DJ Lights – Top Tips and Advice For Choosing DJ Lighting Equipment and Party Disco Lights

DJ Lighting Equipment is a very important aspect of any disco equipment setup and one which should not be overlooked or underestimated. However, once you have a good idea of the available options you will find that it is relatively easy to equip yourself with some great lighting solutions at affordable prices.

There are many types of DJ lights available and they differ greatly in price point so it is a good idea to plan out your requirement and understand that if you only ever do small or sometimes medium sized venues then you will NOT need a massive amount of lights or a big lighting rig as these may only get used a few times a year. In fact it may be more realistic and beneficial to buy a few good effect lights, a couple of moving head scanners, a laser and a smoke machine and on the rare occasion that you may require more lighting then you can always hire a few more lights from your local DJ warehouse.

If you are a newbie to disco lighting then you should gain a little more knowledge through reading the next part of this article which gives you the options for choosing DJ lights and lighting packages.

1) Moonflower Lights (Gobo) – This light produce patterns through the lens and can be very effective.

2) Scanners – Available as Fixed and Moving Head lighting units and these are probably the most popular and used the most throughout the mobile disco and nightclub scene. A scanner DJ light can be linked to one another, in a daisy chain, and attached to a lighting controller (DMX controller unit) and the linked units will work as a synchronised effect.

3) DJ Laser Lights – A laser light produces either fixed pattern effect in single or multi colours (requires multiple heads) and the more advanced units can produce some amazing animations which are typically controlled via a laptop running a DMX interface.

4) DJ Black Lights and UV Lights – These produce fluorescent and black light effects such as making any white clothing you wear stand out brightly. These Black Lights are perfect for mobile disco, home and bedroom, and nightclubs.

5) Party Disco Lights – These lights are widely available and offer an affordable solution to house parties, small disco’s and other light applications. You can buy a complete Disco Party Pak from online DJ suppliers and these can turn any small venue into a flashy, colourful and atmospheric party palace.

There are many more options available including light boxes and LCD display panels, strobe lighting and Beacons also Oil Gobo Lights to name but a few. However, the main items listed above (1 to 5) are by far the most widely used lighting equipment and if you opt for a combination of those lights then you will not go far wrong.

Your Hillsboro Pool Barrier Options

Are you a Hillsboro pool owner? If you are, do you have a Hillsboro pool barrier around your pool? If not, you will want to think about getting one as soon as possible. In many areas of the United States, including the Hillsboro area, pool barriers are not only recommended, but they are also required by law.

When it comes to buying a Hillsboro pool barrier for your pool, you will find that you have a number of different options. Before examining all of your options, it is important that you first know exactly what a Hillsboro pool barrier is. As you can likely gather from the name, a Hillsboro pool barrier is a barrier or a blockade that prevents children and possibly unwanted guests from gaining access to your pool. In short, a Hillsboro pool barrier is also like a pool fence.

When it comes to setting up a Hillsboro pool barrier around your pool, you have a number of different options. As it was previously mentioned, a Hillsboro pool barrier is also considered a pool fence. These barriers or fences come in a number of different formats. One of the most commonly purchased types of pool barriers or pool fences are metal, chain linked fences. These types of pool barriers are popular and well-known for their strength and durability.

Hillsboro homeowners who want to keep their pool safe and protected, but also want to keep their pool and their properties looking nice often turn to wooden barriers. A wooden Hillsboro pool barrier is nice, as it is often more attractive than most other pool fences and barriers. Despite being somewhat more attractive, a wooden Hillsboro pool barrier is just as effective as a metal one.

Although most homeowners choose to purchase a metal or a wooden Hillsboro pool barrier, there is another option. That option is a mesh barrier. There are a number of pool fences that are made with mesh materials. These types of mesh barriers do come highly rated and recommended, but it can be a little bit easier for a child or an adult to break into them. Therefore, Hillsboro residents who have their own kids or live in a neighborhood full of kids, often try and stay away from these mesh barriers, but the decision is yours to make.

Also, in addition to the type of Hillsboro pool barrier used, it is also important that you examine the entranceway or the gate used. A Hillsboro pool barrier will not do any good if all you have to do is swing open a gate door. That is why it is advised and even required that you have a locking gate on your Hillsboro pool barrier. There are some pool owners who go as far as placing a combination padlock or a key lock on their pool gate door, but self-locking barriers are just as good.

Before buying a Hillsboro pool barrier, you may want to speak with a pool safety installation expert or take the time to familiarize yourself with your local Hillsboro pool safety laws, rules, and restrictions. This will help to ensure that you are in compliance with all local laws.

How Much Do Safe Deposit Boxes Cost?

If you have some valuables that you want to keep such as money, jewelry, insurance policies, original deeds, titles, mortgages etc., you may find yourself heading to a local bank to obtain a secure box. Acquiring a safe deposit box is reasonably priced in many banks. Safety deposit boxes are a must have to keep important documents that you may need in an emergency.

The rent per year for a safe deposit box charges by the size and number available at each bank location. Most banks fees are in the same range. You should check with your bank for sizes, fees and readiness of the box. Most banks will require that you go into the branch itself to get quotes on the box.

There are many various sizes that you can get with a bank. Listed down here is the average cost of a box throughout different banks.

  • According to research, the normal charge of safe box costs from $30 up to $75 a year.
  • Bank of America charges $190 up to $200 for a size of 17×15, $30 for a size of 2×5 and has the same charges for 10×10 box.
  • Chase Bank has over a lot of d sizes to choose from. A 2×5 can cost you $60 to $65 per year.
  • For Citibank, a box a size of 2×5 is $20 for a yearly charge and a charge of $3,320 for a size of 24×48 is as a yearly fee.
  • Wells Fargo also has various sizes to choose from. For a 2×5, this is $40 annually, while their 10×10 is $120 per year

Where are safe deposit boxes located?

Safe deposit boxes are usually located in the vault section of the banks. This vault is made of cement and steel. When you rent a safe deposit box, you are issued two keys which fit only in to your safety deposit box. Each key must be kept in a safe place and separately. Some banks may oblige a key deposit fee. This deposit fee can cost you $10 to $30. If you lose your key in the long run, you will have to pay a locksmith fee, or even a fee that the bank chooses.

If you are planning to have one for your home, the SentrySafe H2300 can cost you anywhere from $40 up to $60. There are many other various makes and models that may be in this price range.

Fastest Way to Make Money – Become a Wallpaper Hanger and Fill Your Wallet With Hundreds

The fastest way to make money is to give the public what it wants. Give the people what they need and you will be booked up for months. And sometimes what the people need the most is to have help with home decorating. Lots of people need help getting their homes spruced up. They do not have time to paint and hang wallpaper themselves and if they did they would not want to. It is much easier to pay someone like you to do it for them.

If you want to get started in the wallpaper hanging business, all you need to do is tell a real estate agent that you are available. They can help you get the first jobs and the rest will be referrals from your customers. How many people do you know that want to spend their weekend hanging wallpaper? None, right? That is exactly why they will be willing to pay you for the job. That makes this the fastest way to make money, and how much money you decide to make is strictly up to you. How fast can you hang wallpaper, and how good are you at it?

All you need to get started are your papering supplies; if you have done much papering you know that all paperhangers have their favorite tools. The more comfortable you are with the measuring sticks and the cutters, the faster you will be able to go. And the better a job you will be able to do. This really is the fastest way to make money, lots of money.

