Types of Brain Injuries

Brain injuries are devastating injuries that occur every 15 seconds in the United States. Brain injuries are the leading cause of death in persons under the age of 45. There are approximately 5 to 6 million people living in the U.S. with brain injuries. Leading causes of brain injuries are motor vehicle accidents, falls, violence and sports injuries.

The brain can be damaged in multiple ways. In order to understand head injuries, it is useful to understand the different types of brain injuries that can occur:

Concussions – A concussion can be defined as a sudden alteration of the conscious state induced by trauma. The person affected may lose consciousness briefly and may be confused following. The brain can recover from a concussion but in certain circumstances, there may be residual damage. Concussions often occur in sports-related injuries.

Contusions – When the head strikes a hard, immovable object the brain may be bruised. Contusions are essentially bruises that result in damage to, or destruction of, brain tissue. They often occur in the frontal and temporal lobes. These are the lobes where behavior and memory centers are located, so damage to these areas can cause changes in behavior, changes in vision (including loss of vision), impairment of memory and occasional weakness or loss of coordination.

Diffuse axonal brain injuries (DAI) – In this type of injury, a shearing force damages nerve fibers or stretches blood vessels in the brain. The result may be hemorrhage (bleeding) and can also cause a cascade of chemicals that are toxic to the brain to be released. The temporal and frontal lobes are often affected. Symptoms of DAI include inattentiveness, problems with memory and disorganization.

Hypoxic-Ischemic brain injuries (HII) – Stroke is a common cause of this type of injury, in which the amount of oxygen is reduced to the brain (for example, from a blood clot). The injury causes brain swelling that restricts oxygen, glucose and other necessary nutrients from reaching the brain. A poor prognosis is associated with both HII and DAI in terms of cognitive function and memory impairment, if the patient survives the initial injury.

Hemorrhage – A cerebral or intracranial bleed occurs when blood vessels within the brain bleed as a result of trauma or inherent weakness of a blood vessel (e.g. aneurysm). Hemorrhages may be tiny or large and symptoms correspond to the severity and location of the bleed. Hemorrhage does not always occur immediately after an injury, but may be delayed for hours or even days.

Infarction– “Infarction” is the medical term for stroke. Strokes occur when an artery supplying the brain is blocked, cutting off oxygen and nutrients to the brain. Speech, language and visual problems often occur after a stroke.

Hematomas – Hematomas develop outside the brain. Subdural hematomas occur over the surface of the parietal or frontal lobes. A subdural hematoma is slow bleeding outside the brain caused by a vessel carrying venous (unoxygenated) blood. Epidural hematomas are usually caused by damaged arteries, which carry blood under pressure, which can cause severe pressure which must be released immediately or death will occur. Subarachnoid hemorrhages occur when bleeding spreads slowly over the brain surface. Subarachnoid hemorrhages rarely cause death and may even be symptomatic.

There are numerous types of injuries which may be caused by trauma or physical conditions. Understanding the type of injury sustained can provide clues as to what to expect in terms of symptoms and outcome. Any time a brain injury is suspected, medical attention must be sought. Brain injuries can cause permanent and severe damage when not treated. With proper treatment, many patients recover.

Adolescent Sex Offenders

Juvenile sexual aggression has been a problem of growing concern in American society over the past decade. Currently it is estimated that juveniles account for up to one-fifth of the rapes, and one-half of the cases of child molestation committed in the United States each year.

The majority of cases of juvenile sexual aggression appear to involve adolescent male perpetrators; however, a number of clinical studies have pointed to the presence of females and prepubescent youths who have engaged in sexually abusive behaviors. Sexual offending appears to traverse racial and cultural boundaries.

An adolescent sex offender is defined as any male or female between the ages of 12 and 17 years of age who commits any sexual act with a person of any age against the victim’s will, without consent, or in an aggressive, exploitive, or threatening manner.

Defining a behavior as being sexual assault or abuse can sometimes be difficult. It is easy to identify a sexual offense when there is a wide age gap between the teen perpetrator and the victim or the abuse involves force or penetration. But as the age gap narrows, and if the behavior involves fondling or an absence of force or aggression, it is necessary to assess it in terms of coercion, consent, or power differences.

Some adolescent offenders abuse only within their family. Others choose dating partners, acquaintances, strangers, and sometimes adults. Some use force or extreme violence while others trick, subtly pressure or manipulate their victims into sexual activity. Most adolescent sex offenders are known by their victims.

Some teens commit only “hands-off” offenses such as voyeurism (peeping), exposing their private parts to others, making obscene phone calls, frontage (rubbing against others in crowded places), or fetishism (such as stealing underwear). Others commit “hands-on” offenses such as fondling or penetration with a penis, finger or objects.

When adolescents are caught offending it is generally assumed that this is not the first time they have done it or thought about doing it. Some teens begin by committing less serious kinds of sexual assault and, if not caught, progress to more serious offenses. Serious forms of sexual behavior typically have developed over a course of time.

