Appalachian Vineyard Flooring – Wine Name But Hardwood Floors

When Anderson Hardwood Floors puts time into making a new product line they think things through. Consumers asked for wider plank flooring with some distressing and a real “vintage” look. Appalachian Vineyard collection was the answer Anderson thought the whole country deserved, and they were right. Then the designers at the Anderson Design Center in Clinton, SC went to work creating the most beautifully hand distressed and hand stained hardwood products. The whole collection is absolutely breathtaking.

The main focus of the Appalachian Vineyard collection is the three maple colors available. The maple planks as well as the whole collection come in 6-1/2″ wide engineered construction. As well as being 6-1/2″ wide the Vineyard collection is distressed for the vintage or worn look that home owners have come to enjoy. In the maple the three colors are Vineyard Maple Chablis, Vineyard Maple Madera, and Vineyard Maple Chateau. All three have colors of wine related products and really appeal to high end consumers.

The next two products offered in the Vineyard collection from Anderson are the distressed hickory products. Hickory is the hardest domestic specie ranging in hardness from 1800 – 2300 psi on the Janka scale. This product on average is 30-50% harder than American oak products. Add that to a wide plank distressed real hickory wood veneer and you have got a dynamite hardwood floor that you and your guests will love discussing over a nice glass of wine and cheese. In the Appalachian Vineyard hickory products the two colors are Vineyard Hickory Cabernet and Vineyard Hickory Tuscany. Both colors are outstanding visually and will add significant value to your home.

Last but certainly not least is my personal favorite, the Vineyard Fumed Birch Pomerol. When you see this hardwood flooring product your bottom lip will actually drop. The fuming process brings out so many colors and marbles the wood grain so well that you will never find another floor that looks that this one. The fuming and distressing process creates a work of art right on your floor with tons of color variation. This floor will definitely be the talk of the cocktail party.

Appalachian Vineyard flooring comes backed by a brand new 50 year finish warranty. This is the longest finish warranty in the hardwood flooring industry to date. Put that together with a trusted name in flooring like Anderson hardwood floors and you could not go wrong. All of the distressing is done by hand as well as hand rubbed staining process. Vineyard hardwood is a classic addition to any home so find a sample today and start living the dream.

Hiring a Business Plan Writer

When the task of having to write a professional and formal business plan arises, sometimes entrepreneurs do not have the necessary experience with writing such a plan, do not feel comfortable doing the plan, or they just do not have the time to complete one. Since a business plan is such a key component in the process of starting up a company, sometimes entrepreneurs outsource this task to a professional business consultant or writer. Although this can add to costs, it is much better to have a proper and professional plan completed. However, it can be a very daunting task to hire the proper individual to write your plan, so below is a check list of qualifications you should look for when hiring a plan writer:

• Look for an individual with extensive experience in writing business plans.

• Ensure you get references from the individual's past employers so you can contact them and ask about the individual's work ethics, talent, and success.

• Ensure you receive a portfolio from the writer on their past business plans written so you can see their work potential.

• Ensure the writer has an education with a business related field such as marketing, finance, or management.

• Obviously request a resume from the writer and even if they do not have a portfolio, you can contact past employers and ask about the business plan writer's work habits and work ethics.

• You should be expected to pay a certain percent deposit as an upfront payment; but never pay the full amount upfront.

• Always ensure you have a legal contract signed by both parties before starting any work with the writer or service as well so that the writer will not steal any ideas or facts from you.

Outsourcing the task of writing your plan to an external source can be a very successful idea as long as you clearly communicate your goals, ideas, and objectives to the business writer and they understand what you're looking for. It's best to look for a business plan writer with the most experience in writing business plans, and always be sure to see their past work so you know what they are capable of producing for you.

You make the When Decision to hire an external business plan writer , you have to Ensure you do the proper preliminary [ background checks before you hire anyone. There are many writers out there and there are actually less "good" writers than there are "bad" according to others who have outsourced their plan. The key is to do all your proper background checks and you'll quickly learn about the business writer, what they are capable of, what their past employers think of them, and whether or not they can give you what you are looking for.

Why You Should Consider a Modular Glass Railing System

The function of any railing system is to add safety to a staircase while adding beauty to the home or business. A carefully designed stair railing will complement any type of architecture, becoming a focal point that grabs the attention of all who enter. There are many reasons to consider a glass stair railing system when designing or remodeling a home or business staircase.

A modular glass railing system is sold as a standard or custom-made kit and is easily assembled by the homeowner, business owner, or contractor. Glass stairs add their own particular ambiance to a residential or commercial structure and do not require any maintenance other than occasional cleaning. Unless you are one of those people who hates washing windows, a glass railing may be just what you need.

A modular stair railing kit makes installation easy because it comes with all of the parts you need plus complete instructions. If you are replacing parts of an existing stairway, you can have custom parts made to your exact specifications. If a kit is not exactly what you need, then custom parts can replace some of the standard parts or a complete kit can be created to give you a one-of-a-kind stairway.

In either a family or business application a glass railing is safe, elegant, and modern. Being a solid structure, children cannot squeeze their bodies between railings or throw objects through. In a commercial setting, glass railings increase the visibility of merchandise and encourage sales. If you purchase the right kind of glass, your glass rail system will last a lifetime.

When installed indoors, a glass stair railing brightens interior space, both reflecting light and allowing light to pass through, lending an open, airy feeling to the surroundings. Outdoors, glass can shelter a deck or balcony from the wind, allow light through, and provide an unobstructed view. Conversely, semi-transparent, patterned, and tinted glass can be use where privacy is an issue, such as on the sides of a deck or balcony. Also, a glass railing can act as a bit of a sound barrier if needed.

Reputable companies that sell these kits can assist you in designing, choosing, and installing your glass railing system. A kit comes complete with all the fittings and pieces needed, along with easy-to-follow instructions. Consider installing a modular glass railing system that will either transform a boring staircase or become a new architectural feature that will delight for years to come.

Crisis Intervention – A Critique

Crisis events are not only associated with adverse mental health conditions for our students, but also with significant learning difficulties. As educators, it is important for us to know what we can do immediately following a crisis involving our students in order to prevent the traumatization that contributes to these negative outcomes.

Crisis intervention in schools today is still in its infancy. No single model has been adopted because of the lack of scientific research indicating a reason to do so. We simply do not yet know what works best with students in schools. We grapple with what will work most effectively, as we continue to rely on cognitive approaches or so-called “talking cures” that ignore the physiology of trauma. Recent scientific research has not supported the use of what is still a widely adopted crisis intervention model: Jeffrey T. Mitchell’s model of critical-incident stress debriefing (CISD). Several studies have found Mitchell’s model to be no more effective than no intervention at all, and in some cases, found it actually increased posttraumatic stress symptoms in a number of the recipients.

