The Tasks Of A House Painter

The ability to apply your expertise in painting a house requires one to have skill and knowledge on what to do. This skill is not based on application of paint on the wall rather it is to apply techniques that are useful to how the painter arrives to his final goal that is to paint the house in a professional way. The durability of his occupation depends on his capability to preserve his skills and workmanship on the job at hand. These phases of workmanship are determined by the following phases:

  • Phase one; This comes before painting and the painter has to make sure that the previous paint is scrubbed of the walls before painting and sealing up cracks and evening out the wall. This will involve power scrubbing and making general repairs on the walls so as to even out the walls in preparation for painting.
  • Phase two; Painting is done at this stage and making sure the coats are well placed without uneven layers for a professional look. By making sure you have bought quality materials that are quality paint, brush sprayer and roll on sprayer for your painting job.The equipments may vary depending on what you prefer to get the job done. One coat of paint is never enough to get the job done its advisable to apply more coats for durability and for the color to appear well placed.
  • Phase three; This last stage is putting the finishing touches on the painted house and depending on your environment as paint is known to deteriorate due weather elements it is advisable to apply another coat of protective additional layer to secure the paint in place and prevent the paint from dripping of the walls.

These phases are vital to the application of paint and no matter your budget you can not skip any of this phases that is if you want your home to look good and for the paint to last longer. Refusing to adhere to these stages might cost you more expenses and you can plan ahead if you're financially strapped to avoid future expenses.

Planning is very important to getting your house looking amazing, as your home symbolize your taste and style. Allow a professional to do the job for you although it may look easy it takes skill, experience and workmanship to make our house look beautiful. You can also search on the internet to find a good painter near your location.

Crystal Chandelier for an Attractive Room

If you hear the word lighting fixture, what is the first thing that comes up to your mind? I would say crystal chandeliers. Since, crystal chandeliers are well-known sophisticated and attractive lightning that you can put in a home.

Through the 15th century crystal chandeliers are said to be a popular decorative designs for the homes and other commercial establishments. Sometimes crystal chandeliers are said to determine your way of living in the society.

The use of crystal chandeliers started many decades ago. We usually see crystal chandeliers hanging in our living rooms, dining areas and hallways. As time pass by, the use of crystal chandeliers started to bloom. Almost everyone wish to own or have a crystal chandelier. Others spend hundreds of thousands of money just to buy a crystal chandelier.

Nowadays crystal chandeliers are also use as a decoration for the bedrooms. It is said that a crystal chandelier can help in making a room look more beautiful. Crystal chandeliers give a different look into a room because of the magical colors from its lightings.

Other interior designers said that crystal chandeliers can be turn into a modern look that will make them add more distinguishable effects on the color and aura of your rooms. With the use of crystal chandeliers you’re trying to show a different look or a new way to emphasize the aura of your house.

Craft experts say that our crystal chandeliers can now be turn into a more modern design. We can turn the colors of the crystal chandeliers into a focal point that can create a more dramatic look instead of just a plain light source. While other crystal chandeliers can be crafted in different abstracts with the shades of a sulk drum.

Other crystal chandeliers are often ornate with many lamps and other shapes of glass, which illuminates the room in many patterns. Crystal chandeliers can make you feel you belong to a royalty family because of the underlying and exquisite beauty it radiates.

Because of the majestic charm, which crystal chandeliers possess, it attracts most people to decorate their houses with it. When buying your crystal chandeliers there are lots of different designs that you could choose from which are sold in the market. It will really depend on your taste on how you will choose a crystal chandelier for your home. There are different chandeliers that are made from the crystals, brass, wrought irons and so many more.

To be able to decide on what kind of crystal chandelier will fit your room, always start with decorations that are simple in colors or those crystal chandeliers that will be predominant in the decoration of your rooms.

Be reminded that blending in all the decorations in your room is very important to make it more look beautiful and attractive.

As soon as you purchase the crystal chandelier you want, you can now hang it out to your room. Definitely, your room looks wonderful as the crystal chandelier is hanging there.

Surely you know that crystal chandelier can make your home or your room in particular, so you have to take some time to clean it up. Clean the crystal chandelier so to maintain its appeal and spark. Just be extra careful in cleaning it.

The Prosumer Kitchen

Television these days is full of cooking shows. On channels like the Food Network, it is all cooking, all the time. This trend has bred a new kind of celebrity – the celebrity chef – and the popularity of cooking shows is at a fever pitch because of it. These celebrity chefs have helped create a renewed interest and focus on cooking and the kitchen, and people everywhere are scrambling to buy their branded cookware and remodel their kitchens to more closely resemble the professional kitchens of those celebrity chefs on TV.

And why not? Those kitchens on TV are GREAT! But in actual practice, it is not always practical to have a huge professional range or a walk-in freezer in your 2 bedroom ranch house or 3rd floor walk-up. The good news is that you can find a happy medium that lets you get in on the action without creating a full scale restaurant grade kitchen in your own home. Enter the "prosumer" kitchen.

The name "prosumer" is a combination of "professional" and "consumer," making a prosumer kitchen a professional grade kitchen that is actually practical to have in the home. In a prosumer kitchen, you may find high heat ranges, large capacity freezers, large capacity refrigerators, bigger ovens, and more. The difference is that, unlike actual professional kitchen equipment, the prosumer equipment does not usually require that you make all of the extra fire safety and prevention modifications to your actual kitchen that true commercial equipment would require.

For example, you could not take the local Italian eatery's pizza oven and put it in your own kitchen without getting it away from any wood cabinetry and having a fire suppression hood installed. With a prosumer kitchen oven, however, you can get nearly the same results without those costly modifications.

The prosumer trend extends to the visual aesthetics of your kitchen, as well. You can find stainless steel and other metal finishes at nearly all appliance price points nowadays, reflecting the public's favor towards the styles they see in the professional and commercial kitchens of the world. If you are planning a bit of a prosumer kitchen makeover of your own, those metal finished appliances are a great place to start, even if you do not have room for a large capacity fridge in your kitchen. Smaller refrigerators nowadays still offer the metal finishes, as well as other handy trappings that up the functionality, like sliding drawer freezers, and special space saving racks built into the doors.

During your prosumer makeover, you should not only focus on the appliances, though. Little finishing touches, like great window treatments and sleek dishware really help you get the feel of a professional kitchen right there in your own home. When you swap out your cabinet handles for ones that have metal finishes similar to your new appliances, then things look even more pulled together – try oil rubbed bronze cabinet pulls and other oil rubbed bronze cabinet hardware for a warm, yet modern look, and don 't forget the locksets and door knobs while you're at it!

If you are a fan of the celebrity chef, and the cooking shows are constantly on your TV screen, there is no doubt that you will be one of the many people out there that enjoy a prosumer kitchen. It's the perfect way to get a high functioning, professional level kitchen that looks great without having to go the whole commercial route.

The Essential Gardening Tools

The Essential Gardening Tools

If you are someone who's passionate about gardening, you should be armed with the right tools. Listed below are the basic tools every gardener should start with. After years of experience I can provide you with a few types available in each category and tell you what my favorite's are.

The Trowel
This is a versatile gardening tool that should always be ready at hand. It is used to plant small plants and scoop soil in pots. It can also be used to remove stubborn weeds. The trowel is the all purpose tool in your arsenal and having more then one is quite acceptable. There are many verities available but my favorite is an all plastic model. I have had a problem with the expensive metal versions before because they always seem to slip their handle while I am working vigorously. No such trouble with the all plastic model.

The Shovel
Shovel is used for many jobs. It can also be used to move or remove dirt but its main purpose in my garden is to dig holes. I recommend you invest in a high quality shovel. You need both kinds- a spade and a flat head shovel. After breaking most every type available I ended up with an all metal shovel, metal handle and metal blade all in one. I have not been able to break this one yet.

Shears
If you are working with trees and plants, it is essential that you buy the right shears. Make sure that you buy a high quality model even though it means you will have to pay extra. You should accept the extra cost and get the best. I have bought cheap shears and broke them in one day. Back they went and I came home with the top end model, by the way this shear is still doing it job after 10 plus years. You will find three different types, long blade to trim hedges, lopping shears designed to cut larger branches and small hand shears made to snip and trim small branches and shoots. Shear blades should be kept clean and very sharp and be lubricated with light oil. Follow this advice and your shears will last for years and be there when you need them, or your neighbor needs them!

The Hose
Having water in your garden when and where you need it is very important. In fact it is what separates us from our ancestors who had to make due with ditches or buckets to water their gardens. With the Garden hose we can have that water when and where it is needed. You can choose to spend a lot or a little. I have bargain cheap hoses and expensive hoses and they both do their job. If you seek quality look for a garden hose that has several layers of ply walls and good thick brass fittings. If you have a long hose, buy a hose rack or reel for easy and hassle free storage. I use both a reel that is mounted to the wall and a wheeled rack I can move around the yard as needed.

The Rake
A good rake (maybe two) should be at the ready in your garden. Need to sweep up leaves or debris that gather up in your garden? Your rakes should be ready to go. The rake can be made several ways depending on the intended use. There is the heavy iron rake that can rake leaves and be used to smooth gravel and dirt. There is the rake made with thin metal or bamboo strips. This rake is best used for raking leaves as the tougher jobs will cause the tines to bend too much. I have both the heavy and the light Rakes but mine are made with heavy fiberglass handles. This type of handle cost more but will never give you splinters when the rake and wood handle gets older.

The Wheelbarrow and Garden cart
If you Garden or just need to do yard work, you will need to move things around such as loads of leaves, grass, dirt etc. You may need to work with heavy tools out at a far corner of the yard. The wheelbarrow is best to move the loads and a garden cart may work better to move your heavy tools.

The wheelbarrow and garden cart are very important to help you transport heavy loads without hurting your back. The wheelbarrow is available made from metal or plastic. Both are fine but I actually prefer the heavy plastic model as my first wheelbarrow was thin metal and only lasted a few years before rusting and bending and being discarded.

