How To Sniff A Switched Network And Protect Against It

Introduction

Up until now all the main stream information about sniffing a  switched  network has told you that if you are host c trying to watch traffic between host a and b it’s impossible because they are inside of different collision domains.

This document will teach you that it is possible due to flaws and security problems within TCP/IP.

We will be utilizing two programs one is called arpspoof and the other fragrouter.

TCP/IP Overview

As most of you know TCP/IP utilizes ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) to convert IP addresses into hardware addresses. This hardware address is referred to as a MAC (Media Access Control) address. Once the destination’s MAC address is determined, the encapsulated IP packed can be transmitted to the host. Every host on the network must have a unique MAC address for them to communicate on an Ethernet LAN.

Within Ethernet ARP there are four types of messages:

ARP request – A request for a destination hosts MAC address this is usually sent to all hosts in a broadcast domain.

ARP reply – This is a response to the ARP request and tells the hardware address of the destination host.

RARP request – This is a Reverse ARP request. This requests the IP address of a known MAC address.

RARP reply – This is a response to the RARP request and tells the IP address of the requested MAC address

All Ethernet hosts and  switches  keep a list of known MAC addresses and their corresponding IP address. The only time a ARP request is sent to the network is when a request for an IP address NOT in the hosts table is requested which occurs when a new host is requested or when the MAC entry on the table times out.

Sniffing traffic on network utilizing a hub is easy because all traffic is transmitted to each host on the network. Sniffing a  switched  network presents a problem because the  switch  knows which MACs are plugged into which ports, the only time a broadcast is sent to the entire network is when an ARP or RARP request is sent out.

Since there is no way built into TCP/IP to verify which MACs are associated with which IP addresses but to ask or look it it’s ARP table this opens TCP/IP up for exploitation.

So the goal of a malicious hacker would be to trick your system into updating it’s ARP table so that data goes to the attacker instead.

There are many ways to do this, but for the purpose of this document we will cover arpspoof from dsniff.

Network Setup

We have a pretty basic network setup here 3 hosts connect by a  switch .

HostA: 192.168.0.2 MAC: 00:08:74:95:65:11

HostB: 192.168.0.3 MAC: 00:08:74:46:EB:08

HostC: 192.168.0.4 MAC: 00:02:B3:A4:7F:8B

For the purpose of this document we are HostC a linux box. Host B and Host C or something else, doesn’t really matter HostA could be a Sun box and HostB could be it’s default router, HostA could be a PC and HostB a Sun box, etc…

On HostC will will download and install dsniff

Src: http://monkey.org/~dugsong/dsniff/

Pkg: http://www.rpmfind.net

On HostC we will also download and install fragrouter

http://www.securityfocus.com/tools/176

>> tar zxvf fragrouter-1.6.tar.gz

>> ./configure

>> make

>> make install

Running Fragrouter

This app is very simple. We just want to do normal IP forwarding, we want the traffic to make it to the destination we just want to see it first.

>> fragrouter -B1

Running ARPSPOOF

The man page gives a completed explanation of how to use arpspoof. Of this document we will run arp spoof like this (again we want to watch traffic from host a to host b)

>> arpspoof -t HostA HostB

The man page for arpspoof says that -t . Target is the box that you want to spoof the arp tables on, meaning we want to update HostA’s ARP tables telling it that the MAC address of HostB is 00:02:B3:A4:7F:8B (which is you look above is the MAC address of HostC.

Frgrouter will just route the packets on to HostB.

Preventing Against This Type of Attack

Well there are a few ways to go about this.

1) You can gather all the MAC information for every host on your network and feed that into a startup script using arp -p. The problem with this is that every host will need to be updated if/when a network card gets replaced. — BAD IDEA

2) Solaris – Change the default arp_cleanup_interval. The default is 5 min. which means Solaris keeps arp values in it’s arp cache for 5 minutes.

ndd -set /dev/arp arp_cleanup_interval 6000

3) Arpwatch – This is one of the greatest tools for protecting your self against this type of attack.

You can download for linux from rpmfind.net and Solaris from sunfreware.com.

Example of logs:

Jun 23 10:22:02 hostA arpwatch: new station 192.168.0.5 00:02:B3:A4:7F:8B

Jun 23 10:22:02 hostA arpwatch: changed ethernet address 192.168.0.3 00:02:B3:A4:7F:8B

(00:08:74:46:EB:08)

The log on hostA which is running arpwatch show that hostB’s (192.168.0.3) MAC address has changed to what we know is hostC. You can easily setup scripts which monitor for this type of activity.

In Summary

As you can tell this document provides a basis for arp spoofing, however this basic idea lays the way for SSH and SSL man-in-the-middle attacks. Once a box is compromised and used as a gateway in a network the entire network’s security becomes open for exploitation.

Herbal Nutrition Supplements

Herbal nutrition supplements the Alternative to hormone replacement therapy

Hair loss is a genetic/hormonal process that can affect both men and women. Hormones that bind to hair follicles can cause an imbalance in the biological processes that cause hair growth. Eventually, excess hormonal action on the follicle causes hair to stop growing and the follicle dies.

Hormones govern the growth of hair. In men, the male hormone, testosterone, governs beard, body hair and hair in the armpits. In women, estrogen, the female hormone generally prevents hair growth on the chin and encourages it to grow on the head. Occasionally, women develop signs of hair loss or baldness when estrogen levels drop.

