Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Plating

In today's printed circuit boards, copper is used specifically for interconnecting the components on the substrate. Traditionally, copper is used as a material to form an electrical connectivity track pattern; whenever copper is exposed without proper coating and exposed to air over a long period of time, copper will be easily tarnish because of oxidation. It will then get corroded and thus loses its solderability. Because of this issue, multiple techniques are used to protect the copper tracks, via holes and printed through-holes (PTH). One of the methods is coated with organic coating, oxide coating and the plating method that many manufacturers used long time ago. PCB Organic coating, although simple in application, is not recommended for long term usage due to capacity of PCB manufacturer process control in thickness, composition and also the curing cycles. It can also cause unpredictable deviation in solderability. However, with the enforcement of lead-free, it is widely use on consumer PCB now.

Oxide coating can protect the circuit from corrosion, however, it fails to preserve the PCB solderability. The most standard method since long ago ago for PCB manufacturers is metal coating process which was standard practice to ensure solderability and protect the circuit from corrosion before the enforcement period of lead-free era. So it was a key factor and plays an important role in the PCB manufacturing of double-sided and multi-layer (PTH) boards in the past. In particular, plating a solderable metal over the tracks was a standard practice to afford solder protection to the copper tracks. Also, the edge connectors added with spring contacts mating with suitably designed connector tabs on printed circuit boards, are used for the interconnection of various modules in electronic equipment. Such electrical contacts are expected to have a high degree of wear resistance and low contact resistance. This will ensure precious metal plating on these contacts and the most commonly used metal is gold. Other metals used for coating are tinning of the tracks, nickel plating and in some instances, copper plating to build up some of the track areas.

How Do Quadrafire Pellet Stoves Benefit From Good Design?

So you have chosen to opt for a pellet stove to heat your home or business. Using wood pellets for heating is a much cheaper option, and also reduces carbon emissions and benefits the environment. So how do you pick the best pellet burner for your needs, what are the specific features you need, and what details will make the difference in terms of a quality heater? These are all valid and important questions, as anyone who presumes all pellet stoves are the same is simply wrong, and that assumption could lead to purchasing a poor quality pellet burner.

So first lets look at how much fuel the Quadrafire pellet stoves can hold. These units have some of the largest inbuilt hoppers on the market, and hopper extensions are available to extend the running time of the unit up to around a week without the need to refill the hopper. As well as having a hopper that can hold a lot of fuel, how it feeds that fuel into the fire is evenly if not more important. All pellet burners use a timed auger to get the pellets into the combustion chamber. The design of the feed system is crucial for reliable burner operation. Some units are built with fairly fragile augers and motors, and in some circumstances they can get blocked with a pellet, which is only a few millimeters too long in length. No pellet burner manufacture should resume the pellets are all a perfect length and should be designed to deal with it. Quadrafire simply put in better augers and motors, which can break off oversized pellets if needed.

Now the fuel feed system has been looked at, the next important factor is the combustion zone or more specifically the burn pot. Here is where the action really happens, and the true indication of a quality pellet stove. There are several burn pot designs, and the most common design is the drop down burn pot. Here the pellets fall into the burn pot, and the only means of ash removal is from the forced air used to aid combustion. The problem with this system is, what is the air flow is insufficient to move all of the ash? This will create an ash build up, and this will eventually cause the pellet stove to detect a fault. Therefore the drop down pellet burn pot is not the design, as the ash content of fuel pellets can easily vary.

Wood Plank Look Porcelain Tile Flooring

Interceramic flooring range are very famous ceramic tiles in the market of late. They are a major part of the flooring market. Their shape looks like a wood and they are very diverse in nature which makes them very popular for these various reasons. The wood look ceramic tiles are very durable and look beautiful after finishing. This means that they last longer without losing their brightness and beauty. The wood look ceramic tiles provide both beauty and value to the consumer. Some interceramic Timberland tiles look like wood grain tile.

The common colors in which wood grain tiles come are Golden Saddle, country suede, mountain timber and nature valley. All the interceramic Timberland series have wood look tile appearance whether they are of golden saddle color or any other color.

Glazed Porcelain is the composition material of wood look ceramic flooring. Most of these tiles come in rectangular shape. The ceramic flooring range will provide you complete resistance from any chemical action that may occur between the layers of the floors of your home. It also prohibits the moisture from coming underneath the earth into the tiles which may cause their breakaway action.

The wood look ceramic tiles are most commonly used for indoor applications and floors. They are used on both residential and commercial scale. Some people prefer to make the interceramic wood look flooring in their TV lounges as this is the main entrance of their home. The most common use is to decorate one wall of TV lounge with these interceramic Timberland wood look tiles. They are also used in floors to give the look of wooden floor. These interceramic wood grain look will give a complete natural look to your home.

You can select a particular range of flooring in this vast and dynamic classes of ceramic tiling. Interceramic wood look tiles offer a simple and cheap way of decorating one's room according to his personality. Because of their smoothness these tiles can be washed and cleaned easily. Interceramic Timberland wood look tiles are available at reasonable prices in the market. This ceramic flooring range is available in very economical and compatible pricing. Today the wood look ceramic flooring is well renounced all over the world and people render the services of this nice and smooth looking flooring in both their homes and offices. These wood look tiles are commonly used in high class offices and internet cabins.

8 Things You Should Know About Before Planning 2018

Here is a list of books, ideas and concepts that I have found substantially interesting and important this year. I'm so grateful that I have discovered them or been introduced to them by others. I want you to have the benefit of knowing they exist, whether for now or in the future.

My experience has been that certain teachers and teachings come along right at the time they are most needed. So, check these out and store them in your memory bank for a time when it might be exactly what you need.

1. Ho'Oponopono – This ancient Hawaiian practice has been of interest to me for years. I've used it in the past and recently had the honor of introducing Dame Mabel Katz (peace prize recipient and author of "The Easiest Way to Live") at a speaking event.

She is an expert on the subject, speaking globally on this powerful method of "cleaning errors" and taking 100% responsibility for addressing the disharmony in your life. The idea is that "cleaning" our own thoughts, that have been passed down through generations, will affect our happiness and the collective thinking in the world.