The garden cart is kind of like a little red wagon but made much larger for doing real work. Find a model with heavy construction and larger inflatable wheels. Take note if you have a riding mower, some garden carts are made so as to be able to be pulled with your riding mower like a trailer. Some garden carts have sides that fold down and some models have a rear gate and can dump a load by pulling a pin in front. Look at a few before you buy. Find the model you feel will work best for your situation.

As you can see having the right tools can make life much easier when yard work and gardening is on the agenda. If you love your tools as I do then you should take pride and feel right at home with your garden tool collection.

Features of a Lift You Can Trust

Installing a beach house lift is a smart choice for beach house owners. There are many advantages to a beach house lift including both convenience (no more carrying groceries upstairs) and safety (fast evacuation in the event of a storm). However, before you install your lift, you want to make certain that you choose a reliable and safe product that you can trust so that you do not put your cargo- or yourself or your guests- in any danger.

Features of a Beach House Lift

There are a few key features you want to look for on any beach house lift to make sure that the system is a safe one that will not let you down. For instance, when purchasing a lift, you should look for:

  • A reliable integrated brake system. You do not want your lift to fall and having a reliable integrated brake system is the best way to ensure that this never happens. A fall could result in broken or damaged items or, worse, injury to someone who is below or near the lift. Avoiding a potential disaster requires great brakes.
  • A lift made of aluminum and stainless steel. These durable metals will create a strong and solid lift that can weather the passage of time. A beach community is a tough place for home items due to the salty sea air. It is important to choose durable materials that can stand the test of time and that will not be destroyed or weakened easily by the climate. An aluminum and stainless steel lift will not rust or corrode, so you do not have to worry about your lift becoming unusable or needing to be replaced within just a few short years.
  • A lift that can support the capacity and weight that you need. While people can not ride on beach house lifts, you may have a lot of heavy cargo that needs to move up and down. Everything from beach umbrellas and beach chairs to furniture or groceries for your home may need to be lifted up and down on the beach house lift. Be sure that you choose a product that can take the load you need.
  • Dual cables that are rated to support the weight of the lift and the cargo. Dual cables are better than one cable as you have a backup in case something does happen to one of the cables that could cause a fall. With two cables, you can use your lift without worrying that it will come crashing down since there is always a backup. The cables will also help to ensure that your lift moves up and down in a safe and secure fashion.
  • Grooved cable winders. These help to ensure that the cables on your lift do not double wrap, causing the lift to work improperly.
  • A dual mast. A dual mast with heavy and solid beams will help to ensure that your lift does not sway. This allows you to ensure your cargo gets safely where you need it to go without being damaged.

These are the key safety features to look for in order to ensure that you purchase a lift you can trust for your beach house lift.

Do Not Make These Mistakes When Hiring an Elevator Company

When hiring an elevator company, take the time to learn as much as you can about the company and the services it offers. By doing that, you will ensure you are working with a business that you can trust to do a great job for you every time. Since this is a major component to the working structure of your building, it is important to get it right the first time. After all, tenants, whether individuals or businesses themselves, are more likely to move out when they feel their experience is at risk or otherwise lacking. Do not let this happen to you.

Mistakes to Avoid

Before you hire an elevator company to do the work for you, be sure you are turning to the right company with every aspect necessary to help you to get the job done. The following are some of the most common mistakes building managers and property owners make when finding companies to service their elevators.

Did you find out if the business has a strong safety rating with the local building department? More so, you want to ensure the business has management that has a strong OSHA safety standing. Anyone that can not provide this may not be worth hiring.

Does the business train employees to manage repairs in a safe and effective manner? In short, you need to ensure the technicians doing the work have the proper training to do their job as they need to. This reduces your risks later.

Did you learn what your options are? Prior to hiring any one company to do the work for you, you should be confident that they have the skills and resources to do the job properly. This means knowing what tasks need to be done and which repairs are optional. You need a team that can communicate to you what you need to have done.

Does the business provide any guarantee for their service? This type of guarantee can help ensure the work the business is doing for you is going to be up to par. You do not want to work with any agency that does not meet this goal.

Do you know the business has experience with the type of system you have? Sometimes, the more modern systems are more difficult to put into place and make repairs on especially if the technicians do not have the right training to make it happen.

As you look for an elevator company, learn about the company's reputation. You should also ensure they have a top safety rating. Find out if the company is the best one in the area to go to for the services you need.

Going to Use a Power Plate Machine? 3 Things to Avoid

Some people go online and search for information before going to use a power plate machine. Do you understand why?

When folks want information, they turn to the web. They generally have something in mind, something they want, a problem or need they need resolved. You may get an idea of what they want by studying the keyword phrase they use. You can divide searchers into two separate groups. Either Pleasure Seekers (seeking gain, profit, pleasure, personal development, enlightenment, entertainment, etc.) or Pain Avoiders (seeking to avoid sickness, pain, costs, liabilities, getting old, looking bad, etc.)

Searches on going to use a power plate machine will likely be made by people who have both negative and positive motivations. The next few paragraphs takes aim only at the negative, “Pain Avoidance” side, looking at the three things, actions, points or mistakes one should most strenuously avoid.

To be aware of the overall situation of this, you’ll want to know this type of exercise does have many health benefits and for the majority of people should be encouraged.

You should likewise know some of the specifics. For example, these machines have been put together using Newtons law of gravitation, this encourages and all over body workout which helps people not only lose weight and tone muscle but also may assist with other areas such as blood circulation.

What are we supposed to avoid? And, why avoid that?

When you’re working with power plate machines, then you certainly had best take heed of this advice or consult with a physician before embarking on your new regime.

O.K. then, listed below are those 3 points you have to do your best to avoid:

First and foremost, do not just stand on the plate expecting all your weight to fall off.. The main reasoning with this is you have to let the law of gravity work on the different muscle groups. Whether you have bought your own machine or are using a one in a salon make sure you follow some of the different exercises that are available to ensure you get good results.

If you do just stand on the plate you will get some results but probably not what you are looking for? And while we are on this point make sure that you are using the machine for at least three sessions a week. Again if you only use it once a week you wont see the results you are after.

Second, do not use if you have had plates, screws, bolts etc… placed in your body. And just how come is that? The vibration can cause them to loosen, which would mean a trip back under the knife for you to have them repaired.

If you are uncertain about whether this would effect you, then again make sure you consult your physician.

Third and lastly, do not use these machines when pregnant. The reason behind this is that although it is still wise to exercise when pregnant, whole body vibration could be too damaging for the fetus

Are there any other conditions were people should avoid these machines? On the whole if you have major problems with your heart or have epilepsy or tumor’s you would be advised to find an alternative source of exercise.

Avoid these three things and you will have largely eliminated the negatives. This will greatly assist in helping you solve, remove or avoid the issues that caused you to search for information regarding going to use a power plate machine. However do bear in mind that these machines on the whole can be hugely beneficial for your health.

Wood Stove Tips – Cleaning Wood Stove Glass

If soot on the glass of your wood stove is getting you down, here are a few tips you can use to clean things up.

Why Does Wood Stove Glass Get Sooty?

Your wood stove glass usually gets sooty because the conditions in your wood stove are not quite right. Soot forms because either the stove temperature is too low, not enough air is getting to the fire or a combination of both of these.

Your wood stove may be running at low temperatures for many reasons. The most common of these are unseasoned or poorly seasoned wood. Wood that has a moisture content over 20% is usually considered too green to burn as it is hard to light and never burns as well as more seasoned firewood. The cold slow smouldering fire tends to give off sooty smoke which deposits on the glass.

If you close down the air too much on your stove you suffocate the fire and lots of smoke forms which should be being burnt off. This smoke builds up on the wood stove glass door – this is most common in overnight burns as people try to build up the fire then shut the air down for the night. Most modern EPA stoves are not designed to do this is shutting down air to such a degree is quite polluting.

While most modern stoves are designed with an “airwash” which helps keep the glass door clean, older stoves rarely had this and tended to smoke up whatever the conditions in the stove. If you have an older stove with this problem you might consider upgrading to a more modern stove – it is likely to be more efficient at heating, easier to use and have few problems keeping the wood stove glass clean.

How to Clean Wood Stove Glass

If your stove does build up soot there are a few little tricks you can use to get the door clean again.

Some stoves have effectively “self-cleaning glass”. If you open up the air on the stove and get a hot roaring fire going very often the worst of the soot will burn off over the space of half an hour or so. The key is to use very dry wood and allow plenty of air into the firebox. This is unlikely to work in older models of stoves as they may not reach the necessary temperatures or have airflows in the right places.

If this doesn’t work you can try cleaning the glass by hand when the stove is cool. One of the old tricks for cleaning wood stove glass is to get a ball of newspaper, bundle it up and dip it in water. Dip the damp newspaper in the ashes from the fire and then rub the sooty glass vigorously with the newspaper bundle. The ashes act as a gentle abrasive, removing the soot without damaging the glass surface. Once the worst soot is removed “polish” the glass with another piece of dry bundled newspaper to remove the last smears.

Be careful to avoid anything more abrasive as you may put fine scratches into the surface, permanently damaging your stove doors.

Ascending Into Your Cooker Despair

Is your cooker over 4 years old? Is it looking a bit knackered and worn out? Then I think it is about time you get a new cooker. There are always ways to revamp your current cooker by using repairs and servicing; however with the price of cooker repairs these days, it is often better and cheaper in the long run to buy a new cooker that you can make an effort to maintain this time around.

If you have had a chance to look already, you will notice that there are a lot of different types, makes and models of cookers. The make and model usually just determines the brand and should include a full list of features if you are purchasing it from are reputable company, however there are some main guidelines that can help you decide which cooker is best for you.