This patterned form of hair loss is called androgenetic alopecia. This term means hair loss caused by sensitivity to male hormones which exist in both men and women. DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) is one of the main enemies in the war on hair loss in women.

DHT is a potent form of testosterone and acts on hair follicles via androgen receptors. DHT has a disastrous effect on the scalp hair follicles so they begin to shut down and the hair eventually falls out. DHT can also cause the hair follicles to produce sebum. Sebum is a fatty substance secreted from the sebaceous glands most of which open into hair follicles.

DHT is the natural metabolite which is produced due to action of two enzymes 5 alpha reductase type I and II. The number and distribution of androgen receptors in the hair follicles, the enzymes 5 alpha reductase type I and II, and the local concentrations of dihyrotestosterone around hair follicles are the factors which are responsible for male androgenetic alopecia It is presumed that in women there are additional factors which come into play such as the concentration of Cytochrome P-450-aromatase near hair follicles as well as the distribution of androgen receptor proteins. The cytochrome enzyme metabolizes androgens to estrogens, and modifies the ratio of androgens to estrogens by having a protective role by antagonizing the effects of androgens.

Differing concentrations of androgen metabolizing enzymes and androgen receptors have been identified in hair follicles from women compared to men. The concentration of Cytochrome P-450-aromatase is six times higher in women’s   frontal  hair follicles compared to men’s  frontal  hair follicles. Women also have around 3 times less alpha-5-reductase type I or type II enzyme in their  frontal  hair follicles compared to men. Conversely, androgen receptor content in  frontal  hair conversely, androgen receptor content in  frontal  hair follicles from men are 40% higher than for hair follicles from women. These differences between men and women most likely account for the overt clinical differences for women pattern balding.

Many women in their 40s now take hormone replacement therapy as an option to treat pattern baldness. Besides the hormone replacement therapy there are there are many herbal nutrition supplements which can be used as alternatives for hormone replacement therapy not only to restore the hair growth but also for many other ailments. Most of these herbal supplements are used in natural hair growth products. Prevention is better than the cure and using these herbal supplements can stop the further hair loss.

The Best Beach Camping Parks in California

There are many beautiful beaches in California. Although most of these have many activities available for day-use, not all of them provide facilities for camping and allow overnight stays. This article lists the best beach camping parks in California and gives you some of the hightlights of each park. We have broken the beach camping parks out into three sections: Northern California, Central California, and Southern California, so that you can locate beaches in just the region you desire.

Northern California

Clam Beach County Park is located just south of Little River State Beach, north of Eureka. It is one of the few parks that allows camping right on the beach. Beachcombing, clamming, fishing, picnicking, camping, kite flying, and building sand castles are all popular at this beach.

Gold Bluff Beach is within Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park. The campground is located in the dunes along a beautiful 10-mile stretch of golden beach. The campgrounds lie between the Pacific Ocean and a bluff thickly covered with Redwoods. It is located about 50 miles north of Eureka.

Westport-Union Landing State Beach covers over 3 miles of rugged and scenic coastline. There are approximately 100 campsites located on the bluff overlooking the Pacific Ocean. It is located about 19 miles north of Fort Bragg.

Central California

Half Moon Bay State Beach offers 4 miles of broad, sandy beaches. This picturesque setting is ideal for sunbathing, hiking, biking, fishing, picnicking, and camping. It is located near San Mateo in the San Francisco Bay area.

Manresa State Beach is a large, beautiful sandy beach, which offers surf fishing, surfing, swimming, and camping. It is located on Monterey Bay just south of San Francisco.

New Brighton State Beach is located in the town of Capitola, just south of Santa Cruz. This beach camping park offers swimming, fishing and a nearby forest. The camping area is located on a bluff overlooking Monterey Bay.

Seacliff State Beach is best know for its fishing pier and concrete freighter just offshore. There is swimming, fishing, camping, and hiking trails. It is located on Monterey Bay near Aptos.

Sonoma Coast State Beach is one of California´s most scenic attractions. It has long sandy beaches below rugged headlands. The craggy coastline has natural arches and features secluded coves. The beach is located north of San Francisco between Jenner and Bodega Bay. There are many campsites to choose from. Fishing, hiking, horseback trails, and many other activities are available.

Sunset State Beach features pine trees, mountainous sand dunes, and oceanside picnic spots. The beach is 16 miles south of Santa Cruz.

Southern California

Carpinteria State Beach is approximately 12 miles south of Santa Barbara. This park offers a mile of beach for swimming, surf fishing, tidepool exploring and camping. Seals and sea lions can be seen in the area December through May.

Doheny State Beach is two parks in one. Camping is located in the southern area and the northern area is limited to day-use. There is a five-acre lawn with picnic facilities and volleyball courts. Surfing and surf fishing is popular here. It is located just south of Los Angeles.

McGrath State Beach is famous for bird-watching. The lush riverbanks of the Santa Clara River and the sand dunes along the shore create just the right environment for our feathered friends. There is a nature trail for hiking, and 2 miles of beach for surfing, fishing, or swimming. It is located near Ventura.

Morro Strand State Beach is a coastal   frontage  park with excellent picnic sites and about 3 miles of beach. Fishing, windsurfing, jogging, kite flying and camping are popular at this park. It is located near San Luis Obispo.

