Vocal Nodules: What Are They Really?

Vocal nodules are the dismal end result of magnificently thoughtless self-affliction. If some singers treated their pets with as much casual neglect as they do their vocal cords they’d be behind bars.

Even a healthy voice will rebel if you strain it by over-singing. Tired vocal cords become irritated and swollen. As you continue the abuse they lose their elasticity and may refuse to press together to produce a clean sound.

If you find yourself hoarse at the end of a long show, (or worse) you feel you constantly need to clear your throat, or (this is the worst!) you are on the waiting list for an opening in surgery to remove vocal nodules, it’s possible you are a Victim of Vocal Abuse.

Straining your voice can lead to a condition called vocal nodules, or “throat nodes” — a serious problem, and one that plagues many fine singers like Keith Urban and Adele for example. Throat nodes form like calluses. They’re a protective layer of compacted, dead skin cells, caused by repeated friction and pressure — something like the calluses you would get on your hands if you worked too long with a shovel in the garden.

When you use a shovel, after a while your hands build up a layer of calluses to protect themselves from the friction. As long as you keep shoveling, the calluses will keep building and they don’t begin to fade until you stop. Vocal cords develop calluses in much the same way.

When strain or friction irritate your throat, the first thing your body does is send down a bit of mucous to lubricate it. That’s why people feel they have to clear their throats when they yell. It’s like the body says, “Okay, I hurt, so let’s try a protective salve here.” After a while, if you keep straining your voice and clearing your throat, the body seems to say, “Okay, I guess that’s not working. Let’s build a callus to protect this area.”

The problem now is this; the callus gets in the way and prevents your vocal cords from fitting together cleanly. Your voice begins to sound hoarse and unpredictable. You’re probably headed for throat nodes.

Clearing your throat can actually contribute to vocal nodules because it puts a double burden on your vocal cords. First, it wipes away your throat’s initial defense mechanism, the lubricating fluid your body responds with. And then, the pressure you apply to your cords to clear them, irritates and causes them to swell. If you feel you must clear, please be gentle.

As with calluses, throat nodes will shrink and go away, but complete vocal rest over an extended period of time is required. Some people choose instead to have them surgically removed. However, if you don’t correct the source of the problem — the abuse that put them there in the first place — they’ll simply re-form. Then you have to deal with the issue of scar tissue from the surgery as well.

5 Keys To Lifting Your SUV

Lifted trucks offer great styling and performance benefits. Raising your truck or SUV adds a beefy look surely will grab the attention of other drivers. The correct lift kit also gives you the capacity to travel off-road.

There are positive aspects that a lift can offer your vehicle, however, there are at least as many negatives to consider before purchasing.

First and foremost is safety; Lift kits elevate the center of gravity of your truck, making it more prone to rollovers. Lifts also raise the height of the bumper (and any reinforcement material behind the bumper) which could cause serious injury in an accident. Bumpers were made to collide with other bumpers, not other passengers. Also, sitting up high can improve visibility for a driver who is looking directly ahead, but what about those annoying cars riding in your blind spot? Now all of these negatives aren’t reasons not to put a lift on your SUV, just items to consider before purchasing, ensuring you do a quality job that will endure the life of your car.

Have you considered what your stock wheels will look like on your new and improved “monster” truck? Many truck owners also purchase new tires and rims to match the look of their lifted truck. This is a great idea and continues to add to the individuality of your vehicle. However, don’t forget that this will likely add more expense to your project. Another drawback is that when you significantly change wheel size, it is necessary to recalibrate your speedometer. This can easily be taken care of by the mechanic who mounts your lift system.

Another thing to consider is ride quality. Is my new lift going to alter the feel of my car? Will a drive down the highway become less smooth? What about fuel economy? Although lift kits undoubtedly make an off-road trip much more enjoyable and smoother, the case may not be the same on the highway. Ask to test drive a raised vehicle at your local dealer to grasp the feel of sitting higher than usual.

Once you have addressed the issues with lifting your truck or SUV, it is time to decide what kind of lift you need. There are two different options: a body lift or a suspension lift. A suspension lift kit raises the entire frame, engine, and power train, using springs, to your desired height. This option is ideal for the true off-road enthusiast. It is a bit more pricey than the other option, but provides you the best clearance for off-road capabilities. A body lift is just that, lifting the body. It does not lift the frame. This method is often a lot cheaper and looks great, but does not give your truck more clearance when off-roading. If you want to make your truck look unique and stylish, and only need to drive on established roads, a body lift is probably your best option.