This very simple process requires that you only repeat certain statements that are universally understood and respected (such as: "thank you, I love you, I'm sorry and I forgive you") The result of practicing ho'oponopono is to improve our own sense of peace and that of others, with no action on their part at all.

2. What a Focus on Giving Can Do – I was given the book The Go-Giver by Bob Burg and John David Mann by my mentor in August. I finally read it on a plane last week. I read it in two hours and I'm one of the world's slow readers, so it takes no time to read. This is a fun and truly unique business read.

" The Go-Giver tells the story of an ambitious young man named Joe who knows for success. And so one day, desperate to land a key sale at the end of a bad quarter, he seeks advice from the enigmatic Pindar, a legendary consultant referred to by his many devotees simply as the Chairman. "

"Pindar's friends share with Joe the Five Laws of Stratospheric Success and teach him how to open himself up to the power of giving."

The ideas in this book are taught in companies around the world and will change the way you think and operate.

3. Your Hidden Money Archetypes – Are you aware that you have unconscionable money beliefs that are driving your decision making? This is one of the most important discoveries I have made in recent years. I wish I knew about it sooner. These beliefs and related behavior patterns can be explained through archetypes (models of thinking and behavior).

Once you understand and gain awareness of your "money personality" as explained through your archetypes, you will be empowered with information that allows you to make better and more sensible choices in all your interactions with money. This is how you begin to create a better relationship with money. This is my specialty, and I would love to discuss it with you further if you have concerns in this area.

4. How to Really Think Big – Do you feel that you already think big? My guess is that you are still capping your sense of potential in some areas. The book The Big Leap – Conquer Your Hidden Fear and Take Life to the Next Level by Gay Hendricks PhD, clarifies the discussion of how we get in our own way of living a happier and more abundant life.

He explains beautifully the psychology behind our general discomfort with the idea that we can be happy and prosperous for extended periods, or even indefinitely. He masterfully shows us how we sabotage ourselves so we can stay in the comfort zone of drama and difficulties, and why we would do such a thing. From there, he helps us understand what is possible. This is really necessary reading if you want to learn how to think bigger for yourself and those you love.

5. The Power of Intentions – I'm constantly talking about this, I know. It's the catalyst of all catalysts though. It's worth repeating. Setting intention is like flipping the switch in your brain, allowing you to focus on something specific (not easy when the brain is bombarded with messaging every moment) and alert the universe that the light's on. This is the signal, the message, the prayer that will be heard by whatever the "source" is for you. Once the intention is set, all wheels start turning, moving you toward the desired outcome.

Use this for the big goals and before a simple meeting. Use it in every area of ​​life. Setting an intention reinforces a decision. Decisions are critical. From the decision point, you can create the mindset and actions to move forward on the intention. You will be shocked what transpires.

6. PLAN to Maintain Your Connections – Do you go out in the world and meet people? Are those connections valuable to you? What do you do to keep the connection going? As much as we network and engage clients and customers, what follows those interactions is key, and sometimes left to chance.

We tend to feel that the initial meeting or work together is the significant point. While important, it's the long term that matters more. Relationships take effort to cultivate and grow. If you have a process and a plan to follow up and continuously connect with people, you will develop a powerful network that you enjoy, and with what there is a long term relationship.

7. A Technique For Deciding Between Two Choices – When difficult decisions present themselves, you can do a pros and cons list, but frankly, I've never found answers doing that.

The "Cartesian Coordinates" process (from Career Coaching: An Insider's Guide by Marcia Bench) proposes asking 4 questions to make sure every angle is addressed in an important decision between two choices. This results unanticipated consequences from occurring once a decision is made. For example, sometimes you are trying to decide whether to leave your corporate position and move into entrepreneurship. It's a difficult decision. To fully analyze it, ask these questions:

  1. What would happen if you did? (ie what would happen if you left your job)?
  2. What would not happen if you did? (ie what would you miss out on if you left now)?
  3. What would happen if you did not? (ie what would the benefits by of staying)?
  4. What would not happen if you did not? (ie what opportunities would you miss out on by staying)?

8. Plan So Your Days Have Direction – You may have a great vision and mission statement for the year ahead. You may be able to picture the results and results at the end of the year. You might visualize a bank account balance next December with a big grin.

However, without specificity on how you will achieve the vision or the revenue, it's a hope and not a strategy. Make sure there are particular targets to reach each month and that those targets can result in the revenue generation necessary. An ideal plan gives you a roadmap and the information you need to direct each day. If you wake up and do not know what to work on in your business or career search, your plan could be more detailed.

Plan to produce, not just for fun.

Well, those are some ideas to tuck away and use now, or at some point when you realize you need them. Resources give me a sense of comfort and these are favorites.

House Stair Handrails and Guardrails Safety

With guardrails and handrails on our stairs, it is the same concept as with many other safety requirements guiding our daily commute – we often believe these rules are created for others only, until we suddenly realize that there's nothing to hold on to when gravity's force pulls our body down the stairs with an increasing speed.

That's why somebody came up with a list of rules:

1. The stairs' handrail must be grassable, and the best shape / size to put your grip on must have a 1 "" – 2 "circular shape cross section (preferably circle, but square, or a section of the square with rounded edges and a groove for your fingers, is also acceptable). Flat boards, 2 "x4", or anything else that you can not close the palm of your hand on, is not acceptable by the building code.

2. The stairs' handrail attached to the wall should not project further than 3 "" into the stairway (some jurisdictions accept 4 "" max distance). The distance between the handrail and the wall should not be less than 1 "". This is to keep your fingers from getting trapped between the wall and the handrail, and give enough clearance for your hand.

3. Any stairs with 4 risers or more require handrails. Risers are the boards between the steps (treads); of course you may just have an empty space between each tread.

4. The required stairs' handrail height is between the 34 "and 38".

5. When you attach the handrail / handrail brackets to the wall, make sure that they are secured with proper screws to the wall framing, not to the drywall sheet. This is because they have to support a 200 lb load applied at any point of the stairs' handrail in any direction. Brackets may often be supplied with small, plastic anchors which provide no support whatever when used in drywall, and even a small child can pull it off the wall.