Adolescents commit offenses for a variety of reasons:

· Some teens who are awkward socially, have difficulty making friends, or have been rejected by other youth of their own age, sometimes turn to younger children for friendship or sex. The children they molest usually don t understand what is happening to them. They typically become scared or feel they cannot complain, so the teen may take this as a sign of consent and continue abusing them.

· Some teens offend out of anger or a need for power and control over others.

· Some teens may be developmentally delayed and unaware that what they are doing is wrong and abusive.

· Some male teens in dating relationships possess distorted thinking about sex and relationships. They think that if their partner says “no” she only needs a little encouragement, verbal persuasion, or mild force. Adolescent sex offenders sometimes attempt to copy scenes they have seen in pornography media.

· Many adolescent sex offenders grow up in abusive families where alcoholism, substance abuse, and inter-parental violence are commonplace. Seeing this everyday teaches a young person that anger, frustration, and personal needs can be dealt with by the use of force and violence. A history of physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect can be found in the background of many adolescent sex offenders. One study found that 60% of abusers had been physically abused, 50% had been sexually abused, and 70% had experienced neglect in childhood. Over 50% of the adolescents had experienced a combination of these forms of abuse.

Though a majority of adolescent sex offenders are male, research emerging over the past ten years has begun to document female sex offending. Studies of hospital, child welfare agency, and treatment programs have found that females comprise between 3% – 10% of the sex offender population. General population and victimization surveys report significantly higher numbers and extend the range up to 50%.

The following is a typical scenario depicting the development of adolescent sex offending:

1. The offense history begins with voyeuristic behaviors from ages 5-7 (e.g., attempts to watch mother using the bathroom or taking showers; observing babysitter having sex with her boyfriend)

2. Assaultive behaviors towards girls on school grounds motivated by a desire to actually frighten, control, and degrade them

3. By age 8, placing obscene phone calls; writing sexually orientated notes to third grade classmates; making degrading sexual comments; open sexual harassment

4. Age 9, intrusive behaviors and inappropriate touching; “accidental” incidents of contact with female genitalia during play in crowds; stealthy watching and waiting for girls to assault

5. At age 10, experimental cross-dressing; stealing keys and sneaking into houses

6. By age 11, grabbing the chests and butts of female classmates; threatening them with sexual acts; standing in the bedroom of a friend’s mother, watching her sleep; sodomizing younger siblings on a regular basis

7. At age 12, continual harassment and touching; encouraging friends to join in the behaviors; cross-dressing during the victimization of younger sibling; sexual assault on girls who had been bribed to disrobe and touch each other

8. Property crimes of theft and sexual assault on children; breaking into homes; trying on women’s underwear; cutting up clothing; cutting phone wires; spreading butcher knives around the house while waiting for the victim to come home

9. Probation for burglary charges; outpatient psychiatric treatment

10. During probation, continued frequent, multiple break-ins of neighborhood homes; frequently stalking school peers; grabbing peers in halls; engineering gang rape; rubbing against girls at school; assaulting girls with intent to rape; breaking into homes following threatening girls on the phone

11. At age 15, committed to the department of corrections for sex offender treatment as a rapist

12. Receives sex-offender treatment while incarcerated

Most treatment specialists are of the opinion that successful juvenile offender programming requires a coordination of effort between the criminal justice system and treatment providers.

In order for juvenile offenders to meaningfully participate in treatment programming, they must be willing to address their problems and comply with therapeutic directives. Adjudication and supervision typically prove to be useful tools in ensuring client accountability and compliance with treatment.

Clinical experience has shown that the suspension of the juvenile sex offender’s sentence, contingent upon his successful completion of a treatment program, can be a particularly effective motivator. Under such collaborative arrangements with the courts, the treatment specialist provides ongoing progress reports to the court on the youth’s participation in the program. Youths who fail to comply with program expectations can be brought back before the court for a dispositional review.

In many programs, probation officers play an integral role in assisting the treatment provider in addressing critical issues and in supervising the offender’s activities in the home and community. The probation officer helps evaluate the extent to which the client is meaningfully participating in the treatment program and complying with court and therapeutic directives. He provides an additional link between the provider and the sex offender’s family, and can assist the therapist in impressing upon the family the importance of their involvement in the youth’s rehabilitative programming.

The probation officer typically also provides a very important case management function. This includes analysis (sometimes along with the help of social services) of the appropriateness of the juvenile sex offender remaining in his home of origin during his participation in treatment, and his need for supplemental community programming (e.g., community service projects, etc.). As a case manager, the probation officer also facilitates appropriate communications between the treatment provider and other community agencies involved in the youth’s overall care (e.g., school officials).

In some programs, probation officers directly participate in the delivery of therapeutic services (e.g., co-therapist in a group). This most typically occurs in cases where the probation officer has received additional training in the treatment of offenders.