The next step in your search for a truck lift kit is making the purchase. Most importantly you should look around to find the best deals and quality equipment. Get quotes from your local body shop. Ask them what kits they would recommend and how much it will cost to install each type of kit. Don’t forget to get a timeline of how long the project will take. The internet is also a great source. Search for different lifts online and compare prices to your body shop. A good way to save money is to purchase the kit of your choice online and then bring it to your local mechanic and have them install it for you. Another good place to look is in truck magazines. They not only have excellent advertisements selling the latest and greatest lift kits, but the magazine could also provide some insight into which companies have good warranties, and which kits have stood the test of time and durability.

Before jumping on the lift kit bandwagon, don’t forget the issues concerning your vehicle and a lift kit. By doing the research and finding the best lift kit for your truck you are ensuring thousands of miles of off-road bliss ahead!

Why Install a Glass Elevator?

On a visual level, a glass elevator is an attractive addition to any home. The clear hoistway and car have an elegant and classic appearance that blend into a variety of décor styles. Once you’re inside, the system offers a panoramic view of your home or business. Yet, beyond these aesthetic assets, glass elevators have other benefits.


Elevators for small buildings, be it homes or businesses, operate in one of four ways: hydraulic, cable, machine traction, or pneumatic. While hydraulic systems are common, they have multiple downsides: a machine room must additionally be installed into your structure, and hydraulic oil, necessary for powering the elevator, can turn into an environmental hazard if not properly contained.

Many glass elevators, on the other hand, operate via a pneumatic system. Also called vacuum elevators, these systems move through varying air pressure. A vacuum seal is build into the cab’s ceiling, while turbines at the top of the tube draw out air. This combination moves the cab upward inside the hoistway, and steel brakes secure it to a landing once it reaches a floor. To descend, the turbines are turned off.

Vacuum, or pneumatic, systems are not the only option for glass elevators. A cable system, consisting of a motor and drum unit at the top of the hoistway is another option.


While glass elevators do not need machine rooms, they offer another asset in installation: a self-contained design. An integrated, fully clear hoistway easily integrates into homes, and an additional passageway and a pit do not need to be created out of the existing property. Because of this, glass elevators can be installed quickly into homes and commercial buildings of all types. In fact, if you’re looking to modify a structure with an elevator on a budget, installing such a self-contained model takes less time and ends up costing less. In fact, pneumatic systems can be installed in just a day; hydraulic systems, on the other hand, may take up to four days to install.

Improving Mobility

With a compact, quicker-to-install design, glass elevators are an efficient and attractive option for improving mobility and increasing independence inside a structure. But keep in mind that, while the system assists with moving between multiple floors and eliminating the obstruction caused by stairs, not all such elevators are wheelchair accessible. Certain models are large enough to fit two people inside, while others are equipped to handle a wheelchair.

Number Plates for Bentleys

As a rule, most of the valuable and prestigious number plates seen on the road today will appear on expensive and prestigious cars. This is true of most Bentley and Rolls Royce cars. Most of the exclusive Bentley type registrations are in fact on Bentley cars rather than on cars who are owned by Mr Bentley, and as such, can be quite expensive.

Over the last few years, with the introduction of the Bentley Continental GT, more car registration numbers for Bentleys than any other prestigious car maker have been sold.This is quite an incredible fact when you consider that these cars cost, on average, five times as much as your average car. Interestingly, Rolls Royce owners are less likely to buy private number plates, which is unusual, although again some of the most valuable plates do in fact appear on Rolls Royce cars.

When you see a Bentley motor car, as a rule most of them will have cherished number plates. Cherished number plates for Bentleys are popular because provided that a Bentley is looked after, it should last a lifetime. So a private registration is a great way to disguise a 4 or 5 year old Bentley so that it looks like a new model. In fact over 70% of all Bentley cars ever built are still on the road. This is because the attention to detail is so intense. It takes 150 hours to hand-build a Continental GT and even longer for a 4 door Bentley Arnarge. So its easy to see why people buy number plates for these cars.

There are a few quite specific number plates for Bentleys recently advertised for sale. They are BEN 71Y and BE11 TLY. Both these plates look like the word Bentley and would look fantastic on the back of a “GT” or a “Flying Spur” model. Another great registration number is ARN 46E which would suit a Bentley Arnarge model. The only drawback with these plates are the prices and age restrictions, as they are not dateless, or cherished, as they are sometimes referred to. This means t hat they cannot be used on vehicles older than the plate depicts. So no good for the vintage models.

The registration number 1 WO is probably one of the most famous Personalised Number Plates. It is used on all the promotional advertising for the car maker and is used in memory of Mr W.O.Bentley, the founder and creator of the luxury car brand, however it is not known whether the plate is really owned by the car maker or just used with the permission of the real owner.