6. The ends of the stairs' handrail attached to the wall should return to that wall. When you're carrying a shoulder bag, or even wearing a jacket, it might get worn up on that section of the handrail and you'll either ruin your wardrobe or loose balance and fall down the stairs. If you have a navel post at the end of the handrail, the handrail should return to this post or volute. Also, the stairs handrail should extend to area above the top and bottom nosing of stairs.

Handrail / Guardrail

7. This one is extremely important if you or your visitors have small children. If you have a 4 "diameter ball handy, it should not pass through any of the openings along the stairs' handrail and guardrail (guardrail pickets for example) The only exception is that triangular space between the riser, tread, and base of the guardrail – a 6 "max diameter is allowed in this area. If you do not have risers and there is an open space underneath treads, the 4 "max applies there as well.

8. The guardrails are required on any walking surface elevated 30 "or higher above the floor / grade.

9. Guardrails in single family properties must be a minimum of 36 "high from the walking surface (balconies, decks, galleries) and no clustable / horizontal bars – kids love climbing.

So how does it look in your house?

An Elegant Addition To Your Home-Wood Railings

Wood railings are a very elegant addition to a home. For an instant update to your home that will add a stylish touch, consider adding wood railings. Wood railings have long been the choice for indoor railings because they have a soft and mellow look for inside the house. Metal railings tend to reflect light and make the interior too right. The softness of wood does not reflect, but rather adds a warm glow that lends an air of tranquility to a home.

Besides their beautiful good looks, there are other advantages to wood railings. Wood railings, when used indoors and not exposed to the elements, are just about maintenance free. If wood railings are properly lacquered when they are installed, a light dusting and polishing from time to time will keep them looking beautiful. Wood is very durable, and heavy wooden railings can last forever in a home. And do not forget the fun of sliding down the wooden railing in your home when you were a kid. Do not you want your kids to enjoy that?

There are many choices of woods for beautiful wood railings. Along the various styles you can choose for the posts, balusters and top rails, you have a wide variety of woods to choose from. Red or White Oak, Ash, Cedar, Pine, Beech, Poplar, Mahogany, Walnut, Maple, Cherry and Teak are all availble and each has its own look to add to the beauty of your home. You can even have the posts and balusters in one material and the top rail, the most visible feature in another material.

Today's manufacturers use computer systems to design whatever kind of railing system you like, so you can choose a design or make your own, and the posts, balusters and toprail of your dreams is at your fingertips.

How do you take care of you new wood railings? Wood railings are very easy to take care of. As long as there is no exposure to moisture, you just have to dust and polish. Exposure to moisture means that woodworms and termites can infest and eat away t the wood. If your wood rails may be exposed, you will have to treat them with a chemical to prevent this, or if they are outdoors, you may have to paint them to protect them. Otherwise, just dust weekly and do a heavy wax polishing once a year to keep your wood railing glowing.

Glass Splashbacks and Pool Fencing Enhance Your Home

Are you looking to redo the interior or exterior of your home? A great way to do this is to install glass splashbacks in your home. When you choose to add this type of accent you give your home a sleek modern look and yet the splashbacks are very easy to clean. Not only do they look great they are very hygienic which is of concern to many families now. Glass when used in this manner combines strength with beauty and it can take on any character you want.

One place where you may wish to have glass splashbacks installed is around your pool. Pool fencing is a popular choice and you have your choice between frameless and semi frameless pool fencing. Frameless pool fencing is custom made to meet your needs which means you can choose a style that you love which also compliments the area where it will be installed. Views will not be disrupted so you have maximum visibility at all times. Twelve millimetre grade a safety glass will be used to construct your fencing along with marine grade stainless steel. This allows you to feel comfortable knowing you are getting a great product that will meet your every need.

Semi frameless pool fencing is another option you may wish to consider. Choose from either stainless steel or aluminum posts to meet your needs and your budget. The stainless steel offers high quality without worry of rust. If you choose to go with aluminum posts powder coating is offered in a variety of colors. All posts are 50mm in diameter and are 1200mm high to meet Australian standards. Furthermore this fencing features a semi frameless gate which comes with both latching mechanisms and a self closing mechanism. Choose which option works best for you.

To complete your living area finish the job with a glass frameless balustrade or a semi frameless version. These are perfect for balconies, terraces and staircases or anything of that type. Per Australian Standards Codes all handrails will be at least one meter above ground level and you will have options in this area also. Do not overlook mirrors either. All will enhance the look of your home and be something you are complimented for on a regular basis. Glass splashbacks are a wonderful addition to any decor and one improvement that you will not regret now or in the future. Be sure to look at other types which are currently being offered also.

Baby Proofing your Home – Baby Safety Tips for Effective Babyproofing

Unfortunately, more than four million children end up in the emergency room each year as a result of home accidents. The good news is 90% of these accidents could have been avoided. While there is no replacement for vigilant supervision, proactive childproofing can go along way preventing preventing need accidents. As your child explores, teach him what is safe and what is off-limits.

Drawing on the knowledge of child safety expert Kimberlee Mitchell, experienced mother of two toddlers and owner of Boo Boo Busters Professional Babyproofing Service, below is a list of recommended childproofing tips for every home.

How To Create A Baby Safe Home Environment

The cheapest and quickest way to babyproof is to limit access to certain parts of the home that are either safe nor appropriate for babies. The garage, laundry room, loft, terrace, office, gym, utility room, craft room, rooms under construction, etc. should be "off limits" for babies and should be secured with door locks. The front door and interior garage door should have flip locks so child does not have access to outdoors.

Common Hazards in Every Home

Some household dangers are obvious yet others can be more elusive. Albeit there are hundreds of dangers common to every household, they are easily rectified once recognized.


