender.

These cookers can also cook soups, stocks for soups, or gravies quickly. Using high pressure cooking on meat bones, the flavors can be derived from it to become extremely flavorful stocks. These can then be kept in the freezer to freeze and be used when needed, which saves cost on needing to buy ingredients, as well as the energy to cook it.

Speaking flavors, should you follow the manual or timetable of cooking specific foods under high pressure with no water, the flavors will be compressed and sealed into the food. This makes the food naturally more flavorful. Furthermore, it seals the nutrients into the food, not allowing them to disperse while cooking under the high pressure.

Best Way of Removing Bathroom Wall Paneling

A restroom’s interior decoration can both make and at the same time break an individual’s home. However, if it done with perfection, it can proof to be an oasis as well as a tranquil place that you can easily use as a reflection of your own lifestyle. However, remodeling your restroom as well as the bathroom wall panels to reach to that point can be quite daunting as it simply means that you need to remove your wall paneling.

This process is deemed to be easy and at the same time difficult depending on the type of adhesive used on the paneling as well as how tightly it is attached to the wall. The best thing about it is that, the tools and mechanism is readily available. However, even with this assurance, the removal procedure may be a bit messy and even take a plethora of hours before completion especially if your bathroom wall panels are wide and if the boarding is stuck closely together. Having said this, here is the best way to achieve this removal process.

• Firstly, makes sure you have all the things required to make the process easier and time saving for you. Once you have everything, use a drop cloth on the floor to collect all the fragments. As you do this, ensure that you have worn protective gadgets such as gloves, dust mask as well as safety mask.

• Start off by molding especially if your paneling is made up of molds. Use a sharp chisel on the edge of the molding and hit it using a hammer to loosen it. Once the molding is loosened, pull its edge out. Do this until it is completely removed from the restroom’s wall.

• In most cases, the edge of a panel usually meets the restroom’s wall. While this is the case, it is worthwhile to place the chisel at this point and tap it using the hammer until it slides under the boarding. Once you are done, simply move the chisel around with an objective of loosening the edge.

• Beneath the edge that has been loosened, you will locate a crow bar that you will be prompted to push using leverage. However, as you do this, be very careful not to cause some gouging on the wall surface found underneath.

• Once done, simply take hold of the loosened boarding and pull it to your side in a gentle manner. Keep on pulling ensuring that the materials are not pulled in the process. If you discover that the wall paneling is kind of stubborn, utilize the chisel to do some loosening on the adhesion between the boarding and the wall step by step.

• Lastly, open the doors as well as windows to bring some ventilation in the restroom. Spread some adhesive remover and let it settle for sometime. Later on remove it and rinse the wall thoroughly using clean water and a damp towel.

Excel Tip – Use VLOOKUP to Return Multiple Values Horizontally

I have been asked this questions a number of time about Excel and VLOOKUP formulas. How to return multiple values from one VLOOKUP.

Let’s say we have customers who have more than one piece of equipment, but we want to return the serial numbers of all those pieces of equipment using the VLOOKUP formula. Normally customers have one item that we want to match, so a normal VLOOKUP fits our needs but some have more than one. We need to do a bit more with our VLOOKUP and turn up the volumes on this formula.

So, let’s do this with some data… here is a list of customers and their equipment (a very small extract of our data set).

Customer Number Equipment Type Serial Number

776546 Baffle 1432

776546 Stoker 1552

776546 Plank 1749

776324 Plank 1500

764632 Baffle 1683

763452 Baffle 1815

763543 Stoker 1263

OK, so looking up the multiple types or serial numbers is really easy in this example with such a small data set, but what about if we have thousands of records, that would be pretty tough. Let’s get Excel to do the tough work, and write a formula for get this job done.