Choosing a Backpacking Stove

A stove can be a useful item to have on your backpacking trip, but many people simply can not figure out what type of stove to choose. You want to choose a stove that meets your needs. You also need a stove that is easy to use. The bottom line is you want a stove that is easy and safe to use.

The following list explains the different things you should consider and should help you to figure out what stove you should choose for your next backpacking trip.

– You do not want too big of a stove or too small of a stove.

– It needs to be sturdy. A sturdy stove is a safe stove. You may not always have a flat smooth area to set your stove so you also need to make sure it has strong legs and will be stable enough to stir a post without the pot or stove tipping over.

– It should be easy to fold up and set up.

– It should be easy to hook up the fuel and unhook the fuel.

– Adjusting the heat should be simple.

– It should fold up to be very compact so it does not take up too much space in your backpack.

– Look for a built in wind screen. This helps in windy conditions to keep the stove lit and allow you to continue to cook.

The whole idea of ​​a stove is to help save time when cooking. If the stove is difficult to operate, cumbersome or simply just does not meet your needs, then it is not the right stove for you. What is good for you may not necessarily be what is good for someone else. So, you can listen to recommendations, but you also have to focus on what you need. Look at a variety of stoves and choose the one that will work for you.

Crockpot Cooking – Advantages and Disadvantages

In my ‘un-biased’ opinion, the crockpot / slow cooker

is one of the most convenient and easy to use appliances

in my kitchen. The time savings features of the

slow cooker and the delicious dinners that have

resulted more than offset any minor drawbacks.

Before I list my top reasons why the crockpot is the

most useful appliance in any kitchen, I will list

a few of the areas where it does not perform as well.

– Large cuts of meat such as boneless prime rib or

leg of lamb are still best when oven roasted.

– Except for stews and chowders, the slow cooker

does not cook fish very well.

– The slow cooker collects a lot of the juices

since the steam does not escape during cooking and these

juices can become diluted and watery, which can affect

the flavoring of the food.

– If not careful, a slow cooker can overcook food -especially

some of the more tender meats and poultry.

These drawbacks are relatively minor compared to the

positives which I will list now.

– The slow cooker needs virtually no tending while

it cooks, freeing you up to do other chores or recipes.

– The slow cooker will tenderize less expensive, tough

cuts of meat and make great stews out of them.

– The slow cooker allows you to be out of the kitchen

for extended periods of time -sometimes even all day.

– Burning your food is rarely a problem. The slow cooker

will make many dishes for you better than any other

appliance -especially those that tend to stick to

the bottom of a pan.

In my opinion the slow cooker is one of the most

under-utilized and yet superior of kitchen appliances.

When used for what it does best, you will find that you

are able to prepare great dishes in less time than you

though possible!

Post and Panel Sign Installation Methods and Techniques – How to Install a Freestanding Sign

You have purchased a new Post and Panel Sign and now need instructions on how to properly install it into the ground. Whether it be metal. plastic, or wood, the type of Freestanding Sign does not really change the installation technique. This article will explain the Direct Burial Installation Method for signs up to 4′ H x 8′ L in size.

Before you start, you need to assemble the proper tools and materials. Here is a list:

1. Post Hole Digger

2. Metal Digging Bar or Spud Bar

3. Two Ground Stakes

4. Measuring Tape

5. 24″ or Longer Level

6. Sakrete or similar product. Usually 40 lbs Per Hole.

7. Five Gallon Bucket or Wheelbarrow

8. Shovel

9. Water

The first step is to assemble your sign and measure the distance from the center of the left post to the center of the right post. This will give you the centerpoints for the two holes that you will dig later.

Second, select the proper location for you sign and mark the centerpoint for each hole with a ground stake. If your sign is to be parallel to a sidewalk or street, you will also want to measure from the street or sidewalk to the center of your holes to insure proper orientation. If your sign is to be perpendicular to the sidewalk or street, mark the center of your holes with ground stakes and then use your line of sight to see if your holes are oriented properly. Adjust as necessary. Note that most cities and towns have sign ordinances that specify the setback distance for signs from the right-of-way, so be sure to check on this beforehand.

Third, use your digging bar and post hole digger to dig your holes to a depth of 24″ to 36″. Smaller signs up to 2′ x 3′ in size will usually only require a 24″ depth hole since they don’t take much of a wind load. Larger signs up to 4′ H x 8″ L should have deeper holes of 30″ to 36″ in depth depending on soil conditions. Softer ground requires a deeper hole to keep your sign from moving in the future. If you are on an incline, the hole further up the hill will need to be dug deeper to keep the sign level.