Pismo State Beach is located near San Luis Obispo. This park offers all kinds of attractions: hiking, swimming, clam digging, surf fishing, camping, and bird watching. Four restaurants are within 2 blocks of the campground.

San Clemente State Beach has about 1 mile of beach. The beach is located at the south end of San Clemente and is popular for surfing, skin diving, and swimming. The park has a landscaped bluff top with picnic areas. There are also hiking trails on the bluffs which lead down to the beach.

San Elijo State Beach is located near San Diego. The beach is narrow and backs up to a bluff. It has a nearby reef that is popular with snorklers and divers. The park also offers swimming, surfing, picnicking, and camping.

San Onofre State Beach has 3.5 miles of sandy beaches with access trails cut into the bluff above. The campground is near old highway 101 adjacent to the bluffs. The beach is popular with swimmers and surfers. Whales, dolphins and sea lions can be seen offshore at times. It is located just south of San Clemente.

Silver Strand State Beach has extensive beaches on both the Pacific Ocean and on San Diego Bay. Camping, swimming, surfing, boating, water-skiing, volleyball, and picnicking are popular activities, along with fishing. The park is located in Coronado.

South Carlsbad State Beach is a beach near San Diego that features swimming, surfing, skin diving, fishing, and picnicking. Its large bluff-top campground has stairs that lead down to the beach. It is a very popular camping spot, especially in the summer.

Our family really enjoys camping, and we hope that you do to. There is nothing like the beach for relaxing and having some fun together as a family. Whether its just going for the day, or extending your visit by camping overnight, we hope that you have a wonderful time. Most of all, have fun and stay safe. You are creating memories that will last a lifetime!

General Flyer Printing Guidelines

Flyer printing with the right amount of guided effort is your quickest and cheapest way to meet your marketing goals. When it comes to creating and disseminating professional flyer printing online, there are a number of helpful tools to help you achieve brilliance. Because there are all types of people who need it including business owners, individual sellers and children running lemonade stands, it’s imperative you know all of your options for customization, design and pricing that fits your bill.

You want to be sure you have a great design in mind before ordering custom flyer printing. If you need it, online printers sometimes gives you the opportunity to use their design services which could range from in-house experts who create original material for you, to free templates available online for your downloading and manipulating pleasure. Your flyers should display an illustrious façade, complete with bright colors, vibrant imagery and a “loud and clear” message.

Other amenities include full customization. Do you want your customers to take something away with them such as hang tabs or coupons that are easily plucked off your piece? Or how about a superb glossy coating (choose from aqueous, high gloss UV and lamination) or neon-colored ink to stand out a little bit more? There are a lot of ways to personalize your flyer printing so be sure to clarify them ahead of time with your online printer for the right ones.

As a marketer, you’re going to want to choose places that have a high frequency of foot traffic. It doesn’t do much good to post your flyer printing in places where people don’t often walk, as your message will not only be difficult to read from a distance but it won’t have the necessary attention it deserves. Walking paths, recreational areas and inner city sidewalks are fantastic options, as are heavily populated office buildings. There are plenty of free spots to hit so make sure you research your options ahead of time for the most optimal campaign.

If you want to go right for the gut, don’t wait for customers to see your flyer printing out in public; send it straight to them with a well-rounded direct mailing campaign. Some printing companies specialize in both custom printing and mailing, which allows you to reach further past your own means to garner interest in homes across the country. They will take care of any and all postal regulations for you in the process, making it a great idea to order online prints today.

How Motherboards Are Manufactured

The motherboard (or main-board) is the most important hardware component in a computer. It is a device that has to withstand extremes of temperature and cope with being continuous shutdown and re-started. To ensure that motherboards are capable of coping with exacting tolerances they are developed and manufactured with care and attention to detail. Every component and peripheral device associated with a specific computer is dependent on the motherboard. If it connected to the computer by any means, through a port, expansion slot, universal serial bus (USB) or wirelessly via Bluetooth or infrared it is all down to the support of the motherboard.  There is a lot more to these intricate circuits than meets the eye.  A modern day motherboard is a complex piece of circuitry that deserves further investigation. 

How a Motherboard is manufactured  

The design and manufacture of computer motherboard is a long and complicated process. To develop a new motherboard involves working closely with the chipset manufacturer of the central processing unit (CPU). New high end motherboards are designed to incorporate the latest advancements in technology.  Once the chipset manufacturer and motherboard manufacturer are happy with the design it will go into production.  

The motherboard manufacturer will design several similar motherboards based on the same chipset. The product will have different specifications dictated by their intended price range in the market. In some cases the collaboration of chipset manufacturers will require specific elements or components to be added to the products. Like all industries the overriding factor with regard to specification and components used is cost. The low end or cheaper motherboards seldom contain the latest technology that can be found in more expensive high end boards.  

The actual process of manufacturing motherboards is far more complicated than many people would realise. It would be easy to assume that that these complex  hardware components are built on production lines by robotic machines. In actual fact the process of manufacturing motherboards is only partially automated and relies quite heavily on human labour.  

The first part of the process is the addition of surface mount technology to a blank or a bare printed circuit board (PCB). The   soldering  is automatically achieved by heating the board to melt and re-set pre-applied  solder . Large components are placed into position by human labour before the motherboards are inspected and tested. The circuit board undergoes a series of intensive tests usually inclusive of a burn-in test. This is a specific procedure that recreates extremes of stress that the device will encounter during its lifetime. Once the motherboard has passed quality control it can be packaged ready for distribution and retail. The entire manufacturing process takes approximately 15 minutes from start to finish.  