{=INDEX($A$2:$C$8,SMALL(IF($A$2:$A$8=$E$2,ROW($A$2:$A$8)-1),COLUMNS($F2:F2)),3)}

Firstly this is an array formula. An Array formula is a formula that will perform multiple calculations on one or more sets of values). The INDEX function looks in our table ($A$2:$C$8)

  • It then uses the SMALL function to find which row to look in and then subtracts 1 from what SMALL tells us. ( it takes the smallest row number first and matches the value in Column C)
  • The ROW function returns the row in the worksheet where our value was found.
  • The INDEX function considers the first row of our table as row 1. Because our table data starts in row 2, we need to subtract 1 from the ROW value to get the correct row inside the table.
  • In your own spreadsheet you may need to adjust this value to take account of where your data table is located
  • The INDEX function then looks in column 3, which is where the data is found.
  • As we drag the formula along the columns, the next instance of the row number I.e 2 in F3 and 3 in G3 and so on until there are no more matches and we get an error. Job done.

How to Make an Effective Lesson Plan

Making an effective lesson plan is the basic preparation that teachers do before class. These plans are basically the method through which teachers plan to introduce the topic to the class. Mostly making a good lesson plan is like creating a story line. The more creative you get with your story plan the better it is for the students to understand. However, there are certain points to keep in mind before you start with your lesson plans. Below discussed are a few –

Remember to start with the end –

This is mostly known as backward mapping in the educational field. The end is mostly where you want to lead your students to i.e. the topic you were explaining. Hence, it seems like the most likely place to start from. When you have the goal clear in your mind it is easy for you to set the path. Unless you know what your students should deduce after the lesson you cannot make a perfect lesson plan; also you may not be able to assess their learning capabilities.

Start your plan with a goal to reach and make sure the path you choose to explain helps the students to come to your desired conclusion. For example, if you are teaching them about the oceans in the world, by the end of the class they should be able to list the oceans based on their size. This accomplishes the goal of your lesson plan.

Know your audience –

This rule is not just applicable to marketing but to teaching as well. While making your lesson plans remember the grade level you will be applying it on. Ensure the matter and the presentation of the matter suits their liking and is powerful enough to get their attention. Asses your plan to see the time length; check if the plan is interactive and engaging enough for the grade you have to present it to. Also make sure to segregate the content and the manner of delivery as per the requirement of different students in the class.

Use creative methods –

Using out of the box creative methods to explain a concept to the class is the best way to get the interest of the students. A few ideas that you can implement include dividing the class in groups and playing a quiz, asking them to research on a topic and throwing questions at them in the next class, asking them to a make a presentation, preparing a skit with a group of students etc. These unconventional methods can get you great results.

Reflect and retouch –

After you are done teaching the lesson to the class as per your lesson plan, reflect on the entire session. Ask questions like was the plan successful? Did it solve the purpose? Was it too lengthy? Did the students understand the purpose? Tweak your plan for the next class after assessing it. This will make it even more successful than before.

Many schools today support teachers with lesson plans provided by education service providers. They provide well-researched plans for every concept and provide learning objectives with resource guidelines to help teachers conduct the class in a better way.

Architectural Ironmongery Work

The art of architectural ironmongery is timeless; as it has been utilized since hundreds of years ago. The simplest ironmongery product like a door-hinge has been used even centuries before to guard heavy doors and is used even today in modern architecture. Each metal work in any building is called ironmongery.

Ironmongery is a term used to describe products that are made from iron, or products with fittings made of iron, for use in construction. Other words used for ironmongery are architectural metal work or architectural ironmongery. A variety of building structures such as homes, hotels, etc. use them during different phases of construction. However, it is mostly used in handles, banisters and railings.

A house or a building is built in various stages. The architects are consulted to make purchases for different areas in a building or a house. A building formation starts from laying the foundation of the building followed by erecting the walls and making the roof. The art of ironmongery takes place after the completion of initial building work.

Architectural ironmongery can be roughly divided into three types; Pre-Pack Hardware, Iron Window Hardware and Iron Door Hardware. These three categories include: latches, door bolts, bow handle bolts, Breton bolts, tower bolts and door bolts, Suffolk latches, swivel locking bars, turn buttons, wire hasps and staples, tee hinges, etc.

After a building is erected, the purchase of ironmongery products takes place. The installation of the ironmongery products takes place post the completion of the structure of the building. The ironmongery products includes door handles and knobs, hinges, cabinet fittings, and door locks, which are collectively or individually used in banisters, railings, doors and windows.