Fourth, insert your sign into your holes and place your level across the top or bottom of your sign panel. If your sign is not level, lift one post and add a little dirt below it and check with your level again. Add more dirt if necessary. If you are having to add too much dirt, you may want to dig the opposite hole a little deeper to correct the problem.

Fifth, mix your concrete with water in your bucket or wheelbarrow to the proper consistancy. You may want to mix just 20 lbs at a time to make your job a little easier. If you are not close to a water supply, you might consider a collapsible water jug, like those used for camping, and fill it beforehand to take with you to the job site. Once your concrete is ready, have someone place the level vertically on the front or back of one post and tilt the post forward or backwards until the level indicates that it is perpendicular with the ground. Now add your concrete to the hole making sure that the post does not move and stays perpendicular. Repeat this process with the other hole.

Last, fill the rest of each hole with dirt and pack it down with the round end of your metal digging bar. Then load up the excess dirt in your bucket or wheelbarrow, clean up your sign, and admire your finished sign project!

Short, But Sweet: 10-Minute or Less Workouts for Busy People

Even the busiest bee needs to get a workout now and then. But how can you squeeze a fitness routine in your schedule when all you have available is just several minutes? Don’t fret, there are 10-minute or less workouts for even the busiest people.

Go for high intensity

High-Intensity interval training, or sometimes called high-intensity intermittent exercise, is an exercise technique which alternates intense aerobic activity with short recovery periods.

It can last from 5 to 30 minutes, but most people usually target the 10-minute mark. For beginners, a sample of an HIIT workout would be a minute of stretching and warm up session consisting of circular arm swings, jogging in place and lunges. Repeat for another minute. This means you have eight minutes left to complete the workout. Still lots of time.

Follow up the warm up session with some kickboxing. Jab with your right, do a cross with your left. Remember to put your whole body into the punches. Then, do deep, slow squats. Follow it up with intense jumping jacks. If you still have time remaining, you can repeat the three exercises. Use the remaining minutes to cool down by doing lunges and stretches.

If you want high intensity cardio, start with a two-minute warm up. Then, run as fast as you possibly can for a minute, then walk for two minute. Repeat for another set, then do a two-minute cool down session.

Benefits of HIIT include an increased metabolism, weight loss and improved cardiovascular health. Here’s a curious tidbit for you: research shows that high intensity interval training can suppress the desire to eat.

Before you undergo HIIT, however, be sure to gear up properly. An intense exercise will need durable footwear for support and stability. If you’re not familiar with such footwear, Reebok is a good brand to start with. Reebok shoes are known for their durability and superior cushioning.

Despite the foot protection, the shoes remain flexible which allows you to move freely. You can check your favorite online shop for Rebook footwear, as well as any Reebok deals if you’re working on a budget.

10-minute no equipment exercise

No equipment? No problem. Well, maybe you’ll need a chair. If that qualifies as an equipment. You can do this work out in the comforts of your own home. Of course, do the customary warm up and stretching exercises. Then proceed to do 50 jumping jacks. This will serve as your cardio. Then do 15 push-ups (remember to keep the right form), 15 squats, 15 triceps dips (you can do this on a chair or stable elevated surface). That seemed easy right? Unfortunately, you’re not done yet. You have to do it a second time, of a third if it fits the 10-minute mark.

Seven shots of fitness

If you are really pressed for time, all you need is seven minutes to help you work out. This short workout seems simple (you only need a wall and a chair), but is definitely a killer. So don’t take it lightly. You should do each exercise for 30 seconds, then follow a 10-second rest before proceeding to the next exercise. Do not go beyond the 10-second rest period. Remember to follow the order of the 12 exercises.

1. Jumping jacks – do a traditional jumping jack

2. Wall sit – Sit as if you’re on a chair and press your back to the wall. Engage your core.

3. Push-ups – perform a traditional jumping jack

4. Abdominal crunch – do a regular crunch. Remember to cross your arms in front of your chest and not behind your head.

5. Step-up on chair – Stand a foot away in front of a chair. Step up with one leg, then another until you’re standing on the chair. Step back with one leg, then follow it with your other leg.

6. Squat – perform a traditional.

7. Triceps dip on chair – Turn your back on a chair. Support yourself using your arms. Your legs should be at an angle. Now lower yourself using your arms. That’s one dip.

8. Plank – do a traditional plank.

9. High knees – Stand and lift your knee as high as you can, do it with the other leg.

10. Lunges – perform a traditional lunge.

11. Push-up and rotation – do a pushup. After a pushup, remain in the starting position, support yourself using your left arm as you raise half of your body and arm. You should be facing the right side. Lower your right side, do a pushup and do the same with your left.