Central Processing Unit and Chipset Support  

The central processing unit chipset is important because it is an integrated technology. The chipset is optimized to operate with a specific CPU. The chipset cannot be removed or upgraded. The onboard chipset dictates which central processor units are compatible with the motherboard.  

Graphic Chipset Support  

Some low end motherboards have onboard graphic adapters incorporated. In more advanced high end motherboards graphic cards are added by making use of an expansion slot on the motherboard. The current technology is PCI Express (PCIE) which superseded PCI and AGP respectively. A major advancement in motherboard graphic chipset support has been the inclusion of both Nvidia SLI and ATI Crossfire on the same motherboard. This means that the end user has the option of choosing to install an Nvidia graphic card or an ATI Radeon graphic card.  

Bus Speeds  

The term bus is used to describe data transfer architecture within computer systems and electrical circuit boards. It derives from the word busbar which is a strip (or hollow tube) of copper or aluminium used to conduct electricity most commonly in electrical substations. This borrowed and shortened term is now exclusively used to describe the rate of data transfer in a computer system. The bus speed is the calculated rate of data transfer and is measured in megahertz.  

Northbridge Chipset  

Most motherboards manufacturers incorporate Northbridge and Southbridge chipsets into their products. These chipsets are designed to prevent a bottleneck (slow down) in the computers performance during intensive tasks. The layout varies from board to board but in basic terms the Northbridge (also known as the memory controller). In most cases the Northbridge controls communication between the central processing unit (CPU), graphics processing unit (GPU) and Memory. The Northbridge chipset or controller is a very significant component of the motherboard.  

Southbridge Chipset  

The Southbridge chipset is responsible for communication between the slower components on the motherboard. In a typical system the Southbridge controller communicates with the PCI bus, Real Time Clock, Power Management and several other devices.  

To conclude, the continual development and evolution of motherboards makes this an interesting industry to observe. 

Electronic Music History and Today’s Best Modern Proponents!

Electronic music history pre-dates the rock and roll era by decades. Most of us were not even on this planet when it began its often obscure, under-appreciated and misunderstood development. Today, this ‘other worldly’ body of sound which began close to a century ago, may no longer appear strange and unique as new generations have accepted much of it as mainstream, but it’s had a bumpy road and, in finding mass audience acceptance, a slow one.

Many musicians – the modern proponents of electronic music – developed a passion for analogue synthesizers in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s with signature songs like Gary Numan’s breakthrough, ‘Are Friends Electric?’. It was in this era that these devices became smaller, more accessible, more user friendly and more affordable for many of us. In this article I will attempt to trace this history in easily digestible chapters and offer examples of today’s best modern proponents.

To my mind, this was the beginning of a new epoch. To create electronic music, it was no longer necessary to have access to a roomful of technology in a studio or live. Hitherto, this was solely the domain of artists the likes of Kraftwerk, whose arsenal of electronic instruments and custom built gadgetry the rest of us could only have dreamed of, even if we could understand the logistics of their functioning. Having said this, at the time I was growing up in the 60’s & 70’s, I nevertheless had little knowledge of the complexity of work that had set a standard in previous decades to arrive at this point.

The history of electronic music owes much to Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007). Stockhausen was a German Avante Garde composer and a pioneering figurehead in electronic music from the 1950’s onwards, influencing a movement that would eventually have a powerful impact upon names such as Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Brain Eno, Cabaret Voltaire, Depeche Mode, not to mention the experimental work of the Beatles’ and others in the 1960’s. His face is seen on the cover of “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band”, the Beatles’ 1967 master Opus. Let’s start, however, by traveling a little further back in time.

The Turn of the 20th Century

Time stood still for this stargazer when I originally discovered that the first documented, exclusively electronic, concerts were not in the 1970’s or 1980’s but in the 1920’s!

The first purely electronic instrument, the Theremin, which is played without touch, was invented by Russian scientist and cellist, Lev Termen (1896-1993), circa 1919.

In 1924, the Theremin made its concert debut with the Leningrad Philharmonic. Interest generated by the theremin drew audiences to concerts staged across Europe and Britain. In 1930, the prestigious Carnegie Hall in New York, experienced a performance of classical music using nothing but a series of ten theremins. Watching a number of skilled musicians playing this eerie sounding instrument by waving their hands around its antennae must have been so exhilarating, surreal and alien for a pre-tech audience!

For those interested, check out the recordings of Theremin virtuoso Clara Rockmore (1911-1998). Lithuanian born Rockmore (Reisenberg) worked with its inventor in New York to perfect the instrument during its early years and became its most acclaimed, brilliant and recognized performer and representative throughout her life.

In retrospect Clara, was the first celebrated ‘star’ of genuine electronic music. You are unlikely to find more eerie, yet beautiful performances of classical music on the Theremin. She’s definitely a favorite of mine!