The first cooker I am going to explain to you is a freestanding cooker. This simply means the cooker stands free as one unit. A freestanding cooker is a cooker that has the hob and oven joined to make one appliance. This is the most common type of cooker and it can either have a grill on top of the oven but below the hob (which these days they design so it can act as either a grill or oven) or you can have the grill above the hob which usually has a handle bar to pull out the grill tray, these are slowly dying out as they are an old design and aren’t the best aesthetically pleasing choice. Freestanding cookers should be installed by a Gas Safe registered engineer for safety purposes of all those within the property as well as the fact that it is illegal for anyone who is not a Gas Safe registered engineer to install any gas appliance. Freestanding cookers should be connected via a flexible gas hose which connects the gas supply to the cooker securely if fitted properly.

Gas Cookers that fall under the ‘freestanding cooker’ category are range cookers, dual fuel cookers and normal freestanding cookers as these are all one unit and one appliance.

Range cookers are similar to normal freestanding cookers however they are simply bigger. A range cooker usually has more than four hobs on the cooker and has multiple ovens. These are ideal for large kitchens, large families and in households where there may be a lot of people attempting to cook at once. If you like to entertain guests and you want the space to cook various things at the same time, then a range cooker is for you.

A dual fuel freestanding cooker is also similar in looks to the normal freestanding cooker however it uses two sources of energy to operate. A dual fuel cooker usually has an electric oven and a gas hob. This is simply because electric ovens provide more even heating around the food because of the flow of electrical currents, and gas hobs provide more immediate heating and easier temperature controls as electric hobs need time to cool down or heat up to the desired temperature. Alternatively, you can also get dual fuel range cookers which are large dual fuel cookers with more or bigger ovens and 5 or more hobs.

Built in gas cooking appliances are appliances that need to be connected via solid copper piping that are soldered by the gas safe registered engineer. These usually include an oven or a gas hob that are fitted into the desired kitchen space to look more aesthetically pleasing.

A gas oven that is installed is only the oven alone and this allows it to be installed in ways you cannot a cooker. Some people opt to have the hob and oven in separate places, making the oven eye level or otherwise in order to fit into the kitchen more subtly. Also the gas hob, which is just the burners, can fit and be supported by a work top; fitting into the look of your kitchen better and not sticking out as much.

There are quite a few different gas appliances you can purchase for yourself. The pros of a freestanding cooker is that it counts as one appliance so it is usually cheaper to install and if you want a gas certificate or service in the future it would also count as one appliance which makes it cost-effective however, it can stick out and it is not as aesthetically pleasing as gas hob and oven installation which can blend into the work tops and cupboards. The pros of a built in gas oven and hob is that they generally tend to look better when they are part of a kitchen, however, they are two separate appliances so you may have to pay for two installations and if you are a landlord and you need a gas certificate which is your legal requirement, you would have to pay twice each year which may not be cost-effective for you.

So hopefully now you have a general idea of the different types of cookers that are out there and are available for you to purchase. Make sure you know all that is required for your cooker installation and ensure you have a gas safe registered engineer who can install your appliances safely, legally and correctly.

Washer Repair Help, Bosch Washer Not Draining?

Bosch washer not spinning or draining, usually results in a foreign object lodged inside of the drain pump assembly. This is a pretty simple repair and will save you money repairing it yourself.

Here is a rough breakdown on how to clean a Bosch washing machines drain pump.

On the lower right hand side of the washers front panel there is a round access cover panel with a small hole in the top of it. Place a small screwdriver tip inside and push just enough spin the access panel around and off.

When the panel comes off you will see the drain pumps twist handle. Try to bail as much water from the insides of the washer before you pull the filter housing out. Pulling the drain pumps filter out before removing the water inside will result in the water rushing out all over the floor.

Even when you have bailed the stuck water out when the filter is removed excess water will still come out so have a towel or two handy. With the handle twisted and filter sliding out you will see the foreign debris lodged inside. Clean the filter off and install back into the washer.

Setting the washer to a normal cycle let fill until the washer starts to tumble, after the fill cycle pause the unit and set it to the spin / drain cycle. In doing so the drain motor will be energized and immediately start to pump the water out. If the washer starts to drain then you have successfully repaired your washing machine. If it does not then repeat the process until clean.

To reinstall the access panel cap just line up the plastic tabs with the grooves on the washers front panel. The metal edge behind the plastic panel is very sharp. If you are not aware of this you could cut yourself wide open !! Use duct tape to line the edges to prevent injury.

The History of Under Armour – A Mastermind for Performance Apparel

Not every company is noteworthy or stands out among a crowd of business analysts and industry moguls. However, sometimes the exceptional will surface with new innovation and promises to change the standard by which all is presently compared. Most people can name a few if they think about it but in the case of Under Armour Apparel, they have been a silent success. Under Armour has put their mark on the Performance Apparel industry over the last ten years and they have not only increased the standards for their direct competitors but they are constantly raising the bar for its customers. Presently, SportsSCAN Info’s Schwartz has stated that Under Armour is close to the fourth largest retailer of sporting appeal in the United States just behind Nike, Adidas and Columbia.

The Here and Now

Headquartered Baltimore, Maryland; Under Armour is a growing force and fierce competitor in the performance apparel industry. They have offices all over the world including Denver, Toronto, Hong Kong and London England.

Under Armour develops its performance apparel for men, women and youth with product lines that impact all levels of activity from everyday to extreme sport activity covering all climates and conditions. This diversity has allowed them to impact virtually every market. Presently they have five lines.

  • Coldgear
  • Loosegear
  • Turfgear
  • Allseasonsgear
  • Heatgear

In the Beginning there was Innovation

Under Armour was founded in 1996 by Kevin Plank, a football player for Maryland. The basic concept created by Plank started as a simple t-shirt made using high tech fabrics. The high tech fabric that he chose had qualities that could wick sweat and other moisture through the fabric to the surface instead of absorbing it. He believed that if athletes could be dry and the moisture wicking ability could help regulate temperature they would perform better. That was his concept. He started the company using $20,000 of his own money, $40,000 from credit and a $250,000 Small Business Loan.

Starting Small – Using your Consumers to Fuel your Success

On November 18, 1995 after Plank had created the first prototype he set up shop in his grandmother’s basement in Washington, DC. His first sale was to Georgia Tech University where interest continued to grow. Shortly after, he was supplying performance apparel to more division one football teams and over two dozen National Football Teams. His method for marketing and retaining clients was simple because he believed that if you create product for the people who will appreciate it most, then it will sell. Plank continued to market his products with this concept and further success came quickly.

By 1996, after its first year of success Under Armour developed five product lines that were all derived from the same Microfiber. The main advantages to this fabric were its ability to:

  • Wick moisture away from the skin keeping people dry
  • Reduce sweat and regulates body temperature due to breathability
  • It was light weight and comfortable

Realizing that all of these benefits applied to a variety of consumers he created five product lines targeting a range of activity levels from everyday to the extreme. It proved to be a smart decision for Plank to broaden his marketing efforts because he was so successful that he had to move to a larger facility in South Baltimore and put Under Armour on the map for good.

Opportunities to Last a Lifetime

In 1998 Under Armour became the official supplier of performance apparel to the National Football League Europe and in 1999 Warner Bros. signed on as a client as well. Under Armour apparel supplied clothing for the movie “Any Given Sunday” and “The Replacements”. It was becoming apparent that Under Armour was no longer just associated with sports but all forms of activity.

2000 was the year that Under Armour became a permanent fixture worldwide. They had 8000 official retail locations all over the world and they were continuing to grow to impressive new heights including:

  • Major league lacrosse
  • Major league Soccer
  • National Hockey League
  • USA Baseball
  • US Ski Team

Between 2000 and 2005 Under Armour was supplying over 100 division 1A football programs and thirty NFL football teams. Each year they were featured in the superbowl in one form or another. Numerous articles and case studies were written with the best being Time magazines feature that titled Under Armour as the one of the fastest growing private companies. Plank was also named businessperson of the year by the Baltimore Business Journal in 1993.

Current Events

Presently, 2005 is proving to be another exceptionally innovative year starting with 60 products for a new women’s line called UA Metal that was inspired by their ‘Duplicity Sportsbra”. And if that is not enough, they have introduced the UA Tech line, a more technical savvy and advanced version of their original line Loosegear. To reach further into the marketplace they are now targeting individual sports starting with running. They are introducing UA Streaker a line developed with technical advancements for runners.

The performance apparel industry is now a multi billion dollar business. This industry is consistently entering new markets including everyday wear and even business suit apparel. It is incorporating the performance materials to make the everyday more comfortable.

Creating Something Different

The question on many minds including that of direct competitors is how big will they grow? In the same understated way Kevin Plank began he still remains realistic yet optimistic. With 546 Under Armour employees and top competitors like Nike and Adidas, he has approximately 75% of the market share; they are definitely on the right track. The plan for the future is to target the women’s market with a more broad approach.

It is expected that Under Armour will gross an estimated $200 to $250 million this year, so many business analysts are speculating what the next big move will be. As a privately held company, many believe that Under Armour will be acquired by one of their larger competitors. On the other hand, a company only needs to gross $250 million to be eligible to go public and attract the appropriate investors and they are almost there.

Under Armour apparel has been a company that has flown under the radar to become the leading success story in the textile industry for performance apparel. Each milestone and creative achievement is a testament to the true meaning of designing what the consumer demands. It is impossible to predict what the future will hold for this extraordinary company but is safe to say that what they have achieved is a spot on the red carpet of industry beside the big players.

What's the Difference Between a Business Plan and a Marketing Action Plan?

Back during my short span as a business loan broker, reading financial statements and business plans was a daily affair. But for most business owners, a question that constantly came up was, what's the difference between a business plan and a marketing action plan?

If you've wondered the same thing here's a short answer …

Besides actual content, the primary difference that sets the two documents apart is the purpose of the document.

A business plan is what you create when you want to wow investors and bankers to give you money. A marketing action plan is what you create when you want to wow customers and clients into giving you money.

A good marketing action plan contains specific day-by-day marketing activities. This eliminates the guesswork of what to do today to bring in more clients, sell more to existing clients, and reactivate clients that may have drifted away.