12. Side planks – perform a traditional side plank.

There you are, three workouts that will barely take up your time. But will definitely keep you fit.

The Advantage of an Action Plan

If you have a vision of what you would like to achieve, it is then important you create an action plan on how and when you are going to do execute it. To begin with, write down your particular goals then follow with a time line, and see your vision become reality.

Remember it important to break down each and every task into a manageable undertaking; therefore you will not be overwhelmed by the work you have assigned yourself.

Do not forget to have a break and reward yourself after each self-imposed deadline have successfully completed. By doing so it helps in following through and staying committed to your action plan.

You will go through an unbelievable sense of relief and achievement when you complete your action plan. It is sort of like constructing a dream home, from the beginning blueprint right up to the day you move in. A detailed plan turns into a fantastic reality. There is no more questioning, “How can I possibly accomplish this?”

Unlike a To Do list that concentrates on accomplishing a single goal, an action plan instead is an uncomplicated small list of task that you need to accomplish an objective.

Wherever you would like to achieve, it important draw up an action plan. This will guide you in thinking about what you need to do to accomplish your goals, and then that you are able to get help where you need it and monitor your forward motion.

To draw up a successful action plan, merely list the jobs that you need to carry out to accomplish your goal, in the order that you need to accomplish them. This is really simple, but is nevertheless really valuable!

There are a number of advantages to having a good action plan to accomplish your goals:

* It can help you to comprehend what tasks you need to do to accomplish your goal

* It can provide you a way to have a clear time-line on each of your jobs so that you are able to track goal progress

* It can give you lucidity for the resources that you need to accomplish your goal

Maybe one of the greatest benefits is that you are able to on a regular basis evaluate your progress and cross off the things that you are doing to achieve yours goals.

Remember if you need to accomplish a goal, a plan of action will help you distinguish what needs to be done, the resources you need, and track your progress towards your goal.

Why Does Wood Crack When it Dries?

Differential Shrinkage – To get right to the point, wood cracks due to differential shrinkage! Differential shrinkage occurs because the outer fibers in the shell dry first and begin to shrink. However, the core has not yet begun to dry and shrink, and consequently the shell is restrained from shrinking by the core. Thus the shell goes into tension and the core into compression. With the stresses from the shell and core pulling in opposite directions the wood fibers break and a crack forms. The larger the wood member, the more stress is exerted to the wood member. Examples Lets take an example of a 1×8 board versus an 8×8 timber

  • The 1×8 board is only one-inch thick so it dries fairly quickly. The stress are minimal and just a few, small surface checks may result.
  • The much larger 8×8 (8-inches x 8-inches) timber takes a long time to dry which could be as much as six-months. The inside of the timber will stay wet for months while the outside is dried to well below 20-percent moisture content. The stress that is set up within the 8×8 will eventually result in a ½ inch crack or larger on one face to the timber. This crack will go all the way to the center of the timber and usually be on one face only.

I have seen people cutting a round, “lilly pad” from the end of a log so that they can use it as a cutting board in the kitchen. It looks nice in the green, unseasoned state but after a few weeks it develops a large, pie crack in the piece. It is eventually discarded as unsightly. After throwing it away they wonder what happened to the wood that allowed this to happen.

This is just another reason why wood materials should be properly dried before using them in any mode other than for exterior use such as fence posts, landscape timbers or a rough fence. If they are being used where their final moisture content will be 15% or lower, they should be dried prior to milling and installed into their final end use. In this way the seasoning, stress cracks can be aligned in such a way that they are hidden or discarded. Preventing Cracks – Proper drying techniques and PEG What can be done to prevent this seasoning degradation in wood? With large quantities of lumber, boards to timbers one can only resort to proper drying following the many details that make up the complete process. This can be done with either a kiln or by air drying but many details have to be followed to have the results desired. It is not the purpose of this short subject to outline what must be done to properly dry wood. This will be covered in another article.

For small, fairly expensive items such as carvings, another method can be used to prevent degradation due to seasoning checks and cracks. This is done using a chemical called polyethylene glycol-1000 or PEG for short. This material looks like a block of paraffin in the solid state but will dissolve in water. The correct method for using this material is to soak the newly carved piece of wood in water for a month or more depending on its size. After it is completely saturated with water it is placed in a solution of PEG and water. It is kept in this solution for several months for best results. The solution should be warm and can be kept this way with a fish bowl heater. After the carving is thoroughly saturated with PEG, it must be dried slowly in a cool environment and out of the sunlight. The result is a wood carving that will not shrink when it dries and thus will not crack.