Electronic Music in Sci-Fi, Cinema and Television

Unfortunately, and due mainly to difficulty in skill mastering, the Theremin’s future as a musical instrument was short lived. Eventually, it found a niche in 1950’s Sci-Fi films. The 1951 cinema classic “The Day the Earth Stood Still”, with a soundtrack by influential American film music composer Bernard Hermann (known for Alfred Hitchcock’s “Psycho”, etc.), is rich with an ‘extraterrestrial’ score using two Theremins and other electronic devices melded with acoustic instrumentation.

Using the vacuum-tube oscillator technology of the Theremin, French cellist and radio telegraphist, Maurice Martenot (1898-1980), began developing the Ondes Martenot (in French, known as the Martenot Wave) in 1928.

Employing a standard and familiar keyboard which could be more easily mastered by a musician, Martenot’s instrument succeeded where the Theremin failed in being user-friendly. In fact, it became the first successful electronic instrument to be used by composers and orchestras of its period until the present day.

It is featured on the theme to the original 1960’s TV series “Star Trek”, and can be heard on contemporary recordings by the likes of Radiohead and Brian Ferry.

The expressive multi-timbral Ondes Martenot, although monophonic, is the closest instrument of its generation I have heard which approaches the sound of modern synthesis.

“Forbidden Planet”, released in 1956, was the first major commercial studio film to feature an exclusively electronic soundtrack… aside from introducing Robbie the Robot and the stunning Anne Francis! The ground-breaking score was produced by husband and wife team Louis and Bebe Barron who, in the late 1940’s, established the first privately owned recording studio in the USA recording electronic experimental artists such as the iconic John Cage (whose own Avante Garde work challenged the definition of music itself!).

The Barrons are generally credited for having widening the application of electronic music in cinema. A soldering iron in one hand, Louis built circuitry which he manipulated to create a plethora of bizarre, ‘unearthly’ effects and motifs for the movie. Once performed, these sounds could not be replicated as the circuit would purposely overload, smoke and burn out to produce the desired sound result.

Consequently, they were all recorded to tape and Bebe sifted through hours of reels edited what was deemed usable, then re-manipulated these with delay and reverberation and creatively dubbed the end product using multiple tape decks.

In addition to this laborious work method, I feel compelled to include that which is, arguably, the most enduring and influential electronic Television signature ever: the theme to the long running 1963 British Sci-Fi adventure series, “Dr. Who”. It was the first time a Television series featured a solely electronic theme. The theme to “Dr. Who” was created at the legendary BBC Radiophonic Workshop using tape loops and test oscillators to run through effects, record these to tape, then were re-manipulated and edited by another Electro pioneer, Delia Derbyshire, interpreting the composition of Ron Grainer.

As you can see, electronic music’s prevalent usage in vintage Sci-Fi was the principle source of the general public’s perception of this music as being ‘other worldly’ and ‘alien-bizarre sounding’. This remained the case till at least 1968 with the release of the hit album “Switched-On Bach” performed entirely on a Moog modular synthesizer by Walter Carlos (who, with a few surgical nips and tucks, subsequently became Wendy Carlos).

The 1970’s expanded electronic music’s profile with the break through of bands like Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream, and especially the 1980’s when it found more mainstream acceptance.

The Mid 1900’s: Musique Concrete

In its development through the 1900’s, electronic music was not solely confined to electronic circuitry being manipulated to produce sound. Back in the 1940’s, a relatively new German invention – the reel-to-reel tape recorder developed in the 1930’s – became the subject of interest to a number of Avante Garde European composers, most notably the French radio broadcaster and composer Pierre Schaeffer (1910-1995) who developed a montage technique he called Musique Concrete.

Musique Concrete (meaning ‘real world’ existing sounds as opposed to artificial or acoustic ones produced by musical instruments) broadly involved the splicing together of recorded segments of tape containing ‘found’ sounds – natural, environmental, industrial and human – and manipulating these with effects such as delay, reverb, distortion, speeding up or slowing down of tape-speed (varispeed), reversing, etc.

Stockhausen actually held concerts utilizing his Musique Concrete works as backing tapes (by this stage electronic as well as ‘real world’ sounds were used on the recordings) on top of which live instruments would be performed by classical players responding to the mood and motifs they were hearing!

Musique Concrete had a wide impact not only on Avante Garde and effects libraries, but also on the contemporary music of the 1960’s and 1970’s. Important works to check are the Beatles’ use of this method in ground-breaking tracks like ‘Tomorrow Never Knows’, ‘Revolution No. 9’ and ‘Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite’, as well as Pink Floyd albums “Umma Gumma”, “Dark Side of the Moon” and Frank Zappa’s “Lumpy Gravy”. All used tape cut-ups and home-made tape loops often fed live into the main mixdown.

Today this can be performed with simplicity using digital sampling, but yesterday’s heroes labored hours, days and even weeks to perhaps complete a four minute piece! For those of us who are contemporary musicians, understanding the history of electronic music helps in appreciating the quantum leap technology has taken in the recent period. But these early innovators, these pioneers – of which there are many more down the line – and the important figures they influenced that came before us, created the revolutionary groundwork that has become our electronic musical heritage today and for this I pay them homage!

1950’s: The First Computer and Synth Play Music

Moving forward a few years to 1957 and enter the first computer into the electronic mix. As you can imagine, it wasn’t exactly a portable laptop device but consumed a whole room and user friendly wasn’t even a concept. Nonetheless creative people kept pushing the boundaries. One of these was Max Mathews (1926 -) from Bell Telephone Laboratories, New Jersey, who developed Music 1, the original music program for computers upon which all subsequent digital synthesis has its roots based. Mathews, dubbed the ‘Father of Computer Music’, using a digital IBM Mainframe, was the first to synthesize music on a computer.