· Cover all envelopes, power strips and old exposed wires. Engaged outlets with a cord plugged in and play areas (nursery, play room, living room) should have sliding plate covers or a big box outlet cover for oversized plugs on every exposed outlet. Push plugs can be used in less accessible areas only if the plugs are very difficult for an adult to remove. A determined child and / or a set of twins, can remove the push plugs given enough time.

· Use cord control kits to organize and house all wires.


· Anchor all armoires, shelving units, dressers, etc. or appliances (ie TV, VCR, computer, etc.) that can topple onto child as a result of climbing or pulling. When drawers are open simultaneously the unit, however sturdy, becomes front heavy and tips easily with weight of toddler on open drawer.

· Earthquakes are another good reason to secure heavy furniture to wall stud.


· Install window guards with emergency release latches on all windows on second level. Screens are not babyproofing devices. Beware of toy stacking. Children will pile up anything to get a view outside. Move furniture away from half walls where child can climb up and fall over. Consider having Plexiglas installed to extend dangerous pony walls.

· Mount safety gate at stair top and bottom. Professional babyproofers offer top quality gates, extensions, custom mount kits for wood and wrought iron banisters. Pressure gates are not recommended. If banister posts are more than 3 "apart, install a barrier.

· Install custom cut Plexiglas on stair banisters and decks that are no to code (2 1/2 inches wide) or if there are decorative embellishments on banister that will act as a foothold for a climbing child.

· Be sure all area rugs and mats have non-skid bottoms to avoid slipping.

· Never leave infant unattended on changing table or bed

· Never let child play on stairs unattended.


· Move all chemicals (including cleaning supplies, various beauty and childcare accessories and alcohol) to a high locked cabinet.

· Install magnetic child safety locks (Tot Loks) on all accessible drawers and cabinets that contain these toxic items. These are 100% kid proof.

· No unsuccessful entry into garage and laundry room.

· CO detectors should be installed on each level of home near sleeping quarters.


· Find out which plants in your home and yard are poisonous. Landscapers commonly use white Oleander, which is highly toxic. If there is a plant in question, cut off a sprig, put it in a zip lock bag and bring it to local plant nursery for their input.


· Keep all pet doors closed off when child is present.

· Pets run through door and knock over child and / or child can escape to the outside through the door, which is at their eye level and quite inviting.

· Never allow your child access to an animal you do not know is good with children. Do not allow child to hug dog or kiss its face. Do not bring small children to dog parks. Keep child away from pack of fast running dogs.

Choking / Strangulation:

· Anything that will fit inside an empty cardboard toilet paper roll is a choking hazard.

· Replace all old door stops that have removable rubber tips with one piece door stops as the small rubber tip is a choking hazard.

· Do a visual safety sweep of home every day before child wakes to make sure all small objects are picked up off floor.

· Beware of older children's toys that can be choking hazards. Use locked storage bins for small pieces.

· Install a peg rack on wall to hang purses, coats, bags, backpacks, etc. to keep out of reach.

· Install blind cord cleats and wrap all dangling cords to disallow strangulation.


· Avoid the most common drowning hazard and have a pool fence, cover or net installed over all pools and spas.

· When swimming with baby or small child always make sure they are within arm's distance and PAY ATTENTION. Being engrossed in a conversation with someone while "watching your child" is very dangerous.

· Babies can fall into toilet head first and not be able to get out so be sure to install toilet locks.

· After it rains do a visual safety sweep of the yard to look for planters, buckets or water tables with pooled water and dump it out.

· Never leave the child unattended in or around water.

· Turn your water heater down to 120 degrees Fahrenheit to avoid risk of scaling.


· Use back burners in kitchen and turn pot handles in.

· Parents make habit of holding handrail when using stairs when carrying child.

· Keep doors to "off limits" rooms folded closed.

· Beware of older or older children's non-safe habits about household. They will unintentionally leave doctors out, drop pills, leave doors / cabinets / drawers open, etc. You can educate your family members to be mindful of their unsafe habits but at the end of the day the baby's safety is still your responsibility.

· Be vigilant about supervising your child. You can babyproof your home like a safety fortress but there is no replacement for your constant attention.

· Turn off the TV if you are not watching it with your child. The program may be child-safe but the commercials might not. There are some pretty terrifying things on TV that will not physically harm a baby but can cause damage. See your pediatrician about this topic for more information.


The following is a room-by-room walk through of an average family home. Keep in mind that our homes were not designed for the safety of a baby or child in mind. Each residence has special features that are unique as well as common safety challenges. Below is a list of solutions to common safety hazards found in most homes:


· Install magnetic child safety locks (Tot Loks) on all accessible drawers and cabinets that contain toxic items (ie cleaning supplies, alcohol, vitamins, plastic bags, etc.)

· Gate off kitchen area.

· Keep child in high chair or pack and play during meal preparation.

· Latch all other drawers and cabinets. We recommend babyproofing for safety first and foremost, however it's also a matter of convenience. If you choose, keep one cupboard with Tupperware lids unlocked for child to access but be sure they can not use this open cabinet or drawer as a step to climb up onto counter. Your child may not be able to reach certain drawers now but he will certainly in no time.

· Never let child play with pots or pans as it sends the wrong message to child that these are toys. When child sees the same pots / pan on stove top he will want to grab his familiar "toy."

· Consider latching all appliances child can access like the refrigerator, dishwasher, trash compactor, dumbwaiter and oven.

· Keep all appliances on counter unplugged and hide electrical cords.

· Do not hang dish towels on oven door as baby can pull towel and bring the door down into the bridge of his nose.

· Use back burners on stove and install stove guard and knob covers if child has access to them.

· Do not use small or breakable refrigerator magnets as they are choking hazards.

· Beware of leaving knives, scissors, coffee mug, etc. out on counter as child will grab at whatever they can get a handle on from their vantage.


· No unsuccessful entry into bathroom.

· Use safety locks on door at all times.

· Install toilet locks to prevent child from drowning and throwing objects in.

· Latch all cabinets.

· Move wastebasket under sink behind a latched cabinet door or use a covered receptacle.

· Turn water heater down to 120 degrees to prevent scalding.

· Always check water temperature on your inner wrist prior to putting baby into it.