Within approximately forty-five minutes, with up to thirty individuals at a time, CISD involves a “fact phase” during which basic information is provided to inform those involved of what to expect. Facts disseminated include common stress reactions and other more debilitating symptoms. This is followed by a “feeling phase” during which, the up to thirty participants are encouraged to answer such questions as “What was the worst part of the incident for you personally?” This phase is followed by suggestions for coping with stress and then “reentry” into the world.

At a presentation Mitchell made of his model that I attended with school district personnel and state department mental health workers, I was most struck by how uncomfortable the audience was as they listened to his proposal. The body language of the audience members indicated that their own stress levels were increased when only watching the video shown of a debriefing session. Many audience members actually rose and left the presentation visibly shaking their heads. During the video, we watched several people delve into the worst part of the trauma for them, clearly becoming aroused physiologically and emotionally, yet within moments, the time was up and the group was left with one last caution. “Be careful driving home,” they were warned, “as you may still be upset” after leaving the intervention.

Individuals have spoken out about their experiences participating in debriefing sessions. After 9-11, for example, many participants indicated that the intervention was not helpful. One participant said that he was “numb” throughout the session and that, weeks later, he was still having nightmares and often felt as though he was choking (Groopman, 2004). Another participant said that hearing other victims describe what they saw and what they suffered was too much. He had to flee the session when another participant described seeing a body part roll down a sidewalk (Begley, 2003). After an earthquake in Turkey, a recipient said, “It was as if the debriefers opened me up as in surgery and didn’t stitch me back up (Begley, 2003, p. 1).”

Cognitive approaches, such as Mitchell’s, that ignore the body’s physiology have the potential to create hysteria because of how readily the body experiences overwhelm. When the body goes through a flooding of stress and emotion, which often happens as one recalls the worst part of the trauma, it protects itself by creating another reality or dissociated state. Hysteria is a form of dissociation. Participants who become hysterical during debriefing sessions are removed from the group so they do not distract other group members (Mitchell & Everly, 1996a). Rather than accept this as an expected outcome of crisis intervention, however, we can bring our new knowledge of the brain and body to the work we do to prevent such responses.

Adaptations of Mitchell’s model are what many educators in the field of crisis intervention rely upon. Some hesitate to make broad conclusions that the model is not helpful (Brock & Jimerson, 2002) despite the growing number of studies that support abandoning debriefing approaches (Gist & Devilly, 2002). Practitioners “remain committed to the principle of debriefing” because “clinical experience” suggests value in the “opportunity to express feelings (Deahl, Gillham, Thomas, Searle, & Srinivasan, 1994, p. 64).” Others consider economic reasons for the continued use of the approach (Arendt & Elklit, 2001). We need something, and it seems we lack any other efficient model to work from. Why else would we continue to use debriefing techniques when calls for caution and restraint have been heard from so many responsible scientists and practitioners (Gist & Devilly, 2002)?

Instead of heeding the many warnings to abandon, debriefers continue their work by creating adaptations of their model. The concern with that response, however, is that without careful consideration of how crises impact the brain and body’s physiology, intervention models continue to be developed and implemented that have the potential to cause the harm described by too many recipients.

In a review of recent developments in the field of crisis intervention, I was alarmed to find how little discussion there was of how the brain and body are impacted by trauma. Crises are repeatedly referred to as psychological events that have to be intervened with psychologically, as though trauma happens to the mind alone. We seem to be determined that our cognitive mind is the most powerful tool we have for healing, when in fact, it is the body, mediated by the ancient reptilian brain, that has the wisdom to know how to naturally recover from trauma and heal itself.

Most people recover from catastrophic events naturally and spontaneously over time. In fact, any “abnormal” behavior witnessed in the aftermath of trauma is actually part of a healthy process of recovery (Groopman, 2004) during which the body does what it knows how to do to process stress to its natural completion. Recall the impala that takes moments to shake off the stress from its attack and then carries on (see chapter four). Whether we are aware of it or not, in most cases, our body naturally finds a way to do the same. It is only a small percentage of people who experience a catastrophic event that will require formal intervention. This small percentage is comprised mostly of individuals with previous histories of trauma, with “fragile emotional profiles and few available resources (Torem & DePalma, 2003, p. 12).” For example, we know that students with previous exposure to traumatic events are more at risk due to the accumulation effect of stress on the nervous system. “The new [traumatic] energy necessitates the formation of more symptoms…[so that the traumatic] response not only becomes chronic, it intensifies” (Levine, 1997, p. 105).

More vulnerable students will likely need formal assistance in recovering from a crisis at school. For the majority, however, we know that the body has the capacity to heal itself, and that healing from stress and trauma is possible simply by being in community with others. These are important points to keep in mind when creating an effective crisis intervention model for schools. Dr. Steven Hyman, the provost of Harvard University, reminds us that the rituals we have adopted through our various cultures can be supportive in our healing and recovery from crisis events. He makes note of shivahs in Jewish cultures and wakes among Catholics. Dr. Hyman stated that, “No one should have to tell anyone anything! Particularly not in the scripted way of a debriefing.” Dr. Hyman has argued that when facing crises it is the power of our social networks that helps us create a sense of meaning and safety in our lives (Groopman, 2004).

Dr. Hyman is not the only responsible academic making statements that “no one should have to tell anyone anything.” A panel of eminent researchers assembled by the American Psychological Society – Richard McNally of Harvard University, Richard Bryant of the University of New South Wales, and Anke Ehlers of King’s College London – has reached a clear conclusion: “Pushing people to talk about their feelings and thoughts very soon after a trauma may not be beneficial…For scientific and ethical reasons, professionals should cease compulsory debriefing of trauma-exposed people (Begley, 2003, p. 2).

With a growing number of studies cautioning us to abandon debriefing approaches, why is telling the story and verbally going over the details of a crisis still considered helpful? Why are cognitive and narrative approaches to crisis intervention gaining support in some professional circles? This trend may be part of a prevailing cultural bias that we can talk our way out of anything. Talking is, for most counselors, the best-known and most comfortable mode of operation. However, no explanation seems to warrant that, as ethical professionals, we ignore a striking body of evidence. Exposure techniques used in cognitive approaches to trauma are “not good for people with brains and not good for people with bodies;” telling the “story will re-traumatize and make things worse (van der Kolk, 2002).”

Dr. van der Kolk, when recently speaking at a professional conference, was open about the fact that like most counselors, he did not know how to pace the work he did with trauma survivors. Like most counselors today, he said he “wasn’t mindful about the effect of having people talk about these very scary things.” Learning about trauma’s impact on the brain is what prompted him to speak around the world educating professionals about the dangers of re-telling the story and the so-called “talking cure.” Crisis intervention specialists working in schools are beginning to acknowledge the dangers. School crisis management research summaries provided in the official newspaper of the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) stated that early crisis interventions involving detailed verbal recollections of events may not be helpful and may place those with high arousal at greater risk (Brock & Jimerson, 2002).