Before treatment can begin, the offender must admit his offenses. Denial may be very strong because it is supported by the cognitive distortions and lack of previous public response, which have minimized the importance and impact of his behaviors. The offender must be confronted with his offense, describing the whole offense and accepting responsibility before he can begin to understand his past and change his future.

Part of the treatment process includes definition and exploration of each of the stages in the sexual assault cycle, identifying the unique characteristics of each sex offender’s cycle. The goal is for the offender to become so aware of the triggers which start his cycle that he will be instantly alerted and employ new behaviors to interrupt his cycle before he gets to the deviant sexual behaviors.

Positive sexuality and appropriate expectations are explored. By encouraging the sex offender to “take risks” by reaching out to establish appropriate relationships, the sex offender is taught new ways to approach people and to control the outcomes of his interpersonal experiences.

The ultimate goal is to interrupt the rape cycle before arriving at the isolation and withdrawal stage, which signals real danger. The offender must recognize that his withdrawal into isolation is the incubator wherein his problem grows beyond his control, and he must have emergency plans in place to escape before he progresses into deviant fantasies.

Stone Veneer Is Cheaper Than Brick Or Natural Stone

It is not hard to understand why nearly everyone likes the look of natural stone. It just simply looks good and creates the feeling of value and longevity anywhere it is installed. That look and feel has been added to what is now being called stone veneer. Veneer is defined as a thin layer of material for facing or inlaying on another material. Veneers are usually applied to the outside of homes and can be seen in brick facade homes. When homes are constructed, the walls are first framed out and then the outside is covered with O.S.B sheathing. After this, siding of some kind is installed. This is where a veneer comes in, and that veneer can be brick, stone, or other forms of siding for the home.

Brick and natural stone are both wonderful sidings to place on the outside walls of house, and it is common knowledge that they add value as well as stability to any home, but there are some drawbacks to using these materials to cover any dwelling. The cost alone gives pause to many home owners who are considering using brick or natural stone for this purpose. Another choice for the home owner would be stone veneer, which provides the same value and structural integrity that comes with the installation of brick or natural stone, but it costs one third to one half what these would cost to install.

While brick and natural stone are more expensive than artificial stone it is not just the cost of the materials that bring the cost up so dramatically. The home owner must also factor in the cost of the installation. Hiring a mason is the best way to accomplish applying brick and natural stone facade to the outside of any structure. They are highly trained in all the techniques it takes to install these materials properly. A faulty installation will cost much more in the long run, so hiring a professional, rather than making it a do it yourself endeavor, is much more cost effective. With stone veneer, a D.I.Y project is simple and easy to achieve, and you don’t have to be an expert.

Choosing to install artificial stone is a great option for those who are on a limited budget, or prefer the feeling of satisfaction that comes from creating something beautiful that will last for years.

The installation is not as involved as would be found with brick or natural stone, since there is no need to use ties or footings, and the adhesives used are environmentally friendly. Another interesting feature of stone veneer is that it can be found in a variety of designs and colors that are not always present in natural stone that can be found in local vicinities, which is where most natural stone is used due to the cost of shipping.

Xbox 360 RROD – Which Xbox 360 RROD Fix is the Best?

Well when I was first started searching for a fix for my Xbox 360 RROD I was overwhelmed by all of the information out there. There are a gazillion sites, each hawking their instructions (typically $24.95…you can get them free) and then there are the multitudes of YouTube videos claiming to have found the miracle cure. The three that I am going to review are what appear to be the most popular (and sometimes most ridiculous).

Number #1 – The Towel Trick – It goes something like this: You take the hard drive off, wrap the entire unit in a towel to prevent the excess heat from escaping, turn the console on for about 15 minutes to cook (some instructions recommend 1 hour), shut it down, unplug it for an hour, plug it back in and like magic it works. But why? I haven’t heard a decent explanation yet. Here is one of the explanations…”the unit gets so hot that it melts the solder that was cracking to the cause the red lights in the first place”….. Here are a couple of potential hazards as pointed out in the same instructions “could potentially damage other parts of the Xbox”…. “The unit could catch on fire it gets so hot”. I have to say I am going to rate this as the 2nd most ridiculous fix of the three in consideration. Recommendation: Do not use this fix.

Number #2 – The Ice Bath – I don’t even want to explain how to do this. Essentially, a rubbermaid tub is filled with ice water, some vinegar is added, the Xbox 360 is unplugged and submerged in the water/vinegar mixture. After so many minutes the console is removed, drained of water and immediately plugged back in. Need I say more. I actually heard of a kid who attempted this and was severely shocked. This as so many other fixes was presented as a YouTube video. It is really quite irresponsible and should be removed. This fix is the most ridiculous fix of the three in consideration. Recommendation: Do not even think about using this fix if you value your life.

Number #3 – X-Clamp Fix – This is the only legitimate fix I have found thus far. It is as permanent as it gets. Do not use it however if your Xbox 360 is still under warranty. Send the console back to Microsoft and let them honor the warranty. However, if the seal is broken and/or it isn’t under warranty this fix is your best bet. This is the fix in a nutshell; you open up the console, remove the x-clamps, clean up the old thermal paste, put new thermal paste on, replace the x-clamps with screws and washers, reassemble the unit, overheat, let it cool down and it works on approximately 90% of the units. Recommendation: Use this fix.