The Truth About Hardwood Floors

Hardwood floors are synonymous with timeless beauty. This centuries old floor covering remains as popular today as ever, and with good reason. No other flooring type matches the natural beauty, elegance, and charm of a wood floor.

If you are thinking about purchasing hardwood floors for your home, learning about the different types, species, options and finishes is essential. Should you buy a solid or engineered wood floor? What does “handscraped” mean? Can a hardwood floor be installed over a concrete slab? How can you keep your flooring investment in top shape for years to come?

Types of Hardwood Flooring

There are many choices when it comes to wood floors. Differences in the way each piece is constructed, harvesting methods, and finishing processes make some types of wood better for specific installations than others.

Hardwood flooring types and terms include:

* Solid: Approximately 3/4″ of an inch thick, solid wood floors come from a single piece of hardwood cut into planks. Solid wood planks are installed above grade only, never in a basement or over a concrete slab.

* Engineered: Engineered wood floors are available in assorted thicknesses, generally ranging from 1/4″ to 1/2″. Construction involves laminating and gluing several wood plies together to form a single plank. Engineered planks may be installed over a dry concrete slab.

* Longstrip: Longstrip is a variation on engineered construction, resulting in a wider and longer single plank.

* Exotic: Exotic is the term used for wood floors that come from various world locations, including Asia, Australia, Africa, Germany, South America and Russia.

* Handscraped: Extremely popular, hand-scraped floors are wood planks that have been scraped by hand to give each piece a worn and ancient look. They are available in both engineered and solid construction.

* Distressed: Similar to handscraped, distressed hardwood is machine scraped to give it a unique look and texture.

* Pre-finished and Unfinished: Pre-finished means that the finish was applied at the factory, before purchase and installation. Unfinished floors must be finished after installation. Pre-finished floors offer a wider variety of choices and less clean-up after installation. Unfinished floors attain a more customized look after the finish is applied.

Types of Installation

Wood flooring installation is done in several different ways, depending on the wood type and placement. The most common methods are:

Nail or staple down: Nails or staples are used to secure each plank to the subfloor. These cannot be installed over concrete slabs.

Glue: Glue is used to secure individual planks to the subfloor.

Glue-less: A relatively new method, glue-less installation involves connecting interlocking planks without the use of wood adhesive.

Floating: A favorite with do-it-yourselfers, floating floors sit above the subfloor without being secured to it. In most cases, wood glue is used between each plank’s tongue and groove.

A Word about Finishes

For years, maintaining a hardwood floor meant a hefty commitment in both time and money. The initial cost notwithstanding, periodic sanding, buffing, and waxing was necessary to care for wood flooring. Modern advances in finishes have made great strides in the wear capabilities of wood floors, however. Buffing and waxing is, for the most part, a thing of the past. Specially designed urethane finishes offer advanced scratch, moisture, and stain resistance. Proper care is still necessary, but today’s finishes greatly decrease the time spent in maintaining your floor.

Hardwood Floor Care

Today’s finishes have made it easier, but there are still some basic procedures to follow to keep your new hardwood floor looking beautiful. Consider the following tips:

* Never wet mop your wood floors

* Vacuum regularly using a soft bristle brush attachment

* Use floor protectors on chair, table, and sofa legs

* Keep pet’s nails clipped to prevent floor scratches

Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for cleaning and maintenance procedures. Failure to do so may void your warranties.

Hardwood Floors are more beautiful and easier to maintain than ever. A much sought-after asset, wood floors increase the value of a home and bring tradition, charm, and natural beauty for years to come.

How to Replace a Spa Pump

Spa owners should accept the fact that there hot tub pump will fail. The damage of this failure can be much larger than the cost of a new pump. Routine inspection of your hot tub pump will help prevent damages. A good spa pump will last 6-8 years so be prepared to replace your older pumps.

A good rule to follow is to inspect your hot tub pump every time you clean your spa filter. You should be checking for water leakage, loud noises and hot pump motors. If you find any of these symptoms then it is time to repair or replace your pump before the pump fails and damages other parts such as the heater.

Water is a sure sign of trouble. Look closely at the spa pump and determine where it is coming from. It may be leaking from the ports and simply need to be tightened or require new o-rings. It may be coming from the motor shaft and pump housing. This is usually a sign of a leaking bearing and will need to be fixed before the bearing fails completely and you have a flood to deal with. Also check the pump housing for small cracks. A cracked housing will get bigger with vibration and should be fixed or a new housing purchased.

Do you hear loud noise, or metallic sounds? Listen closely as it may be your pump bearings are seized. This means you are wasting money as the pump is not turning freely. If the noise is coming from the spa motor then it could be internal and require repair or replacement. Any loud noises should be addressed before they become bigger problems.

Lack of water pressure is usually not the pumps fault. Most people assume they need to replace the hot tub pump. However, a spa pump either works or does not work. I would suggest you check other areas first such as a clogged spa filter or a plugged suction port. You can also check the internal pump housing by removing the couplers and visually inspecting the inside to ensure nothing is lodged.

A normal hot tub motor will give off heat under regular conditions. However, you should be able to place your hand on the pump motor. If you find that it is very hot, then there may be internal motor problems. A very hot pump means energy is being wasted and can be costly. The cooler a pump motor runs the more efficient it is.

If your hot tub pump hums at start up but does not come on then you may have a faulty starter capacitor. You may also find the breaker trips at this stage. Before you replace anything check the impeller inside the pump head. Make sure there is no obstruction. Ice in the spring is common starting problem and one than can be fixed with a hair dryer.

When looking to replace your spa pump, there are a few specifications you should match closely. Power requirements, 120 VAC or 220 VAC. Single speed or double speed? Port opening 2″ or 1.5″. Finally is HP rating, never use the pumps rating a guide as manufacturer’s use this number as a marketing ploy. Instead match the amp rating with your pump close to the amp rating of another pump. The amp rating should be found on the sticker of you old pump.

When looking for new pumps consider quality. Remember your old pump failed so try and buy a pump that will last even longer. All manufacturer’s make replacement pumps so don’t feel you need to replace your spa pump with the same brand name. Paying a slight premium can be a great investment versus the cost of a failure! Premium pumps will last longer, run quieter and consume less power.

Can You Skip the Lean and Green Meal on Medifast?

I get a lot of questions about the medifast “lean and green meal.”  If you are not familiar with this, it is the larger meal that you prepare each day while on this diet.  You do get to eat five prepackaged meals per day that you really just have to assemble.  But, the “lean and green” does require a little food preparation.  However, you can make this very simple too.  The only real requirement is that you have 5 – 7 ounces of lean protein and three servings of vegetables.  You can accomplish this in anyway that you wish.

Still, people often write me and ask if they can just skip the lean and green meal and or if they can just eat a prepackaged meal instead. In other words, they would be eating six “medifast meals” while forgoing the lean and green.  I’ll tell you what I think about this practice in the following article.

Why Most People Consider Skipping Their Lean And Green: I find that overwhelmingly people want to omit this because they think that it will allow them to lose weight more quickly.  Roughly each prepackaged meal is about 100 calories each.  Obviously, very few home made meals are going to meet this criteria whether it’s “lean” or not. So, if you’ve consumed your 5 ready made meals, you’ve only at 500 calories for the entire day.  People decide that they don’t want to ruin this hard work by eating a larger meal.  I understand this thinking but I know for a fact that it’s flawed because I extensively experimented with cutting it out and it backfired on me.