What seems to be most helpful about current approaches in managing crises is meeting in a group and disseminating information. Litz and colleagues published a study comparing the CISD model with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) (Litz, Gray, Bryant, & Adler, 2002). Common between the approaches was education on typical reactions and instruction in coping skills for stress and anxiety. Results indicated that meeting in a group is what helped to maintain morale and cohesion. Group interventions seemed to serve as an opportunity for those in the group to feel less stigmatized, more validated, and empowered. Psycho-education or dissemination of information regarding what to expect was also cited as a helpful part of these crisis approaches. Even single sessions when they were supportive rather than therapeutic were helpful when they (a) assessed for the need for sustained treatment, (b) provided psychological first aid, and (c) offered education about trauma and treatment resources.

Some group interventions have been found to reduce anxiety, improve self-efficacy, and enhance group cohesion (Shalev, Peri, Rogel-Fuchs, Ursano, & Marlowe, 1998). They have also been found to play a role in reducing alcohol misuse (Deahl, Srinivsan, Jones, Thomas, Neblett, & Jolly, 2000). However, it has also been found that single-session group crisis interventions are insufficient for high-risk trauma survivors, those with poor pre-trauma mental health (Larsson, Michel, & Lundin, 2000). Individuals with previous traumas, such as burns, accidents or violent crime, may actually be harmed by single-session group crisis intervention (Bisson, Jenkins, Alexander, & Bannister, 1997; Mayou, Ehlers, & Hobbs, 2000). This information is invaluable as we continue to work together as educators to develop an effective crisis intervention model.

Common Myths About Crises

It is important to address some of the myths that persist today regarding the impact of trauma on our students. These myths are pervasive and stem from outdated beliefs about children that we now have the brain research to refute.

Some Events are More Traumatic than Others

I have witnessed professionals in the field of crisis intervention delve into lengthy presentations about certain events being more traumatic than others. For the most part, these discussions are not helpful. I listened to one presenter talk extensively about a broken arm from a physical assault being more traumatic than a broken arm from a car accident, and about war being more traumatic than an earthquake. It is not a matter of some events being more traumatic than others. Trauma is not in the event; it is in the nervous system (Levine, 1997). Depending on the condition of the individual’s nervous system and available resources before, during, and after the event, what may seem benign to some can be very debilitating to another. Believing that some events can be objectively judged for everyone as more or less traumatic leads to very dangerous assumptions about individual students. We cannot expect that some students will be less traumatized by what we have judged as a less frightening event. This is how we misunderstand students and fail to see their trauma-related symptoms after an event that was terrifying to them.

Trauma Causes Psychological Injury

While it is true that trauma has the potential to induce psychological injury, such a statement does not reflect the whole truth concerning the damage caused by traumatization. When people who are traumatized learn that crises are not simply psychological events but physiological ones, they experience relief. What they are going through is not “in their head;” it is the natural response of the body. People suffer years of anguish following a car accident, for example, or a surgery, believing that they must be going crazy. Their medical doctors tell them that there is nothing physically wrong with them, that there is no reason for their suffering. No one talks to them about what their brain and body have gone through so they conclude that the problem must be in their head. With that conclusion comes the belief that they must be in need of some form of talk therapy. I have seen firsthand how this conclusion leads to hopelessness, as traumatized people make numerous attempts at various forms of therapy with little or no success. They know they do not feel the same inside. They know they have applied all the cognitive techniques they were taught by their well-meaning therapists. They simply do not get better.

Medical tests cannot detect the problem and psychological approaches that do not intervene with the body’s response to trauma leave traumatized people feeling like they are going crazy. When we look at physiology, however, we find answers. We learn that, among other physiological changes, traumatization increases resting heart rates and decreases cortisol levels. Hormones and neurotransmitters are altered in the short term or long term depending upon previous history and resources. Physiological symptoms require a physiological approach. This is what is missing from the crisis intervention programs used today.

Children Look to Adults to Determine How Threatening an Event Is

No matter how young children are, pre-verbal or verbal, they have their own nervous system, their own brain, their own body and mind, and they experience life and its events as much as anyone else. They may not have words for their experiences, and they may look to adults for comfort and understanding in the face of a frightening event, but they do not need to be guided when to feel fear. We cannot tell a student that they are fine and what happened is “no big deal” if, in fact, it was a big deal to them. We stand the risk of shutting down their body’s natural healing mechanism when we do so. There are ways to support the natural process of healing and there are ways to undermine it. Telling students how to feel is an example of how our cognitive mind can interfere with the body’s capacity to heal.

A colleague of mine once shared that when she was a young girl she fell from her bicycle and badly hurt her knee. She was so stunned from the fall that she could not cry. She realized as an adult looking back on the event that she must have been in a state of shock because all she felt was numb. When she arrived at the door of her home and her mother saw that she had been injured but was not crying she was praised for being such a brave girl. “Look at what a good girl you are,” her mother said, “You are not even crying.” After that incident, my colleague said that she made sure she did not cry no matter what else came her way. She used her words, the power of her cognitive mind, to shut down her body’s natural responses so that she would be regarded as brave and strong.

Adults have no way of knowing how threatening or frightening an event is to a child. If we think we can decide objectively what a student’s subjective experience will be, we have no chance of understanding or intervening with students in crisis.

Developmental Immaturity Can be Protective

Some believe that the younger a student is, the less the student will experience fear and terror. This is not supported by scientific evidence. One Nationally Certificated School Psychologist (NCSP) made a presentation at my school district encouraging us to utilize his crisis intervention model. As part of the introduction to his work, he said that both developmentally mature and gifted students are more vulnerable and impacted by crises than their less well-developed peers. Smarter students can be more traumatized than less intelligent students because they realize the event was threatening, he said. They realize the event was traumatic because they are cognitively sophisticated enough to judge the event as threatening. According to this presenter, “Developmentally immature students don’t understand the event, so it is not traumatic for them.”

Trauma is a physiological event that impacts everyone in its wake (to varying degrees) regardless of level of intellect. The school psychologist’s statements demonstrate a dangerous ignorance of science and what the brain and body experience in the face of threat.

Current Attempts at Crisis Intervention in Schools

Several educational professionals from various areas of expertise have attempted to develop crisis intervention models that will meet the needs of schools. Three different men who each developed their own approach presented to my school district on three separate occasions. I will review each of their proposals: (1) Bill Saltzman from the National Center for Child Traumatic Stress, (2) Michael Hass from Chapman University in Orange County, California, and (3) Stephen Brock, a nationally credited school psychologist and coordinator of the Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group.