Going Green With Used Solar Panels

Going green is not always the least expensive option for a family in today's harsh economic reality. In fact, the most expensive aspect of going solar is in the initial phase of purchasing and installing your panels.

Still, there are potential ways of saving while going green such as opting for used solar panels, though this option does come with the caveat of being willing to roll up your sleeves. Your best option to reduce the cost is to hire a professional, at least for the installation.

However, expertise is not a requirement when buying used solar panels, but it helps to have a guideline when making such a purchase. Be aware that technology improves over time and solar panel use is relatively new. In fact, several of the older panels are still in use today. The first thing you will notice is that older panels tend to be larger than newer panels when comparing wattage, but if you have the available space, it will be a lower cost option for going green.

Be sure not to ignore obvious damage, such as cracked glass, and missing or broken connections. Only you can decide your level of skill, and if you are willing to attempt repairs such as soldering then you should be able to repair broken connections using a soldering iron with 2% silver.

The most telling aspect is the output measurement that you receive from your digital meter; be sure to measure in full sunlight. To test used solar panels, measure across the plus and minus terminals of each panel. After setting your meter to measure DC voltage, a 12 volt panel should show about 21 volts in full sunlight. Be mindful that a battery is still necessary to be able to store the solar energy and that will slightly increase the initial cost.

Over the long haul, though, maintaining a solar panel is as simple as wiping down the panels every two weeks to remove debris and there is a bit of additional work required in maintaining the battery. Before final installation, verify that no shadows are cast over the panels and that the unit faces south with the correct tilt angle.

One other aspect of a growing technology is that demand drives the repair and maintenance industry that goes with the technology. Being a handy person does really become necessary based on where you are located.

Remember to investigate the tax subsidies offered by state and federal government for additional savings for your principal residence that might contribute as much as 30% of the cost. Check with your personal tax representative before purchase for a realistic expectation of how much you will have to pay out of pocket, and whether your state offers additional reimbursement.

Parts of the Motherboard and Its Function

The motherboard is the central circuit board in a PC. The type of motherboard inside a computer has a significant impact on the system speed and future expansion capabilities. A motherboard holds a range of different components that are crucial to the function of the PC. These components include the expansion slots, memory, and processor.

Here are several of the major parts of the motherboard:

CPU socket – The CPU socket (also called processor socket) is intended to secure the processor in the right place. A modern motherboard with a Zero Insertion Force (ZIF) socket is desired for is ease in allowing the processor to be inserted into the PC with minimal difficulty.

Memory slot – Interchangeable memory sticks for the PC are inserted into the specific slots on the motherboard. Memory slots are either a single or dual channel. These memory banks vary in relation to the memory sticks accepted. A single channel slot is designed to accept any number of memories, while a dual channel is designed to accept matching pairs with equal speed and size capabilities.

Chipset – The chipset relates to the motherboards circuitry and is split into two sections known as Northbridge and Southbridge. The Northbridge chipset relates to the faster capabilities of the PC involving the AGP, PCI-E, BIOS, ROM and RAM. And the Southbridge chipset takes responsibility of the slower communication processes, such as those including the LAN, Audio, USB, IDE and SATA.

Interface connectors – The drives and motherboard attach to the interface connectors. A latest edition motherboard uses Serial Advance Technology Attachment (SATA) since it is faster than using the standard ATA connector. But SATA does have a drawback in that it is only designed to support the single drive.

Expansion slots – A PC includes a variety of expansion slots. An Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is intended to hold video cards, a Peripheral Component Interface (PCI) is designed to accept all other types of extension cards, and a Peripheral Component Interface – Express (PCI-E) is a more advanced edition of the standard PCI slot. The PCI-E slot is intended for the faster video cards.

Back panel connector – A motherboard is installed in the PC so that a range of peripherals are able to connect direct to this circuit board or to related ports via cables. Common peripherals to connect to either the back or side ports include the external speakers, keyboard, mouse, hard drive and printer.

3 Key Steps in Opening a Boutique

Are you interested in opening a boutique of your own? If you're strongly considering investing in a clothing business, you need to remember the 3 most important key steps in starting your own clothing boutique. Though opening a boutique may seem a lot easier than maintaining a food business for example, you still need to educate yourself on how you'll be able to manage a boutique store properly.

If you want to be able to start a clothing store boutique of your own, the first thing that you need to do is to decide on a niche. Focus on a specific area that you know you can be passionate for so that you will not easily get bored managing the business. Having a niche will also help you devise a more effective marketing plan that is directed towards a specific target market.

Know your target market

Once you've decided on a niche, the next thing that you need to look into is your target market. By studying your key demographic, you'll be able to plan out your products and your marketing schemes in a way that it is directly focused at them. You should also do some research on the amount of money that members from your target market are willing to spend on the items that your store will carry. By doing so, you'll have an idea on what your price points should be.