The best marketing action plans contain everything needed to implement the plan. Perhaps there are ready-made ads, sales letters, email campaigns, and so on. All you do is deliver the components to your ad agent, web designer, or fulfillment company or staff. Everything is done for you and already in place to roll out. You just need to get the ball rolling by putting the pieces in play.

If you are looking to create a marketing action plan to increase sales and referrals, the 12 step business growth plan is a free white paper that outlines the steps in detail. The plan shows how any established company can make the maximum money in the shortest time possible.

A business plan lacks this level of day-by-day marketing detail. Instead, common components of a business plan are:

* Executive Summary
* Market Analysis
* Company Description
* Organization & Management
* Marketing & Sales Management
* Service or Product Line
* Funding Request
* Financials
* Appendix

A company might also use a business plan to map out company goals and mission statements for internal use. Aside from these uses, a business plan is pretty much useless. The majority are fluff. And they fail to be action-oriented from a marketing perspective.

You are On seeking the if to get investors are or to creditors , to give you money, visit the SBA's site at Http://www.sba.gov/smallbusinessplanner/plan/writeabusinessplan/index.html

There are tons of sample business plans just sitting and waiting for you to emulate over there.

But do not expect to use the SBA's business plan templates to attract new sales or clients. You'll need a strategic marketing action plan for that.

Importance Of JCB Operator Training

One of the most widespread pieces of construction equipment found today is the JCB. Given the JCB’s flexibility and maneuverability, this makes a lot of sense. But as admired as they are, workers have been critically injured and killed working around these machines, regularly because they were not using appropriate safety measures.

The key to efficient JCB safety, of course, is training. JCB operators should be particularly trained to operate them, but other workers who work around them should also obtain special safety training as well.

Operators should execute basic safety practices every single time the apparatus is used. First, operators should carry out a pre-shift assessment prior to use, to ensure that all lights and signals, connections, tires and guards are in appropriate working order and that no part of the equipment is loose or faulty. If an operator finds that any part of the equipment is damaged or not working, such parts should be mended or reinstated before use.

Operators and all other employees should always carry out a detailed check of workplace surroundings, as well as a check on all employees and hindrances in the surrounding area. All workers on the ground in the surrounding area of the JCB should wear flagging garments and correct safety gear. Operators should also take immense care, and drive the JCB at a eased speed when turning or working in professional conditions, as rollovers are one of the most important causes of JCB grievances and fatalities. Operators should also be conscious of all buried and overhead power and gas lines, as electrocution is one more common cause of equipment fatal accident.

Never start the JCB from any pose other than the driver’s seat. Though some skilled operators like to start the JCB while standing on the ground, it’s a bad idea, as some machines could have wedged controls which unexpectedly become unstuck when started. Use the handrail or steps when escalating the machine, three points of contact at all times. Never mount or dismount the rear of the machine among the swing boom and the rear stabilizer. Never use the controls as hand holds, for getting on and off the machine. Always use the dangle pin and boom and loader lift cylinder locks.

JCB are essential pieces of equipment, because they make everyone’s job easier. But only appropriately trained workers should control them, and all workers should be trained properly to work securely around them. This is really where a culture of safety is most needed; a short training program or video won’t keep employees safe. Everyone needs to value the equipment.

British Colonial Rangoon/Yangon Sight Seeing

Hello and good morning. I hope you are ready for our today’s ‘British Colonial Rangoon Sight Seeing’.

All of the colonial buildings we will visit are located in downtown Yangon, in other words, former British Colonial Rangoon proper, and are positioned relatively close to one another. The simple grit pattern of the city’s layout makes it easy to find ones way around. That’s why the best way to explore Colonial Rangoon is by foot. Another reason for walking instead of using a car is that the permanent traffic jams and a chronic lack of parking space in this area makes the car being more curse than blessing. We cannot and need not to see all colonial buildings for this would be much too much for one day and this article. The tour I have planned for today includes 30 major buildings that bear testimony to Rangoon’s present days Yangon’s glorious colonial past. All of them belong to the most precious jewels of British Colonial Rangoon’s treasure trove. And, please, if you want to do yourself a favour make plenty of photos of them because it will definitely be the last time that you have the chance to see the buildings as they are. In the not so far future there will a yet unknown number of them be completely disappeared, totally run down or ‘restored’ in a way that leaves nothing of their partly still existing, leave alone former, colonial charm. We will of course see a lot of other partly still beautiful old colonial buildings that have interesting stories to tell but have to keep focussed on those I have selected for our tour; we will otherwise be too much distracted and not get ready today. Please stay close together, mind your steps and do not stray from the group. OK, the starting point of our walk through British Colonial Rangoon will be the former Rangoon General Hospital. From there we continue to the Holy Trinity Cathedral, located in direct neighbourhood of the Scott Market, then to the former Burmah Railways Headquarters, the former Rangoon Railway Station, and so on. When we arrive at the buildings I will give you some related basic information. There is of course an awful lot more to say about the buildings and their history but this article does not provide enough space for all these details. Further very important information related to this you will find at the end of this article.

General Hospital

So, ladies and gentlemen, now we have arrived at the Yangon, formerly (Rangoon) General Hospital where our today’s ‘Colonial Yangon Sight Seeing Tour’ begins. We are here on Bogyoke Aung San Road, the former Commissioner’s Road. In front of us you can see on the other side of the road the Hospital, built from 1899 to 1905 and opened on 07 May the same year. It is here were Aung San – who was hospitalised to be treated for the injuries he sustained in 1942 during the Burma Campaign – meets his later wife Daw Khin Kyi who serves here as senior nurse. Later their third child will be a daughter, which they will give the name Aung San Su Kyi. The Yangon General hospital also is the site were Burmese soldiers commit a massacre during the uprising in 1988 by indiscriminately killing a large number of hospital patience, because they believe that said patience have sustained their wounds during the demonstrations. Please make now your photos and let us then continue eastwards on Aung San Road (former Commissioner’s Road) to the Holy Trinity Cathedral at the corner of Aung San Road (former Montgomery Road) and Shwedagon Pagoda Road, the former Pagoda Road. Now you are confused about the street names? Well, this side of Aung San Road is the former Commissioner’s Road and from the cross-roads at the cathedral on it is the former Montgomery Road.

Cathedral Of The Holy Trinity

Right in front of us we have now the primary Anglican cathedral in Burma; the Holy Trinity Cathedral on No. 446 Bogyoke Aung San Road. It is one of Rangoon’s earliest colonial buildings. The Holy Trinity Cathedral is on the Yangon Heritage List. Now it is time to move on to the former Scott Market, now Bogyoke Aung San Market. Its main entrance is about 500 feet/155 metres down Aung San Road from here in eastern direction. We will be there in a few minutes.

Scott Market

Now we have reached the main entrance to the long centre hall of the Scott Market at Bogyoke Aung San Road (former Montgomery Road), since 1948 called Bogyoke Market (by locals Bogyoke Zay (zay meaning market), after the Burmese national hero Bogyoke (General) Aung San. Not widely known is that his real name (birth name) was Htein Lin; Aung San is the name he has taken on at the time he was student leader. The market is built on the premises of a former tram terminus, was opened in 1926 and named after Mr. Garvin Scott, who was from 1917 to 1930 (17 years) Chief Executive Officer of the Rangoon Corporation and during his tenure twice president of the Rangoon Municipality.

The Bogyoke Aung San Market is on the Yangon Heritage List. OK, let’s continue our tour. When we get out of the market we turn left on the Aung San Road, and pass the FMT building and the Zawgyi Restaurant. Then we will see the Grand May Yaa Hta Executive Residence building and our actual point of interest, the former Burma Railways Headquarters at the corner of Aung San Road and Sule Pagoda Road.

Former Burma Railways Headquarters

Here it is, the former Burma Railways Headquarters building complex at the corner of former Montgomery Road, now Aung San Road and Sule Pagoda Road. In 1896 three railway companies merged into one railway company under contract with the Secretary of State for India; the state-owned ‘Burmah Railways Company’ has come into being and moves into this new headquarters.

Central Railway Station

Now we are on Sule Pagoda Road and over there on the right side you can already see the railway tracks and the backside of the railway station. In front of us on the other side of the bridge on which we are now walking you see the Methodist Church (Scots Kirk) and over there on the right hand side the Aung San Sports Grounds & Stadium. Let us now turn right into Kun Chan Road and look at the railway station from its front side. We continue to Phayre Street now Pansodan Street; the stairs there in front of us lead up to the fly-over. On Pansodan Street we turn right, cross the bridge, continue to Bogyoke Aung San Road, turn left, and follow the Aung San Road till Bo Aung Kyaw Road, former Sparks Road. There at the corner of Bo Aung Kyaw Road and Aung San Road is the St. Mary’s Cathedral located, which is our next British colonial point of interest.

St. Mary’s Cathedral/Cathedral Of Our Lady Of Immaculate Conception

Well, my friends, this was quite a little walk but we have made it. Here you see Myanmar’s largest cathedral, the Saint Mary’s Cathedral at No. 372, Bo Aung Kyaw Street. We will now cross the Archbishop’s Residence compound located behind the cathedral’s compound. They have a very nice garden and the Archbishop’s Residence is a beautiful building. It is normally not allowed to take this way in order to get to Thein Byu Road, the former Judah Ezekiel Road, but I know some people here and we can for once use this shortcut. So, we have crossed the Archbishop’s Residence compound and are standing in front of it on Thein Byu Road. We turn right and a few steps further down the street you can see one of the sports grounds of the former St. Paul’s English High School. At the corner we turn right again onto the former Frazer/Bigandet Street, now Anawrahta Road from which we will see the school’s main entrance and main building.