In the climax of Stanley Kubrik’s 1968 movie ‘2001: A Space Odyssey’, use is made of a 1961 Mathews’ electronic rendition of the late 1800’s song ‘Daisy Bell’. Here the musical accompaniment is performed by his programmed mainframe together with a computer-synthesized human ‘singing’ voice technique pioneered in the early 60’s. In the movie, as HAL the computer regresses, ‘he’ reverts to this song, an homage to ‘his’ own origins.

1957 also witnessed the first advanced synth, the RCA Mk II Sound Synthesizer (an improvement on the 1955 original). It also featured an electronic sequencer to program music performance playback. This massive RCA Synth was installed, and still remains, at the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center, New York, where the legendary Robert Moog worked for a while. Universities and Tech laboratories were the main home for synth and computer music experimentation in that early era.

1960’s: The Dawning of The Age of Moog

The logistics and complexity of composing and even having access to what were, until then, musician unfriendly synthesizers, led to a demand for more portable playable instruments. One of the first to respond, and definitely the most successful, was Robert Moog (1934-2005). His playable synth employed the familiar piano style keyboard.

Moog’s bulky telephone-operators’ cable plug-in type of modular synth was not one to be transported and set up with any amount of ease or speed! But it received an enormous boost in popularity with the success of Walter Carlos, as previously mentioned, in 1968. His LP (Long Player) best seller record “Switched-On Bach” was unprecedented because it was the first time an album appeared of fully synthesized music, as opposed to experimental sound pieces.

The album was a complex classical music performance with various multi-tracks and overdubs necessary, as the synthesizer was only monophonic! Carlos also created the electronic score for “A Clockwork Orange”, Stanley Kubrik’s disturbing 1972 futuristic film.

From this point, the Moog synth is prevalent on a number of late 1960’s contemporary albums. In 1967 the Monkees’ “Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd” became the first commercial pop album release to feature the modular Moog. In fact, singer/drummer Mickey Dolenz purchased one of the very first units sold.

It wasn’t until the early 1970’s, however, when the first Minimoog appeared that interest seriously developed amongst musicians. This portable little unit with a fat sound had a significant impact becoming part of live music kit for many touring musicians for years to come. Other companies such as Sequential Circuits, Roland and Korg began producing their own synths, giving birth to a music subculture.

I cannot close the chapter on the 1960’s, however, without reference to the Mellotron. This electronic-mechanical instrument is often viewed as the primitive precursor to the modern digital sampler.

Developed in early 1960’s Britain and based on the Chamberlin (a cumbersome US-designed instrument from the previous decade), the Mellotron keyboard triggered pre-recorded tapes, each key corresponding to the equivalent note and pitch of the pre-loaded acoustic instrument.

The Mellotron is legendary for its use on the Beatles’ 1966 song ‘Strawberry Fields Forever’. A flute tape-bank is used on the haunting introduction played by Paul McCartney.

The instrument’s popularity burgeoned and was used on many recordings of the era such as the immensely successful Moody Blues epic ‘Nights in White Satin’. The 1970’s saw it adopted more and more by progressive rock bands. Electronic pioneers Tangerine Dream featured it on their early albums.

With time and further advances in microchip technology though, this charming instrument became a relic of its period.

1970’s: The Birth of Vintage Electronic Bands

The early fluid albums of Tangerine Dream such as “Phaedra” from 1974 and Brian Eno’s work with his self-coined ‘ambient music’ and on David Bowie’s “Heroes” album, further drew interest in the synthesizer from both musicians and audience.

Kraftwerk, whose 1974 seminal album “Autobahn” achieved international commercial success, took the medium even further adding precision, pulsating electronic beats and rhythms and sublime synth melodies. Their minimalism suggested a cold, industrial and computerized-urban world. They often utilized vocoders and speech synthesis devices such as the gorgeously robotic ‘Speak and Spell’ voice emulator, the latter being a children’s learning aid!

While inspired by the experimental electronic works of Stockhausen, as artists, Kraftwerk were the first to successfully combine all the elements of electronically generated music and noise and produce an easily recognizable song format. The addition of vocals in many of their songs, both in their native German tongue and English, helped earn them universal acclaim becoming one of the most influential contemporary music pioneers and performers of the past half-century.

Kraftwerk’s 1978 gem ‘Das Modell’ hit the UK number one spot with a reissued English language version, ‘The Model’, in February 1982, making it one of the earliest Electro chart toppers!

Ironically, though, it took a movement that had no association with EM (Electronic Music) to facilitate its broader mainstream acceptance. The mid 1970’s punk movement, primarily in Britain, brought with it a unique new attitude: one that gave priority to self-expression rather than performance dexterity and formal training, as embodied by contemporary progressive rock musicians. The initial aggression of metallic punk transformed into a less abrasive form during the late 1970’s: New Wave. This, mixed with the comparative affordability of many small, easy to use synthesizers, led to the commercial synth explosion of the early 1980’s.

A new generation of young people began to explore the potential of these instruments and began to create soundscapes challenging the prevailing perspective of contemporary music. This didn’t arrive without battle scars though. The music industry establishment, especially in its media, often derided this new form of expression and presentation and was anxious to consign it to the dustbin of history.