· Never leave a child in bath unattended.

· Never leave filled tub unattended and drain tub immediately after use. Children can wander in and drown.

· Use no-slip mat to prevent slipping and a spout cover to prevent scalding and cuts.

· Remove all electrical appliances from bathroom where child baths.

Living Room / Family Room

· Eliminate baby's access to fireplaces, wood stoves and hot tubs using gates developed for this purpose. If gates will not work on fireplace use specifically designed fireplace lock on glass accordion doors and install hearth padding around edges of hearth to prevent child from falling onto it.

· Remove gas key from fireplace gas gauge and store in high place.

· Anchor all items that are tipping hazards.

· Anchor TVs.

· Remove all items (torchiere lamps, freestanding coat racks, statues, etc.) from home until child is older.

· Cover end tables, coffee tables, countertops, and low dressers furniture corners and edges with cushioning created for this purpose.


· No unsuccessed access to decks. Beware of you child stacking toys / object to see over railing.

· Install a Plexiglas or net barrier if there is more than 2 in inches between railing posts.

· Put decals on sliding glass doors at baby's eye level, so he or she does not run into them.

· Always keep baby away when from the grill. Hearthgates work well for this purpose.

· Do not use deck furniture to eliminate risk of climbing.

· Always lock all doors leading to decks.


The US Consumer Product Safety Commission, National Safety Council and the American Academy of Pediatrics have the following helpful safety suggestions for your child's nursery.

· ALWAYS place your baby to sleep on his or her back. This greatly reduces the risk from SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome) or suffocation. Since the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended back-sleeping five years ago, SIDS deaths in the USA have declined by 38%.

· Remove all soft bedding-pillows, comforters, blankets and stuffed animals-from the crib to further reduce risk of suffocation. Instead of a blanket, dress baby in a sleep sack or sleeper.

· Make sure the crib itself meets current safety standards. This means:

1. The slats are no wider than 2 3/8 "apart

2. The mattress is firm-not soft (foam or coil – your preference)

3. There is no gap between mattress and crib walls. Two fingers worth of space is too much.

4. Corner posts are level with the height of the end panels (just 1/16 "higher at most)

5. There are no decorative cut-outs in the headboard or footboard.

6. Top rails, when raised, are at least 26 "above the mattress support in its lowest position.

7. Hardware is secure-no loose or broken screws or pieces. Receche periodically.

8. Drop sides can not be accidently released by a child. (According to the National Safety Council, the crib sides should require two separate steps to release.) If this is a one step process, it should require a minimum force of 10 pounds to release.)

9. Look for a JPMA safety certification seal on newly manufactured cribs.

10. Top rails should be covered by teeth guards.

· Keep blind cords, curtain pulls, décor, electrical cords and mobiles out of baby's reach.

· Maintain a cool room temperature give a recommended range to prevent overheating.

· Place baby's crib away from any source of draft.

· Make sure baby's fitted sheet is secured to the mattress and will not pop loose.

· Place a baby monitor in the nursery far from child's reach.

· Consider purchasing a special crib mattress that circulates air around baby. This helps prevent the "rebreathing" of carbon dioxide, which is believed to be a leading cause of SIDS.

· If you use bumper pads, make sure they are tightly secured to the sides of the cribs. Trim excess ties or straps. Straps should be loose, easy to push down to mattress and not hung up on any hardware. You do not want your child to get a foothold on bumper to be able to climb out.

· When child is sitting up remove bumper pads and all other animals or pillows and lower crib mattress to low position.

· Once the top of the crib rails are less than three-fourths your child's height or they are 36 inches tall, it's time to move to a toddler bed.

· If you have a child who climbs out of the crib before the above point, seriously consider using a crib tent. Some parent's do not like it but the potential alternatives are far worse.

· Install finger guards on fast-closing doors.

· Anchor all furniture, cover all ports (even ones behind crib), and install locks or window guards on all windows.

· When baby is sitting up remove all mobiles and any type of canopy over bed as they can pose choking or strangulation hazards.

· Do not place heavy object on shelves or hang pictures above crib.

· Use earthquake putty on all objects placed on shelving. Use Velcro the secure base of pictures on walls – stick to wall and back of frame and it will prevent it from falling and breaking during quake.

· Use locks on sliding closets doors until baby can open and close without pinching fingers or slamming causing glass doors to crack.

· Pick up room every night before bed so in the event of an emergency you can get to your child quickly without incident.

· When child is in toddler bed, use pressure gate in doorway to prevent child from walking around house unsupervised during the night. Instruct child to call for you when he is wake in the morning.

Fire & Health Safety

· Store fire escape ladders in every bedroom on second level and above.

· Place working fire alerts in every bedroom and on every story and remember to check them regularly. Day light savings time is a good marker to use check your alarms bi-annually
· Install carbon monoxide detectors on each level of home near sleeping areas.

· Install natural gas detectors on each level of home near sleeping areas.
· Create and practice a disaster plans. (ie fire escape plan, earthquake plan, disaster plan.)

· Purchase disaster preparedness kits.

· Make sure all fire / smoke alarms are in working order.

· Place the phone number of the poison control center near the telephone. You will need to know your child's weight to treating a poisoning. Never use ipecac unless instructed by a professional to do so.

· Learn first aid and CPR and keep your skills up-to-date.

FIFA Ultimate Team Login

FIFA Ultimate Team login has quickly become one of the most popular modes in FIFA history. The latest edition comes jam packed with extra features and modes meaning there are now more ways than ever to create your dream team. With all these new additions it has left the game a rather daunting prospect for pros and new players alike. Thankfully, this article is here to help. We've got top tips that will help you become a better manager and have you acquire players that feature in FIFA Ultimate Team Of the week login time after time!

Follow these tips and you will be well on your way to becoming a master tactician.

– Make Sure There's Chemistry.

This is notoriously difficult to get right but it is worth spending time on because if it's not right then it will not matter if you have both Ronaldo and Messi at your disposal, if they do not gel it is not going to work. When 2 players have the same nationality, same team or even better both, then naturally there will be better Chemistry. Having players who have the same formations on there playing cards also greatly increases chemistry.