St. Paul’s English High School/B.E.H.S. 6 Botataung

We are in front of the former St. Pauls English High School. The former St. Paul’s English High School is on the Yangon Heritage List. Let’s continue to the former Secretariat Building opposite of the main entrance to the former St. Paul’s High School. Just cross the former Dalhousie Street, now Maha Bandoola Road and make some photos from the school. Then we walk the few yards back to the cross roads, turn right and walk down Thein Byu Road, the former Judah Ezekiel Road, alongside the Secretariat Building till we reach its main entrance.

Secretariat Building

So we are now at the corner Maha Bandoola Road and Thein Byu Road. The building over there on the other side of Thein Byu Road is the former British Government Press Building on No. 228 Thein Byu Road.. Well, here we are now; on former Judah Ezekiel Road, now at No. 300 Thein Byu Road in front of the main entrance to the Secretariat Building. It is without doubt former Rangoon’s largest and most spectacular and impressive British colonial building filling the space of an entire block. The Secretariat is bordered here in the east by the former Judah Ezekiel Road, now Thein Byu Road, left from us, in the south, by the former Dalhousie Street, now Maha Bandoola Road, right from us, in the north, by the former Bigandet Street, now Anawrahta Road and on the side opposite from us, the west, by the former Sparks Street, now Bo Aung Kyaw Street. The construction begins in 1889 and the first phase is completed in 1902; the second is completed in 1905 and ‘The Secretariat’ is officially opened the same year. After independence on 4 January 1948 the building houses offices of ministers of the Burmese government for which reason it is from 1948 to 1972 by locals called Government Secretariat and from1972 on till now Ministers’ Office. But it is not only the fact that ‘The Secretariat’ is the place from which all of British Burma was governed and all administrative power is executed that makes it such an immensely important part of Burmese history; it also is the place were on 19 July 1947 at 10:30 am the de facto prime minister Aung San was assassinated in the ground floor room at the north-east corner of the building together with 6 ministers of his cabinet. The room in which Aung San and the members of his cabinet were assassinated has been turned into a memorial place. The Secretariat is on the Yangon Heritage List.

General Post Office

Here we are. This building (No. 39-41 Bo Aung Kyaw Street) at the corner of Strand Road and former Sparks Street, now Bo Aung Kyaw Street, must not be mistaken for the original post office from colonial Rangoon times. That has been located further down on Strand Road between Sule Pagoda Street and Mogul Street. It was an exact copy of the Bombay post office and as such an extremely beautiful, heavily ornamented building but does unfortunately not exist anymore. This building is completed in 1885 and serves as Burma headquarters of the trading and agent firm Bulloch Brothers. Later an annex along Sparks Street was added and completed in 1908. The Yangon General Post Office is on the Yangon Heritage List. The next building of our tour is the one adjacent to the left of the GPO, the J&F Graham & Co. building.

J&F Graham And Co. Building

Yes, this here is the former J & F Graham & Co. shipping and insurance company’s building at No. 80 Strand Road and, no, your eyes do not play tricks on you for the building is after Burma’s independence in January 1948 becoming home to the British Embassy. The building was established in 1898 and is on the Yangon Heritage List. Now we continue walking down Strand Road in western direction. We are crossing 39th Street and Seikkantha Street and then we will arrive at our next heritage building the Strand Hotel just a few steps away from the Graham & Co. building.

Strand Hotel

We have made it and are now standing at No. 92 Strand Road in front of the famous Strand Hotel, which got its name from the street on which it is located. From the architectural point of view the building as it presents itself before us has unfortunately lost much of its original grandeur and it is not anymore the shiny architectural gem it used to be during Rangoon’s colonial era when it was one of the famous luxury hotels of the Sarkies Brothers hotel chain of first class hotels. However, owing to its name and glorious past the Strand Hotel remains well worth to be included into a tour through the British Colonial Rangoon. The Strand Hotel is on the Yangon Heritage List.

Bombay-Burmah Trading Corporation Building

Here it is, the nowadays rather insignificant looking building over there on the other side of the Strand Road on No. 104 Strand Road is the former headquarter of a company that has played an enormously significant role in Burma’s history; the Bombay-Burmah Trading Corporation Limited. This building is completed around the 1920s and I could not find out where the BBTC’s earlier Rangoon office was. The company is also known as Bombay Burmah Trading Company and was founded by the Wallace Brothers from Edinburgh, Scotland. After Burma Airways (now Myanmar Airways) is founded the company moves into this building and uses it as office. The Building is not on the Yangon City Heritage List. Let’s go to the building next door across 37th Street.

Port Authority/Port Trust Authority Building

This is the Rangoon Port Authority building adjacent to the Bombay-Burma Trading Corporation Building. It is located at No. 2-20 Pansodan Street ( corner of former Phayre Road, now Pansodan Street and Strand Road). The building replaces the former Rangoon Port Trust Authority Building and occupies the entire space between Pansodan Road and 37th Street. The building’s construction is completed in 1928. The building is on the Yangon City Heritage List. We do now cross the Pansodan Road to take a look at the former Accounts General’s Office and Currency Department Building.

Account General’s Office And Currency Department

Here at No. 1 Pansodan Street (corner of Strand Road and former Phayre Street, now Pansodan Road) you see the former government financial centre of British Burma. During the last 35 years of British times (with exception of some 3 years of Japanese occupation) all accounts concerning the colony’s income and expenditure are managed here). It is the 3-storey former Accounts General’s Office and Currency Department Building; one of the big wheels in the machinery of British administration. The Account General’s Office building is completed in 1912. The building’s backside wing on Bank Street located opposite the building of the former Chartered Bank of India, Australia & China is housing the Currency Department and directly hit by a Japanese bomb. It is never rebuild and may serve as warning example for senseless destruction. After Independence the building was used by the Burmese government as civil court. Since the government moved to the new capital Nay Pyi Taw the building is as a court and its future remains uncertain. We are now back at the front facade of the Account General’s Office at the entrance located at the corner tower. The Account General’s Office is on the Yangon City Heritage List. The building next door is the Customs House Building.

Customs House

This impressive Customs House at No. 132 Strand Road was construction from 1913 and is completed in 1915. In October 1915 the building is officially opened and put into service. The building still serves its original purpose and is on the Yangon Heritage List. Now let us move a few steps farther down the Strand Road so that we are in front of the building left from the Customs House, which is the former Police Commissioner’s Building. The street between these 2 buildings is the Maha Bandoola Garden Street and the street on the left hand side of the building is the Sule Pagoda Road.

Police Commissioner’s Building

Here we are. The monumental 5-storey Police Commissioner’s Building opposite from us is a masonry building constructed within almost 5 years from 3 March to October 1931 when the building was officially opened and put into service. The massive building is occupying the entire space of the block stretching from former Barr Street, now Maha Bandoola Garden Street to Sule Pagoda Road and is comprising the police commissioner’s offices and the New Law Court offices, the court rooms of civil and criminal District Court and the Rangoon magistracy. Since November 2005, when the Burmese/Myanmar government moved to Nay Pyi Taw, the building is abandoned. We will now cross the Strand Road and walk northwards along Sule Pagoda Road. The Main entrance to this building is on the other side of the complex on No. 56-66 Bank Street.

Bank Of Bengal Building

Having arrived at the corner of Strand Road and Sule Pagoda Road we have on our left the premises of the former Bank of Bengal. This very beautiful building is located at 15-19 Sule Pagoda Road. It was completed in 1914. It houses now the offices of the Myanma Economic Branch 3.

Reserve Bank Of India Building

We have now moved on to 24-26 Sule Pagoda Road were the former Reserve Bank of India is located. The building was completed in 1936 and stands diagonally across the former Bank of Bengal Building. The building is now housing the offices of the Central Bank of Myanmar. A few steps farther up on Sule Pagoda Road we have reached the corner of Sule Pagoda Road and Merchant Street and turn right. Left from us you see the Fytche Square, now Maha Bandoola Garden with the Independence Memorial Monument. We go now over to the Maha Bandoola Garden side and turn left into the Maha Bandoola Garden Street, the former Barr Street and continue to the former High Court Building on Maha Bandoola Garden Street.

High Court/Supreme Court

We are now standing opposite the more than 110 years old Rangoon High Court building’s front side at the former Barr Street, now Maha Bandoola Garden Street. The main entrance is facing the former Fytche Square Garden, now Maha Bandoola Garden with the Independence Monument from where we are now looking at the building. It was (with exception of the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945) from 1911 to 1947 home to the highest court of British Burma. The former main entrance on this side is closed. The building’s back side is located at former Phayre Road, now No. 89-133 Pansodan Road. The Rangoon High Court is also known as Rangoon Chief Court or Supreme Court. The building complex forms like many British colonial building complexes a square (or alternative a rectangle) that is enclosing an inner court with lawn and garden. Let’s go back in southerly direction towards Merchant Street. We will go around the block to the other side of the High Court. Adjacent to it is the Rangoon Central Telegraph Office. On our way we will stop at the former Hongkong Shanghai Banking Corporation Building, the former Mercantile Bank of India Building and the former Oppenheimer & Co Building.

Hongkong & Shanghai Bank Corporation Rangoon

Now we are at the corner of former Barr Street, now Maha Bandoola Garden Street and Merchant Street. The building at this corner is the former Hongkong & Shanghai Banking Corporation’s (HSBC) Building Rangoon. If you like you can make a photo. So, now we continue along Merchant Street. The building next to the former HSBC building is the former Mercantile Bank Of India Building.

Mercantile Bank Of India Building Rangoon

Here we are at No. 554 Merchant Street. Other than that it is in a very poor state not much can be said with respect to this building. Next to the former bank building is the former Oppenheimer Building.

Oppenheimer & Co. Building

We are now standing under the portico of the former Oppenheimer & Co Building on No. 556 Merchant Road. We continue to walk westwards on Merchant Street to the next crossroads Merchant Street and Pansodan Road. There we turn left on Pansodan Road and walk up to the backside of the former Rangoon High Court. We have reached the crossroads. Before we turn left into Pansodan we take a look at the yellow-beige coloured building diagonally opposite from as. That is the former Sofaer & Co. Building that was built in 1906. Let’s continue to the former High Court.