Why I Think You Should NOT Skip It: My Experience: Here’s what most people don’t understand. The calories for this main meal are already built into the program.  This diet is designed so that you’re taking in around 1200 calories per day.  This is an acceptable low amount by most any standards.  Having 500 calories before this gives you a lot of wiggle room with your main meal.  Even if you take some liberties, you’ll often still be in the 1200 -1300 range unless you just don’t follow the guidelines.

Understanding That Ketosis Requires Regular Meals: Medifast works because ketosis works. Since you’re eating a low amount of calories and a high amount of protein, you’re body is sort of forced into burning fat rather than carbohydrates.  But, you will slow this process if you don’t give your body the fuel that it needs to do it’s job.  If you watch The Biggest Loser, you know that Jillian gets on the contestants when they don’t eat enough.  The same thing is going to happen if you start skipping meals.  I know this for certain from personal experience. 

So, don’t cheat yourself.  You really don’t need to.  I really believe that if you eat regularly within reason, you’re going to have better results.  And, the lean and green is beneficial not just in terms of keeping your metabolism going, but also in terms of teaching you how to plan and prepare healthy meals.  You will need this later when you go to the maintenance phase of the plan.

Where to Play Poker in Mexico Legally

Poker in Mexico has been growing in popularity at an astonishing rate over the last few years and the best example of this is the large number of automated poker tables popping up in casinos around the country. These state-of-the-art, 9-player, mistake-free tables and two-player, Heads Up-style tables allow casino visitors to enjoy one of the most popular games in the world, legally.

The same technology that is used in the United States, Canada, Italy, Spain, Australia and cruise ships around the world is becoming a fixture in the many casinos and poker rooms of Mexico. Players can choose from popular poker games like Texas Hold’em and 7-Card Stud with no mistakes, faster gameplay and no tipping like traditional brick and mortar poker tables.

Mexico’s poker players can also enjoy online poker from the comfort of their own home at top online poker rooms such as Full Tilt Poker. One of the best offers going for new poker players in Mexico looking to build their bankroll is the one offered by the popular free bankroll program called Free Poker Cash Bankroll. This offer can be obtained by any poker player living in the country of Mexico, as well as online poker players from around the world.

Here is where you can play poker in Mexico on one of these unique and legal poker tables:

Caliente Casino


Caliente Casino Bosques

Mexico City

CasinoLife Del Valle

Mexico City

Emotion Casino


Emotion Casino

Puerto Vallarta

CasinoLife Merida


Royal Yak Hipodromo

Mexico City

Royal Yak Centro Magno


CIE Cumbres


CIE Cancún


Dubai Palace


Get Your Awnings Tailored For Your Needs

It has been observed that a person who can 'identify his requirements' and has the basic 'knowledge about the product' he intends to buy, is a successful shopper. These are two things everybody should know before investing or spending their bucks for any product.

You should adhere to the above statements while buying your awnings too. Point out your requirements and gather some knowledge about awnings so that you can bring home the right sunshade.

Identify your requirements:

If you do not know what you need and why you need it; you can not buy the right thing. Surprisingly, most people do not know what they need and often end up buying a different product that hardly satisfy their requirement.

When you decide that you need awnings for your home or office or commercial building, ask yourself the simple question: "Why do I need it?" And there should be one or more than one distinct answer to this question. Once you are sure about the goal of your sunshade, you can bring home the better product that enhances your living.

Sun control is the prime reason for buying awnings. However, protection from rain, privacy, allergen protection and energy saving are some of the other purposes people may like to install awning with the help of commercial awnings company.

Design and installation process often depend on the purpose of the awning. If sun control is only reason, you should go for materials that protect you from UV rays too. For rain control, a waterproof fabric and rustproof metal fixtures are needed. Thus your choice of product highly depends on your requirement. So always highlight your needs while buying your awning.

Know the product:

It is equally important to know the product that you intend to buy. Hence, before you hit the shops or online stores, do your homework as a buyer, know about the types of awnings, their purposes, the materials used to manufacture them and all other minute details. This helps you find the best solution for yourself.

For the sake of simplicity, let's divide awnings into three different parts:

1) Fabric

2) Metal frames and fasteners

3) Functionality

Fabric: Texture, style and color of the fabric define its look and define if it will match with your building or not. Most awning manufacturers offer a wide range of style and color for you to choose from. Make use of the opportunity. Visit all the varieties and then decide what will look best on your walls.

Fabrics are often treated to protect UV ray, molds, mildews and allergens too. Inquire if you can get your awning made of such materials.

Metal frames and fasteners: Awnings are either fixed permanently or allowed to hang with the supports like metallic arms, springs or wires. The main frame is also made of metal.

Since they are directly exposed to sunlight, air, water, dust and other elements, rust can easily form there when the metal is iron. Other metals can also undergo corrosion. Hence, properly treated metals like stainless steel should be used so that the awning lasts for long.

Functionality: Fixed and Retractable – two types of awnings are available. Retractable awnings are reported to last longer as they can be folded off during harsh weather. A retractable awning may be used all over the year as it offers more flexibility over fixed canopies and canvases.

Now you are an informed and knowledgeable consumer. Go and get your awning tailored for your needs.

The History of Long Island MacArthur Airport


Long Island MacArthur Airport, located on 1,310 acres in Suffolk County, is the region’s only commercial service facility which has, for most of its existence, struggled with identity and purpose.

Its second–and oval-shaped–50,000 square-foot passenger terminal, opened in 1966 and sporting two opposing, ramp-accessing gates, had exuded a small, hometown atmosphere-so much so, in fact, that scenes from the original Out-of-Towners movie had been filmed in it.

Its subsequent expansion, resulting in a one thousand percent increase in passenger terminal area and some two million annual passengers, had been sporadic and cyclic, characterized by new airline establishment which had always sparked a sequence of passenger attraction, new nonstop route implementation, and additional carriers, before declining conditions had initiated a reverse trend. During cycle peaks, check-in, gate, and ramp space had been at a premium, while during troughs, a pin drop could be heard on the terminal floor.

Its Catch-22 struggle had always entailed the circular argument of carriers reluctant to provide service to the airport because of a lack of passengers and passengers reluctant to use the airport because of a lack of service.

This, in essence, is the force which shaped its seven-decade history. And this, in essence, is Long Island MacArthur Airport’s story.

1. Origins

The 1938 Civil Aeronautics Act, under Section 303, authorized federal fund expenditure for landing areas provided the administrator could certify “that such landing areas were reasonably necessary for use in air commerce or in the interests of national defense.”

At the outbreak of World War II, Congress appropriated $40 million for the Development of Landing Areas for National Defense or “DLAND,” of which the Development Civil Landing Areas (DCLA) had been an extension. Because civil aviation had been initially perceived as an “appendage” of military aviation, it had been considered a “segment” of the national defense system, thus garnering direct federal government civil airport support. Local governments provided land and subsequently maintained and operated the airports. Construction of 200 such airfields began in 1941.

