Test Concrete Using Rebound Hammer

Concrete testing is one the most important process in determining the quality of concrete. These testing come in many forms at various state of concrete. Some of the test is needed when concrete is wet (such as workability test), some test is required when concrete starts to harden (such as setting time, cube strength, and etc.), and some test is needed when concrete is already in place. Despite various type of tests, the ultimate aim of these tests are to make sure that concrete selected and used is and will be able to perform to its full capacity.

Testing concrete while at its fresh state is not an issue at all, and even testing hardened concrete properties using test specimens such as cubes and cylinders is also not a challenging task. However, testing a concrete structure that is already in place is totally a different trade. Normally, these test falls under two main categories, namely the destructive test and non-destructive test. As the name sounds, you would be able to figure out how the test is done. Let’s reserve the discussion on destructive test for another article. In this article we will touch more non-destructive test, and this article in particular will elaborate more on Rebound Hammer method.

The rebound hammer test, which is also widely known as Schmidt Hammer test, is one of the most commonly used non-destructive tests for hardened concrete. Probably this is also one of the easiest methods. The concept of this method is to correlate the surface hardness of the concrete surface to the compressive strength of the concrete. When the Schmidt hammer is pressed against the concrete surface, the resulting rebound mass is resulted in the scale attached to the hammer. This value is then used to estimate the strength of the concrete using the correlation graph, which is normally provided by the hammer manufacturers. However, one has to remember that the strength obtained from this test using correlation graph is only for checking purpose. Besides strength estimation, the rebound hammer test is also widely used to check the uniformity of the concrete surface. With the value obtained from the Schmidt hammer, we can determine whether the corresponding area of the concrete has uniform amount of compaction or not. Area that is not well compacted will give lower rebound number, compared to well compacted area.

There are few other factors that will affect the Schmidt hammer value. Firstly, the surface condition of the test area. As per standard requirement the test are shall be clean and smooth. Besides that the angles of the hammer when pressing on the test area also influence the rebound number. Rebound number is also affected by voids near the concrete surface, coarse aggregate near the surface, and etc. In order to reduce the effect of these factors, it is normal practice to take average of 10 to 12 values from different points at the test area.

Mosaic Tiles – DIY

When one thinks of installing your own mosaic tiles, there are strong assumptions of complicated, lucrative designs of the Roman Empire. I am not suggesting that the mosaics you have in your home have to be like how the Romans did. When installing your own mosaic tiles in either your bathroom or kitchen, you open yourself up to a world of unlimited designs and possibilities of how you want your room to look. The power of doing it yourself enables you to create your very own patterns and layout of the design. However, this would be a very hard and complicated task, which is why new style mosaics are made in sheets for easy tileing and DIY purposes.

To install mosaic flooring yourself is fairly simple. The key fundamentals one should remember when installing mosaic tiles is that it is imperative the sub floor is clean and dry. This will give a strong foundation to the tile and enable it to stick. If the floor is covered in dirt and debris there will be less cohesion of the tile and cement, which will inevitably loosen the tile. The adhesive you use is imperative. By using a good quality adhesive you will know the tile will stick and not fall apart, which is something you most definitely do not want happening with mosaic tiles because once one piece breaks the rest will follow. There are two different mainstream types of mosaic tiles that that can be purchased: glazed and unglazed. When one uses glazed tiles it is important for safety that they are not used on the floor because they tend to be very slippery when wet, therefore should be used on the walls. Non glazed tiles grip more when wet and should be used on the floor. Finally during the installation of the tiles is it imperative that when laying down the especially in showers and wet- rooms is that they are level. This is because if they are not made level water will not flow where you indent it to. On many occasions it is known for some rooms to flood and not drain properly because of the way in which the tiles are laid.

The maintenance of mosaic tiles is not a complicated process. By being single tiles they are subject to entrapping more dirt; however a simple once over with a vacuum or damp cloth is sufficient. These types of tiles are very easy to clean and maintain which is why they are use mainly in kitchens and bathrooms where there is a constant flow of mess from cooking and soap etc.

From this article it is possible to see that installing mosaic tiles yourself is not as complicated as you may have thought. With the correct tools and making sure the foundations are right enables you to create any floor or wall design you want. Furthermore, the maintenance of these tiles is as simple as cleaning a normal floor, there are no extra cleaning utensils required because these tiles are made from strong durable materials.

New Pool Finish Care

Ok, so you passed on the new big screen TV, gave in on the weekend fishing trip with your best buddies and worked some extra hard hours so that you could get the pool resurfaced. After all you must put into priority what really counts most, right? Well never the less your pool has a new coat of plaster weather it’s a Quartz Finish, a Stone Finish or Conventional Marcite (is that stuff still around?) makes no difference. Hopefully you found the right contractor to do the job and everything went smoothly? Let’s leave that for another article. So your pool is filling and what you do next could absolutely decide how long your new plaster will look new and how long it will last. I kid you not, start-up, aka fire-up of the new finish is one of the most important parts of the re-plastering process.

I have found that although you may have used a reputable pool contractor to do a superb job of the actual re-finishing does not necessarily mean they will do a proper fire-up once the pool is filled. Might be that plastering is their forte and only offer the fire-up as a courtesy because there competition does, or they may not offer it all due to the liability of damaging the new finish. So it would certainly behoove you to know exactly what is necessary to safeguard the integrity and warranty of your pool finish. After all, that weekend fishing trip would look pretty good after having your pool refinished only to be stained, streaked and discolored.

The consensus has been: once the pool is filled you need to get the water cleared and balanced as soon as possible (contractor needs that check) That usually meant shocking the pool heavily, balancing the alkalinity, PH and vacuuming the pool to remove the plaster dust and any debris that might have entered the pool during the refill. All done in one day and usually on the day the pool was finished filling.


Back in the 70’s & 80’s the plaster of choice (only choice) was conventional Marcite and a recurring problem builders were having with the plaster was a condition known as spot etching. Some other conditions that were prevalent in these same pools were streaking, grey swirls and yellowing of the finish. Everyone in the industry had their own opinion or expert advice as to why this was happening, the only problem was that the industry as a whole could not agree on the “why”. The National Spa & Pool Industry (NSPI) as it was known back then, in conjunction with several pool builders conducted several tests on demo pools to try to come up with a common denominator that could explain the ongoing conditions affecting pool finishes.