Saltzman

Dr. Bill Saltzman’s approach emphasizes the need to tailor crisis intervention to the developmental level of the students being served (Saltzman, 2003). He reminds us that students’ responses may be specific to their age and stage of development. For instance, preschoolers may display cognitive confusion. They may not know that the danger is over when a crisis event ends and may need to be given repeated concrete clarifications for anticipated confusions. Older, school-age students may display specific fears triggered by traumatic reminders. They may require help in identifying and articulating those reminders as well as associated anxieties. They may benefit from being encouraged not to generalize, according to Saltzman. Adolescents, on the other hand, may begin to exhibit posttraumatic acting out behavior such as drug use, delinquency, or sexual activity. Saltzman postulates that helping adolescents understand the acting out behavior as an effort to numb their response to, or to voice their anger over, the event may be of benefit.

Importance is placed on family and friendship. Maintaining and nurturing relationships is critical after a crisis event for students at every stage of development. Saltzman points out that sometimes crisis events cause physical relocations that can abruptly interrupt usual daily contact with loved ones. When this happens, it is helpful to make the effort to keep relational ties regardless of physical separation in order to be comforted by them.

Saltzman makes clear that it is always important to reintegrate students back into the school and classroom environment as soon as possible. Somatic complaints and specific fears related to school or loss of a loved one may make it difficult for a student to want to enter back into school. The family and the school need to work together to make sure students’ fears are resolved and attendance in school is maintained.

Saltzman’s model includes an initial interview protocol that asks crisis survivors questions in seven stages. The first step is to gather factual information about where the student was during the event, what they were exposed to and how they knew the people involved. One important question to ask at this stage is whether or not the student has ever experienced any other kind of crisis or trauma, including subjection to violence, serious illness or sudden, unexpected loss. The next four stages of questions have to do with the students’ responses to the crisis. What was their subjective response to the event? Are they exhibiting new behaviors or new concerns since the event? What type of grief responses are they displaying? Finally, in the sixth stage of the interview, students are asked about their coping mechanisms before the final stage of closing the interview is done.

Saltzman’s approach is useful. Awareness and consideration of the different expressions and needs of students at varying developmental levels is helpful. Caution should be made, however, that during times of crises, students may easily and quickly regress back to earlier stages of development so that even adolescents display the behaviors of pre-school children. Saltzman highlighted “anxious attachment” as a possible pre-school response that may involve clinging and not wanting to be away from the parent or worrying about when the parent is coming back. This can happen with teenagers. Like pre-school students, adolescents may also greatly benefit from being reassured about “consistent caretaking” of being picked up after school and always knowing where their caretakers are.

In a review of all of Saltzman’s hypothesized responses of students at different ages, it was easy to see that any one of these responses could come from a student at any developmental level. We do not want to make assumptions about how a student will act given their age. If we have expectations we may not see what we need to. Nonetheless, it is useful to be aware of the possibility of age and stage differences. Especially in teenagers should we expect to see such age-specific behaviors as “premature entrance into adulthood.” Certainly that is something specific to adolescence. However, behaviors attributed to adolescence in Saltzman’s approach, such as “life threatening re-enactment, self-destructive or accident-prone behavior, abrupt shifts in interpersonal relationships, and desires and plans to take revenge,” are readily seen in some younger school age children after a crisis event.

Saltzman’s approach, like most, is cognitive and emphasizes the use of verbal language and asking questions. It is unclear how soon after a crisis event all of the questions from the initial interview protocol are to be asked. Like other cognitive approaches, including the debriefing model, Saltzman asks crisis survivors to talk about their “most disturbing moment” and “worst fear.” We need to learn from the examples we now have available to us that this kind of questioning may increase suffering.

Hass

Dr. Michael Hass has attempted to help schools develop a crisis intervention model utilizing the principles of Solution Focused Brief Counseling (Hass, 2002). His emphasis, like most others, is on interviewing the crisis survivor. The stages of crisis interviewing in his approach include role clarification, a description of the problem, an exploration of current coping efforts, “scaling” of coping progress, formulation of the “next step,” and closure. The focus of this approach is on the establishment of helpful coping skills. Questions during the interview are intended to facilitate coping in order to empower students to take action on their own behalf.

Examples of coping questions include: What are you doing to take care of yourself in this situation? Who do you think would be most helpful to you at this time? What about that person would be most helpful? Have you been through a frightening situation before? How did you get through it then? Developing resources for the student to draw upon during difficult times is key. “Scaling” questions are also related to coping. They help students rate how much better or worse they think they are doing and give a gauge to crisis counselors of how much progress has been made. Together, the counselors and students problem-solve to arrive at solutions for moving the scale in the desired direction.

During Hass’ presentation, he highlighted the importance of telling the story of what happened during the crisis. He stated that researchers have found that putting a traumatic incident into language is a critical feature of the healing process. The idea being that language helps the images and feelings we have about a frightening event become more organized, understood and resolved.

The studies that Hass was referring to were led by Dr. Edna Foa, a professor of psychology at the University of Pennsylvania who, twenty years ago, began studying rape victims. She found that most rape victims spontaneously recovered without the need for formal intervention, but that fifteen per cent developed symptoms of posttraumatic stress (Groopman, 2004). Foa devised a technique of storytelling to restore resilience in those who continued to suffer. The women were asked to tell their story into a tape recorder and listen to it, then re-tell it and listen to it, and so on. Within approximately twenty sessions, Foa found that twenty-nine of the thirty participants experienced a marked improvement in their symptoms and ability to function. She attributed their improvement to the changing of the story over time. It became more organized, with a beginning, a middle, and an end. It was hypothesized that because they were able to give such a well-developed account of the incident, they were more likely to develop perspective on the event, create a sense of distance from it, feel a sense of closure about it, and feel more hopeful about the future.

Hass’ overall focus on strengthening and empowering students to cope after a traumatic event is very helpful. It is important to create a balance in the nervous system between the alarm response triggered by the event and whatever will be soothing to that sense of alarm. However, it is dangerous to recommend a technique to professionals who work with school-aged children, when the few studies that support such an approach have been done with adult women who experienced sexual assault. The appropriateness of using such an approach with students may be suspect, especially when other eminent professionals in the field have seen that telling the story can re-traumatize the victim (van der Kolk, 2002). It is true that when trauma survivors can tell their story in an organized, fluid way without becoming overwhelmed by it, this can be a sign that they are recovering from the experience. Telling the story at some point in a trauma survivors’ treatment may be relevant. However, we are not talking about adults receiving therapy. We are talking about crisis intervention for school-aged students. Now that so many responsible scientists and practitioners are warning us that telling the story can cause hysteria and re-traumatization, it is best not to endorse such an approach to schools.

Brock

Dr. Stephen Brock developed a model of crisis intervention for schools that takes into account the different stages of the event (Brock & Jimerson, 2002). The first stage is the impact, or when the crisis occurs. The next stage is the first phase of the school’s response to the event, which he calls “recoil.” Immediately after the event, the students involved receive “psychological first aid” and, in some cases, medical intervention. Support systems need to be enlisted during this phase, ensuring that loved ones are located and reunited. Psycho-education groups, caregiver training, and informational flyers are also important at this time, as is risk screening and referral for students who may require more intense intervention.