Invest in marketing

Although there are a lot of first time entrepreneurs who tend to overlook marketing, you need to be ready to dedicate your efforts into the cause so that you'll be able to spread the word about your new business venture. Marketing is an important aspect in opening a boutique so do not forget to prepare your marketing plan.

How to Make a Survival Crossbow

A couple of years ago my son was studying the Medieval age in Social Studies. His teacher assigned the class a project to construct something that represents that era and write a paper on it.

I helped him build a homemade crossbow that really works! I was concerned he might not be able to take it into the school, but he had specifically asked his teacher if it was OK for him to build a crossbow for his project and she said yes.

The morning we took it to school, his mother accompanied him with the crossbow underwraps to the office. Once inside they asked to speak to the principal and explained to him the situation. My wife said his eyeballs almost popped out of his head when he saw this thing!

He agreed that as long as the crossbow did not have any arrows (known as bolts in crossbow lingo) with it, my son could take it to class. His Social Studies teacher awarded our efforts with a really high mark and he got an A in Social Studies that semester.

We ordered a package of crossbow bolts made for a crossbow pistol and took some target practice with the makeshift weapon at a nearby farm. It worked great and would make an excellent short-range survival weapon for taking small game.

I wish the crossbow was entirely my idea, but I have to give credit to Ron Hood for that. Ron makes survival videos that are very detailed and shows in one of his videos how to build a crossbow similar to this.

One word of caution. This crossbow has NO SAFETY. It would be very easy to fire the weapon inadvertently. Therefore I recommend if you decide to build one to not load it until you are ready to fire. Make sure no one is down range of you and that the weapon is pointed in a safe direction when you are loading it.

Here is a little more detailed information on how to construct the crossbow. We used a 2×4 for the stock. The only reason for that was to make it look like a medieval crossbow. For a survival crossbow you could make the stock from pretty much any tree about 2 inches in diameter.

Make your bow first. We used rattan because we had some and it makes a great bow. Again, you can use just about any wood. Hickory has pretty good qualities for a bow. We used parachute chord for the bowstring.

You will want to measure about half to length of your bow down the stock. This is where you should cut into the stock to make your trigger mechanism. Measure approximately another 4 inches past the end of the trigger box and this will give you the overall length of the stock.

Once you have cut in your trigger box you will need to drill a hole down through the stock at the front edge of the box. The top part of the hole should be round. However, on the bottom of the stock, you will want to elongate the hole. Once you put your trigger in place the elongated hole on the bottom will allow your trigger to rock forward and the string to slide off and engage the arrow.

Next, cut a T shaped piece that fits down through the trigger hole and protrudes about an inch or so out the bottom. Cut a notch in the front of your stock to put the bow in. The notch should allow for a tight fit of the bow. I put a couple of screws in the front side of the stock and used parachute cord to lash the bow into place.

I lashed a piece of wood to the top of the stock to make an arrow keeper. This will hold your arrow in place and ensure that the bow string engages the arrow properly upon release. If you prefer, you can carve a groove down the top center of the stock for your arrow to ride in.

We stained our crossbow to give it an authentic look. Now you can either hand make your own arrows (bolts) or you can purchase some practice arrows that are made for crossbow pistols. Check with your local Army / Navy surplus stores.

I can not stress enough how careful you have to be with this piece of equipment. Again, there is no safety. Do not load until you are ready to fire and keep it pointed in a safe direction at all times!

600 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp

Those who don’t know too much about a 600 Watt High Pressure Sodium Lamp should start learning more about it, as this type of lamp can prove to be very useful. A high pressure sodium lamp is a type of lamp that uses sodium in order to produce light. Some sodium lamps are low pressure ones, while others are high pressure. The difference between the two is represented by the fact that a high pressure lamp has a broader spectrum in which concerns the light, but the color rendering is poorer.

This type of light being 600 Watts and HPS is a type of sodium lamp that produces as much light as a 600 Watt light bulb. Such lamps are highly appreciated especially by the cities that have large astronomical observatories, as the level of pollution they produce is much lower than the level of pollution produced by mercury vapor lamps.

Are you interested in learning more about the 600 Watt high pressure sodium bulb? Well, the 600 watt high pressure sodium lamp is smaller than a low pressure lamp and contains mercury as additional element. When such a lamp is first struck, the light it produces is of a dark pink glow; however, the dark pink glow changes into a pinkish orange as soon as the lamp is warmed. If the mercury manages to achieve the high pressure level, then the light produced by such a lamp is going to be of a very pure to a bluish white. A lot of people already use these lamps, as the photopic lighting conditions measurements have showed the fact that they are efficient.