1980’s: The First Golden Era of Electronic Music for the Masses

Gary Numan became arguably the first commercial synth megastar with the 1979 “Tubeway Army” hit ‘Are Friends Electric?’. The Sci-Fi element is not too far away once again. Some of the imagery is drawn from the Science Fiction classic, “Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?”. The 1982 hit film “Blade Runner” was also based on the same book.

Although ‘Are Friends Electric?’ featured conventional drum and bass backing, its dominant use of Polymoogs gives the song its very distinctive sound. The recording was the first synth-based release to achieve number one chart status in the UK during the post-punk years and helped usher in a new genre. No longer was electronic and/or synthesizer music consigned to the mainstream sidelines. Exciting!

Further developments in affordable electronic technology placed electronic squarely in the hands of young creators and began to transform professional studios.

Designed in Australia in 1978, the Fairlight Sampler CMI became the first commercially available polyphonic digital sampling instrument but its prohibitive cost saw it solely in use by the likes of Trevor Horn, Stevie Wonder and Peter Gabriel. By mid-decade, however, smaller, cheaper instruments entered the market such as the ubiquitous Akai and Emulator Samplers often used by musicians live to replicate their studio-recorded sounds. The Sampler revolutionized the production of music from this point on.

In most major markets, with the qualified exception of the US, the early 1980’s was commercially drawn to electro-influenced artists. This was an exciting era for many of us, myself included. I know I wasn’t alone in closeting the distorted guitar and amps and immersing myself into a new universe of musical expression – a sound world of the abstract and non traditional.

At home, Australian synth based bands Real Life (‘Send Me An Angel’, “Heartland” album), Icehouse (‘Hey Little Girl’) and Pseudo Echo (‘Funky Town’) began to chart internationally, and more experimental electronic outfits like Severed Heads and SPK also developed cult followings overseas.

But by mid-decade the first global electronic wave lost its momentum amidst resistance fomented by an unrelenting old school music media. Most of the artists that began the decade as predominantly electro-based either disintegrated or heavily hybrid their sound with traditional rock instrumentation.

The USA, the largest world market in every sense, remained in the conservative music wings for much of the 1980’s. Although synth-based records did hit the American charts, the first being Human League’s 1982 US chart topper ‘Don’t You Want Me Baby?’, on the whole it was to be a few more years before the American mainstream embraced electronic music, at which point it consolidated itself as a dominant genre for musicians and audiences alike, worldwide.

1988 was somewhat of a watershed year for electronic music in the US. Often maligned in the press in their early years, it was Depeche Mode that unintentionally – and mostly unaware – spearheaded this new assault. From cult status in America for much of the decade, their new high-play rotation on what was now termed Modern Rock radio resulted in mega stadium performances. An Electro act playing sold out arenas was not common fare in the USA at that time!

In 1990, fan pandemonium in New York to greet the members at a central record shop made TV news, and their “Violator” album outselling Madonna and Prince in the same year made them a US household name. Electronic music was here to stay, without a doubt!

1990’s Onward: The Second Golden Era of Electronic Music for the Masses

Before our ‘star music’ secured its hold on the US mainstream, and while it was losing commercial ground elsewhere throughout much of the mid 1980’s, Detroit and Chicago became unassuming laboratories for an explosion of Electronic Music which would see out much of the 1990’s and onwards. Enter Techno and House.

Detroit in the 1980’s, a post-Fordism US industrial wasteland, produced the harder European influenced Techno. In the early to mid 80’s, Detroiter Juan Atkins, an obsessive Kraftwerk fan, together with Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson – using primitive, often borrowed equipment – formed the backbone of what would become, together with House, the predominant music club-culture throughout the world. Heavily referenced artists that informed early Techno development were European pioneers such as the aforementioned Kraftwerk, as well as Yello and British Electro acts the likes of Depeche Mode, Human League, Heaven 17, New Order and Cabaret Voltaire.

Chicago, a four-hour drive away, simultaneously saw the development of House. The name is generally considered to be derived from “The Warehouse” where various DJ-Producers featured this new music amalgam. House has its roots in 1970’s disco and, unlike Techno, usually has some form of vocal. I think Giorgio Moroder’s work in the mid 70’s with Donna Summer, especially the song ‘I Feel Love’, is pivotal in appreciating the 70’s disco influences upon burgeoning Chicago House.

A myriad of variants and sub genres have developed since – crossing the Atlantic, reworked and back again – but in many ways the popular success of these two core forms revitalized the entire Electronic landscape and its associated social culture. Techno and House helped to profoundly challenge mainstream and Alternative Rock as the preferred listening choice for a new generation: a generation who has grown up with electronic music and accepts it as a given. For them, it is music that has always been.

The history of electronic music continues to be written as technology advances and people’s expectations of where music can go continues to push it forward, increasing its vocabulary and lexicon.

Hip Fracture Attorneys

Hip Fracture Attorneys in Illinois

Commonly referred to as a “broken hip,” is a break in the thigh bone, known as the femur. Where in the femur the break occurs depends on the type of trauma that caused the break. Typically, those who suffer from hip fractures are 65 or older and there is a high mortality rate as a result. However, hip fractures can occur in younger people but they usually due to a more severe trauma such as a high force collision.