Oriental Life Assurance Building

This is No. 545-547 Merchant Street between 36th Street and Pansodan and the building is the former Rangoon offices of the Calcutta/India based Oriental Life Assurance. The building was completed in 1914 and is although being 100 years old at the time of this writing still a real jewel in the string of colonial buildings on Merchant Street. The building is now occupied by the Indian Embassy. Please make your photos and then we continue a few steps westwards to the crossroads Merchant Street and Pansodan Road. There we turn left on Pansodan Road and walk up to the backside of the former Rangoon High Court.

High Court (Back Side)

We have arrived at the back side of the Rangoon High Court on 89-133 Pansodan Street. This building part alongside Pansodan Road is more symmetric than the front part on the Maha Bandoola Garden Street side. In contrast to the front facade here the main entrance has a huge roofed space outside the main support walls of the building (porch) the top of which is serving as a veranda with stone balustrade. Also, here the front facing gable roof is decorated with a triangular pediment. Since the High Court is in 2006 moved to the new capital Nay Pyi Taw this building is abandoned. The building is on the Yangon Heritage List. Let us now take a look at the adjacent building, the Rangoon Central Telegraph Office.

Central Telegraph Office/Government Telegraph Office

Here we are; opposite the former Government Telegraph Office also known as Rangoon Central Telegraph Office nowadays called Central Telegraph Office. It is located at No. 125-133 Pansodan Street (corner of former Dalhousie Road, now Maha Bandoola Road and former Phayre Road, now Pansodan Road) and another good example for the beauty of Edwardian architecture. The construction began in 1913 and the building was completed in 1917. It is an exact copy of the Government Telegraph Office in Calcutta, now Kolkata/India. The building is on the Yangon Heritage List. OK, now we turn left and continue on Maha Bandoola Road to the Sule Pagoda. You can already see the pagoda ahead of us. We will go straight to the Sule Pagoda because from there we have a good look at the last colonial buildings of our tour.

We have arrived on former Fytche Square with our backs turned to the Sule Pagoda right behind us and have actually reached the end of our ‘Colonial Rangoon Sight Seeing Tour.

We are now on former Fytche Square with the Sule Pagoda right behind us. To our left is the former Rangoon City Hall, located across from us to the left is the former Rowe & Co. Building, opposite this building is the Immanuel Baptist Church and to our right opposite the Maha Bandoola Garden with the Independence Memorial is the former Fytche Square Building. We start with the Rangoon City Hall and continue clock-wise.

City Hall

This enormous building complex is standing at Maha Bandoola Street on the site of the old Rangoon Municipal building, which was much smaller. It has a basically rectangular floor plan oriented in east to west direction with entrances at cut-off corners. The south-west corner is cut off to adjust to the former Fytche Square shape. The construction begins in 1925 and is completed in 1935. In 1936 the Rangoon City Hall is officially opened by the Governor of Burma, His Excellency Sir Archibald Cochrane and is since then serving as municipal building.

Rowe & Co. Building

Opposite the former Barr Street, now Maha Bandoola Garden Street side of the City Hall you see the former Rowe & Co. Building at No. 416 Maha Bandoola Road. It is the third and last building of Rowe & Co. in Rangoon. In 1901 this new plot of land at the corner Barr Street, now Maha Bandoola Garden Street and Dalhousie Street, now Maha Bandoola Road is found. The construction of the building is completed in 1910.

Immanuel Baptist Church

The original Immanuel Baptist Church building is completed in 1895 and is thus one of Rangoon’s/Yangon’s oldest churches. The church is almost completely destroyed during the Japanese occupation and this new church building is completed in 1952. It is located at No. 411 Maha Bandoola Road (corner of former Barr Street, now Maha Bandoola Garden Street and former Dalhousie Street, now Maha Bandoola Road). Its main entrance is facing the former Fytche Square, now Sule Pagoda Square. The Immanuel Baptist Church is on the Yangon Heritage List. Let us now walk a little bit clock-wise around the Sule Pagoda in order to have a better view on the former Fytche Square Building.

Fytche Square Building, Sharraz Building

So, there it is, the 3-storey former Fytche Square Building, also known as Sharraz Building. It was completed in 1918 and it is located at 77-91 Sule Pagoda Road. In 1946 the companies stopped their businesses and in early 1947 the building was till 1962 occupied by the Civil Supply Board Offices. In the process of implementation of the governments nationalisation programme the building was allotted to the Trade Corporation and then used as office of the Ministry of Hotels & Tourism till the government moved to the new capital Nay Pyi Taw. Now we have to continue walking clockwise half way around the Sule Pagoda in order to see the Sunni Jumah Bengali Mosque..

Sunni Jumah Bengali Mosque

The building over there at 93 Sule Pagoda Road is the Sunni Jamah Bengali Mosque. The mosque was founded and financed by parts of the community of immigrants from Bengal. Now, please look upwards Sule Pagoda Road to where I am pointing. You see the gray building with the tower on the left hand side some 200 yards ahead of us? Well, that is the Rangoon Municipal Central Fire Station and the last British Colonial Building of our British Colonial Rangoon Sightseeing Tour.

Municipal Central Fire Station

This is the Central Fire Station, formerly the Rangoon Municipality Central Fire Station at 137-139 Sule Pagoda Road. It was completed 1912. In 1883 the Rangoon Municipal Committee had a fire brigade established and started to build fire stations in townships. The top of this tower served as permanent lookout for back then it was possible to overlook a wide area because most building were not higher than 2 storeys. This fire station is to this day – more than 100 years after its completion – in use.

High School Wrestling: John Jesse’s Wisdom on Strength and Conditioning

In 1974, a book entitled Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia was published. This book was written by a man named John Jesse.

Conditioning coach Vernon Gambetta writes, "You are probably asking who is John Jesse? John Jesse was an expert on strength training, injury prevention and rehabilitation from Southern California."

I never knew of this book’s existence until recently even though it’s obviously been around a long time. I came across it while surfing the internet and researching wrestling conditioning.

I borrowed a copy from the public library and found it really fascinating. John Jesse’s book doesn’t seem that outdated even though it was published 38 years ago. He really knew a lot about strength and conditioning.

So, what did he know?

Year-Round Training

Jesse emphasizes the importance of continuity in training. Continuous year-round physical training is imperative if a wrestler wishes to be successful. When discussing the importance of continuity he points out that, “Repeated efforts are required for the formation of conditioned-reflexes in the nervous system required for the development of great skill.”

A wrestler needs to train continuously the entire calendar year. However, Jesse recognizes the importance of breaking down the yearly training into cycles. Jesse divides the year-round training into four cycles.

The Four Cycles

  • Transition (Active Rest) Cycle – a period of one month immediately following the competitive season
  • Basic (Foundation) Cycle – a period of five months divided into three stages
  • Principal (Specific Preparation) Cycle – a period of two months
  • Competitive – generally a period of four months

Jesse advises to take one week totally off immediately following the season and then begin the transition cycle. However, you are not to engage in any wrestling or skills work during the transition cycle. During that cycle one should abstain from any wrestling, but you need to begin training for strength, endurance, and flexibly again. If you take too long of a break the physical attributes you’ve gained will begin to dissipate.

I’m sure that most of you have learned about the concept of periodization. Well, as you can see, that’s exactly what John Jesse is writing about.

In this current age, periodization is still used. Periodization is basically just planning your training. Dr. Fred Hatfield (a.k.a. Dr. Squat) is a big advocate of periodization. In an article entitled The Simplicity of Periodicity he writes of the “tremendous value of short-term periodization in your training.”

Moreover, he adds, “As your competition draws nearer and nearer, your training objectives change, and therefore your training methods change commensurably.”

Sports scientist Tudor Bompa has said, “We either have periodization or chaos.”

John Jesse writes something very similar in his book. He states, “Without a long-range training plan the athlete’s training can easily degenerate into chaos.”

Jesse knew what he was talking about.

Do you think champion wrestlers only work out during wrestling season? Do you think they train in some haphazard fashion? No! They train year-round with a well developed plan in mind just like John Jesse advocated and strength and conditioning experts still advocate.

Individuality and Specificity

Regarding individuality Jesses writes, “Training is an individual problem. All individuals react differently to the same training load.

Further, he states, that “No athlete should base his training plan on that used by some champion or outstanding athlete particularly as to the intensity of training loads.”

For instance, a high school wrestler may not be able to tolerate the training load that a college wrestler handles during a training year. You may not be able to train with the same load or intensity that Dan Gable or John Smith used while training.

According to Dr Fred Hatfield, there are seven laws of training that most sports scientists subscribe to. One of those laws is the law of individual differences. According to Hatfield, “We all have different abilities and weaknesses, and we all respond differently (to a degree) to any given system of training. These differences should be taken into consideration when designing your training program.”

Jesse knew the importance of individuality just as coaches do now and you should too.

Regarding specificity Jesse writes, “This principle maintains that training and its effects is specific to the muscle cells, organs and movements of the body in the development of either strength, endurance, flexibility or skill.”

Further, he states, “The specificity principle is of particular importance to the wrestler who requires various types of strength and endurance in order to excel in competition.”

Another of the seven laws of training is the specificity principle. According to Hatfield, “You’ll get stronger at squats by doing squats as opposed to leg presses, and you’ll get greater endurance for the marathon by running long distances than you will by (say) cycling long distances.”

A closely related law is the SAID principle: Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands.

You are a wrestler. Therefore, you must wrestle to improve at wrestling. You must also train for the demands of wrestling. You are not a marathoner so do not train like one. Wrestling is an anaerobic sport requiring strength, power, endurance, and many other abilities. So, train accordingly.

John Jesse knew the importance of specificity. Now you do too.

Supremacy of Strength

Jesse states, “The importance of strength in wrestling competition as the primary source of human power is frequently underestimated by coaches and wrestler alike. Strength underlies all other factors when one considers the total functioning of the body. Without sufficient strength other factors such as endurance, flexibility, agility, and skill cannot be used effectively.”