Some of the first finger pointing was at the fact that Marcite used to contain Asbestos as part of the plaster mix, for OBVIOUS reasons the EPA had the Manufactures of Marcite remove the Asbestos and low and behold every old-timer in the industry blamed the removal off the Asbestos as the source of all plaster related problems. We know better today that was not true but unfortunately those old-school plasterers are not around anymore, huh? wonder why? So these demo pools were plastered, filled and monitored for about a year. After all the hoopla, all the finger pointing and all the data was in, guess what, the NSPI and the industry determined the common denominator was human error, labor defects, defects in the actual mixing of the plaster on the job-site, defects in the actual application of the plaster, defects in the hand troweling of the plaster as well as the condition of the trowels themselves. Last but not least and most prevalent was the start-up procedure done by most companies.

Houston we have a problem!

How can this be? Was echoed throughout the industry. We are the experts, we’ve been doing this for years and years without these problems, how could all of a sudden our time and tested techniques be the blame for all of our woes? Well like all trades that have have well skilled craftsmen they all had their industry specific niche. Pool plasterers were not born from the industry but transferred from the masonry, concrete and stucco finishing trades. After all swimming pools really did not have their own industry classification until the late 50’s, 60’s and 70’s. Pools were being built by home builders who employed skilled craftsmen, skilled in block laying, carpentry, form work, concrete finishing and plastering.

As the pool industry grew and the industry was able to support the full time employment of pool plasters. Those plasterers came from skilled backgrounds and as the industry continued to grow it attracted all sorts of people trying to get their slice of pool pie. Well unfortunately with all big business comes competition and competition can be a good thing if we all play fair like good little boys and girls. New pool companies were popping up everywhere and everywhere a new pool company started they needed laborers. Notice I said laborers not craftsmen, yes the competition was not playing fair by hiring unskilled labor to reduce the overall cost of the pool. Forcing the craftsmen still left in the industry in keep taking pay cuts until they were finally forced out of the industry by the newbie’s. OK maybe not forced so much as they were ready for retirement anyway.

They sure don’t build them like they used too

Remember that old saying? “they don’t build them like they used too” well the transfer from old school craftsmen to then new pool laborers must have missed quite a few important trade secrets and techniques. Pool plaster “101” is apparently where all the freshmen left, dropped out went to work thinking they knew all there was to know. Here is what unfortunately not passed down to them from the very wise old guys:

1) Thou shall not apply plaster unless the plaster was mixed for “x” amounts of minutes.

2) Thou shall not use well water or unfiltered water for mixing of the plaster.

3) Thou shall not use dirty trowels, worn trowels or poor quality steel trowels.

4) Thou shall not over-trowel the pool plaster.

5) Thou shall not add calcium to the plaster mix.

6) Thou shall not walk bare-foot on finished pool plaster.

7) Thou shall fill pool starting the water in the deep end only.

8) Thou shall not interrupt the filling process until the water reaches the tile line.

9) Thou shall not try to chemically balance the pool all in one day.

10) Thou shall brush, brush and brush the pool for at least 10 days.

I promise you it really was just a coincidence that there are “10” commandments, I mean RULES!

Now let me explain why it took years and years of crying foul and caused an industry to come together to solve the obvious that was not so obvious at the time. Here is what was determined to be the cause of spot etching, grey streaks or swirls, aka mottling and yellowing of the pool plaster:

1) Add plaster and water to a powered mixer, mix until it looks like pancake batter and apply to pool, sounds OK but not true. Turns out that the dry plaster and water need to be mixed for a specific amount of time (5-6min.) before they are considered married (feels like a lifetime!) also plaster that is under-mix can and does false set which requires additional mixing and addition of water to complete the process. The mixing from batch to batch needs to be as consistent as possible to ensure uniform texture and curing all around.

2) The source of the water could be high in metals, low in hardness or vice versa. Tap water or well water could have adverse effects on the plaster’s outcome. Causing staining and streaking.

3) Dirty trowels are dirty trowels no need to say more, but worn trowels have a direct affect on how hard a finisher has to apply pressure to the plaster to get it smooth. The harder the pressure applied to the trowel the more likely the trowel will transfer heat from the friction caused from the exerted pressure and burn the finish, commonly known as “trowel burns”. Trowel burns are what cause the finish to have grayish swirls throughout the pool finish

4) Over-troweling the pool has the same effect on the pool finish even if the tools are clean, in good shape and of good quality. Over troweling usually becomes necessary when the plaster false sets on the finishers and there was a mad frenzy of troweling to try to get the plaster smoothed out before it got too hard.

5) Calcium is well known as an accelerator of cement products, that being said on cooler days, colder climates or day’s with rain in the forecast plasterers found by adding calcium to the plaster mix they could accelerate the set-up time of the plaster therefore in theory finish a pool quicker without having to wait for the plaster to set at its own pace. This practice became more and more common as plaster crews were now able to get 2 and even 3 pools plastered in one day. More PIE! (more like humble pie)

6) Walking barefoot on a freshly plastered pool seemed harmless enough; certainly better then walking on the finish with work boots, shoes or sneakers. The plaster is hard at this point but by no means cured. In-fact it takes about 28 days for plaster to fully cure. The finished plaster acts like a sponge absorbing everything that comes in contact with it. The perfect outline of a foot print usually revealed itself about a month after the pool was completed. The foot print was a result of the natural oil in a person’s skin being absorbed into the plaster, that oil was retained by the plaster as it cured causing the finish to dry darker in the outline of a foot print, pinky toe included.

7) “Hey honey look the pool is filling, sure is filling slow, let’s get another hose in there so it will fill faster!” Run a second hose out to the pool to speed up the filling process also seemed harmless enough so long as the second water hose was added to the deep-end where there already is a growing body of water. When a hose is added, water must hit water and not run down the plaster from the wall or the shallow end as the very absorbent plaster will pull the minerals and impurities’ out of the water flowing down the plaster thus causing a stain/streak.

8) Turning the water fill off for the pool still happens today more often than you might think. A homeowner not being informed about how important the need to let the pool fill until water reached the tile was the main reason for this happening. Typically a pool needs a good 24 to 36 hours to fill depending on the size of the pool and of course water pressure. Mr. & Mrs. Pool owner fearful the pool might over fill during the night would turn the water of at bedtime and resume the next morning. ” Ring around the rosy pocket full of …” Sorry!, Ring around pool as in “a definite water line mark” where the pool water was stopped for several hours then resumed, resulted in a permanent stain.