-Get Used To Unusual Formations.

It is very easy to fall into the trap of using the common 4-4-2, or 4-3-3 formations. If you can put the time into learning the less common 4-5-1 or 3-4-2-1 formations then it can often confuse your opponents and make buying specific players for your team a lot easier. If you can find players in the auction that have more unusual formations at the top of their cards then it can be a lot cheaper to buy them than it would be to say buy the same player with the common 4-4-2 formation.

-Never Give Up

Like all the great teams, they never know when they are beaten. They play until the last second and quite often they get something out of the game, even if it is only a consolation. If you just quit the game because you are losing then you will not receive any coins at all for your efforts. When you lose a game you still get coins on how well you played or how cleanly you played. Score some goals and you will still be rewarded. If you quit then you get nothing which is not only frustrating for your opponent but a waste of time for you also.

-Challenge the FIFA Ultimate Team Of The Week Login

When the team of the week is made available then make it a habit to challenge them with your best team. The harder the difficulty you set the higher the bonus you will receive for beating them.

-Complete Your Duties As The Manager.

Do you think Sir Alex Ferguson, Jose Mourinho or Pep Guardiola get into winning habits by forgetting about the day to day tasks? Wrong! This is the building blocks of any super successful football club or FIFA Ultimate Team.

The first set of managerial tasks consists of 12 easy steps. Challenging the FIFA Ultimate Team Of The Week login, changing your club kit and so on and so on ..

The Tasks will get harder to complete as you go on and the rewards will become bigger. It is worth keeping a close watch on the list as you play because essentially, like Arsene Wenger often does, you will get something for nothing !!

IVR (Interactive Voice Response) – A Brief Explanation

IVR (interactive voice response) is a telephony technology that allows users to interact with a database through phone keypad or voice commands. IVR automated systems save businesses money and employee resources, while making routine services and inquiries available to the public 24 hours a day.

Most of us use IVR systems daily to do things like check bank balances, manage credit cards, check for store hours or locations, or order prescription medicine. Human interaction is not required because the IVR system only allows limited access to the database, although an option may exist to be switched to a live operator during business hours. IVR systems are also used to report non-emergency problems to cable or utility services, and to schedule appointments with government or state offices; for example, the Department Of Motor Vehicles. Integrating text-to-speech (TTS) functionality, IVR systems can deliver dynamic information as well, such as weather, news, traffic or stock reports.

Campaigns, pollsters and survey takers also make use of IVR systems. In these cases, the system places outgoing calls. A recorded voice requests questions and requests simple answers, like "yes," "no," or "undecided." The IVR system may have limited to extensive built-in voice recognition, depending on the requirements of the application. Answers may also be directed through the phone's keypad. Press 1 for yes and 2 for no, for example. IVR automation makes it possible to reach far more people than through actually manning phones.

Commonly, IVR systems are installed in-house, however, there are also "outsourced solution providers," or OSPs. These IVR providers maintain the system on their own premises, integrating it through the client's network. OSP solutions have advantages and disadvantages. Obviously advantages include avoiding installation of a new IVR infrastructure, and an IVR-savvy staff to maintain the system. Disadvantages may include a feature-set or template that may not fit your business model as well as you'd like, and surrendered control over critical functions deferred to the IVR system.

Poorly designed IVR systems are often criticized by the public for not providing easy or helpful assistance. The goal design of any IVR system should be to get the customer what he or she needs in as few steps as possible while allowing for security and logistical needs. Search engines will reveal a multitude of links to IVR systems and solution providers to help you find the right IVR system for your business.

Easy Alignment of the Frontal Teeth With Inman Aligner

The misalignment of the frontal teeth can be troublesome. People feel inferior in comparison to the others. They develop this feeling within themselves, that they are ugly from the rest of the pack. The desperation for attention may lead to many illegally situations. Correcting the frontal teeth is a delicate procedure and must be done only by those who are well versed with the procedures. If it is done improperly, the very foundation of the frontal teeth will be rocked – the result will be the loss of teeth. The situation can be eliminated with the aid of Inman Aligner!

Inman aligners are a conceptual device that is being preferred by many dentists from all parts of the globe. It is true that only a limited number of dentists had access to the technology – they are in turn ensuring that their patients leave their clinics with a smile in their faces. In the succeeding passes, I will be listing certain benefits of using inman aligner along with the manner by which they are noted to act on the teeth. I can assure the reader about something – if you are looking for that ultimate procedure that will align the frontal teeth, then go ahead and invest on the program.

The Inman Aligner is a specialized device that must be affixed to the frontal-teeth. It is often considered as a replacement for the invisalign procedure (that will aid in rectifying the teeth, regardless of the position). The patient must wear these specialized products for a predefined number of hours every day. Within weeks, he will realize the positive effects of the same – the frontal-teeth will be aligned in the most perfect manner. When we smile, the frontal teeth-set captures the attention of the other person.

The crooked frontal teeth might not impress some people. In fact, it may affect the mental state of the subject and the third-party in the same manner. Women are known to be very careful regarding their frontal teeth. They spend thoughtful hours grooming their teeth – they attract many men with the aid of their captivating smile. If you happen to be someone who is thinking in the same lines, then I would strongly suggest that Inman Aligner is the best procedure out there. Thousands are trying it and many among them are reporting their success stories all over the internet.

Are there any advantages for the procedure? By now, the intelligent might have understood it. The Aligner considers the frontal teeth only. If you want to fix up the entire teeth set, it is better to invest on Invisalign. The course of treatment may also vary in the same manner. According to the extent of teeth damage, it may take a maximum of six months to realize beautiful teeth! The results are guaranteed and majority of the readers may be turned off by the hefty price tag associated with the procedure. Premium always comes with a price – if fixing the frontal teeth tops your "to do" list, Inman Aligner is the best!