The physical explanation for the above process is this: PEG can only be transmitted through the wood if the wood is thoroughly saturated with water. When the PEG enters the cells, it fills the cell walls and the cell lumen located in the center of the cell. When the wood is dried, it cannot shrink because the cell walls are now filled with a solid (PEG) and cannot shrink. If the wood cannot shrink, it cannot crack or split! As a final note, I used this method on a piece of sycamore that was buried in a clay pit for nearly 6,000 years. I had it made into a gun stock and after 30 years of use the gun stock looks like new without the slightest hair line crack in any surface of it.

The Effects of Globalization on Both Accounting Profession and Education

Innovations in technology has catapulted the financial district into a global market. Globalization has had a large influence on the way businesses conduct business. Firms are not only responsible for being privy to information involving consumers in their own backyard but also understanding consumer culture as well as economic, political, and legal structures that exist in other countries. Due to the influence globalization has had on businesses, it has changed the expectations that are required of incoming business students and their education. More specifically, accounting students are being impacted by the changes globalization has influenced the market with. These students are challenged more particularly throughout their undergraduate years to understand not only the rules and regulations of GAAP (General Accepted Accounting Principles) but also the standards set forth by the IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards). Within the accounting sphere, the primary focus has been on external reporting which involve the preparation of financial statements and auditing. However, due to the ever changing world of the global market, future accountants are required to possess perspectives that influence both external and internal reporting. The market will continue to change due to the fast paced journey of information making globalization an important factor in accounting education.

Businesses in the United States have largely adopted GAAP which is a guide to how business are to construct financial information to produce statements. GAAP has been useful in the last couple of years because it facilitates the way businesses in the U.S. communicate with each other. However, in the global environment, GAAP proves to be burdensome for most companies. Overseas, they have adopted IFRS which is another guide to producing financial information which aids foreign companies with communicate amongst each other. Most countries use IFRS as a basis for the way business transactions are conducted. Since most of the world is using IFRS as the standard it leaves the U.S. with the tedious task of having to incorporate two different principles to conduct business. In the article, “How Globalization is Affecting U.S. Accountants” by Bruce Pounder, Pounder states that “U.S. accountants will find themselves at a severe disadvantage to the many foreign accounting professionals who have already mastered international accounting standards and who are therefore much better-positioned to take advantage of rapidly growing career opportunities in China, India, and other emerging economies” (Pounder, 2007, p. 3). He then goes on to predict that as GAAP becomes more overshadowed by IFRS, U.S. accountants will find their skills and knowledge becoming obsolete. Therefore, IFRS has become more integrated into the accounting curriculum for education. Students are required to understand not only GAAP but IFRS and the changes that occur when working with both. By involving IFRS into the learning process, students will be prepared to later take the CPA Exam which has recently been updated to include information about IFRS in the Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR) section. Students are becoming better equipped with skills and information that will make them more marketable and efficient in the globalized business environment.

In the U.S. economy, a thriving financial sector is usually supported by a strong public accounting and auditing firms. Therefore, the focus over recent years has been to ensure that accountants excel at compiling information involving a company’s assets, liabilities, equity, investments, etc. However, due to globalization, external accounting practices aren’t as valued if internal practices are not also implicated. Internal practices are important because it shapes the way businesses reach their customers in the foreign market. Authors Paul Danos and Richard L. Measelle stated in their article, “Globalization of the Business Environment: Implications for Accounting Profession and Business Education”, that “In a competitive global market place, the internal accountant must be sensitive to what drives the costs of products and he/she must work with production and marketing people to rationalize all cost accounting procedures” (Danos, 1990, p. 79). The responsibilities of the internal accountant is becoming more critical to the success of businesses. For a business wanting to expand into foreign territory, cost accounting is used to accurately develop product price information, location of manufacturing facilities, picking suppliers, etc. Due to these factors, internal accountants have to be familiar with regulations across borders, tax treatments, and currency conversion costs. When it comes to public accounting, auditors must be heavily versed in global accounting standards because “the world’s economies are becoming increasingly interdependent… ” (Needles, 2010, p. 602) according to Belverd E. Needles Jr. author of the article “Accounting Education: The Impact of Globalization”. The author goes on to encourage global standards for auditors because it strengthens their practices by only having to be familiar with those regulations. In order to be well versed in the global market, accounting students are advised to take courses specifically designed to analyze different cultures, languages, and political factors that influence societies.

Globalization has influenced many changes that have taken place in both the accounting profession and education. Students are now exposed to problems that occur in the global market and how to go about solving them. Not only are these students expected to understand all the mathematics and jargon involved with the business world, but they are also expected to have a good sense of foreign consumer culture as well as the regulations bound to each country. Implemented with these skills, students will be able to excel in the new business world.