9) “Patience is a Virtue” except when you’re trying to collect final payment on a pool resurface and the water is green. No GREEN for Mr. Pool Man until the pool is blue. Turns out shocking a pool that has been recently plastered is bad, very, very bad, also turns out that chlorine is the last thing that should be added to the pool for several reasons. That did not make a lot of sense at that time as it was thought without chlorine how could you clear up the water quickly. Filter, Filter, Filter. Ever wonder how a fish tank stays clear without chlorine; a swimming pool is really nothing more than a big o fish tank. Now don’t get me wrong I am not saying you should forgo on the chlorine, or that you can put fish in your pool, but you certainly do not need as much chlorine as you think. We have found that a procedure of adding a Stain & Scale control product, balancing the ph, alkalinity and calcium and running the filter for a few days before adding chlorine is the best way to nurse the newly finished plaster to good health.

10) “Brush, brush, brush that plaster dust away”, has a nice ring to it but truth is everybody hates brushing a pool especially when you are told you must brush at least twice a day. The new plaster is curing and shedding what we call, “plaster dust” plaster dust left untouched can and will resettle on the pool finish and cause yellowing on Marcite and leave a white paste on Stone or Quartz finishes. By brushing the pool constantly you are getting the dust off the surface and out into the water so that the filter can trap the dust as it is circulated. As each day passes the dust will become less and less prevalent until it is all gone, about a week in most cases. From that point on brushing the pool at least once a week is good for the pool and an upper body workout.


OK you can breathe now, we’re done, grab a cold drink, find your favorite pool float and relax!

Choosing Good Painters and Decorators

Considering some painting jobs, maybe a room in your home? Well, should you prefer a good painting job done, it is incredibly critical to find a company which offers this particular service. Although you can perform it yourself, irrespective of how ‘talented’ you happen to be, there is no way in which you’ll be able to complete the job in the same way that a dedicated interior painting decorating company would. In this article, we will share a few recommendations to find a good company to do painting jobs at your house (or multiple rooms, if you are this way inclined)

• Reviews, reviews, plus more reviews: I am going to be truthful with you here. Almost all interior painting specialists on the market don’t seem to be really that good. Sadly, some people believe it’s really industry where you ought of do nothing but get your hands on a brush and you are done. For interior painting It isn’t. You’ll need skill. When you’re looking for a company to begin painting an area, you should examine various reviews on line. Read both bad and good reviews. This would provide you a pretty decent understanding of who may be worth dealing with and who is not worth your time and efforts.

• Meet the painter: It is never suggested that you just hire somebody before you meet them. As with most trades, the first impression is absolutely everything. You’re going to need to speak with the individual to learn more with regards to their personality. This should not just give you an idea about how reliable they are, but in addition provide you a great idea about whether you are likely to be capable of working with each other or not. In addition to this, this chat should ask if they have insurance cover in place. If they do not, you are going to need to run a mile!

• Price: for most painting jobs, this is not going being much of an issue. You’re going to want to consider what you’re getting for your money though. For example; you need to find out whether you will need to buy the paint separately, whether any additional charges may pop up etc. If a painter comes around to give you a quotation for the room, the latter scenario is not very likely to occur! Should you need to purchase the paint straight from the painter, then you’re going to need to check whether you are actually getting good value for money with it i.e. make certain they are not charging you a lot for something you can buy pretty cheap elsewhere for your own painting jobs.

• If you prefer the painter that you hire, and make sure that you recommend them to your family and friends! Painters depend upon recommendations advertising and you are going to be doing them a wonderful favour. If you don’t like the work that they have carried out then it’s important that you mention it to them. This way they can correct any errors. Remember; everyone is human. Everyone makes a few mistakes sometimes. An honest painter will correct them.

Answering Your Chandelier Questions

Redecorating a room can be a grand adventure. You get to pick out a new color, or colors, for your walls. You may even get to shop for new furniture and flooring. But one of the easiest ways to change the look of a room often goes unnoticed. Lighting is often the last thing that people think about when it comes time to update a room. It is a very valuable and essential part of any room. If you do not believe so, try turning off all the lights.

In this article we will discuss lighting but more specifically the chandelier. From its opulent beauty hanging in mansions to the ultra modern version hanging in an apartment, chandeliers can increase the worth of any room in the home. You may be surprised by its humble origins but you will definitely be impressed with how it can completely change the tone of any room you are decorating.

What were the first chandeliers made from?

The first chandeliers were very plain and made from wood. They served a simple purpose of lighting a room from overhead. A wooden cross would be made and at the ends of each cross a stake would be placed. Upon the stake would be a candle. Most of these chandeliers were found in places where people commonly assembled such as in churches, meeting halls, or great rooms of castles. Later as mankind began to experiment with woodworking and metalworking, chandeliers changed.

What are modern chandeliers constructed from?

Today's chandeliers can be made from many materials. The most common material you will find though is brass. You can still find the very costly and elegant chandeliers that are made from bronzed metal, detailed wood working or even from wrought iron. Some people will make a chandelier from antler horns from an animal. The bone is hollow so it is easy to run electrical cord through the horn to affix to the light. More environmentally friendly homes are turning to wood such as bamboo or Banana Leaf. It is easier on the environment and it still has a very elegant look when designed properly.

Is installing a chandelier complicated?

Installing chandeliers is not very complicated if you know what you are doing. It does involve electrical work though. If you know how to work with electricity and have installed lighting fixtures, then it should not be any trouble. If, however, you are not handy with electricity it may be safer for you to hire an electrician to come in and install the chandelier for you. Many lighting stores will have a person on staff that can install your lighting fixture for you. It will save you time and money.

Where can I purchase a chandelier?

If money is no object then you can go to a craftsman who can create you a completely unique chandelier. If you are like most people you will want to buy one that is already made. You can go online to Lampsplus to check out their huge inventory of chandeliers. You can also go into your local lighting store and check out their merchandise. If you happen to see a display model that you like, they can order one for you. If the model has been discontinued you may be able to buy the showroom model for a significantly lower price. The best advice is to hit up home improvement stores, flea markets and antique stores if you want the best bargains.

Host an Incredible Hot Tub Party

The fact that everyone can have a good time relaxing in an incredible hot tub makes hot tub parties the best ever. There are numerous things that can be done to make sure you are having the best hot tub party possible. Decorations, food and all sorts of little things you probably do not think about.

When you are thinking about a hot tub party one of the first things you need to do is decide on a theme. The hot tub is them main aspect so you may want a water them. There are several to choose from. Depending on the season you may want to do a holiday them. A party with a theme is better than one without one. So use one to make all of your hot tub parties are incredible.