A Long Island regional airport, located in Islip, had been one of them. On September 16 of that year, the Town of Islip–the intended owner and operator of the initially named Islip Airport–sponsored the project under an official resolution designated Public Law 78-216, providing the land, while the federal government agreed to plan and build the actual airport. The one-year, $1.5 million construction project, initiated in 1942, resulted in an airfield with three 5,000-foot runways and three ancillary taxiways. Although it had fulfilled its original military purpose, it had always been intended for public utilization.

Despite increased instrument-based flight training after installation of instrument landing system (ILS) equipment in 1947, the regional facility failed to fulfill projected expectations of becoming New York’s major airport after the recent construction of Idlewild. Losing Lockheed as a major tenant in 1950, the since-renamed MacArthur Airport, in honor of General Douglas MacArthur, would embark on a long development path before that would occur.

2. Initial Service

A 5,000-square-foot passenger terminal and restaurant, funded by the federal government, had been constructed in 1949. Infrastructurally equipped, the airport, surrounded by local community growth, sought its first public air service by petitioning the Civil Aeronautics Board. Islip had attempted to attract scheduled airline service as far back as 1956, and this ultimately took the form of Gateway Airlines three years later when it had commenced operations, on an air taxi level, with a fleet of 11-passenger de Havilland Doves and 15-passenger de Havilland Herons to Boston, Newark, and Washington. Inadequate financing, however, had led to its premature termination only eight months later.

The airport, which only had 20 based aircraft at this time, annually fielded some 30,000 movements. Allegheny Airlines subsequently received full scheduled passenger service route authority from the CAB in 1960 and inaugurated four daily Convair- and Martinliner round-trips to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington in September, carrying more than 19,000 passengers in 1961, its first full year of operations.

Two years later, the FAA opened a New York Air Route Traffic Control Center and a seven-floor control tower, and in 1966, a $1.3 million, 50,000 square-foot oval terminal replaced the original rectangular facility.

Mohawk, granted the second CAB route authority that year, inaugurated Fairchild FH-227 service to Albany, and the two scheduled airlines carried some 110,000 passengers from the since renamed Islip MacArthur Airport by 1969. The 210 based aircraft recorded 240,000 yearly movements.

The runways and taxiways were progressively expanded, partly in response to Eastern and Pan Am’s designation of the airport as an “alternate” on their flight plans.

3. First Major Carrier Service

Long envisioned as a reliever airport to JFK and La Guardia, which would provide limited, but important nonstop service to key US cities and hubs, such as Boston, Philadelphia, Washington, Atlanta, Pittsburgh, Chicago, and the major Florida destinations, the Long Island airport urgently needed additional, major-airline service, but this goal remained elusive.

The cycle, however, had been broken on April 26, 1971, when American Airlines had inaugurated 727-100 “Astrojet” service to Chicago-O’Hare, Islip’s first pure-jet and first “trunk” carrier operation, permitting same-day, round-trip business travel and eliminating the otherwise required La Guardia commute. Because of American’s major-carrier prestige, it had attracted both attention and passengers, indicating that Islip had attained “large airport” status, and the Chicago route, now the longest nonstop one from the air field, had provided a vital lifeline to a primary, Midwestern city and to American’s route system, offering numerous flight connections.

The route had been quickly followed in the summer with the inauguration of Allegheny DC-9-30 service to Providence and Washington, while Altair had launched Beech B99 and Nord N.262 turboprop flights to Bridgeport and Philadelphia two years later.

American, Allegheny (which had intermittently merged with Mohawk in 1972), and Altair provided the established Long Island air connection during the 1970s.

In order to reflect its regional location, the facility had, for the fourth time, been renamed, adopting the title of Long Island MacArthur Airport in 1978.

During most of the 1970s, it handled an average of 225,000 annual passengers. Allegheny, the premier operator, had offered nine daily pure-jet BAC-111 and DC-9-30 departures during 1978.

By March of 1982, USAir, the rebranded Allegheny Airlines, had been its only remaining pure-jet carrier with daily DC-9-30 service to Albany and BAC-111-200 service to Washington-National–perhaps emphasizing its ability to profitably operate from small-community airfields with its properly-sized twin-jet equipment.

The early 1980s were characterized by commuter-regional carrier dominance, with operations provided by Pilgrim, New Haven Airlines, Altair, Air North, Mall Airways, and Ransome. The latter, first flying as part of the Allegheny Commuter consortium, later operated independently under its own name in affiliation with Delta Air Lines, offering some 17 daily M-298 and DHC-7 departures to seven regional cities.

Aside from Ransome, it had often appeared as if the airport’s regional airline floodgates had been gappingly opened: Suburban/Allegheny Commuter, Southern Jersey/Allegheny Commuter, Empire, and Henson-The Piedmont Regional Airline had all descended on its runways. Precision, which had inaugurated multiple-daily Dornier Do-228-200 services to both Boston and Philadelphia, operated independently, as Precision-Eastern Express, and as Precision-Northwest Airlink, and had been the only airline to simultaneously offer scheduled service from neighboring Republic Airport in Farmingdale, primarily a general aviation field.

4. Northeastern International Airlines

Market studies had long indicated the need for nonstop Long Island-Florida service because of its concentration of tourist attractions and to facilitate visits between Long Island children and Florida-relocated retiree parents. Deregulation, the very force behind multiple-airline creation, divergent service and fare concepts, and the relative ease of new market entry, had spawned Northeastern International, which was founded to provide high-density, low-fare, limited-amenity service, and fulfilled the idealized nonstop, Long Island-Florida connection when it had inaugurated operations on February 11, 1982 with a former Evergreen International DC-8-50, initially offering four weekly round-trips to Fort Lauderdale and one to Orlando. After a second aircraft had been acquired, it had been able to record a 150,000-passenger total during its first year of service, with 32,075 having been boarded in December alone.

Although its corporate headquarters had been located in Fort Lauderdale, its operational base had been established at Long Island MacArthur and it ultimately served Fort Lauderdale, Hartford, Miami, Orlando, and St. Petersburgh with the two DC-8s and two former Pan Am 727-100s with seven daily departures. Incorporating both the charter carrier strategy of operating high-density, single-class, low-fare service, and the major airline strategy of flying large-capacity aircraft, it actually served a very competitive route-that of New York-to-Florida-without incurring any competition at all by operating directly from Islip.

By 1984, with Northeastern having served as a catalyst to carrier and route inaugurations, eleven airlines had served the airport, inclusive of Allegheny Commuter, American, Eastern, Empire, Henson, NewAir, Northeastern, Pilgrim, Ransome, United, and USAir, relieving JFK and La Guardia of air traffic, directly serving the Long Island market, and fulfilling the airport’s originally envisioned role of becoming New York’s secondary commercial facility. Simultaneously providing nonstop service to Chicago-O’Hare from Islip, American and United both competed for the same passenger base.

By 1986, Long Island MacArthur had, for the first time in its 36-year scheduled history, handled one million passengers in a single year, a level since equaled or exceeded.

To cater to the explosive demand and ease its now-overstrained passenger facilities, the Town of Islip embarked on a progressive terminal facility improvement program which had initially encompassed the addition of two commuter aircraft gates, the enclosure of the former curbside front awning, and two glass-enclosed wings-the west for the now-covered baggage carousel and the east for the three relocated rental-car counters and the Austin Travel agency. The internal roadway had been realigned and additional parking spaces had been created.