Danos, P., & Measelle, R. L. (1990). Globalization of the Business Environment: Implications for the Accounting Profession and Business Education. Human Resource Management, 29(1), 77-84

Needles, B. E. (2010). Accounting Education: The Impact of Globalization. Accounting Education, 19(6), 601-605. doi: 10.1080/09639284.2010.501578

Pounder, B. (2007). How Globalization is Affecting U.S. Accountants. Montvale: Institute of Management Accountants.

Configure SNMP Polling Ability on Cisco Routers and Switches, To Enable MRTG Config Files

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a key feature to enable on any cisco network device so you can gather stats and other valuable data from the device. SNMP data can be sent from a failing device indicating trouble, interfaces down, environmental data and simple configuration changes. Contacting a device and pulling data can also provide key data to show health, traffic, errors and state changes of interfaces. No matter the size of the network involved, number of devices or size of the support team – SNMP should be enabled for even simple monitoring.

SNMP needs to have a community string set for read-only access and read-write access. For monitoring and health information, only enable read-only access. A unique community string and access should be configured for your Cisco device. The community string is the password polling devices will use to pull information, and the access list will restrict who can access data. A simple example is:

Cisco router/switch running IOS:

access-list 10 permit

SNMP-server community SECRET ro 10

Cisco switch running CatOS:

set SNMP community read-only SECRET

set ip permit enable SNMP

This will enable the router or switch to allow polling requests from any host on access-list 10, using the community string SECRET. Now that access is granted, a variety of information can be pulled, a common place to start is gathering interface traffic. From a monitoring station or software, you can then pull SNMP data from the device by walking the device and revealing information and SNMP OIDs to indicate health, traffic and start to monitor key systems.

An example is walking a device for interface data or using some mrtg unix utilities such as cfgmaker that comes with MRTG to then build a configuration file that gets interface traffic data from the device. If the community string is miss-configured when using cfgmaker or if the router or switch acl doesn’t permit your host to connect, a working config file will not be made. Once a successful file is made, you can then use MRTG to poll the router or switch every few minutes, get that SNMP data, then generate logs and graphs showing traffic usage on a per port basis.

Specifc SNMP oid information and other examples are available at: http://www.mrtgexamples.com.

A Complete Breakdown of the Freestyle Swimming Stroke

As most people know, freestyle is the fastest stroke, most efficient stroke, as the body maintains a streamlined position with the arms and legs are able to apply constant propulsive forces. The arms perform an alternating action while the legs perform a continuous flutter movement.

Body Position

The body position needs to be streamlined and kept ‘long’ with the arms extending above the head to lengthen the body even further. The back and the legs are remain straight except during the flutter kick.

Head Position

The water line should meet at the top of the head and the head should be kept down at all times. The eyes should look down to the bottom of the pool and not ahead. Doing so will keep the body streamlined and reduce the frontal resistance. If the head is looking forward, the legs, hips and torso will sink, increasing frontal resistance.

Body Roll

Body roll in begins with the arm action. The whole body rotates along its long axis when the hand enters the water in front of the head. This rolling action increases the power of the stroke by introducing the core (stomach) muscles into the stroke. The hips and the shoulders should remain in line as the body rotates. Freestyle should be thought of as swimming by alternating from side to side, not swimming on your front.

Hand Entry

The hand should enter the water forward of the head and between the midline of the body and a parallel line from the shoulders. The first part of the arm to enter should be the fingertips, and the elbow should be kept higher than the forearm and hand. The forearm should be at around 30 degrees with the water. The arm should be about 2/3 extended when hand enters the water. The rest of the extension occurs underwater after the entry.

Some common errors on entry

1. Hand at rotated to 90 degrees on entry – reduces ability to pull and increases injury risk

2. Extending fully before entering – creates bubbles on hand during pull through

3. Entering too early – drag is increased and momentum is lost

Pull Through

The ‘catch’ phase begins with the front hand while the opposite hand releases the water. The wrist should be flexed outward, downward and backward in order to expose the palm and forearm to the water. As the elbow starts to flex, the hand should sweep downward and slightly outward. Two keys to a successful pull are to get a strong catch with the water and maintain a high elbow position when the hand pulls past the head and shoulders.

The hand should continue to sweep down towards the midline of the body and then upward and in close to the lower chest. The hand should accelerate throughout the entire pull phase in order to gain maximum speed.

The last propulsive phase is sweeping the hand backward, upward and outward.


Kick begins from the hip and the upper leg muscles. The legs remain primarily in line with the body with the ankles flexed but relaxed so that the big toe on each foot should turn towards each other. Flexibility and loose feet and ankles is the best way for an easy and efficient kicking technique.