Decorations will be needed to go with the theme. Everything you have should be focused on the theme. You can hang decorations anywhere you expect the guest to be but you should make sure to decorate around the hot tub specifically. Party favors can even be used to make it more enjoyable for guests.

Be sure to have refreshments for your guests. What you serve will depend on they type and size of the hot tub party you are throwing. It is better to have leftovers than run out of food early so make sure to get more food than you think you will need. Guests can take any leftovers home to remind them of the great time they had.

Who are you inviting? This is the next step in the planning of amazing hot tub parties. Only invite as many people as you can fit in your hot tub if you only want to do something small. You will end up with unhappy people that want to relax if you have more people than will fit in the hot tub. Be sure to have some other form of entertainment for those of your guest that are not in the hot tub for larger events. You could use a buffet or just a snack bar if you want. There can even be music. Everyone should have a chance at the hot tub as well.

Guests can relax and enjoy the amazing benefits that hot tubs offer! It is a great addition to any party. You can host the best hot tub parties that anyone has ever attended as long as you carefully plan everything including theme, decoration and food.

Using a Backhoe – Purposes and Safety Precautions

What is a backhoe? It is a piece of equipment usually used for excavating. It is also sometimes referred to as a rear actor or back actor. It is attached to a tractor using a pivot, also known as a king-post. This allows it to swivel left and right. Modern backhoes use hydraulics. They are strongest when curling the bucket. The name backhoe refers to the action of the shovel not what it is attached to.

Backhoes are mainly used to clean up construction areas, to dig holes in the ground, to smooth uneven ground, to make trenches, ditches and dikes, and to help remove deep roots from trees. They can be very useful to you and faster than using a shovel. You do need to be extremely careful when using backhoes. You need to watch and recognize the dangers around you. Once you attach the backhoe, you should make sure that you grease it after a couple hours of use. Before you start digging anywhere, make sure to call the local utilities company to find out where any underground utilities are located. Not doing so could cause serious injury to you and others. Also be aware of any electrical lines or tree limbs that may be above you. A  few more safety tips include make sure all people are clear of the swing of the bucket, do not dig under the stabilizers and try to keep the load as balanced as possible. If you ever walk away from the machine, turn it off and remove the ignition key. Children have been known to get into the machines and do serious damage to the machines, property and even themselves. You do not want your company to be held responsible for a five second mistake on your part.

If you are unsure of using backhoes properly, you can attend a heavy equipment operator school. The school is designed to give you the fundamental skills needed to operate heavy equipment. Some of these include tractors, wheel loaders, bulldozers, rock trucks, skid steers and excavators. They will also teach you GPS, maintenance, laser levels and more. The school varies in length depending on where you go.

What Is a Double Contact and a Lift in Volleyball?

In the game of volleyball, you’ll find rules about how the player is permitted to set the volleyball. It may be especially aggravating to have players consistently called for illegal contact of the ball. Being a coach is without question nerve-racking enough without requiring you to regularly put up with a player that is constantly doing this.

There are in essence two kinds of mistakes when it comes to setting or passing the ball – double contacts and lifts. You will discover conditions to the double contact rule; nonetheless as you are going to notice, you’ll find no exceptions to lifting. Beach volleyball rules and indoor volleyball rules both apply to the examples below. Beach volleyball does contain one exception although.

Double Contacts

A double contact performed by a volleyball player on the initial touch is essentially legal. To illustrate, if the spiker spikes the volleyball, the player performing defense could contact the ball two times in an effort to dig the ball. Double contact shouldn’t be called till contact is made after the primary play on the ball. A different feasible scenario for a player that makes a genuine touch is if the ball bounces off of the forearm, then your shoulder. This is certainly acceptable provided that the player performs an “athletic movement” throughout the contact of the volleyball. Double contact will be whistled when a setter makes a blunder setting the ball or passing the volleyball, once again, following the first contact. It is somewhat easy to see a double contact because the ball will come out of the player’s hands with a lot of spin, and it will just look awkward.


Lifting the volleyball, which is essentially catching or throwing the ball, is not allowed during the entire match. There You will not find any exceptions to this rule. When a player or setter basically catches or throws the ball, that is a lift. The ball stalls in the player’s hands and essentially has to be thrown. This is a called a lift and players in indoor volleyball likely will never get away with it. a great example of this is when a setter tries to set the ball from “below the belt”. The ball will have to be lifted up above the shoulders for the setter to set it. This happens often and will always be called a lift. Beach volleyball actually has different rules for this. Beach volleyball rules allow the volleyball to be slightly lifted while setting. It actually looks like the setter catches the ball and throws it. However, for some reason, this is allowed in beach volleyball. Not surprisingly it cannot be a total catch and throw. It should be all in one motion. So by trying to set exactly the same way indoor as setters set in beach, the referee will likely blow the whistle each time. It is humorous as you can frequently notice setters who plainly are beach volleyball players.

How An Elevator Speech Can Promote Your Practice

What you say about yourself is almost as important as what other think about you! Not only does this make up part of their initial impression of you and what you do but more importantly the things you say about yourself eventually become self-fulfilling (therefore whatever you say make sure it’s the best it can be…).

For these reasons one of the best things any practitioner can master is what has become known as the Elevator Speech. This idea gets its name from the imaginary situation that if you were in an elevator with a total stranger and you only have 20 – 60 seconds before they reach their floor – how do you reply to their question of “What do you do?” in a way that grabs their attention and peaks their interest before they get out and you have lost the chance to impress them for good…

(An elevator was probably picked because of the shortened time frame you have before someone gets off for their floor – it could easily have been named the Slurred Party Speech – the length of time you have at a party before someone walks of bored and annoyed – although that is not quite so snappy!)

So given that shortened time frame – what would you say? Well, as I have already hinted, it is important you grab their attention and get remembered so they don’t get bored, tune out or forget you – and I have found one of the best ways to do this is rather than proceed to tell them what you actually do, phrase it in such a way that tells them what you CAN do FOR them!

In order to do this – think about all the end results your clients have achieved from using your services, all the fantastic things they can now do and all the great opportunities that visiting you has opened up and you will then be able to use these benefits to hone your speech. Keep it in the front of your mind when you are planning your “pitch” people buy / act on results!

An ideal way to find the best things to say about yourself is to let your subconscious do it for you. The great thing about this is that this often happens whilst you are asleep so there is even less work to do on your part!

For example, have you ever been stuck trying to find the solution to a problem (the answers to crossword puzzles is a good one) and you have gone to bed and either during the night or first thing in the morning you have woken up and there is the answer – on the tip of your tongue, the very first thing that comes into your mind when you wake up?