A more ambitious terminal expansion program, occurring in 1990 and costing $3.2 million, resulted in two jetbridge-lined concourses which extended from the rear portion of the oval terminal, adding 22,700 square feet of space. Runway 6-24’s 1,000-foot extension, to 7,000 feet, had ultimately been completed three years later after a decade of primarily local resident resistance due to believed noise increases.

By the end of 1990, the transformation of Long Island MacArthur Airport from a small, hometown airfield served by a couple of operators to a major facility served by most of the major carriers had been complete.

Several conclusions could already be drawn from the airport’s hitherto 30-year scheduled history.

1. Allegheny-USAir, along with its regional subsidiaries Allegheny Commuter and USAir Express, had provided the initial spark which had led to the present growth explosion and had been the only consistent, anchor carrier during its three-decade, scheduled service history, between 1960 and 1990. During this time it had absorbed other Islip operators, inclusive of the original Mohawk and Piedmont, the latter of which had intermittently absorbed Empire and Henson, and had shed still others, such as Ransome Airlines, which, as an independent carrier, had almost established a regional, turboprop hub at MacArthur.

2. Three carriers had been tantamount to its three-decade evolution: (1). Allegheny-USAir, which had reserved the distinction of being Long Island MacArthur’s first, largest, and, for a period, only pure-jet operator; American, which had changed its image by associating it with large, trunk-carrier prestige; and Northeastern, whose bold, innovative service inauguration and low fares had been directly responsible for the latest, unceasing growth cycle.

3. Many airlines, unaware of the facility’s traffic potential, never permanently abandoned the air field, including American and Eastern, which had both suspended operations, but subsequently returned; Northeastern, which had returned after two bankruptcies; United, which had discontinued its own service, yet maintained a presence through two separate regional airline affiliations-Presidential-United Express and Atlantic Coast-United Express-thus continuing to link its Washington-Dulles hub; Continental, which had returned through its own commuter agreement; and Pilgrim, which, despite service discontinuation, had maintained an autonomous check-in counter where it had handled other carriers until it itself had reinstated service.

4. Of the approximately 30 airlines which had served Long Island MacArthur, many had indirectly retained a presence either through name-change, other-carrier absorption, or regional-airline two-letter code-share agreements.

5. The Northeastern-forged air link between Long Island and Florida had, despite its own final bankruptcy, never been lost, with other carriers always filling the void, including Eastern, Carnival, Braniff, Delta Express, and Spirit Airlines.

Because of its market fragility, however, the Long Island regional airport was far more vulnerable to economic cycles than the primary New York airports had been, recessed conditions often resulting in the exodus of carriers in search of more profitable routes. In 1994, for example, three airlines discontinued service and one ceased operating altogether.

A $13.2 million expansion program of the 32-year old, multiply-renovated oval terminal, funded by passenger facility charge (PFC)-generated revenue, had been initiated in the spring of 1998 and completed in August of the following year, resulting in a 62,000-square-foot area increase. The enlarged, reconfigured structure included the addition of two wings–the west with four baggage carousels, three rental car counters, and several airline baggage service offices, and the east with 48 (as opposed to the previous 20) passenger check-in positions. The original, oval-shaped structure now housed an enlarged newsstand and gift shop and the relocated central security checkpoint, but retained the departures level snack bar, the upper level Skyway Café and cocktail lounge, and the twin, jetbridge-provisioned concourses added during the 1990 expansion phase, while the aircraft parking ramp had been progressively increased until the last blade of grass had been transformed into concrete. A realigned entrance road, an extension of the existing short-term parking lot, 1,000 additional parking spaces, and a quasi-parking lot system subdivided into employee, resident, hourly, daily, and economy (long-term) sections had completed the renovation. Shuttle bus service between the parking lot and the terminal was provided for the first time.

5. Southwest Airlines

An effort to attract Southwest Airlines had begun in late-1996 when the rapidly-expanding, highly profitable, low-fare carrier had contemplated service to a third northeast city after Manchester and Providence, inclusive of Newburgh’s Stewart International and White Plains’ Westchester County in New York; Hartford and New Haven in Connecticut; and Teterboro and Trenton’s Mercer County in New Jersey. All had been smaller, secondary airports characteristic of its route system. It had even briefly explored service to Farmingdale’s Republic Airport on Long Island and Teterboro in New Jersey, both of which had been noncommercial, general aviation fields with business jet concentrations. Three had offered terminal improvements in exchange for the service. But Long Island MacArthur was ultimately selected because of the 1.6 million residents living within a 20-mile radius of the airport, local business health, and, according to Southwest Chief Executive Officer, Herb Kelleher, “underserved, overpriced air service” which was “ripe for competition.”

Following initial Southwest interest in 1997, then-Town of Islip Supervisor Peter McGowan and other officials flew to Dallas, where Herb Kelleher stated the need for the previously described terminal and parking facility expansions before operations could begin. The meeting had ended with nothing more than a symbolic handshake.

The nearly two-year effort to entice the airline had culminated in the December 1998 announcement of Southwest’s intended March 14, 1999 service launch with 12 daily 737 departures, including eight to Baltimore, two to Chicago-Midway, one to Nashville, and one to Tampa, all of which would provide through- or connecting-service to 29 other Southwest-served cities. Although the low-fare flights had been expected to attract some passengers who may otherwise have flown from JFK or La Guardia Airports, they had been primarily targeted at the Long Island market and, as a byproduct, had been expected to attract an increased airport traffic base, additional carriers, and generate an estimated $500,000 per year for the Town of Islip. Two Southwest-dedicated gates could accommodate up to 20 daily departures-or eight more than the inaugural flight schedule included-before additional facilities would have to be obtained. The Islip station, staffed by 44, represented its 53rd destination in 27 states.

Southwest had provided the fourth spark in Long Island MacArthur Airport’s airline- and passenger-attraction cycle, traced as follows:

1. The original air taxi Gateway Airlines service of 1959 and the initial scheduled Allegheny Airlines service of 1960.

2. The first trunk-carrier, pure-jet American Airlines flights of 1971.

3. The first low-fare, nonstop Northeastern International Florida service of 1982.

4. The first low-fare, high frequency, major-carrier Southwest service of 1999.

American, the last of the original, major carriers to vacate the airport, left it with three predominant types of airlines as the millennium had approached:

1. The turboprop commuter airline serving the nonhub destinations, such as Albany, Boston, Buffalo, Hartford, and Newburgh.

2. The regional jet operator feeding its major-carrier affiliate at one of its hubs, such as ASA feeding Delta in Atlanta, Comair connecting with Delta in Cincinnati, and Continental Express integrating its flight schedule with Continental in Cleveland.

3. The low-fare, high-density, no-frills carrier operating the leisure-oriented sectors to Florida. As of December 1, 1999, three airlines, inclusive of Delta Express, Southwest, and Spirit, had operated 15 daily departures to five Florida destinations.

Long Island MacArthur’s expansion and passenger facility improvements, Southwest’s service inauguration, and the attraction of other carriers had collectively resulted in a 113% increase in passenger boardings in 1999 compared to the year-earlier period. The figure, which had been only shy of the two million mark, had been the highest in the Long Island airport’s four-decade commercial history. Southwest had carried 34% of this total.