The “postimpact” phase occurs in the days and weeks after the event. This is the time that Brock suggests that group crisis debriefings occur, as well as ongoing psychological first aid, psychotherapy, and crisis prevention/preparedness for the future. Rituals and memorials may be helpful at this time, as well as in the next phase of “recovery/reconstruction.”

Recovery/reconstruction, the final stage of the approach, involves anniversary preparedness. Anniversary reactions have been found to be as intense as initial ones (Gabriel, 1992).

Brock recommends that, before the school responds in the recoil phase, all pertinent staff members meet as a team, clarify their roles, and decide who will do what. There will be a different part to play for school psychologists, nurses, counselors, and administrators.

The psychological first aid approach developed by Brock specifically for schools is called Group Crisis Intervention (GCI). It is designed to work with large groups of students who experienced a common crisis. Such large groups are typically classrooms. The approach is not intended for use with severely traumatized students, whose crisis reactions are thought to interfere with GCI (Brock, 2002). Like in Mitchell’s model, these students are removed from the group and referred to mental health professionals. It is suggested that GCI occur at the start of the first full school day following resolution of the event to ensure that participants are psychologically ready to talk about the crisis (Brock, 2002).

The six-step model includes an introduction, provision of facts and dispelling of rumors, sharing stories, sharing reactions, empowerment, and closing. GCI is ideally completed in one session lasting one to three hours, depending on the developmental level of the classroom of students. Similar to other approaches, group facilitators introduce themselves and define their roles. Opportunities are provided for students to share their stories, their reactions, and become “empowered” through a focus on coping and stress management.

The Advantages of Using an Automatic Transfer Switch

When the electricity goes out in your home, you can usually withstand a few hours of darkness, heat, or cold until it returns. But when your business experiences a power outage, it could prove tragic, especially if its critical functions depend on constant power supply. This very scenario is why many entities, including hospitals, data centers, and even commercial retailers have emergency backup generators. But simply having a backup generator doesn’t mean that you’re prepared for a power outage. To be prepared, you need to ensure that your generator is accessed via an automatic transfer switch and not a manual one.

How Does an Automatic Transfer Switch Differ From a Manual One?

Manual transfer switches predate automatic switches, but they are still used widely today. Unlike automatic switches, manual switches require one to switch from grid power to generator power in the event of power outage, and then back to grid power when it resumes. In automatic switches, special circuitry allows this process to be controlled by computer. In facilities that have a single, conveniently located generator and don’t require constant power, the difference between manual and automatic switches is negligible. But for companies that occupy a campus setting and have more than one generator to service numerous buildings, automatic switches offer the most convenience.

When you choose automatic switches over manual ones, you have another decision to make: do you need “make before break” switches or “break before make” switches? The former immediately connect a building to generator power as it remains on grid power, while the latter waits to access generator power until it reaches a certain frequency. As one might expect, make before break models are favored by entities that need power at all times. But they do come with a risk: if grid power suddenly returns while generator power is also accessed, a power surge could occur. However, because the period where both sources are accessed is brief, the danger is considered minimal.

If you are considering protecting your business with an emergency generator, understand that generators benefit more than companies whose critical services require constant power. Generators can also benefit retail outlets, fitness clubs, service centers, and any operation where sales depend on maintaining a powered environment. Before you buy a generator, it’s best to consult with a provider of emergency power equipment to determine which type of switch arrangement is best for your business. Power outages can happen at any time. By equipping your business with generator power, you’ll do more than keep the lights on. You’ll also conduct business as usual while the competition remains in the dark.

Frontal Baldness – Treatment For Frontal Thinning Hair With Rogaine, Propecia, And A Hair Transplant

If you have started to notice your hair thinning and frontal baldness beginning then you need to know that it is not the end of the world. Frontal male baldness is a condition that, if dealt with quickly and properly, can be cured. Frontal hair loss is something that over 75% of men will deal with at some point in their lifetime. Of course if you are a younger man then this can be more difficult on you psychologically and socially. No one wants to be the only guy at the party with frontal thinning hair. Luckily today I will tell you about a frontal baldness treatment, including some good information about Propecia, Rogaine, and frontal hair transplant options.

Frontal hair loss

Frontal hair loss can occur in both men and women. You may start to notice the peak of your hairline slowly receding back. Some men experience a widow’s peak as the hair on the side of their forehead seems to fall back into the scalp. Don’t be too worried about this. There are lots of very handsome celebrities with frontal baldness like Jude Law and Jack Nicholson. They have showed off their thinning hair with strength and courage.

Frontal male baldness

Of course men lose their hair more than women do. This is due to an excess of testosterone in men that causes the hair to die off quicker. Just think of yourself as being more manly if you don’t have a lot of hair on the frontal part of your head.

Frontal baldness – Provillus

Provillus is like Minoxidil as it will help stop your hair from falling out or slow down the process. Unfortunately men have experienced mixed results with this kind of treatment. Some say it works wonders, but then others have been complaining that it causes chest pain and heart conditions. I’m sure you already know that there isn’t any fool-proof cure. If there really was one then frontal baldness wouldn’t be a problem at all.

Frontal baldness – Rogaine

Rogaine has been used for frontal baldness for years, as it is the most trusted anti-hair loss drug. The thing is that Rogaine works much better on baldness in the crown areas than it does for frontal baldness. That is why I would feel much better recommending the following drug.

Propecia

Propecia is most likely the best cure for frontal baldness. Why do I say that? Well, Propecia will stop the whole balding process right in its tracks. It is well-known to slow down baldness and even to make hair grow back in some instances. Frontal thinning hair has also been seen to grow back after using Propecia, but as I said before, it is much more useful for other kinds of hair loss.

Frontal Hair Transplant

The most drastic frontal baldness treatment you can choose is a frontal hair transplant. What is this? Well, what they do is cut a patch of skin off the back of your head that has hair growing on it. They then stitch that up, leaving a thin scar that is not visible as long as you don’t shave your head. They then take that patch of hair and surgically implant it onto the front of your head where the frontal baldness is occurring.

Why Were EPCOT Countries Chosen and Why Are They Positioned There?

One of my favorite parts in all of Walt Disney World is the world showcase section of Epcot. Experiencing the various cultures, especially the food and beverages that each country exhibits gives a person the ability to see many other cultures in a short period of time. But have you ever wondered why the countries were set up the way they are, and why some are included and others are not? As with most everything interesting, there’s usually a story behind it.

The World Showcase at Epcot is represented by 11 countries centered on a large lagoon. The distance around the lagoon totals about 1 ¼ miles, and when the countries were being selected any country was welcome to place a bid. In some cases they had to get countries to agree on costs, and for that or for some reason couldn’t come up with an agreement. In fact, three pavilions were advertised as part of the project but were never built: Spain, Israel and Equatorial Africa. It is said that Spain still might be represented at some point in the future.