You have?

Therefore just before you go to sleep put a pen and note pad next to your bed and think about what you would like to say about yourself, how best to describe you and your practice or any other point you would like your creative inner self to act on – and then go to bed! Although it sounds crazy (and you will have to trust me on this until you try it for yourself), during the night your subconscious (which is always trying to help you – if you will just let it) will figure it out for you and give you the best answers in the morning.

To help your subconscious along just recall some of the things your clients always say to you when you have done your normal terrific job…

For example (and these are only examples to get the ball rolling and your own creative juices flowing) they may have said something along the lines of:

You got them their life back…

You allowed them to play with their grandchildren, play golf, work again etc…

You are a God send…

You have enabled them to do what they always wanted to do…

You have removed their pain…

You have allowed them to enjoy their retirement…

I am sure a few ideas have sprung to mind already

Couple this with high-lights of what you actually do – and you will need to look for the edge and twist on this as well – and you are well on your way to the perfect pitch. Instead of saying you are a Chiropractor, Osteopath, Massage therapist, Acupuncturist etc. and that you remove subluxations, spinal lesions, balance energy meridians, you remove muscle imbalances etc. – you may want to say (and once again after a good nights sleep I am sure you can do better) that:

I use a system of healing over 5000 years old

I remove any roadblocks from healing and allow the body to repair

I slow the aging process

I restore balance, harmony throughout the body,

And so on

So, by combining the two you have created an Elevator speech that will spark interest, the desire to learn more – and pull prospective clients into your clinic like moths to a flame! Because when someone next asks you what you do, how much better is it than instead of saying:

“My name is Mr. Jones. I am an acupuncturist and for 20 years I’ve been helping people with all sorts of problems….”

You say:

“I use a system of healing over 5000 years old, passed down through the generations to restore balance throughout the body and allow people to do to the things they really want to do…”

Now which one do you think will get peoples attention and them longing to know more?

The Benefits of Using a Northern Irish Plate

Northern Irish plates are different to those in the rest of the British Isles. And they have one incredibly useful advantage – they are considered dateless. There is no letter in any series to indicate years.

The format of Irish plates is typically 2 or 3 letters followed by up to 4 digits and unlike the English, Welsh and Scottish plates, the letters I and Z can be used.

If at one time, the Northern Ireland number plates were considered ‘the poor relation’, they can not be considered like that any more. With dateless plates increasing in demand and the ease of which you can create name plates, some Northern Irish plates have become investment plates.

At the same time, however, they do allow a lot of people join the personalised plate ladder. Lots of younger drivers want to personalise their plate as much as they personalise their car and having a Northern Irish plate allows them to do that. With prices starting from as low as £50, they are a very real option to get a cheap personalised plate.

Northern Ireland is divided up into eight separate licensing areas. They are:

  • Belfast which issued the ‘_AZ’ and ‘IFZ’ registrations (e.g., BAZ, DAZ)
  • Enniskillen which issued ‘_IL’, ‘IIG’ currently issuing ‘KIG’ (e.g., GIL, BIL)
  • Downpatrick which issued ‘_BZ’ and currently issuing ‘SJZ’ (e.g., ABZ)
  • Ballymena which issued ‘_KZ’ and currently issuing ‘DRZ’ (e.g., UKZ)
  • Coleraine which issued ‘_NZ’ and currently issuing ‘RNZ’ (e.g., LNZ)
  • Londonderry which issued ‘_UI’ and currently issuing ‘TUI’ (e.g., OUI)
  • Omagh which issued ‘_JI’, ‘_HZ’ and currently issuing OHZ (e.g., PJI, CHZ)
  • Armagh which issued ‘_IB’ and currently issuing ‘CXZ (e.g., GIB, RIB)

Clever use of names

The most sought after plates are those dateless plates that spell out names or nicknames. Because Northern Irish plates use ‘I’ and ‘Z’, there is room or scope to spell out names.

Here are a few to get you thinking:

  • Barry (BAZ)
  • Gary (GAZ)
  • Katherine (KAZ)
  • Catherine (CAZ)
  • Darren (DAZ)
  • Raza (RAZ)
  • Sarah (SAZ)
  • Jeremy (JEZ)
  • Terry (TEZ)
  • JIL (Jill)
  • GIL (Gillian)
  • PJI (Patrick James or Peter Joseph)

And while the Northern Irish plates have formats and words that suit names, they also work well with interests.

Here’s a few more to get you thinking:

  • Show your love of France or your French nationality – OUI
  • If you have a Mercedes, feel free to use – MBZ
  • If you have a Volkswagen, car, you can use – VIW
  • Show your passion for the Welsh when you use – WLZ
  • Display your nationality with pride with – UKZ

So in summary, you can use a personalised Northern Irish number plate to:

  • Hide the age of your vehicle
  • Get a cheaper personalised number plate
  • Display your name
  • Show your nationality.

When thinking about a personalised number plate, Northern Irish number plates should be top of your list.

Simple Stove Repairs

It is true that your stove can encounter some serious problems which need immediate repair. Almost every home makes use of stoves. Once your stove stops working, you are forced to seek a specialist for repair and yet it could be a minor repair that you could fix yourself.

A stove is actually very important for the daily routine within your home. Everybody in the family depends on it for meals and for other services such as heating water. Therefore, it could be a great lose in your family suppose this appliance stops working.

Electric stoves are commonly used in many homes since rural electrification has been done in many places of the world. Suppose your electric stove runs out of service, there is no need to purchase a new one. This article gives you some tips on how to repair the electric stove yourself. Some common problems which may curb your stove include; stove not heating properly, stove making loud noises or it stops working altogether.

The following three steps can make you fix the problem with your stove:

• Check the status of the burner. Suppose you find that the stove burner your stove is not working, it is advisable to replace it immediately with another one which you are quite sure is in good condition. It is actually quick and easy to have the burner replaced. You are supposed to unplug the wire terminals from the old burner and fix to the new burner observing the terminals. Proceed to step two if the stove fails to work.

• If you find that the problem is still there, you should now check the socket. Ensure that all the wires are attached to the socket terminals accordingly. If the stove does not work, proceed to the final step.

• The final step is now to check the electrical switch. Make sure that the switch is functional. You can check the condition of the switch by using a tester. By following these three steps correctly, you will have your stove working and cut you the costs of calling for a service.

Caution: Make sure that the appliance is unplugged from the electric source when working on your stove or any other types of appliances. The safety of you and others should be your number one priority, and if a stove or appliance repair project looks like it could be dangerous, then maybe contacting a stove or appliance repair company.