Eleven airlines had provided service during this time: ASA Atlantic Southeast, American, Business Express, Comair, CommutAir/US Airways Express, Continental Express, Delta Express, Piedmont/US Airways Express, Shuttle America, Spirit, and Southwest itself.

Less than two weeks after Southwest had secured a third gate and increased its daily departures to 22, it announced, in a unprecedented move, its intention to self-finance 90-percent of a $42 million expansion of the East Concourse in order to construct four additional, dedicated gates and overnight parking positions by the end of 2001, thus increasing the airport’s current 19-gate total to 23.

The concourse extension, intended to provide it with both increased employee and passenger room, would free up its existing three gates for other-carrier utilization while its new four-gate facility would permit a service increase to some 30 daily flights based upon future passenger demand, aircraft availability, and Town of Islip-approved departure increases.

The expansion would mark the seventh such development of the original terminal, as follows:

1. The original oval terminal construction.

2. The partially enclosed arrivals baggage belt installation.

3. The construction of two commuter gates.

4. The enclosure of the front awning, which entailed the relocation of the rental car companies and the Austin Travel agency, and the installation of an enlarged, fully enclosed baggage belt.

5. The construction of the jetbridge-equipped east and west concourses.

6. The construction of the West Arrivals Wing and the East Departures Wing, the gift shop expansion, and the central security checkpoint relocation.

7. The Southwest-financed, quad-gate addition, increasing the number of departure gates from 19 to 23.

Victim, like all airports, to post-September 11 traffic declines, Long Island MacArthur Airport lost eight daily departures operated by American Eagle, Delta Express, and US Airways Express, although the airport’s October 2001 passenger figures had only been six percent below those of the year-earlier period. No nonstop destinations had, however, been severed. With Delta Express’s daily 737-200 Florida flight frequency having been progressively reduced from an all-time high of seven to just one–to Fort Lauderdale–its operations could be divided into three categories:

1. Turboprop regional

2. Pure-jet regional

3. Southwest

Nevertheless, in the four years since Southwest had inaugurated service, the airport had handled 8,220,790 passengers, or an annual average of two million. Without Southwest, it would, at best, have handled only half that amount.

On April 30, 2003, for the second time in a five-year period, Long Island MacArthur Airport broke ground on new terminal facilities. Designed by the Baldassano Architectural Group, the Long Island architectural firm which had completed the $13.2 million airport expansion and modernization program in 1999, the new, 154,000-square-foot, four-gate addition was constructed on the north side of the existing east concourse which had housed Southwest’s operations. Citing increased space and potential growth as reasons for the new facility, Southwest claimed that the existing three gates, which had fielded a combined 24 daily departures, had reached their saturation point and that additional “breathing room” for both passengers and employees had been needed, particularly during flight delays. The net gain of an additional gate, which would be coupled with larger lounges, would eventually facilitate eight additional flights to new or existing US destinations, based upon market demand.

The project, initially pegged at $42 million, but later increased to $62 million, was financed by Southwest, which sought government reimbursement with the Town of Islip for up to $18 million for the non-airline specific construction aspects, such as airfield drainage, which was considered a common-use utility.

The 114,254-square-foot, Southwest-funded and -named Peter J. McGowan Concourse officially opened at the end of November 2004. Accessed by a new awning-protected entrance from the airport’s terminal-fronted curbside, the new wing, connected to the existing passenger check-in area, curved to the left past the flight arrival and departure television monitors to the new, large security checkpoint from where passengers ascended, via two escalators, to the upper level departures area.

Concurrent with the opening had been the announcement that Southwest would now proceed with Phase II of its expansion by building a second, $20 million addition which would connect the new concourse with the old, altogether replacing the east concourse which had served it since it had inaugurated service in 1999. The project incorporated four more gates, for a total of eight, enabling up to 80 daily departures to be offered.

6. New Leadership, Service Reductions, and Infrastructure Improvements

The end of the 2000-decade, characterized by new leadership, airline service reductions, and infrastructure investments, once again signaled a reversal in Long Island MacArthur Airport’s growth cycle.

Al Werner, Airport Commission for 53 years, retired on November 16, 2007, passing the torch to Teresa Rizzuto. Accepted after a three-month, nationwide search conducted by Islip Supervisor Phil Nolan, she brought considerable airline industry experience with her and was appointed to the position on February 5, 2008 after an Islip Town Board vote, now entrusted with heralding the regional facility into the next decade whose multi-faceted agenda necessarily included the following goals:

1. Devise a marketing plan to increase airport recognition, thereby attracting a larger passenger base.

2. Establish new, nonstop routes of existing carriers and attract new airlines able to compete with existing, lost-cost Southwest, to provide the required core service for this enlarged passenger base, yet avoid alienating local residents because of excessive noise.

3. Invest in infrastructure modernization and development, particularly on the airport’s general aviation west side.

4. Increase revenues for the Town of Islip, the airport’s owner and operator.

Long Island MacArthur’s very existence relied upon its ability to serve its customers’ needs, and both destination and airline reductions during the latter part of the decade, coupled with flickering, but quickly extinguished glimmers of new-carrier hope, only obviated its purpose.

Exploratory talks in 2007, with Southwest-modeled, Ireland based-Ryanair, for instance, would have resulted in both the airport’s first international and first transatlantic service, hitherto precluded by the absence of customs and immigration facilities, few connecting possibilities, and inadequate runway length on which heavy, fuel-laden widebody aircraft could take off for intercontinental sectors. But higher thrust engines facilitating shorter-field performance had remedied the latter problem, and pre-departure US clearance would have been performed in Ireland. Because Southwest and Ryanair maintained the same business models of operating single-type, 737 fleets from underserved, overpriced, secondary airports whose lower operating costs could be channeled into lower fares, domestic-international traffic feed between the two had been feasible. Despite existing Islip service provided by Delta and US Airways Express, Southwest still carried 92 percent of its passengers. However, the proposed strategy had yet to produce any concrete results.

Indeed, by the end of the year, the number of potential Southwest connecting flights only declined when decreased demand had necessitated the cancellation of six daily departures, including two to Baltimore, three to Chicago, and one to Las Vegas.

Potential service loss counterbalancing occurred on May 1 of the following year, however, when Spirit Airlines, after an eight-year interval, reinaugurated twice daily, round-trip, A-319 service to Ft. Lauderdale, with $7.00 introductory fares, facilitating 23 Caribbean and Latin American connections through its south Florida hub.

The A-319, the airport’s first, regularly scheduled airbus operation, touched down at 0954 on Runway 6 on its inaugural flight, taxiing through a dual fire truck-created water arch, before redeparting at 1030 as Flight 833 with a high load factor. The second flight departed in the evening.

The departures were two of Spirit’s more than 200 systemwide flights to 43 destinations, but the weak flicker of light they had provided had been almost as quickly doused when, three months later, on July 31, rising fuel prices and declining economic conditions had necessitated their discontinuation, leaving only a promise of return when improved conditions merited their reinstatement.

Further tipping the scales to the service loss side had been Delta Air Line’s decision to discontinue its only remaining, single daily regional jet service operated by its Comair counterpart to Atlanta, severing feed to the world’s largest airport in terms of enplanements and to Delta’s largest connecting hub, and ending the Long Island presence established as far back as 1984. Delta had cited the reason for the discontinuation, along with that in other markets, as an attempt to “optimize…financial performance.”