Similarly, performance coach Kelly Baggett states, "Maximum strength is the backbone upon which all other strength qualities lie. You’ll hear me talk a lot about being fast and the importance of speed, power, reactive ability etc. All of these qualities of strength are very important, but truthfully, unless you have enough raw horsepower in your engine you won’t be going anywhere or doing anything in a hurry!"

You may be interested in plyometrics, circuit training, and other modes of conditioning. However, one of your first priorities should be building a good strength base.

All-Round Strength

In Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia, all-round strength or total body strength is discussed. A wrestler wants his total body to work in a harmonious manner as a well-coordinated whole unit.

Some exercises recommended for the development of all-round strength include the one arm get-up, two arm get-up, dumbbell clean and jerk, barbell clean and jerk, barbell push press, barbell jerk press, deadlift, one hand swing, two hand swing, high pull to chest, and dead hang clean.

It’s interesting to note that the one arm and two arm get-ups and the one hand and two hand swings are illustrated using dumbbells. These exercises are popular choices now for athletes using kettlebells. The get-up is usually called the Turkish get-up. The Turkish get-up is hailed as a fantastic all-round strength and conditioning exercise. In addition, the Turkish get-up is endorsed because it requires all the muscles

of the body to work together in order to accomplish the labor.

Kettlebell swings are considered the foundation kettlebell exercise and are said to burn fat, build strength, and enhance cardiovascular fitness.

His book doesn’t mention kettlebells, but John Jesse knew the importance of all-round strength.

Strength Endurance

John writes, “The type of endurance that is in general overlooked in the conditioning of wrestlers is strength endurance. It is perhaps the most important basic physical quality a wrestler should develop.”

He suggests that one way of building strength endurance is to pick two exercises and do 4 sets of each. You do one set with 30, 50, 70, and 80 percent of your 1RM respectively. You would do this during the Principal (Specific Preparation) Cycle.

Some current strength and conditioning coaches may argue that Jesse’s routine is more suited to building muscular endurance than strength endurance.

The point is that John Jesse knew that after acquiring strength a wrestler needed to convert that strength into strength that he could use repeatedly over the duration of a match.

Trainer and coach Ross Enamait states, "Strength endurance is defined as the ability to effectively maintain muscular functioning under work conditions of long duration. Strength endurance is a vital strength quality for any combat athlete. Power and speed are useless without the stamina necessary to apply these physical attributes throughout the contest."

Similarly, strength and conditioning specialist Matt Wiggins writes about strength often being the most beneficial when you can take advantage of that strength over an extended period of time. He prefers to build strength endurance by using heavy weights and shortened rest periods.

Others prefer to do circuits using dumbbells or kettlebells combined with bodyweight exercises.

The bottom line is that you want to be as strong as possible for as long as possible. Jesse really emphasized strength endurance in the strength and conditioning training plan of a wrestler.

Rotational Strength

John believed that athletes placed too much emphasis on developing the muscles of the arms, shoulders and legs, while overlooking the importance of strength in the muscles of the lower back, sides, and abdomen.

He states, “No athlete engaged in activities that involve rotational and lateral movements against resistance such as wrestling, can truly project the concept of total body strength in movement if he is relatively weak in the muscles surrounding the lower trunk.”

When writing of John Jesse, conditioning coach Vernon Gambetta states, "He was preaching tri-plane work in the late 1940’s. Big emphasis on rotary work, a surprise to the gurus of today who think they invented rotary work." He also adds, "His ideas are very contemporary; he was a man ahead of his time."

Interestingly, certified strength and conditioning specialist Bret Contreres states that many sport movements include either large or subtle rotational elements. For example, imagine a wrestler attempting to take down an opponent. Does a double leg or single leg take down only involve strength in the vertical plane? I don’t believe so. You don’t lift your opponent straight up. One is usually lifting, moving laterally, and rotating.

Throws certainly occur in the transverse plane. What’s the transverse plane? Or, for that matter, what are the sagittal and frontal planes?

According to functional training expert Fraser Quelch, "As the body moves through space, it uses any combination of three planes of motion: sagittal, frontal and transverse." He adds, "Most traditional strengthening programs heavily favor sagittal-plane movement in a training environment that promotes one-dimensional motor patterns. These factors can undermine the body’s ability to move effectively in any given direction, and, in many cases, may lead to joint dysfunction."

Strength and conditioning coach Chad Waterbury states, "Rotational strength is probably the most important strength movement quality for MMA fighters. Sure, deadlifts, cleans, squats, chins, etc. are great strength building exercises, but they only establish a base of strength: that strength base must be further enhanced with rotational movements."

So, you see, John Jesse knew the importance of rotational strength for combative athletes. He mentions various rotational exercises in his book involving barbells, swingbells, and sandbags. You may have no idea what a swingbell is. That’s fine. There are many things an athlete can do with medicine balls or simply his bodyweight to exercise in the frontal and transverse planes.

Grip Strength

Jesse states, “No other athletic activity requires the combined strength and endurance of the grip as that required in the sport of wrestling.”

Similarly, Zach Even-Esh states, "Having strong hands and a powerful grip is misunderstood and undervalued by most wrestlers. Remember, everything passes through your hands in wrestling. The stronger your hands, the stronger your holds will be. The stronger your hands, the less likely your grip is to be a limiting factor in holding an opponent or finishing a move."

Joe Makovec, strength and conditioning coach for the nationally ranked Hofstra wrestling team, discussed some grip exercises with STACK Magazine (2007). He states, "We do a lot of wrist rollers and fat bar exercises, like rows and curls. We do a farmer’s carry, too, with a fat bar and with regular dumbbells. We also do a lot of pulling motions where you have to grip a rope."

Strength coach Charles Poliquin advocates thick bar training for grip. In an article about thick bar training he tells an anecdote about a Russian wrestler who displayed his grip strength at a press conference during the 1970s by producing two pairs of pliers and proceeding to squeeze them so hard that they snapped. After this Russian wrestler defeated an American wrestler, the defeated US wrestler commented that when the Russian grabbed his arms, he felt as if they were locked in a vise grip.

Can you maintain wrist and hand control on your opponents throughout a match? It is essential to have a strong grip. Good grip strength will greatly add to your ability to control or take down an opponent.

Hamstrings and Hips

Every wrestler has heard how important the hips are in wrestling whether it be properly using your own hip strength and power or the need to control your opponent’s hips.

Jesse discusses the fact that most of the holds used by a wrestler employ the hamstring, leg adductor, and hip flexor muscles to a much greater extent than leg extensor muscles. He believed that the strength of the hamstring muscles also played an important role in the prevention of injury to the knee.

According to STACK Magazine (2005), Gary Calcagno, head strength and conditioning coach for Oklahoma State University, says that lower body strength training is as simple as doing squats, glute ham raises, and lunges.

According to Coach Dave Tate, "We have known for years that the Glute Ham Raise (GHR) was regarded as one the best movements for the posterior chain (lower back, glutes, hamstrings and calves)."

And, Testosterone Magazine says of glute ham raises, "In addition to building up those hammies, it can also make an athlete virtually invulnerable to hamstring injuries as the movement lengthens the sarcomeres to an unparalleled degree."

You may not have access to a glute ham machine. Doesn’t matter. You can do them without a machine. I’m simply pointing out that current strength coaches realize the importance of strong hamstrings.

According to Coach John Gaglione, "The strength of a wrestler’s posterior chain is extremely important for optimal performance on the mat. Most athletes only focus on the muscles they can see in the mirror; often times neglecting the muscles they can’t see such as the glutes, hamstrings, and low back. This is a HUGE mistake, especially when these muscles play a paramount role in many movements you see in competition."

According to Patrick Dale, "Hip strength is vital in grappling sports such as wrestling and jiujitsu. Throwing your opponent to the ground and escaping from a pin attempt require power in your hip muscles. There are a variety of muscles that cross your hip joints, including the gluteus maximus or butt muscles, hamstrings, quadriceps and hip flexors."

Hip flexion brings the legs forward. Hip flexors are the muscles that bring the torso and leg closer together Think of how you lower your level before shooting a takedown.

Strength and conditioning coach Kevin O’Neill states, "Through my experience working with athletes in a variety of sports I have come to the belief that athletes and coaches do not train the hip flexors for strength gains nearly enough as they should."

He says the stronger the hip flexors, (along with the hamstrings and glutes), the faster the athlete is going to be.

It’s possible (even common) to have hip flexors that are too tight. It’s possible to overdevelop the strength in your hip flexors as well which is undesirable.

Hip extension is extremely important too. Don’t neglect the importance of hip flexion or extension.

Interestingly, Kelly Baggett claims that one of the main differences between average athletes and good athletes can be attributed to the strength, development, and function of the glute musculature. I had no idea the glutes were so important.

The anatomy and physiology stuff can be confusing. I think the main point I’m trying to make is that John Jesse knew the importance that the hamstrings and hips play in wrestling and so do current strength coaches. He knew the effect proper training of those muscles could have on performance and so do current strength coaches.

Anaerobic Endurance

Jesse discusses the fact that during a match a wrestler will engage in many bouts of oxygen debt activity. Therefore, a wrestler requires a high degree of anaerobic metabolism efficiency and resistance to oxygen debt discomfort.

The author discusses the fact that a wrestler needs the capacity to continue at a high level of work in the interval between the "oxygen debt" periods of maximum exertion and still efficiently clear the waste products of the oxygen debt periods that produce fatigue in the muscles.

Have you ever seen your strength or speed drop in the third period because your muscles were burning with fatigue? It’s difficult to shoot a powerful takedown in the third period if you’re feeling fatigued.

The author discusses how a great capillary structure aids a runner in his efforts to clear waste products from his lower body. However, running cannot help a wrestler to develop endurance in the other muscles of his body such as the muscles of the back, chest, arms, and shoulders. A different form of training is required for that.