Stainless Steel Vs Aluminum Pressure Cookers – Which Type of Pressure Cooker to Go For

Scary pressure cooker is now a thing of the past. The fear of blowing the lid off and scattering mess all over the kitchen has long been gone and over. Even if it has serve you delicious foods and amazing dishes, consider Grandma’s noisy cooker is history; gone are the whistles and hissing sound that you hear at the kitchen. Thanks to the modern day cookwares that are manufactured by leading European and American brands and other Asian companies as well.

When shopping for this type of cooker in the market, you will be faced with two main options – they are either aluminum or stainless steel made. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages so when deciding for one, its better to weigh your options so you can choose which one best tailor to your needs.

Stainless steel pressure resists corrosion; its scratch and warp resistant so you can keep it shiny and pretty for a long time. It does not react to food and its more durable. It is more sleek and elegant cooking but its more expensive than the aluminum made ones. Aluminum pressure cooker is cheaper or more affordable choice. Moreover, they are better conductors of heat, being aluminum made. However, it is a soft metal so it has the tendency to scratch and dent easily plus it can react to certain acidic food.

The choice between an aluminum or stainless steel can be boiled down to two important factors – price and durability. Aluminum ones are cheaper but they are better conductors of heat. However, they are inferior when it comes to design and quality. Stainless steel pressure cooker maybe more expensive but it is more durable and reliable. They are usually made of aluminum at the bottom to make them absorb heat better. If you are really on a tight budget, go for the aluminum ones but if its quality and durability that you are looking for, opting for stainless steel pressure cooker is the best option for you and can be worth your money in the long run.

How Durable Are Laminate Cabinet Doors?

Even though laminate cabinet doors are almost the cheapest selection for your cupboards, they are far from being the lowest in quality. When speaking from a standpoint of durability, I think high-pressure plastic laminate doors are the most durable of all.

Now I’ve been in the kitchen cabinet manufacturing business for many years and have owned several companies related to the industry. I’ve seen my share of old Formica cupboards that were in excellent shape. I have also seen some that were not in such good condition. Just like anything else, when something is maintained correctly, it’s possible “that” something will last a lifetime.

Laminate doors will last thirty to fifty years. The only thing that is required of the owners is to keep them wiped down regularly. Formica doors are easily cleaned with Windex, Formula 409 or just a damp cloth.

If you are considering having Formica in your kitchen or bathroom, may I suggest that you select white or off white for the color. Through the years these two colors have long withstood the ever changing kitchen cupboard trends. Many different shades and patterns of laminate get discontinued every year, but white remains on the color chip chains of all the suppliers.

Now it is important that you DO NOT confuse Formica laminate doors with Thermofoil doors. Raised panel Thermofoil doors WILL NOT last as long as the hard-shell, high pressure plastic laminate doors.

The two things that have a negative effect on Formica plastic laminate doors are how they are fabricated and cared for. If the manufacture did not use enough glue on the doors, then you will experience problems. In my expert opinion this only occurs once in ten thousand kitchens.

It’s important to understand the difference between a Melamine door and a plastic laminate door. Melamine is actually applied to the core board by the people who make the board. Formica laminate is applied by the people building your kitchen. Melamine is NOT as durable as laminate; it is thinner and not available in as many colors as Formica.

Here are a few cabinet door styles listed from cheapest to the most expensive:

  • Melanine
  • Plastic Laminate Doors
  • Thermofoil
  • Real Wood

Here’s a list of cupboard door styles from the lowest quality to the highest:

  • Thermofoil
  • Melamine
  • Real Wood
  • Formica

The way laminate doors are made is the sheet of plastic is purchased separately from the board. The board gets cut to the correct size for cabinet doors and then the plastic is cut a little over size. The laminate edges of the door are glued on first. Next, the front and backsides of the doors are covered with the Formica. Contact glue is used as the adhesive and routers are what the laminate is trimmed flush with the door’s edges with. Cabinet makers use a file to smooth off the sharp edges. Any access contact adhesive is cleaned off with lacquer thinner.

Kitchen cabinet doors are laminated with “vertical” grade or VT plastic. This is the thinner of the two choices. Countertops are made out of the thicker plastic that is called “standard” thickness. VT is generally one thirty second of an inch thick and standard is one sixteenth of an inch thick.

If you are considering getting Formica plastic laminate doors for your kitchen or bathroom, ask your cabinet maker if they can be three quarters of an inch thick. Five eighths thick laminate doors are durable and hold up well, but the thicker option will be more durable in the long run.

Summary Of Mine Boy Chapters 1-6


The story sets in South Africa. In this story, Peter Abraham portrays apartheid through following the life of Xuma, a villager in search of a better life. Xuma first lived in Malay camp where he was offered accommodation by Leah on his first night in the city. After getting a job, he moves to his own house in Vrededorp.

Leah earned her living through selling illicit brew. There was also Dladla who was bitter about Leah controlling him and betrays her to the police. Leah found out about it but before she could deal with Dladla, he was found dead in the bush stabbed in the back. Johannes, a strong well built miner, was a timid person who became bold and loud only when drunk.

Daddy was never sober and died after being hit by a car. Xuma falls in love with Eliza. He constantly rejects Maisy who loves him.

However, in the end he accepts her and promises to marry her as soon as he gets out of jail as Eliza left him.

Leah gets sent to jail after being caught red handed with the illicit brew by the crafty policeman nicknamed the Fox who had been trying to catch her for a long time. She had managed to escape the police dragnet by bribing some policemen who kept her informed.

Johannes and his white boss Chris died under the mine as they tried to prevent it from collapsing. Paddy, Xuma’s boss sides with the blacks and is arrested when a riot breaks out in the mine. Xuma flees but later surrenders himself at the police station.



It was three o’clock in the morning when a man arrives in a town on a narrow street. The whole town was in darkness. He wondered where he was. Suddenly, he saw a woman at a door standing in the darkness.

He moved closer and asked her if he could get a place to rest and have a drink.

The woman asked him if he had but the man said he had none. She further enquired to know his name. The man identified himself as Xuma, form the north. After speaking for sometime the woman left to bring light. She returned without him noticing.

From the door, a beam of powerful torch struck on Xuma with a voice calling him to come. He followed the beam of light and the woman into a room where he met three men and an old woman. The woman introduced Xuma to the people and asked Ma Plank to give him food. Xuma got to know Dladla, a man fond of playing with knife. Xuma saw a knife in Dladla’s hand. Xuma however carefully placed his bundle on the table and went round a long bench.