The second carrier loss, leaving only Southwest and US Airways Express, had resulted in a 10.2-percent passenger decline in 2008 compared to the year-earlier period.

Another attempted, but mostly unsuccessful airline service had occurred in June of 2009 with the appearance of, which had intended to link Islip with Groton, Connecticut, and Nantucket, Massachusetts, during the summer.

In order to remedy Long Island MacArthur Airport’s identity recognition deficiency, a study completed by a Phil Nolan-assembled task force strongly concluded that the search for and attraction of new airline service “should be a major focus of management,” a function up until now mostly ignored. The airport’s lack of recognition, coupled with JFK’s and La Guardia’s close proximity to Manhattan and their dizzying array of nonstop services, further urged the need for the study.

A $150,000 federal grant, aimed at answering the elusive question of why Long Islanders still chose to use New York airports when Islip itself offered a nonstop flight, attempted to determine local resident travel patterns and then attract carrier-providing service.

A partial remedy had been the implementation of a $300,000 market campaign, in conjunction with the Long Island Railroad and Southwest Airlines, to increase airport awareness by the eastern Nassau and Suffolk County population, featuring the slogan, “We make flying a breeze.”

Significant attention to airport infrastructure improvement and a related masterplan had also been given.

Long-awaited ramp repairs, for instance, had been made. One year after the $12.4 million apron covering gates five through eight had been laid in 2004, cracks, in which engine-digestible debris could potentially collect, appeared, and were traceable to an inadequate, six-inch-thick subbase which failed to rise above the ground level, and was therefore susceptible to frost. Water, seeping into the subbase, was subjected to freezing-thawing cycles which expanded the concrete, loosened its gravel, and propagated the cracks.

In order to replace the decaying, 105-foot control tower constructed in 1962, the FAA awarded J. Kokolakis Constructing, Inc., of Rocky Point, a $16.4 million contract to build a new, 157-foot, cylindrical tower next to it in January of 2008, a project completed in November of the following year, at which time internal equipment, costing another $8.8 million, was installed.

Instrumental in the airport’s modernization had been the redevelopment of its 45-acre west side, which currently houses charter companies, flying schools, and airport maintenance in mostly dilapidated hangars and buildings, but could potentially be replaced with new energy efficient and conservation compliant structures optimally used by educational institutions offering air traffic control curriculums.

During the latter portion of the decade, Long Island MacArthur Airport once again rode the descending side of the revenue curve, but remains a vital air link and economic engine to eastern Nassau and Suffolk Counties.

Between 1996 and 2003, it had experienced an average annual economic impact growth rate of 6.85 percent and between 2001 and 2007 more than 900,000 square feet of commercial space was developed along Veterans Highway, its access roadway, as a result of it. According to Hofstra University’s Center for Suburban Studies, its 2003 economic impact was pegged at $202 million and was projected to increase by 68 percent, or to $340 million, by the end of the decade without any further expansion, indicating that, as a revenue generator, that its potential had hardly begun to be tapped. The service reductions, increases in Homeland Security costs, and eroding economy had all reversed that potential, but its infrastructure improvements, more than 500,000-square-foot passenger terminal, four runways, easy access, uncongested environment, two-mile proximity to the Long Island Railroad’s Ronkonkoma station, and four-mile proximity to the Long Island Expressway places it squarely on the threshold of growth in the next decade, when conditions improve. According to newly appointed Airport Commissioner Teresa Rizzuto, “We’re ready” for new carriers at that time.

Jeep Select Trac NP 242 Transfer Case Information

The Select Trac option on the Jeep Cherokee gets you the New Process NP 242 transfer case. This transfer case gives the following operating modes: 2wd, 4wd with the center differential open, 4wd with the center differential locked, neutral, and 4wd low range (center differential locked)

The addition of a center differential is the main difference between the NP 242 and the NP 231 or Command Trac transfer case. Without a differential, the 231 transfer case offers only part time four wheel drive mode.

The NP 242 transfer case Full time mode opens the center differential allowing the front and rear axles to rotate at different speeds while still being linked by the transfer case. The end with the least traction will get the most torque. While this mode may have some disadvantages off road where a wheel may loose contact with the ground, it has the advantage of being usable on all paved surfaces. Part Time mode – with the center differential locks can only be used on loose or slick surfaces with out possible damage to the transfer case.

I use full time mode on wet streets, hard packed gravel or dirt, some snow and ice situations and on dry pavement when full acceleration without wheel spin is desirable. I use part time mode on loose gravel, dirt, grass and any off road situation. I use Part time mode when RallyCross racing as well.

I use low range for more control in off road situations or on rough gravel roads when traveling downhill to avoid excessive use of the brakes. I also often use low range when positioning my trailer or other towed equipment when precision placement is needed.

The NP 242 transfer case can be switched between 2wd and either 4wd mode at any speed simply by moving the lever. The switch to low range must be made at very low speed – the Jeep manual says 3 mph.

One common operating problem with the 242 transfer case is that it will stick in 4wd even if the lever is moved to 2wd. Internally, moving the lever loads a spring which then applies force to move the selector fork. If the gears are loaded with torque, the spring will not have enough energy to move the sleeve off the gears. Once torque is removed from the gears, the spring will then move the fork and slide the sleeve of the gears.

Momentarily lifting your foot off the gas will often unload the gears enough to allow the spring pressure to move the fork. On some high mileage units, a wear groove will form on the sleeve or gear causing it to stick longer and may require a couple of changes from loaded to unloaded to get the sleeve to release form the gear.

The Jeep NP 242 is lubricated with Automatic Transmission fluid. The level is checked by removing the upper of the two large plugs on the back of the case. The fluid should be level with the upper plug.

The NP 242 has a slip yoke on the tail shaft. If the drive shaft is damaged or removed, fluid will be lost out the tail shaft. Also this seal is important to maintain in good condition to prevent fluid loss.

The NP 242 is a very versatile transfer case and is my choice for three of my five Jeeps. The full time selection gets frequent use in all of them.

Bridges in London

London is one of the major tourist attractions in the world. The city is known for its events, places and other attractions which are seen and explored by millions of tourists from all over the world.

One thing that is the characteristic of this city is its bridges that are made on various river that flow across the city. Some of the bridges date back to the 13th century and some of them served as the main shelter during the time of World War.

Some of the popular bridges of London are:

a. Vauxhall: This bridge was built in 1906 and was the first bridge on which the trams were circulated. There are a number of bronze sculptures and statues that have been placed at the ends of the bridge. There are a number of other important places of interest such as Tate Gallery and National Musuem that are situated on the close proximity to this bridge.

b. Westminster: This is another important bridge that was made ​​about 150 years ago. The bridge is situated on close proximity to important monuments such as St. Stephen Tower, Big Ben and Westminster Abbey. The main attraction of this bridge is the lighting which is done during the night time.

c. Tower Bridge: As the name suggests, this bridge is situated on close proximity to the Tower of London. This bridge is the iconic monument of London and is known for its art galleries and paintings which have been kept here. This bridge was made during the end of the 19th century and thus has been declared as the UNESCO World Heritage Site.

d. London Bridge: This bridge has its history that dates back to the time of Roman invasion. This bridge was commissioned by King Henry in 1179. Today, the bridge has undergone massive restoration work and handles a major chunk of traffic in London.

e. Waterloo: Built on the river Thames, the Waterloo Bridge is known to offer some of the spectacular views of London. This bridge was the first bridge that is made up of concrete and cement. During the time of World War I and World War II, the residents of London took shelter in this bridge.

f. Blackfriars: This is another important bridge that is known to offer some of the beautiful views of London. The bridge offers you views of the St. Paul's Cathedral and is one of the oldest monuments of London.