Have you ever asked yourself why the large astronomical observatories use such lights? Well, the answer stands in their level of pollution, which is very low. Even the cities that are located near large astronomical observatories use these lamps for the street illumination. The 600 Watt high pressure sodium lamp has proved to be excellent for the urban illumination and this is the reason why this type of lamp became extremely popular. The lamp cannot be used anymore when the sodium is completely used. However, the life span is quite long and this is another of the many reasons why such lamps are recommended for the urban illumination. If you need it for your garden or in order to illuminate the backyard, you should know that there are specialized companies that sell such lamps!

Accent Or Create a Look With Chandelier Lighting

Using chandeliers in the home shouldn’t be restricted to a dining room or entry way. Chandeliers can be used in many rooms in your house. Chandelier lighting makes a statement about your home or office. It allows you to think outside of the box and be more creative with your lighting needs. It can create a cozy and comfortable feel to the space and it can be as unique as you are. Chandeliers come in many shapes, sizes and styles. Some can be traditional, using elaborate scroll-work and leaded crystals and others can be whimsical, shaped as animals or trees. All types of chandeliers can be mixed to create your own style and taste.

Rustic chandeliers look great in a home that’s decorated in a southwestern style. Antler chandeliers, in particular, add a sense of adventure and a rustic feel to the home. Mission style chandeliers can be used with arts and crafts style furnishings or can also add a southwest flair. Tiffany style chandeliers are perfect in a Victorian decor. Cottage chandelier lighting gives a space a light-hearted feel and coastal style chandeliers offer New England charm to any room.

Ideally, rooms should have a layered lighting look. You should use several different forms of lighting in the same room and throughout the house. Lamps, chandelier lighting and candles can all co-exist comfortably in the same area. Wall sconces and can lights can also be added for more layers. You should never be afraid of having too much lighting in a room, no matter the size. Lighting should be seen as the accessories of a room and chandelier lighting as jewelry. It creates a warm and interesting effect all over the home.

Chandeliers can be used in unexpected places, like over a breakfast nook or in a dark corner. You can place chandelier lighting in a bathroom or in a family room. Hang a whimsical chandelier in a nursery to add to the decor of the room. You can transform a non-working chandelier by using candles instead of bulbs in it. Installing several chandeliers in the same room can be romantic or fun. A large space can hold two or more chandeliers without problems. And hanging them at different levels gives a fresh look to the room. Chandelier lighting can also be used outdoors. You can put one on your porch or gazebo, if it has an outside rating.

Always remember when installing your new light fixture to work with a partner and turn off the electricity to the home. If you are not comfortable with electrical projects, please hire an electrician.

Do it Yourself Radiant Barrier Attic Insulation

If you're looking for a way to save some money without having to spend a lot to do it then you might want to consider installing reflective foil over your attic insulation.

Also known as a radiant barrier, foil barriers are a type of reflective material that reflects radiant heat rather than absorbing it. However, unlike thermal insulation, they do not reduce heat conduction. Instead it works with the insulation to help maximize the efficiency of your home, to keep the heat out during the summer or to keep it in during the winter.

While there are a variety of different ways to install the reflective foil in your home, many of the options require you to hire a professional. For people who do not have that much money in their budget it is still possible to reap the benefits without having to hire an installer. It is called an attic floor installation. This form of installation might take a little time to complete but you can do it all by yourself. It also works well with any attic insulation you might already have in place.

Before you get started measure your attic. This will tell you exactly how much radiant barrier you will need to use. Once you know how much you'll need to get the job done then you can start shopping. Because this is a long term investment for your home you will want to look around and make sure you're getting the best product possible.

There are three different factors that are taken into account when the performance of a reflective foil barrier is determined. They look at the emissivity, reflectivity and the angle that the incident radiation bounces on the surface. When shopping for a reflective foil to use in your home, look at the numbers. All radiant foils are rated using a number between 0 and 1. The higher the number, the greater the reflectivity.

When you purchase the reflective foil you will also need to make sure that you have a cutter and staple gun on hand to complete the job.

You ' ve gathered Once all of your supplies and the right radiant barrier for your needs it is time to get is started. First you will want to make sure your attic is completely cleared out. Anything you might have been storing in it will need to be put elsewhere. Next you will want to make note of any vents in your attic. If you have any then you will need to make the appropriate cuts in the foil to make sure they will not be covered.

After you have all the reflective foil cut and ready for installation it is time to lay it over your attic floor. The entire floor should be covered with the foil when you are done.

From here you can either staple the reflective foil down so it will stay in place or you can choose to overlap it and let it lay loose. If you choose a loose lay this will give you the opportunity to reach any wires that may be under it without any trouble in the future.

When installing the barrier over your attic insulation make sure it does not touch and that it faces in the right direction. If it is laid wrong it could have the opposite effect on your home, causing your energy bills to rise instead of go down.

Protect Your Business With Fireproof File Cabinets

What would happen if you had a fire and all of your files were destroyed? This could have a devastating impact on your business. Fireproof file cabinets are a very cost-effective insurance, protecting you against such a potentially terrible loss. When you are buying fireproof file cabinets, there are a few things that you should look for to make sure they are not going to fail you when you need them the most.