The original plan was to have the American showcase as the centerpiece, and that would have been the place from where visitors would start the showcase. From there they would go to Mexico to the left or Canada to the right, which of course are our natural geographic neighbors. Then it was decided that the American adventure, being the focal point of the entire area should be on the opposite side as the draw for people to circle the lagoon. That’s the way it’s set up now, as it is more visually appealing as the centerpiece of all of the lands across the lagoon. But Canada and Mexico remained where they are today.

In order to make sure that every country was equal, the frontage is the same as is the height of their tallest feature. In the interior some may spread out a bit more than others, but each is equal in frontage space. Morocco is interesting in that it didn’t cost Disney anything to build. The King of Morocco at the time was so thrilled to be part of the showcase that he sent his own people over to build it, totally paying for its construction. Another thing about Morocco is at night when the countries are all lit up as part of its illuminations, the temple in Morocco is not lit up as it would violate their religious beliefs.

Modern Architecture

Modern architecture is a style found in the buildings that have simple form without any ornamental structures to them. This style of architecture first came up around 1900. By 1940, modern architecture was identified as an international style and became the dominant way to build for many decades in the 20th century. Modern architects apply scientific and analytical methods to design.

Many historians relate the origins of this style of architecture to the social and political revolution of the time, though others see modern architecture as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. The availability of new materials such as iron, steel, concrete, and glass brought about new building techniques as part of the industrial revolution. Some regard modern architecture as a reaction against ancient building style. Above all, it is widely accepted as a matter of taste.

For the international style, the most commonly used materials are glass for the facade, steel for exterior support, and concrete for the floors and interior supports. The floor plans are functional and logical. But, many people are not fond of the modern style. They find its stark, uncompromisingly rectangular geometrical designs quite inhumane. They think this universal style is sterile, elitist, and lacks meaning.

Modern architecture challenged traditional ideas about the types of structures suitable for architectural design. Only important civic buildings, aristocratic palaces, churches, and public institutions had long been the mainstay of architectural practices. But, modernist designers argued that architects should design everything that was necessary for society, even the most humble buildings.

Architects began to plan low-cost housing, railroad stations, factories, warehouses, and commercial spaces. In the first half of the 20th century, modern architects produced furniture, textiles, and wallpaper – as well as designing houses – to create a totally designed domestic environment. The aesthetics used by modern architects celebrated function in all forms of design, from household furnishings to massive ocean liners and new flying machines.

Modern architecture originated in the United States and Europe and spread across the rest of the world. The characteristic features that made modern architecture possible were buildings, stylistic movements, technology, and modern materials.

Trouble Shooting – The WW2 Carburetor

Failure of the engine to operate is rarely caused by carburetor defects.  If it is determined that the carburetor is responsible (that is, the ignition system is working properly and fuel is reaching the carburetor), the carburetor may be clogged or the float level may be improperly set.  The only adjustments the shade tree mechanic can make on the carburetor are adjustments to the idling speed, idling mixture, choke control mechanism, and the accelerator pump.  Improper adjustment should not prevent engine operation, but proper adjustment is necessary for maximum operating efficiency.  Let’s face it the World War Two jeep is not the most efficient vehicle to begin with–so anything we can do to help, is great.

Connections

Look for leaks at the fuel-line connections.  If any leakage cannot be stopped by drawing up the union nut, there maybe a split tube or a poor seat in the union.  A damaged flare should be cut off and a new flare made with a flaring tool.  Packing with a string may serve as a temporary “field” repair.  If the fuel contains a dye, a fuel leak may be indicated by an accumulation of the dye.  But it should be remembered that the porous metal used for some castings sometimes permits a small amount of seepage, and an accumulation of dye may be due to this rather than a fuel leak. Leakage may be caused by a split adapter, in which case temporary repair can be made by soldering.  NOTE:  Use caution when attempting to solder anything used in the fuel system.  The parts should be cleaned of all fuel residue before attempting to solder.  If you do not already know how to solder, just procure new parts!

Fuel Bowl

Fuel seeping out around the fuel-bowl cover indicates a loose cover, a damaged gasket or casting, or a defective float valve.  Slight seepage is probably due to a loose cover. Extensive seepage is likely to be caused by a defective float valve.  NOTE: The “defective float valve” could simply be the result of contaminated fuel – dirt/rust, etc.

Remove the fuel-bowl cover to examine the float. If the float contains fuel, causing it to lose buoyancy, determine where the fuel entered the float and drill a small hole (1/8 in.) at this point.  Drain the fuel from the float, and patch the hole with a light drop of solder.  NOTE: See comment above about soldering. Today it practical just to obtain a new float in a carburetor rebuild kit.

If the float needle valve and seat show indications of wear, replace them with new parts and new gaskets.  From the specifications of the carburetor, adjust the carburetor, determine the correct float level, and set the float by bending the float support arm.  Hold the float in the closed position and blow into the fuel-line adapter.  No air should pass through the valve.  NOTE: For Willys MB and Ford GPW carburetors, set the float with a gage or 3/8 in.

Examine the gasket.  Replace it if there are any breaks or hardened sections.  Be sure the new gasket does not obstruct any apertures in the housings. Draw down the cover screws evenly.

Plug Caps

Inspect all caps covering the check valves and jets.  Tighten any of these that leak.  If the flange nuts are loose this will impact performance.  Tighten the flange nuts holding the carburetor to the manifold assembly.

Fuel Stainer

Remove fuel strainer cover from the strainer.  Wash the strainer with cleaning fluid and a brush and dry it with compressed air.  Examine strainer gasket, and replace if compressed or damaged.  You can also replace the contents of the fuel strainer with a modern filter.  Kits are sold by various WW2 jeep parts supplier.

Testing Coil – 3 Simple Methods To Accurately Test Any Coils Or Inductor

Testing coil is very easy compares to checking three leads components such as SCR, FET and etc. In general, a coil consists of many turns or wire wrapped around a common core. The core could be made of iron or even air. When an electric current passes through the coil, a magnetic field is produced. A coil in some respect s acts just opposite a capacitor. A capacitor blocks DC while allowing AC to flow through it; a coil allows DC to flow through it while restricting AC current flow. Another name for a coil is an inductor.

Coil or inductor can be test using an analog, inductance or a coil meter such as the dick smith flyback tester. A coil that is small in size, I would usually just test it with analog meter and you could check it on board too. Set your analog meter to X1 ohm and place the probes across the small coil. The meter should show some reading (or continuity) and this proved that the coil winding is okay. Small coils seldom spoilt because it have less winding compares to big coils where it could have many turns of winding and chances for it to go shorted is very high.