Jewelry Assembly Jobs From Home

Do you like to work with your hands? Do you crave making something beautiful? If you answer yes to either of these questions, than I have the perfect job for you. You are going to become a professional assembler. Now I know you are wondering what in the world that is. Well the answer is as simple as it sounds you are going to get paid for making handmade jewelry. Companies can not keep up with the demand on products like this. That is why they are constantly hiring people like you to make it for them.

Once you find a company that you like you need to contact them. If they are hiring, they will send you a kit. Usually there is enough in the kit to make five pieces. You then mail the kit with the finished people back to them. If you make it good enough, they will send you a bigger kit. The bigger the kit is the more chances that you have to make money.

When you are assembling jewelry from home, you get to decide when you are going to work, how long you were going to work or anything of the nature. If you are working from home, you get to decide also how much money you are going to make. If you work fast of course you will make more cash. Just keep in mind that you do not want to get sloppy or they will stop sending you kits. The ideal way is to get the family involved and make it a fun past time.

The English Style of Mounting a Horse

Over the years, many of us have seen movie examples of actors climbing onto their horses. Unless their role in the movie was comic relief, the act of getting on a horse is as easy and natural-looking as reaching for your coffee cup for another sip. For beginners, though, hauling your body up and into a saddle can be a challenge. Doing it right requires a little preparation and practice.

Telling is sometimes a poor substitute for showing. In this case, however, visualizing the process yourself by reading step-by-step instructions can teach you in mental images that will move as slowly as you need them. In the few paragraphs below, I will describe the steps to check your horses position, your equipment, a safe place to mount, and numbered directions to safely complete getting onto your horse. While these instructions follows an English style of mounting, all new horse riders will learn essential checks and procedures to be sure their ride begins smoothly. Well begun is half done.

Checking Tack

Whether you ride English or western style, you must check your tack (your horse's equipment) before you mount the horse. Be sure everything is in proper working order and securely attached to the horse before you get on. To check your tack, follow these steps in any order:

* Examine the bridle. Make sure all the buckles are securely fastened and that the leather is not unduly worn in any particular spot.

* Examine the girth that holds the saddle in place for excessive wear. Look at the leather straps that attach the girth to the saddle to make sure they are not worn and prone to breaking. While you are riding, there will be a lot of extra pressure applied to those areas. Be sure the buckles or knots are fastened securely.

* Check the girth for a proper fit. Before you put your foot in the stirrup to get on, check your girth one more time. It should be snug, and securely holding the saddle in place.

Choosing a Mounting Location
Stunt men and movie actors aside, ordinary riders need a safe place to mount. Choose a place where you have plenty of room to maneuver yourself into the saddle, making sure the horse is comfortable so he will stand still. Be sure that your chosen spot is not near an open gate or a barn door lest he absently moves through it as you attempt to mount him. Remember, too, that your horse should already be bridled when you mount, not tied to a fence. When you're riding English, your stirrups are on the shorter side, which puts them higher. English riders can mount from the ground, though you may want to use a mounting block to get a leg up. A mounting block is a 1-to-2-foot high wooden or plastic platform that has two or three steps. If you do not have access to an artificial aid, use your environment to help you mount from the ground. Position your horse on a slope so he is downhill from where you're standing to mount. The higher ground effectively makes you taller and shortens your reach to the stirrups. If you find other objects along the trail to remount like logs, boulders, or fence posts, be sure it is stable, and can support your weight.

English Mounting Directions

1. Lead the horse to the area where you want to mount.

2. Position the mounting block, or stand on higher ground from the horse's ground level. Place it next to the saddle, about a foot from the horse's left side.

3. Place the reins over your horse's head and rest them on his neck. Stand at the horse's left shoulder, facing the side of the horse. The reins should be in your left hand. Grab a handful of mane at the base of the horse's neck with the same hand. By the way, never release the reins while you're mounting. It's all part of keeping the horse under your control at all times.

4. Using your right hand, grasp the stirrup iron and turn it toward you, then place your left foot in the stirrup.

5. Swing onto the saddle grasping the hind part of the saddle, or cantle, with your right hand. Bounce on your right leg two or three times, then launch yourself up into the air. Hoist yourself up using the power from your leg more than the strength of your arms. Swing your right leg over the horse's hindquarter, being careful not to touch it, landing gently in the saddle.

6. Place your right foot in the stirrup and adjust your reins. Finally, do not squeeze the horse with your legs as you get your foot into the right stirrup. You may accidentally cue the horse to go forward before you're ready.

This protocol is well established in the English horse community. Equestrian fore-bearers have developed this approach that has withstood centuries of time. It is probably the safest and easiest way to get onto the back of a horse.

Hammer Toe – 5 Treatments and Cures

Our feet carry the burden of our weight each and every day, so you can just imagine how exhausted and strained the feet can be. That is why those precious pair of yours should be taken good care of, because failure to do so can lead to many deformities and feet problems – and one common foot deformity that a lot of people face nowadays is hammer toe.

Hammer toe is a deformity that occurs on the toes of your feet, particularly the second toe. This is usually characterized by bending of the toe joints so that it resembles a hammer. Painful corns and calluses can also appear alongside this deformity. Although it is just a mild foot problem, it can become worse over time if not treated. If you have a hammer toe, do not wait until it gets serious, try these 5 treatment and cures for hammer toes.

1. Feet exercise

The feet also need to be worked out. To avoid it from getting too strained, you should at least stretch out your feet and toes every morning when you wake up. This will help warm the feet up so they can be more tolerant to the pressure that the feet will receive the whole day.

Whenever your feet become sore, you can just stretch and rotate them so that your nerves and muscles will become more relaxed.

2. Corrective footwear

The main reason for foot deformities like hammer toe is a poor-fitting pair of footwear. If you want to treat this foot problem, and to prevent your feet from future problems as well, you should invest in the right pair of shoes for your feet. There are some special corrective footwear, like Morton's Neuroma shoes, that health professionals recommend in order to avoid feet problems.

Moreover, refrain from wearing high-heeled and tight shoes. If you need to wear them, always keep a spare pair of comfortable shoes with you so that you can change if your feet start to ache.

3. Foot straps, cushions and padding

Wearing orthopedic devices can help in reducing the pain and inflammation caused by hammer toe. There are foot straps, cushions and padding that you can readily buy on the market. These medical devices will help correct your feet deformity and make them comfortable during the treatment period.

4. Quick pain relief

If your feet is aching, you can take medications or do some home treatments to relieve the pain that you feel. You can ask the local pharmacy about the medicines that you can take to reduce the soreness of your feet. At home, when your feet is stinging, you can simply place an ice pack on your feet and let the cool temperature soothe your feet. Note that these remedies do not really treat the hammer toe. They just merely aid in giving you quick pain relief.

5. Surgery

Serious hammer toe problems may require surgery. If you have enough money for surgery, then you can opt to undergo some surgical procedures to have your hammer toe corrected. You can just contact your doctor and set up an appointment with him to discuss about your foot problem.