The first thing to look at is the UL rating for the safe. The UL rating is done by Underwriters Laboratories, a not-for-profit independent testing organization. UL ratings are done by temperature and time. For example, a file cabinet with a 1 hour UL 350 rating will last at least one hour in a fire. During that time, the temperature inside the file cabinet will not exceed 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Since paper will burn at around 400 degrees Fahrenheit, you will want to make sure that the rating is at least UL 350. A 2 hour rated safe will last at least 2 hours in a fire.

You will also want to make sure that whatever product you buy has been tested with various other tests. A quality fireproof cabinet should be tested with a 2,000 degree explosion test, a 1,550 degree fire abuse test, and a 30 foot drop test. This way, you can be sure that your files will be safe if your file cabinets are in a building that collapses during a fire. You will also be protected if someone tries to break into them.

You may also want to look at the quality of the file cabinet's security. Since your files are also vulnerable to theft, you want to be sure that they have highly secure locks.

There are quality file cabinets out there with all of these specifications. Make sure you find a respected name in the industry, and that all of their products have the above specifications. You can do some research to find out who fits these qualifications.

Be sure that you do not shortchange yourself by investing in cheap fireproof file cabinets – it's just not worth it. You can find a quality product that will not break your budget, and it's a great insurance to protect your business from a fire or other natural disaster.

How to Fix Peeling Wallpaper

Peeling wallpaper is an eyesore. Follow these easy care tips to fix peeling wallpaper and keep it properly affixed to your wall.

Wallpaper is meant to last. Unfortunately, from time to time, the seams of the wallpaper may peel. Knowing what to do is essential and not hard at all.

So what to do about peeling wallpaper? This can be frustrating but it is actually pretty easy to remedy. First, do not use wallpaper paste or (heaven forbid) your kids' glue from your junk drawer. Trust me, doing it right the first time will save you potential hassles in the long run. You will need to purchase wallpaper seam repair adhesive. There are many brands available at your local home mega store but I have found two products that I think work best. They are: Zinsser and Red Devil.

First, apply the adhesive under the curling areas using a sponge brush, a Q-tip or your fingers. Then, with clean hands, press the paper down. Now, here is the secret trick: tape over the seam with blue painters tape, and press it down firmly. Use a wallpaper roller if you have one to help press it down.

Leave the tape on overnight. This gives the adhesive proper time to set. Next day, slowly and gently peel the tape off in the opposite direction of the seam. Do not pull the tape horizontally from the wall as this can increase the tension potentially ruin your repair job. Since painters tape is low tack it will not mar the wall mural at all or leave any residue.

And that's all there is to it. Easy!

Storage Rooms For Flammable Chemicals

An inside storage room permits the storage of larger quantities of flammable and combustible liquids. However, there are specific requirements for its design and construction that must be followed to protect not only the workers but the general public and the environment.

A storage room for flammable chemicals must be constructed to meet the required fire-resistance rating for its use. It must comply with the following test specifications outlined in the National Fire Prevention Association Standard Methods of Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, NFPA 251-1969:

  • It is recommended that a storage room for flammable liquids be located along an exterior wall because of the danger of explosion.
  • A fire protection system for an inside storage room is a sprinkler system, water spray, carbon dioxide or other system that has been approved by local fire authorities.
  • If an automatic sprinkler system is present, it must be designed and installed according to code.
  • The maximum allowable size for a storage room inside a building is 500 square feet.
  • Openings to other rooms or buildings must be provided with non-combustible, liquid-tight, raised sills or ramps, at least 4 inches below the surrounding floor.
  • Approved self-closing fire doors must be used.
  • The room must be liquid-tight where walls join the floor.
  • An open-grated trench inside the room which drains to a safe place might be an acceptable alternative to the sill or ramp. If a lot of flammable liquids are transferred in and out of the room using hand trucks, this might be preferable.
  • Windows in other exposed properties or exposed portions of the building must be protected as outlined in NFPA Standard for Fire Doors and Windows.
  • Electrical Wiring and equipment located in an inside storage room used for Class I liquids must be approved under Subpart S, Electrical, for Class I, Division 2 Hazardous Locations. If storing only Class II and Class III, electrical wiring shall be approved for general use.
  • An approved ventilation system must be installed.

Since flammable vapors are heavier than air, they hang low to the floor and can accumulate and move toward sources of ignition or other non-compatible chemicals. The ventilation system is vital in preventing flammable vapors from accumulating enough to cause an explosion or liquid fire. Every inside storage room must have either a gravity or mechanical exhausting system which provides a complete change of air within the room at least 6 times an hour. The switch for a mechanical venting system also controls all room lighting and must be located outside the storage room. If gravity venting is provided, the fresh air intake and the exhaust outlet from the room must be on the exterior of the building in which the storage room is located.