Farmland Assessment Program in New Jersey – The Story Of One Farm


Fifty years ago, this fall, I was ten years old selling pumpkins in front of my father's farmhouse, on route 130, in South Brunswick Township, in Middlesex County New Jersey. It was 1956 and the corn had not yet been cut. My father was a state trooper that received two weeks of vacation each year. One week of vacation in the spring he took off to plant the corn and then he would take one other week off in the fall to harvest it.

Those 30 acres of corn helped to pay the property taxes on the farm. Farm taxes had increased substantively because of a very large new housing development built on the western side of town called Kendall Park. Kendall Park was called the plywood jungle because the homes were all made of plywood. Was I ever shocked to discover that my first house in Whiting New Jersey in 1976 had only plywood corners. Back to the farm, the corn crop just about paid the property tax bill. The price for most farm commodities, including corn, has not increased much since that time.


Now, that new development called Kendall Park was really starting to put a big strain on the local school system and a new high school was going to have to be built. The town's mayor and council realized the town had not been revalued in many years and called for a revaluation of all property in town. Well the son of the owner of the revaluation company, who was running his first revaluation job for his father's revaluation company, made a mistake and valued my father's total 50 acre farm at its full housing developmental value. This value was based on other road front lots that had been sold off by local farmers. Even though my father's farm had minimal road frontage for a 50 acre farm he was assessed as if all 50 acres fronted on route 130. No downward adjustment had been made for the infrastructure costs associated with developing the property for a housing development tract.

After speaking with the local tax assessor that valuation mistake was corrected for my father and other farmers in the area. Between the soaring school taxes to build the new high school and a higher post revaluation assessment our farm's taxes skyrocketed upward. My father and his farmer friends were not happy with the resulting high annual property tax burdens they were facing. The annual corn crop would no longer pay the high annual property tax on our 50 acre farm. Now when the new high school opened its doors in 1961 many new teachers had to be hired and again the property tax bill on the farm increased substantially.


About this time the local farmer's grange started to invite their local assemblymen and state senator from middlesex county to the local grange hall to have discussions about this property tax problem the farmers were having. Many of the farmers attending these grange meetings were gentle giants, they had meat claws for hands from years of hard farm labor, had skin like leather from years working under the hot sun, and were as strong as an ox. When a local legislator was buttonholed (they actually did stick their index finger in the button hole of their legislator's jacket) they stayed buttonholed. When the local legislators returned to Trenton they reported the anger over the property tax that they encountered there in South Brunswick Township at the local farmer's grange to their legislative leadership.

I suspect that this scene of legislators speaking with unhappy farmers was repeated many times throughout the state … at many different venues. The reason farm property was given lower differential property tax treatment quickly under the "Farmland Assessment Act of 1964," without the benefit of a constitutional amendment to satisfy the uniform valuation standard in the state's constitution, may have had something to do with the heat that local legislators were feeling from their farm constituents


The New Jersey Constitution states "Property shall be assessed for taxation under general laws and by uniform rules." All real property assessed … shall be assessed according to the same standard of value, except as otherwise permitted herein .. "

The phrase otherwise permitted herein now refers to two other constitutional provisions. One, authorizing: an agricultural or horticultural use value standard for qualified farms (adopted in 1966 as a constitutional amendment in New Jersey by the voters). And, a second one, a cost value standard used when abatement from taxation on buildings and structures is granted, in areas declared in need of rehabilitation, in accordance with statistical criteria


By 1966 my father had taken his state pension and was living on one half pay. The taxes on the farmhouse and the modest taxes under the farmland assessment act were now an even larger burden on him. By 1973 my father could no longer afford the property taxes on the farm and he sold the farm to a large corporation. As was common in farmland sales contracts of the day "any and all rollback taxes owed on the farm" were paid by the buyer. Generally, the buyer paid less for a farm because three years of rollback taxes had to be paid. But I believe in the case of my father's farm sale that was three times the going price for comparable farmland that the buyer ate the rollback tax completely.


In 1966 the statewide total property tax rate after adjusting it to a market value tax rate was about $ 3.00. Therefore the average buyer who paid three years of rollback taxes paid about 9% of the purchase price of the farmland sales price to the municipality wherein the farmland was located. In 2006, 40 years latter, the statewide market value tax rate is about $ 1.75. Therefore today, the buyer pays about 5.25% of the purchase price of the farmland sales price. That amounts to only 58.3% of the rollback tax that was paid 40 years ago in 1966. Could the lack of legislative interest in adjusting this rollback tax on home developers to the original year of the program have anything to do with the fact that one of the largest political contributors to both political parties in Trenton are the home developers?


Recently, Governor Corzine said that property tax reform had to go forward notwithstanding the 600 pound gorilla special interests in Trenton. Well, easy for him to say with his personal wealth, he does not have to go to the home developers for political contributions to get re-elected. To adjust the rollback tax program to the standard used 40 years ago would entail changing it from a three year roll back period to a five year rollback period. Fat chance that will happen to help the municipalities pay for the extra planning and zoning board work the new housing developments cost .. not to mention the new service demands that they create leading to higher property tax costs.


On with the farm had to be sold story. The corporation that bought the farm, and a few other corporations who owned it afterwards, paid local farmers to continue to farm the property to keep it under the farmland assessment act. So, after my father's farm was sold in 1973, the land was banked by different corporations as an investment and latter sold to a housing developer. That housing developer started to break ground for his housing development in 2003 … 30 years after the farm was sold by my father.

Many people traveling down route 130 over the years enjoyed the visual open space scene of the farm being farmed, sometimes hunters were allowed to hunt on it, over those thirty years no school children had to be educated who stayed on that property, it required little if anything in the way of municipal or county services … it was a cheap ratable for the local government as far as service demands were concerned. It was also a cheap taxpayer … under the farmland assessment program the owners of the farm paid only about 10% of what other non farmland qualified farm property paid in property taxes in the early years and maybe as little as 1% in the latter years. Yes, some owners of vacant land did not sign up for the farmland assessment program because they could not meet its requirements or did not want to be subject to its three year rollback tax provision.

That is the story of one farm that had to be sold because of property taxes. The price received per acre for that 50 acre farm in 1973 is about the same price as a single home buyer now pays for a single home located on that farm.