Testing bigger coil or inductor such as the computer monitor B+ coil, you need an inductance meter to find out the exact inductance value which is in the unit of henry (h). From experienced using an inductance meter to check coils to see if it good or bad is not recommended because a shorted coil (shorted between winding) could have a good inductance value and you would miss out checking a bad coil. Unless you want to use the inductance meter to calculate the reading and do rewinding, looping and etc on that coil. I would only test a big coil with dick smith flyback meter. Any shorted winding in it could be easily detected by this meter.

Now is the time to share my true case example- a computer dealer send me a monitor for repair with power blink symptom. Usually I do not straight away repair the monitor but I would first use the flyback tester to scan all the major coils (smps, flyback, b+ coil and horizontal deflection coil) before using my digital or analog meter to do testing. When measuring the B+ coil, the Led lights went off and it suppose to show at least 5 LED bars and above. Upon soldering out the coil, I did not see any burn mark at the winding or loop and in fact it looks shiny. Because I trust the meter, I opened up the winding and to my surprised the internal winding had burnt into crisp but the outer winding looks good indeed! A new B+ coil restored the monitor to life.

By using a flyback tester for testing coil, it has helped me to locate many shorted coils in switch mode power transformer primary winding, B+ coil, flyback transformer primary winding and horizontal deflection coil. The flyback meter can even be used to check the condition of ballast in fluorescent lamp too!

What is A UNO Lamp Shade?

I know. We know. Do UNO?

Lamp Shade Fitter Styles

Over the last couple years I have noticed a geometric increase in the number of requests that we receive for a certain UNO type lamp shade.

The UNO lamp shade has been around for a long time but due to the overwhelming influence of low priced Chinese imports, this shade type is like a cold virus and is unfortunately spreading very rapidly.

First it is important to define a couple of terms. The spider is the wire structure near the top rim of the shade frame which radiate outwards from the center. The fitter is the very center section of the spider that fits onto the lamp or lamp hardware. There are different fitter types and each will be addressed in detail below.

The harp fitter is the most secure method used to attach a shade onto a lamp. It is a metal wire and somewhat “u” shaped hardware piece that comes in many different lengths to accommodate different shade lengths. The harp fits into a saddle which is another smaller (3″) metal hardware piece which is built onto the lamp immediately beneath the electrical socket. When the harp is snapped into the saddle, it creates a very secure and long lasting mount for the lamp shade. Most harps have a swivel feature near the top which allows the shade to be tilted at an angle so you can aim the light for better reading and work projects.

The clip fitter method is a wire assembly that simply clips onto the bulb. It is normally built onto and is an integral part of the lamp shade. The clip adapter is also available as a separate component and can be attached to any shade to convert any shade to a clip on shade. This lamp shade fitter is recommended for smaller lamp shades only because it becomes very unstable when used with larger shades.

The chimney fitter shade has a very large fitter hole in the center so that it can slip down over a glass chimney commonly found on oil lamps.

The uno fitter is the last type of lamp shade fitter although there are some other specialty fitters which you are unlikely to encounter. The uno shade is similar to the chimney fitter shade in that the center hole is large enough to slip down over the electrical socket or is threaded so it screws onto the rim of the electrical socket.

The uno shade has some serious issues to consider. First, it can be an electrical hazard if disturbed because it rests directly on the electrical assembly. Second, when you need to replace the uno shade you are forced to use another uno shade. Replacement uno shades are simply not available except at a very few full service lamp shops. Even then you are lucky to find even a single size available. Third, the uno shade is very unstable and when it becomes unstable you are not only ready for a new lamp shade but probably a lamp repair.

A genuine antique lamp with a uno fitter shade is a very special and separate consideration that can only be addressed on an individual basis. Do not change anything on an antique lamp without first consulting an experienced antique lamp professional.

Summary: If you have a uno lamp shade we recommend that you change it to a harp fitter lamp shade (excluding antique lamps). Simply add a saddle ($.50) underneath the socket then select your favorite replacement shade. You will need a harp ($ 2) of the correct size which is usually (3″) shorter than your shade. A lamp and shade shop will fit the shade and harp for you. You will have a much sturdier and safer lamp and shade plus changing shades in the future will be easy.

– Jim Hoyle

You Can Do Better in Door to Door Sales With These Opening Line Suggestions

Many people ask me why the script they use in door to door sales is not working well. One reason is often that they ask the big question too early. When I say “the big question” I mean asking for the goal of your visit. It could be to come in to the home, it could be to get an order, it could be to get an appointment later.

I recently was working with a company that offers a free water heater if you use their natural gas service. Their door to door team was saying. “I am here to sign people up for a free water heater. Would you like to have a free water heater”. Even though it is free, almost no one accepted the offer. It is too abrupt. They went for the “big question” too early.

Here are some ideas that made this script much more effective:

“Hello, I am Carl With Acme Utilities. We are in the area offering a free new water heater to people who’s water heater is more than 5 years old. Is you water heater five years old or more?” (They only worked in neighborhoods where it was very likely that the water heaters were old). This is a question almost everyone would answer “yes” to.

“Good. Since your heater is that old, we are offering a free upgraded heater that will save you about $10.00 per month on your utility bills. Would a sav9ings of $10.00 per month be a good things for you?” Again, this is a question almost everyone will answer in the affirmative.

“Great. Also, these newer heaters produce about 30% more hot water than the old inefficient model you have now. Would you like it if you never ran out of hot water in the middle of a shower again?” This is also a question most people will agree with.

Once you have them answering “yes” to a few easy questions, you should assume your goal. Don’t end by asking, “Do you want a free water heater”, just say. “Great, I’ll get the paperwork started.”

If you really want to success in door to door sales, never just say what comes to your mind. Write out your script and work on it to cut the words that don’t lead to a sale, to increase the benefits you show the customer and to make your opening more powerful.

If you lay the foundation by building interest and getting answers to smaller, easier questions, your door to door sales scripts will work much better.

Check Out the Rules for Playing the Bumper Pool Table Game

Bumper pool is a unique version of the pool game. It is played with the help of pool sticks like the ones used in billiard table games. However this is where the similarities end. In this game you must shoot directly into the hole rather than shooting a ball for hitting another into the hole. You could even play defense by knocking the ball of your opponent into a tough position. It is actually an obstacle billiard game where the players shoot around obstacles for banking them into the pocket.

Octagonal bumper pool tables are appreciated for space-saving properties in comparison with other billiard table games. Moreover it is available in a 3-in-1 model which could be used as a card table or dining table.

Setup of the Game

The bumper pool is usually played by 2 persons or 4 persons in 2 teams. Each team or player selects either 5 red or 5 white balls. Out of them, one red ball consists of a white dot and a white ball has a red dot. They should be pocketed first in the game. One person places 2 red balls on each side of the white pocket and the marked red ball just in front of the white pocket. Another one places 2 white balls on each side of the red pocket and the marked white ball facing the red pocket at the other end of the table.