There are two speeds of kicking known as six-beat and two-beat kick. Six-beat kick is when the swimmer performs three downward beats per arm stroke. Two-beat kick is when the swimmer performs one downward beat per arm stroke. Both kicks are advantageous in their own right. Six-beat kick provides more speed while two-beat kick is more energy saving and better for longer distance.


Breathing should be a part of the body roll. The face should turn with the body and breathe when the opposite hand enters the water. Breath in when this hand pushes back and your opposite arm is recovering. The face should turn back into the water while the recovery arm moves past the face.

Venice – The Magnificent Romantic City for Your Luxury Family Holidays

The moment you arrive in Venice you realize that you have landed in some surreal place, a place that gives you a magical and wonderful experience. Yes, as soon as you stagger out of Venice metro station and ‘wham’ you are instantaneously transported to some other world. There are many adjectives that come to one’s mind when on luxury family holidays to Venice such as quixotic, appealing, amorous, relaxing and amazing. And, yet these adjectives fail to do justice in describing Venice because you can feel and see the beauty of Venice but it is quite another story when one comes to reproduce it. Words cannot describe nor portray the real charm of Venice.

Being Europe’s most popular family friendly holiday destinations, it is also one of the most peaceful cities in Europe. Again, the city keeps buzzing with various activities and yet you would find no chaos here. Venice can be bit overpriced but when it comes down to it, there is nothing quite as romantic after a long Venetian dinner with your beloved family. When you settle back into the plush seats with your family and slide through the waters of Venice’s back canals guided by the expert oar of a gondolier, your family friendly holidays become no less than luxury family holidays. So, it would not be wrong to say that Venice is a land of contrasts.

In addition to the heavenly gondola ride, you have lots more thrilling options in Venice to see. There is St. Mark Square which looks incredibly amazing and there is Byzantine Basilica which is simply breathtaking. The Doge’s Palace with its gothic architecture will spellbound you and Scuola Grande di San Rocco with its beautiful façade will take you to another world. Simply saying, when you venture out on your gondola, you will see that Venice has one alluring vista after the next.

And, if you thought that Venice only offers its tourists some wonderful things to see, then you are hugely mistaken. Venice with all its charms also has to offer you with an opportunity to buy couture clothing, Venetian glass, delightful souvenirs and marvelous jewelry. Apart from knowing what all to see on your family friendly holidays to Venice, the foremost thing that you need to know is when to visit it. First of all, you should know Venice is crammed with tourists during the summer season so, it is best to plan your holidays in off season to get better prices for everything.

History and Usage of Tin

Tin is a chemical element located in the period table. The symbol for Tin is Sn which is derived from Tin’s Latin name, stannum. The atomic number for Tin is 50. Tin is a soft, malleable metal that resists corrosion well and can be found in a number of alloys.


Tin is one of the earliest known metals, and has been used in the past as a component of bronze. As early as 3,500 BC, Tin was used in bronze implements because if its hardening effect on copper. The mining of Tin is believed to have begun around Classical times, in Cornwall and Devon. With the civilizations of the Mediterranean, a thriving Tin trade was allowed to develop. After 4000 years of Tin mining in Cornwall, the last Cornish Tin Mine was closed in 1998. Although the American Heritage Dictionary speculates that the word Tin was borrowed from a pre-Indo European language, no one is exactly sure where the word Tin originated.

The word Tin is often used improperly in modern times, as people often use it as a generic phrase for any sort of metal that is silver in color and available in thin sheets. Objects like tin foil and tin cans are actually made out of steel or aluminum, though there is a thin layer of tin in cans in an attempt to prevent rusting.


Because Tin bonds easily, it has been used to coat lead, zinc and steel in order to prevent corrosion. Containers fashioned from steel plated with Tin are used widely for preserving food, which forms a large part of the metallic tin market. This is why cans are often called ‘Tin cans’, even when created from steel. There is always at least a small amount of tin incorporated into the metal.

Other important tin alloys include bronze, Babbitt metal, die casting alloy, phosphor bronze, pewter, soft solder, bell metal and White metal. Many of the metal pipes found in a pipe organ are created with a tin and lead alloy. Spotted metal, used in the pipes, is created when a 50%/50% alloy cools, and a mottled or spotted effect is created when the lead cools slightly faster than the Tin. The amount of tin present in organ pipes can define the pipe tone, as Tin is one of the most tonally resonant of all metal types.

Glass for windows is made using what is often called the Pilkington process, and entails floating molten hot glass atop molten hot tin, creating what is known as float glass, in order to create a perfectly flat surface. Tin is also commonly used in solders, especially in joining pipes, electric circuits, bearing alloys, glass making, and a wide variety of other applications.