Dladla raised his knife and showed his teeth. Leah commanded Dladla to give her the knife but he refused with a plea in his voice. He later lowered his eyes and gave her the knife.

Daddy showed displeasure towards Leah. Xuma’s food was brought to him by Ma Plank.

Whilst Dladla and Ma Plank went out, the man who had remained silent expressed his suspicion and asked “How do we know if he’s not from the police?” Leah was however optimistic about Xuma’s identity.

She identified the man as her man’s brother. Leah’s man was in jail for killing a man who tried to kiss her.

There was no work at the north. This was what brought Xuma into the town, to work. He however expressed interest in working in the mines.

Leah took her time to tell him about the dangers involved in working in the mines and tried to convince him to work with her but Xuma refused.

Xuma was finally given a place to sleep but he found it hard to sleep because he was tired.


When Xuma woke up the next day, he met the house empty. However he found himself among a crowd forming a ring outside, and Daddy hopping and shouting at the top of his voice. Two women, Lena and Drunk Liz, were also on the ground engaged in a fight.

Xuma pushed his way through the roaring crowd wanting to get away. But he heard a voice shout “stop it”. He turned and it was Leah. When she arrived at the scene, Lena (the thin dark woman) was on top of

Drunk Liz who was fat and pale. Leah walked through the crowd and picked up the thin woman and flung her away from the fat one. The crowd grumbled yet no one was able to speak to her hearing. Leah challenged the crowd to fight but they broke up in silence and walked away.

Leah picked up the thin woman, who was woefully injured, into the yard. She was followed by Xuma and Daddy. Upon entering the house, Daddy brought a sack and spread it in the shade for Leah to place the woman on.

Leah prepared food and they ate. She saw Daddy in the yard and called him to come and tell Xuma about the custom the city. Daddy spoke drunkenly about the custom and the city. After he had finished, he picked a sack and spread it a little distance away, stretched himself and slept. Soon it began to rain. Xuma went into the yard and watched the three sleeping people.

In the house, Leah sang a guy song full of happiness and laughter. Xuma went back into the house and saw Joseph, the brother of Leah’s man. Leah asked Joseph to take Xuma to see the market. At the market, Joseph and Xuma saw many people on the street. One street was crowded as another. The people were in their colourful clothes with a lot of money to spend. The big men among them wore singlet and sometimes fought among themselves to determine who is the strongest.

Joseph and Xuma stopped on a corner and watched the crowd across. A little further up the road, they saw two coloured men fighting. Still further, there were two “swankies” on their way down the road. A crowd of cheering and laughing people followed them.

Suddenly, a pick-up van swerved round a corner. Policemen jumped out and run down the street. The crowd scattered except the coloured people who claimed they have done nothing. However, Joseph warned them that the police would not ask them.

A policeman who was ten yards away came straight ahead to Xuma. But Xuma waited because he had done nothing. The policeman came nearer, raised his stick but it missed Xuma’s head and struck his left shoulder. Xuma whispered and struck the policeman in the face repeatedly till the policeman collapsed.

Xuma looked around and saw the police van still a distance away but two policemen were closing in on him so he decided to ran.

The two coloured men stepped into the road. Xuma felt afraid, to run and knock two men at the same time was impossible. But an unbelievable thing happened, the second coloured man knocked the first one down and ran down the street waving to Xuma to follow him. Xuma followed him into a house. The coloured man locked the door and flopped down into a chair breathing heavily.

The man’s woman came into the room and Xuma noted with surprise that she was black. She expressed her disappointment at Xuma for striking the policeman.

Finally, when Xuma requested to leave, the man’s woman cautioned that it was not safe he left.


Xuma came out and found the street free of trouble but it was difficult for him to find his house. He saw the fat Drunk Liz and touched her shoulder to ask her for direction to Leah’s house. The woman looked at him with bleary eyes and shook her head barely refusing to help him.

Xuma met Daddy who thought he was in jail. Daddy was drunk but he agreed to take Xuma to the Leah’s house if only he (Xuma) would buy him a drink again. At the house, old Ma Plank sat over a huge vat in the yard and in the kitchen was Joseph who was busy. Joseph was happy to see Xuma. Leah entered the house; she grabbed Xuma and hugged him.

They stood on the corner and waited. Leah kept looking up the street that cut across the one where they stood. After ten minutes a black policeman on a cycle came down and stopped. Leah smiled and counted five pound notes from her leather bag and gave them to the policeman.

Leah led the way through the yard to the door at the far end of the yard. She introduced Xuma to a girl they met in the house. Xuma asked the girl’s name, who said she was called Eliza.

Eliza asked Xuma to help her lift a machine. Xuma jumped up and grabbed the sewing machine but he felt a sharp pain stab in his shoulder. Eliza found a bottle of ointment and rubbed it on where Xuma’s pain was.

She gave him a cigarette and looked at his face and laughed. Xuma turned and saw huge towering shapes almost in the sky. He pointed and asked what they were. Eliza replied and said “those are the mine-dumps”. Xuma shifted his eyes from the mine-dump to Eliza and longed for her.

All that night people drank at Leah’s place. Xuma and Eliza returned and saw more people crowded at Leah’s place.

Dladla attacked Xuma with a knife accusing him of stealing his woman and gave him a cut on his face. Eliza took Xuma into a room and washed his bloody face. They returned and found a doctor who fixed Xuma’s face.


The streets were empty after being crowded on Saturday. Xuma and Johannes walked up and down the empty street. They left Johannesburg behind them and in front of them were the towering peaks of the min-damp. They eventually found themselves at the mines.

For Xuma, the day was strange. Stranger than any day he had ever known. There was the rumbling noise and the shouting and explosions and the trembling of the earth. Xuma was frightened.

When the whistle blew for the workers to stop work for food, one of the men called Nana asked Xuma to eat with him. He divided his food and gave Xuma half. When they had finished Nana stretched himself full-length on the ground and slept.

The men who had gone underground that morning came up. Xuma watched them coming and shading their eyes against the light. Xuma asked Nana if it is dark underground. But Nana laughed at Xuma.

Xuma looked up quickly when he heard Johannes voice. Johannes had a confrontation with one of the white men. He called Xuma who flung his spade and followed him. Johannes took Xuma to the shed of the mine doctor.

Xuma stripped and lay on the long table. The doctor examined him while Chris and Paddy watched. Johannes led the way to the washing place for the mine boys. He pushed a few men out of the way and the men made place for them.

They went in and washed and set off for Malay Camp.