Jesse states, “Strength endurance training programs develop the wrestler’s ability to tolerate “oxygen debt” (anaerobic endurance) and vastly improve the all-important psychological quality that is called the “will-to-win.”

It’s interesting to note that strength and conditioning coach Alwyn Cosgrove has a similar view. He states, "Some conditioning coaches use sprint training as their sole method of energy system development (ESD). This is at best a short-sighted approach. It is not uncommon to see well-conditioned fighters who have used sprint based ESD fatigue rapidly in hard matches. This is because although their cardio system is well-conditioned, the effect of lactic acid on their localized muscle groups is devastating. If we do not condition the muscle groups themselves to handle high levels of lactate, the cardio system will feel fine, but that area will lock up and shut down."

Cosgrove recommends using barbell complexes. Barbell complexes involve doing a series of exercises one after the other without putting the bar down. Complexes may help condition your body to handle the high levels of lactate that will be produced during a wrestling match.

In their article The Physiological Basis of Wrestling: Implications for Conditioning Programs, Kraemer et al. (2004) state, "As a combative sport, wrestling imposes unique stresses on the body. From a metabolic perspective, the acid-base balance is severely disrupted. For example, a college or freestyle match lasts between 6 and 8 minutes (including overtime) and can elevate blood lactate concentrations in excess of 15 mmol/L and sometimes reach nearly 20 mmol/L."

In other words, a wrestling match can produce a lot of lactate. This disruption can cause fatigue. So, how can a wrestler train to tolerate this disruption? The authors recommend a circuit training format with brief rest periods. Circuit training is similar to complex training. Interestingly, the authors (much like John Jesse and Alwyn Cosgrove) note, "It is also vital that the upper body is trained in this manner to increase the capability of upper-body musculature to directly adapt to the dramatic acid-base shifts that occur with wrestling."

You may want to research anaerobic threshold training, lactate threshold training, complexes, and circuit training.

Interval Training

You may be aware that interval training, especially high intensity interval training (HIIT) is all the rage right now. The Tabata protocol is especially popular. Interval training involves alternating between bouts of high-intensity work and recovery periods of lower intensity work.

For instance, instead of running at a slow steady pace for 24 minutes a person may run hard for 2 minutes and jog for 4 minutes (6 minutes total) and repeat this protocol 4 times (a total of 24 minutes). Both workouts are 24 minutes in length, but the second workout may elicit a different training response. Or, a person may perform several 30 second sprints with each sprint followed by a recovery period and then run perhaps 10 sprints total.

The high intensity nature of the training is supposed to burn more fat, enhance one’s lactate threshold, and promote greater cardiovascular benefit than traditional slow, steady-state cardiovascular work. An athlete’s work to rest ratio could be 1:3, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, and other combinations.

Did John Jesse know about interval work? Yes! Regarding interval work training Jesse writes, “This is physical work or activity of a given intensity, interspersed with pauses.” Further, he adds, “The steady work uptake and the repeated slowing down or stoppages of work (jogging, walking, lying down, etc.) stimulates the organism to much higher physiological adaptations, thereby forcing the organism to its optimal development, endurance wise.”

Of course, even in 1974 when Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia was published interval training was nothing new. Interval training was first developed by German physiologists Reindell and Gerschler in the 1930s. Roger Bannister, the first man to run the mile in under 4 minutes, used interval training.

The point is that John Jesse knew the benefits that this type of training could offer to athletes including wrestlers. He knew that it had many advantages over continuous steady-state types of training.

Sandbags

John discusses the fact that sandbags are awkward to handle. That is one of the main reasons that strength and conditioning coaches advocate sandbag training.

According to strength coach Brian Jones, "During a sandbag rep or set the load may shift substantially from one side to the other, sag in the middle, or otherwise try to escape your grasp. Such shifting forces your core and stabilizers to work overtime in an attempt to get the weight back under control. You will be forced to work considerably harder to control a given load."

John Jesse also believed that sandbag training mimicked the lifting and pulling movements encountered in wrestling. Also, he believed that sandbag training was good for developing rotational strength and power.

Certified strength and conditioning specialist Mark Roozen states, "Using sandbags in a training program can help develop power, quickness, agility, and conditioning components. This can all be accomplished with a piece of equipment that can simulate contact, throws, and be utilized in ways that solid resistance equipment could not be used."

Sandbags are becoming a very popular training tool. You can find many articles online about sandbag training.

Calisthenics and Running Combined

Jesse writes, “Athletic coaches in all sports use combined programs of running, calisthenics, rope skipping, stadium steps running, etc., for the development of strength, muscular and circulo-respiratory endurance and agility.”

Strength and conditioning coach Mike Mahler likes the benefits that can be derived from "roadwork." He states, "Here is how it works, go out for a jog and every 50 yards or so, drop down and do some bodyweight exercises such as push-ups and sit-ups. Crank out 25 reps and then get up immediately and start jogging again. After another 50 yards or so, drop down again and crank out some more bodyweight drills. This is an efficient way to build up cardio and muscular endurance that will carry over to the ring."

For anaerobic endurance training Mike Fry suggests visiting your local football field. He writes, "Starting at the goal line, sprint to the 10 yd line and walk back to the goal line and do 10 push-ups, continue by increasing your sprint by 10 yds each time and walking back to the goal line. Do pushups after each return to the goal line." Make sure to do a warm up before and a cool down afterwards.

Legendary wrestler and former Iowa Hawkeye coach Dan Gable used to enjoy utilizing the stadium steps of Carver-Hawkeye Arena to condition his wrestlers. Walking up those steps with a buddy on your back could be especially grueling.

Drilling and Technique

Jesse emphasizes the importance of “improving skill (technique, use of leverage, etc.) to eliminate unnecessary movements that waste energy and use up oxygen.”

Personal fitness trainer Brian Copeland writes very similar words. He states, "It is always best to include skill practice before resistance or endurance training. The goal of skill training is not to just practice… it is to get better! It amazes me how often this simple principle is overlooked. It is my experience that people don’t really understand how to practice to make improvements, at least not beyond a basic level of skill. Skill practice is analyzing every single aspect of every movement you make and finding more efficiency, better leverage, etc."

If one desires to use sparring as a method of developing endurance for mixed martial arts, strength coach Charles Poliquin suggests, "The best way would be to pair up with 5 other fighters that each take turns to fight you. Since they are fresh, they will give you a run for your money. Depending on the system you want to develop you would manipulate the work /rest interval. For example 6-10 minutes work on fighter 1, 2 minutes off, 6-10 minutes work on fighter 2, 2 minutes off, etc. The permutations of that type of work are staggering. Twice a week should be plenty. What is good about it is that you will be forced to make decisions in conditions of fatigue, which is a determinant in MMA fighting."

Interestingly, in Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia, the author writes of a wrestling drill for building endurance that is a bit similar to the MMA routine above. He writes, "Wrestler remains on mat and wrestles for 9 minutes against a fresh opponent each minute, with 10-second rest intervals."

Cycling Work and Rest

Even though year-round training is encouraged, one is not expected to train with the same volume and intensity year-round. Jesse recognizes the need for varying volume and intensity in the training plan. Some days will be low intensity, some medium, and others high. Some days may involve total rest.

According to Dr. Owen Anderson, "Any periodization scheme must begin with one basic element – rest. This is intuitively and logically obvious: the human body simply needs ‘down’ (restoration) periods to recover from extended periods of stress; you must convalesce from the training you carried out in your just-completed mesocycle or macrocycle."

Proper Weight Reduction

John Jesse warns the reader about the dangers and foolishness of crash starvation diets and dehydration. He recognized that crash starvation diets can have devastating effects on a wrestler’s performance. He suggests that it’s better not to diet unless you actually have weight to lose. Many wrestlers are already lean to begin with and then starve and dehydrate themselves to make weight.

Professor William Kraemer points out that a wrestler will not be functioning optimally physiologically if he engages in dehydration practices for the purpose of weight reduction.

He also notes, "Adopting different weight-loss strategies that stabilize muscle mass and body mass to prepare for a match appears to be the best way to eliminate physiological breakdown and allow the wrestler to perform at a higher level of physiological readiness."

Improper weight loss techniques can be detrimental to a wrestler’s conditioning and to his performance in competition.

Craig Horswill, PhD suggests some possible options regarding weight loss in wrestlers. Describing one of these options, he writes, "Lift weights and grow into the weight class. Be stronger at the end of the season. How many wrestlers start strong but fade in the tournaments because they are burned out after weight cutting has taken its toll? If a wrestler can grow into the weight class to the point that he needs to begin cutting weight only by the end of the season, he spares himself three months of nutritional deprivation and improves his chances of not becoming over trained. He is fresh when it really counts."

Interestingly, John Jesse mentioned that some wrestling coaches had achieved success by letting wrestlers stay at their natural weight or perhaps even gain weight during the season.

Conclusion

Wrestling Physical Conditioning Encyclopedia also covers topics such as flexibility, injury prevention, circuit training, gymnastic apparatus exercises, isometrics, proper nutrition, and more.

In his article Seven Keys to Athletic Success, strength and conditioning coach Alwyn Cosgrove discusses concepts of physical training such as the importance of strength, explosive power, endurance, flexibility, injury prevention, and core training.

John Jesse addressed all of those concepts in his book in 1974. You may want to borrow a copy of this book or buy it online. I think you’d learn a lot and enjoy reading it. If you don’t read the book it’s no big deal. The important thing is that John Jesse knew that proper training for wrestling based on science as well as years of experience had the potential to dramatically improve a wrestler’s performance.

The main reason I wrote this article is because I believe that John Jesse and his book deserve to be recognized and remembered.

But, as I said, you don’t need to read his book. So much incredible information regarding the training for wrestling and other combative sports can be found in books, magazines and journals, and online. Take advantage of the wealth of knowledge that is out there. Take advantage of science and let it help you become the best wrestler that you can be.