Starting the game

While starting the game, you should place your spotted cue ball facing the scoring hole on your side. Both the players strike the spotted cue ball simultaneously and bounce it off the edge of the table to their right side in order to get it in the scoring hole on the other side of the table.

Order of turns

The player spotting the cue ball end close to the scoring hole goes first. He goes on shooting till he fails to hit into the scoring hole. Then it’s the turn for the other player.

Game Play

Every player should shoot toward the pocket on the opposite side of the table. In order to start the game both the players strike their respective marked balls simultaneously by banking them off the side of the table in the right direction. The players strike directly in bumper pool and not with cue ball as in case of the regular pool. If you are the first one to strike directly in the pocket at the opposite end of the table, you should continue your turn. In case if no one strikes, both return their marked balls to the starting point for shooting again. If both the persons hit directly into the pocket, each should place one of their remaining balls before the pocket and take the second shot in the similar way. The turn of a player continues till he fails to hit in the pocket.

Striking into the Wrong Hole

If you strike into the wrong hole, it will count. However your opponent could place two of his balls into the hole by his hand. If a player strikes the last one in the wrong scoring hole, he will lose the game.

Penalties

If you accidentally pocket the ball of your opponent, it remains pocketed. If you accidentally strike in the wrong scoring pocket or pocket a solid ball before the marked ball, the opponent could remove two of the balls from the table and pocket them. It will be an automatic loss, if you shoot the last one into the wrong scoring pocket. If you knock a ball off the table, your opponent may place it anywhere on the table. Moreover your opponent could place it in the center of the bumpers as it is the most difficult place for making the shot.

Check out these simple rules for bumper pool table game and play this game in a perfect way in your leisure hours.

7 Explanations Why We Are Fascinated By the Moon

The moon, one of our most admired heavenly bodies’, creates awe and excitement every time we gaze at it in the depths of the night sky. We are fascinated by its illumination taking center stage among the stars and other celestial bodies in space.

With the help of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the capability for humankind to explore the moon, and learn about the discovery of our universe, solar system, earth and space, pioneered a universal opportunity for science, aeronautics and space exploration. President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 and President John F. Kennedy’s vision of the United States of America sending astronauts to the moon by the end of the 1960’s became a reality. With the help of the Apollo 11 spacecraft, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin were the first men to walk on the moon on July 20, 1969. Thus, Moon Day is celebrated each year on July 20.

Why is there such a fascination with the moon?

1. The lunar illumination dramatically transforms from the new moon to the full, waxing and waning phases. This type of metamorphosis is intriguing.

2. The mystery, commanding power, energy, intuition and presence the moon has, captivates our curiosity about this celestial body.

3. The moon is the sole universal body that can be seen from Earth, without needing the assistance of a telescope. It is the closest heavenly body to planet earth.

4. There are many legends associated with the cycles of the moon that transcends generations.

5. The peculiar behavior that occurs among humans and animals during a full moon is studied and analyzed.

6. The moon influences and inspires writers to compose poems, novels, nursery rhymes and other folklore about it.

7. There is a connection to divine creation and wisdom with this cosmic sensation.

Watching a lunar eclipse, witnessing the moon’s presence during daylight or staring at a full moon as it casts a spotlight on a starry night makes people pause, and gives them the motivation to observe and wonder about the other planetary bodies that find their place among the heavens. The reasons why people are so fascinated by the moon encapsulates scientific curiosity and discovery, as well as inspiration for creativity and meditation.

The Benefits of Under Cabinet Lighting in Your Kitchen

Installing under cabinet lighting in your kitchen has many benefits. Under cabinet lighting uses low-voltage bulbs to make tasks easier and safer by delivering directed light to a specific area. Under cabinet lighting can provide two functions in your kitchen. It can provide task lighting for countertop food preparation and accent lighting to highlight your countertops and backsplash. Although under cabinet is also useful in workshops, garages, and basements, here we will focus on the kitchen.

Benefits of Under Cabinet Kitchen Lighting

1) Energy efficient – Can save energy by eliminating the need to light up an entire room.

2) Variety of bulbs – Energy efficient lights bulbs are most often used for under-the-cabinet lighting fixtures. Common under cabinet light bulbs include fluorescent, halogen, LED, and xenon bulbs.

3) Eliminate shadows – Under cabinet lighting reduces the shadows created by wall cabinets and overhead ceiling lighting. Proper spacing of under cabinet lighting eliminates the dark shadows under your countertops. To eliminate shadows, install one light for every 20-30 inches of counter space.

4) Add unique style and distinction to your kitchen – Many kitchen countertops are made from granite or marble. A kitchen under cabinet light can make your stone countertops shine.

5) Simple installation – Many DIYers can install under cabinet lighting in just a few hours.

Types of Under Cabinet Lighting: Strip Lights, Puck Lights, Linear Lights

Strip Lights: These are rectangular shaped fixtures and they work well with fluorescent bulbs. They are great for providing diffused light to the kitchen.

Puck Lights: These are round fixtures that got their name from their round, hockey puck- like size and appearance. These lights are best for highlighting countertops and backsplashes. Puck lights work with LED, halogen and xenon bulbs. Puck lights can be mounted in different positions to either aim downward or at the backsplash. As an alternative, puck lights can usually be recessed into cabinets.

Linear lights: Linear lights are often used with fluorescent bulbs. They are the most popular types of fluorescent under cabinet kitchen lighting because they are thin, which allow them to be concealed behind the cabinet trim.

Types of Bulbs Used: Fluorescent, Halogen, Incandescent, LED and Xenon.

Fluorescent bulbs – These are commonly used for under cabinet lighting fixtures. They create a bright work area by providing clear light. The disadvantage of fluorescent lights is that they cannot be dimmed and they sometimes flicker.

Halogen bulbs – Homeowners seeking a bright, white light choose halogen bulbs. The light emitted from a halogen bulb is warm and bright and provides a nice amount of light from under the cabinet. These bulbs have an extremely long life, lasting up to 2,000 hours.

Incandescent bulbs – These bulbs are the least popular under cabinet bulb type as their light is not very bright. Incandescent bulbs are not energy efficient and they emit heat. They last half as long as halogen bulbs.

LED bulbs – These bulbs are becoming a more popular choice among homeowners as they become more commonly available at lighting and home improvement stores. LED bulbs are available in different colors they and provide homeowners with the ability to create unique decorative features. LED bulbs are best for puck lighting.

Xenon bulbs – These bulbs have the longest lifespan of all under cabinet light bulb options. They can last up to 10,000 hours. They are energy efficient as they do not create heat.

Tips for Successful Under Cabinet Lighting

o One 12-inch lighting fixture or 3-puck light fixture should be installed for every 4 ft. of countertop.

o Install the lights toward the front of the cabinet so that they will highlight the surface best.