When they got to Leah’s place, a group of women were just leaving and Leah was at the gate watching them go. Leah welcomed them. Johannes went inside the house leaving Xuma and Leah outside to talk.

Leah told Xuma about life in the city. She said “to live in the city you must be hard. And money must be your friend. With money you can buy the policeman, you can even buy someone to go to jail for you”.

There was a long silence between them. Rosita who lived across the way had turned on her gramophone and came on her veranda. She called Leah from across.

Leah and Xuma got startled. They got up and went inside the house.

Xuma was offered food, finished eating and left the room. He felt dissatisfied and unhappy. He went on the veranda and watched the street. Maisy came out and joined him. On the corner of the street, under the light of the lamp, a group of men and women formed a ring. And in the centre of the ring a couple danced and made signs to each other as they mimed.

Xuma and Maisy joined the ring. When they got home, Xuma sat on his bed and held his hands. He thought about Eliza for a while. He blew out the candle and sat in the dark. As soon as he lit his cigarette, there was a knock at the door. He responded and it was Eliza’s voice.


Xuma had left Leah’s place and lived in a room in Malay Camp for three months now. Eliza is now like a devil in Xuma’s blood and he did not want to go to Leah’s place again to see Leah for the fear that he should meet Eliza. As he sat alone he longed to see all the people he left at Leah’s place but for the fear of Eliza he would not go.

It was Saturday night and in spite of the cold the streets were crowded. But it was not as it had been that first Saturday when he had gone walking with Joseph. He went up the street and walked in the direction of the heart of Johannesburg. He neared the heart of Johannesburg and the people grew fewer. There were more white people now and they were different. They were not his people so he did not give attention to what they did or said.

Xuma saw some cakes in a window and stopped to look at them. He felt a tap on his shoulder and when he turned it was a policeman. Without a word Xuma gave his pass to the policeman for inspection. As the policeman goes, Xuma carried on up the street. The crowd on the street was thick that it was difficult for Xuma to move among them. The only place that Xuma could be free was underground in the mines. There he was a master and knew the way.

Xuma met his white man, Paddy, who was with a woman. Paddy led Xuma a little way down the street and showed him where he lived. Xuma looked around Paddy’s house. He had never seen a place like that before. Paddy and Xuma sat down while the woman came in with three glasses. They raised their glasses and cheered Xuma. However, Xuma kept on thinking about Paddy’s woman.

The atmosphere at Paddy’s house made Xuma thought he knows what Eliza wants. Paddy came in with food and when they had finished eating they drank more wine. Xuma and Paddy talked about the mines. Paddy took the things away. And Xuma forgot that they were white and even spoke to the woman.

On his return, Paddy asked his woman what she thinks about Xuma. The woman replied “he is just a mine boy”. The man and his woman argued extensively about Xuma as the woman spoke favourably about Xuma. Paddy looked at her. His face clouded. And Di got up and went into the kitchen but the argument continued.

Xuma was glad to be away from the two white people. It had been uncomfortable there. Only when he had been with the woman had he felt all right. He crossed the street and went his way back to Malay Camp.

Gradually he left the heart of the city behind him.

He turned down Jeppe Street where he came across people standing at the lower down the street. A man being chased by the police has climbed a rooftop. The roof sloped steeply. One wrong move and the man would be plunged down, either to death or a broken body. Fear rose from the crowd. The man had lost his hold and was slowly sliding down. For a minute the man was in space. Then with a dull thud, he fell to the ground. But the doctor was there to administer help.

The doctor tried to lift the man up but could not. Xuma however stepped forward but the policeman tightened his grip on his club and waved it from side to side. Xuma lifted the man. The first policeman prodded Xuma with his club. Xuma got up. His body trembled and bunched his fist into hard ball.

Xuma picked up the wounded man to the doctor’s car. The doctor pleaded with Xuma to go with him to help him.

At the other end of Malay Camp the doctor pulled up. Between them they carried the man into a house. A coloured woman met them at the door. They carried the man into the surgery where the doctor worked on the man. Xuma sat on a little chair and watched.

The wounded man was revived. The man expressed fear that the police would arrest him.

The doctor and Xuma left him behind as they went for some tea. The two men entered a room where Xuma felt as he had felt in the place of the Red One.

Emily reported that the wounded man had escaped through the window. The doctor got up and went to the surgery while the others followed. The doctor spoke harshly to Xuma. This made Xuma felt hurt. He was angry but more the anger he felt hurt. He turned abruptly and walked to the door.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Point-of-Service Health Plans

Point-of-Service (POS) plans are one of the many health insurance options available to you and your family. A unique type of health plan, POS plans can be considered a hybrid of HMO and PPO plans. POS plans contain some characteristics of each of these, which some people may find advantageous. Below is a rundown of the advantages and disadvantages of a POS plan compared to other plans.

Advantages of a POS Plan

  • No deductible. One of the most obvious advantages of a POS plan is its lack of deductibles for physicians in your network. This means that you do not have to make any payments towards your medical expenses on your own before your insurance begins to reimburse you. PPOs, on the other hand, have deductibles.
  • Low co-payments. POS plans have lower co-pays than PPOs. When you have a medical expense, you will only have to pay for a small portion of it as a co-pay, and your POS plan will cover the remainder of the cost.
  • More choices and freedom to choose. Unlike HMOs, POS plans provide partial coverage even for doctors that are not within your network. This means that if you are not satisfied with the choices available in your network for a certain medical treatment, you can see a doctor out of network and still have some coverage.

Disadvantages of a POS Plan

  • Under a POS plan, you must choose a primary care provider (PCP). This physician serves as your primary doctor for all medical needs. He or she can refer you to specialists in your network if you have a specific health concern. In order for a doctor’s visit to be covered as an in-network visit, you must go through your PCP to see a specialist.
  • If you visit an out-of-network physician, your only have limited coverage. You must pay a deductible and higher co-payments than you would with in-network physicians.

Choosing the Right Health Insurance Plan

If you are happy with the doctors that are in your network and do not mind having one primary care provider that you must go through to receive coverage, then a POS plan may be ideal for you. Often a PCP or the specialists he or she refers you to can cover all common medical needs. However, if you have unique medical conditions that will require you to frequently visit doctors outside of the POS network, you may be better off finding a plan that covers you with those doctors instead.

The greater choice and freedom of doctors, lower co-payments, and zero deductible for in-network physicians make the POS an attractive option that you may want to consider. For more information on POS health insurance plans and other options that are available to you, please visit the website of Texas health insurance company Option 1 Health here.