All ironmongery products are fundamentally reliable and durable, yet care needs to be taken while choosing the supplier. The help from ironmongers can be taken from online and local ironmongery stores. Many different ironmongery products are available, both in modern and traditional styles. It blends in well with every look, be it antique, ultra modern or contemporary. The elegant, classy or modern look of the building determines the type of the ironmongery used. Try and opt for the one that appropriately goes with your desired look and impression.

Ironmongery works provide expediency to life. The importance of ironmongery can be gauged from the fact that the metal work of any building is usually the first thing that catches your eye and makes a lasting impression. They are also important for security and safety purposes of any building. In addition they add to the overall value and the look of the building.

So, incorporating ironmongery in any building has become the need of the day. It may be slightly expensive but it is compensated by the fact that it is long lasting. Invest in ironmongery wisely because it is bound to stay with you for a while with its intrinsic long lasting characteristics.

The Future of Online Shopping

Online sales will continue to rise. Every webpage designed to sell a product or market a service should understand the future of online shopping.

There are several major variables that make online sales attractive to the worldwide market. These variables include:

1) Value of Products/Services offered

2) Dependability and Reputation of the Seller

3) Ease and Security of payment

4) Ease and Security of shipping.

Younger and wealthier shoppers are driving a wave of online sales. Many of these people – having some web familiarity and disposable income – have learned to shop online for price comparisons and other comparative data. If shoppers find a superior situation, especially regarding the above 4 crucial variables they will usually become online buyers.

Online buyers establish shopping habits. They abandon bricks and mortar stores and malls as value, dependability, security and convenience of online buying improves.

Although the online buyer cannot return an item as quickly in some situations as the buyer who can walk in and out of a Wal-Mart or Sears when the parking lot isn’t crowded or there is no line at the returns

desk, there are many other reasons to buy online.

Sellers of low-mass products – small books, DVDs, lightweight clothing have a marked edge in sales because shipping is relatively low in cost. The seller of these items doesn’t need to pay the overhead of a store, staff, parking lot, utilities, etc. They pay only storage and shipping which is becoming increasingly automated.

Although people are rightfully afraid of bankcard fraud, I believe all card services will continue to improve security and improve buyer dispute processes.

Fraudulent emails sent to credit card holders (and all business accounts for that matter) will continue to be a big problem. As both merchants and shoppers become aware of these fraudulent practices it will be more difficult to exploit people with business accounts at PayPal or Amazon.

There is a probability, partly because of the price of fuel, that delivery services will consolidate to some extent in the future so that you will receive one or two regular deliveries per day of all goods you have purchased – including groceries – along with mail and newspaper, etc.

Each person may also have a receiving station service in the future whereby the shopper picks up everything from one large, secured lockbox. If a delivery is very large or has accumulated over days, a key would be left with directions to a nearby, larger overflow box. Security, insurance, and energy costs would all be cut by these changes.

Grocers have experimented with many forms of advertising, delivery, billing and credit. All of these ideas are improved with online transactions. Shopping from several grocery chains will be easier when you get free delivery and easy to find price comparisons. You will even be able to subscribe to discount announcements of various products.

Online education – especially college level offerings – has been slow to respond to the potential sale of services by internet. Online degrees will become more common, less expensive, and more legitimized with standardized and secured testing procedures of students. The knowledge areas in the cognitive domain can be done completely by internet. Educational offerings in the behavioral and affective domains will be greatly augmented by online offerings and testing as well.

Larger purchases will also be more prevalent on the internet, especially for mass produced items like automobiles. You can test-drive several models locally, then cruise websites regionally for price, color, accessories, delivery costs, taxes or other charges. This is already being done, but with advances in registration and licensing as well as online financing and insurance – you may spend 25 minutes on a website and be legally driving your new car in the time it takes to meet the delivery-person curbside.

Internet download of tickets and coupons is becoming widespread, and this will continue. Insurance policies and other documents can be downloaded as well.

Internet social life is here – even simplifying the dating and matching processes. This computerized internet socializing saves time and money. While it may lack some of the intangibles, it also allows a more fully objectified set of tangibles, as well as leaving time for the intangibles that happen after screening.

The internet will also become easier to use: fewer viruses, popups, host and server problems. This adds up to faster, easier, safer and less expensive shopping.