Best Florida Wedding Venues – An Event Of The Ages At The Powel Crosby Estate

The Powel Crosby Estate was originally designed and structured, in honor of Mrs. Gwendolyn Crosby, in 1929, by her loving husband. Today with over 11,000 square feet, and 21 rooms, this magnificent mansion houses a variety of weddings and events in the Sarasota Bay area. Couples who choose this venue as their wedding location, get the opportunity to experience all the beauties this 60-acre property has to offer. Located along the waters edge, this historical landmark can truly house the wedding of your dreams.

The estate offers couples the privacy, as well as the scenery they desire. Known for its high-class status and appearance, the Crosby Mansion will unduly leave your guests in awe. Furthermore, the properties unique facade will surely add extra personality to any set of wedding photos. Be along the ocean line or within the mansions corridors you will certainly be smiling with excitement and enthusiasm.

Within the mansion, couples can discover a series of vintage and timeless settings. Each room of this two-story home offers a distinct and memorable personality. When speaking in terms of wedding portraits, couples can be confident that each image will be as interesting and distinctive as their own relationship. Furthermore, the staff allows the usage of these rooms for the arrangement of your wedding, like preparation of the bride. While most couples prefer to have the ceremony within the open, flower encircled, patio the mansion does offer traditional ballroom styled spaces for smaller groups. However, once the vows have been said, and the rings have been replaced, be sure to move your party indoors for a romantic and exciting reception.

If you fall in love with the outdoor scenery, that the Powel Crosby Estate has to offer, you can easily set up a beautiful moonlit soiree near the patio. As the sun begins to set, string lights will brighten up the dance floor, depicting a magnificently magical ceremony. Just do not forget to get your photography along the coastline finished, before the sun has disappeared along the west coast waters.

Couples can feel hopeful when arranging their wedding at the Powel Crosby Estate in Sarasota. Upon visiting this awe-inspiring mansion you and your spouse will come to the realization of why this location has, in the past, been the home of so many beautiful ceremonies.

Xbox Death – Does The Towel Method Or Self Soldering Work?

When the Xbox360 technical fault came out, there was many rumors that went about on the internet about the various ways to fix your own Xbox360 by yourself and all. One way that seems to be famous was the Towel method thats really a temporary fix. The whole reason why its works is because the problem is due to the lead free solder on the circuit box.

With a higher and more powerful processing power in the CPU unit, the heat generated when the console is turned on is too much for the solder in the ball grid array solider connection to the GPU. This causes the solder on the circuit board to break connection and thus, resulting in the 3 red lights.

The towel method is done by first removing the controls and also any other connecting wires but the power cable. Leave the Xbox360 on and wrap it in 3 towels. Now leave it for around 25 minutes. After 25 minutes, let it cool down. After that just power up the Xbox360 and hope for the best. The method works only temporary and for how long is really up to fate.

The solder basically heats up and expands that connecting to each other again. However, this method will also heat up your motherboard and other circuitry, thus creating a potential fire hazard. Its really a just a matter of being able to reconnect the solder in the set. Thus, the heat gun method will also work, these are just only temporary fixes. If you are good, you can do a complete reballing of the GPU set with lead solder like this guy.

Stained Glass – Basic Skills You Need To Make Stained Glass Art

Making stained glass crafts is a wonderful hobby for almost anyone. There's just something magical about the unique beauty of these wonderful objects, but you do not have to be a magician to create stained glass art. Anyone can do it!

Making beautiful stained glass objects requires very little initial investment, and even if you have only a basic skill level, the results of your efforts will amaze you.

Read the following overview of the skills needed, and I'm sure you'll agree there's no reason you can not jump right in and make a success of your new hobby:

Cutting stained glass

Cutting is probably the most demanding skill you'll need to develop. But do not worry. Over the years, plenty of clever people have refined the glass cutting procedure to get it just right. Cutting is now safe, predictable, and easy.

If you follow standard glass-cutting procedure, use good equipment, and put safety first, you'll find yourself easily cutting the shapes you need with very little waste or breakage.

Grinding pieces of stained glass until they're just the right shape

Glass cutting is an inexact art. When you cut glass, you get the pieces close , but they're never exactly the shape you need them to be to fit your design. And that's where glass grinding coming in.

A good glass grinder resembles a miniature router table, and it makes it a snap to easily shape your rough-cut glass however you want. Any misshapen or jagged edges are easily ground away, and you're left with a perfectly shaped piece that's ready to take its place in the pattern.

Foiling the edges of the cut pieces of glass

As you probably know, solder does not adhere to glass very well. In fact, if you tried to sold directly to glass, your creation would fall apart like a loose puzzle. That's where foiling saves the day.

By wrapping copper foil around the cut edges of your pieces of stained glass, you give the solder something to stick to. Foil ties everything together so your stained glass creation becomes a single unit rather than a collection of separate pieces.

You can foil by hand, or use an inexpensive foiling tools to help you along. Either way, it's an enjoyable task that's almost impossible to get wrong.

Soldering stained glass

This is the one you've been waiting for, right? Soldering turns your glass pieces into a single, beautiful creation. And with the right equipment, it's not as difficult as you might think.

Although clean, even soldering takes a bit of practice, even an absolute beginner can get the hang of it very quickly. And if you get some stray blobs of solder where they do not really belong, there's no reason to worry about it. After all, it adds character to your artwork. Anyways, you'll almost always start soldering the back of your artwork first. So when it comes time to do the front, you'll be up to speed and soldering like a pro !

With a good soldering station, you'll always know if your soldering iron is heated up and ready to produce an even bead of solder.

Finishing and framing stained glass creations

Once your artwork is soldered to your satisfaction, there's nothing left but to finish and frame your masterpiece. Finishing is an optional step that removes any imperfections in the sold joints, but lots of folks like to leave things un finished for a more natural, hand-crafted look.

Framing is easy too, assuming your art is a standard size. If you made your artwork from a kit, it's almost certain that you'll easily find a frame to that fits. But if you're the do it yourself type who designs his or her own stained glass, you'll want to design it to fit a frame.