Additional Requirements:

  • Inside every storage room, an aisle at least 3 feet wide must be maintained, allowing for easy movement in the room. This is necessary to reduce the potential for spilling or damaging containers and to provide access for firefighting and a ready escape path from the room if a fire occurs.
  • If wood is used for shelves, it must be at least 1 inch thick and it may also be used for racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, etc..
  • Chemicals are not to be stored on unfinished wooden shelves. Finished metal or high density plastic (polypropylene) is recommended shelving for most chemicals. If wood is used, it must be sealed with a good grade oil based paint, natural or synthetic varnish.
  • Proper segregation of chemicals must be maintained inside the storage room. Incompatible chemicals must be stored at a distance from each other or possible in partitioned areas.
  • Chemicals should be stored at eye level to decrease chance of spilling or breakage and for ease of identification.
  • Labels must be complete, legible and up to date.
  • MSDS information must be available for all chemicals stored.
  • At least 1 portable fire extinguisher with a rating of not less than 12-B units must be located outside the storage room, no more than 10 feet from the door opening into the room.
  • Materials which react with water shall not be stored in the same room with flammable or combustible liquids.
  • Containers over 30 gallons capacity must not be stacked on top of others.

Dispensing of chemicals is by an approved pump or self-closing faucet, or closed piping system. If flammable liquids are dispensed inside the storage room, a pilot light must be installed adjacent to the switch.

Storage Capacity

  • This depends upon the availability of a sprinkling system and the fire rating of the storage room. One with a fire rating of 2 hours and equipped with sprinklers is allowed to store a greater quantity of chemicals.
  • If fire protection is present in a room that has a 2 hours fire resistance rating, storage allowed is 10 gallons per square foot.
  • If there is no fire protection in this room, 4 gallons of chemicals per square foot is allowed.
  • In a room that has a Fire Resistance Rating of 1 hour, with fire protection, the storage space is decreased to 150 square feet.
  • The amount of flammable chemicals that can be kept in this room is 5 gallons per square foot.
  • A room that has no fire protection and a fire resistance rating of 1 hour can store 2 gallons of flammable chemicals per square foot.

How to Determine If You Have Toxic Asbestos Ceiling Tiles in Your Home

Up until the Seventies asbestos was frequently used in the production of many materials located in homes, workplace buildings, and schools. It was used in the manufacturing of thousands of supplies like asbestos ceiling tiles, flooring tiles, ceiling and wall plaster, insulation, and additional things. It is no longer utilized much as a consequence of government warnings and limitations of its use, but still exists in lots of homes and buildings.

Acoustic ceilings are one common place where asbestos ceiling tiles are found. These ceilings were suspended from the roof. The tiles were suspended from the roof, usually by wires, to create an area between the tiles and the roof. These spaces normally enclosed Heating and air ducts which could easily cause the asbestos dust to become airborne all through the building. One of the advantages of dropped or suspended ceilings was noise reduction which is why they have been incorporated in lots of workplace buildings and schools.

Because of the utilization of asbestos ceiling tiles many people have been exposed to asbestos, a dangerous material that can be deeply inhaled into the lungs and lead to asbestosis and other associated diseases. Ceiling tile installers frequently worked with these toxic products without using masks or other protective gear. Additionally, any office employee or pupil that spent time in buildings containing asbestos ceiling tiles could have been subjected to exposure.

Many folks that are exposed to asbestos don’t present symptoms of asbestos-associated diseases such as asbestosis for 20 to 40 years or more. Because of the extended latency interval these diseases are often in the later stages of growth when they’re discovered.

It is essential to know whether or not your own home has asbestos-containing items. Lots of producers made identification easy by clearly marking the asbestos ceiling tiles. Sometimes all it takes is a careful examination to let you recognize if asbestos is one of the production materials. Other producers were not so considerate, making them tough to recognize.

Visually examining ceiling tiles is just about the lone way a homeowner has of determining whether or not they contain asbestos, but this technique will not be infallible. When tiles aren’t clearly marked you need to assume they contain asbestos. If the tiles are constructed from either cellulose or fiberglass they’re most probably free from asbestos dust, but it is not a guarantee. You cannot simply take a look at ceiling tiles and determine whether or not they contain asbestos fibers.

To make it easy to recognize asbestos-containing material OSHA has ruled that, by law, certain products are assumed to contain asbestos if they have been manufactured before 1981. These supplies include surfacing products, insulation of heat systems, resilient flooring, and others.

Surfacing material is often used for fireproofing and is sprayed on metal beams and decking located above ceiling tiles. It’s also applied to ceilings as a fibrous decorative-looking soundproofing matter and as acoustical plaster. Other types of ceiling or wall plaster such as drywall, sheetrock, wallboard, or gypsum board aren’t assumed to contain asbestos although the tape and joint compound used in connection with these items could contain asbestos.

If you are preparing to remove any ceiling tiles or other products from your own home these products ought to be presumed to contain asbestos. And whether or not they contain this lethal substance they should be removed as if they did. Ordinarily, the best strategy is to use asbestos removal companies with not less than a few years of experience and not try to take out these dangerous products yourself.