What is a Hip Fracture, technically?

The head of the femur looks like a ball and it fits into a socket in the pelvic bone. This is called a ball and socket joint. While the majority of hip fractures occur at or near the head of the femur, they can also occur just below the femur’s head (called a femoral neck hip fracture) or just below the neck (called an intertrochanteric hip fracture).

What are the Symptoms of Hip Fractures?

The most common and obvious symptoms of broken hip are pain in the hip area and leg, caused by the fractured bone moving around and causing tissue damage. Another symptom is weakness in the area. Some sufferers may experience one or the other or both of these symptoms.

Other symptoms may also depend on the type of fracture. If the fracture is a displaced fracture, that means the bone separates at the point of fracture and the sufferer cannot walk or stand. The affected leg will likely appear shorter and the foot will often be turned outward when the person is lying down.

If it is an intertrochanteric hip fracture, the fractured portion of the bone can damage blood vessels, producing bleeding inside the hip and loss of blood pressure. Ultimately, the sufferer will feel dizzy and weak and may develop a large bruise in the area.

If it is a femoral neck fracture, the blood supply to the head (ball) of the femur can be affected, causing arthritis. Ultimately, the sufferer will feel pain and discomfort during activity.

How is a Hip Fracture Diagnosed and Treated?

To diagnose a hip fracture, your physician will take a medical history and then likely take multiple x-rays. If the fracture cannot be detected from an x-ray because it is too small or difficult to locate, your doctor may order a CT scan (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging).

To treat a broken hip, sometimes all that is required is a splint or cast followed by physical therapy if the fracture is mild.

However, other times, immediate surgery may be required. Pins, screws, and plates are inserted into the femur to prevent motion at the fracture site so that the bones fuse back together. Depending on the severity, a person may require a walker for some time after surgery. In other cases, a person can be walking immediately or a few days after surgery.

Other surgeries involve the femoral head, neck, and socket being completely replaced (called a total hip replacement) with a medically manufactured neck, ball, and socket that is then screwed into the shaft of the femur.

Pain medication is also commonly prescribed to treat a hip fracture. It is important to note that such medication can affect the mental abilities of the patient and sometimes older patients can become confused and disoriented.

The healing process can result in long periods of immobility, disrupting normal daily activities and sometimes leading to blood clots and lung infections (pneumonia) as well as depression in patients.

What are the Causes of Hip Fractures?

The most common cause of a broken hip is a fall but other causes include normal aging (as the bones become brittle), osteoporosis (bone thinning from loss of calcium), tumors, a forceful collision, like an automobile accident, or other stresses from normal activity, such as walking or running.

Were you Injured at Work?

If you fell at work, possibly from a great height, or were struck in the hip region with great force while at work, you may be awarded compensation for future medical expenses by the Illinois Workers’ Compensation Commission. This will depend on a doctor’s diagnosis that future treatment, from cortisone injections to a total hip replacement, may likely be required at some point. Because a hip fracture may lead to a person being unable to walk as they once did or perform their job in the same way, future medical expenses such as physical therapy and vocational rehabilitation may also be awarded.

Attorney’s Fees

If you were injured at work, your workers’ compensation attorney should work on a contingency basis. Or, if you were injured in an accident, your personal injury attorney should also work on a contingency basis. Contingency basis means that you pay nothing unless get something. So, if you recover an award or settlement, your attorney is paid from that amount. If you get nothing, your attorney gets nothing. There is no cost to you.

Now what?

Call us. We are free and we are confidential. We will listen to your situation and point you to an attorney in your area who will be the right fit for your case, whether it is personal injury, workers’ compensation or some other type of matter.

To learn more visit, http://www.findgreatlawyers.com/Illinois-hip-fracture-attorney.htm

3 Practical Tips on Opening a Boutique

Do you have a penchant for everything connected to style and fashion? Has it always been a dream of yours to work with fashion someday? Are you looking for a fun and exciting business venture that you can be passionate for? If you think that the idea of opening a boutique appeals to you, here are 3 practical tips that you should always remember. It doesn’t matter if you decide to focus your efforts on women’s clothing or children’s apparel. Once you start applying the following tips, you can expect your boutique to rake in some earnings in no time.

Buy wholesale

One of the first things that you need to do before you can set up a clothing shop of your own is to find suppliers that can sell you goods at wholesale rates. Always make it a point to purchase your clothing in bulk as you’ll be able to get more discounts from wholesalers. Try to develop a friendly and yet professional relationship with your supplier so that you can easily negotiate terms.

Stick to the basics

If you want to learn how to open up a boutique, you should take your time to familiarize yourself on the basic processes of running a clothing business. Look for information on how the bigger companies manage their stocks, accounting and even relations with their suppliers so that you can implement some of their policies on your own operations.

Have a vision

Since the clothing business is always going through phases of reinvention and creativity, make sure to maintain the vision that you had back when you were still learning how to open a boutique. This way, you’ll be able keep up with the fast changing times while remaining true to the original goals that you have set for your clothing brand.

A Simple Build-It Yourself Hydroponic System

The benefits of a build-it yourself hydroponic system are many. They are easy to make and can be sized to fit almost any space you have available. Although one of the greatest benefits is what you can grow. You don’t have to think back too far to remember the recalls of Spinach for both Salmonella and E. coli contamination. With a hydroponic system you know where your food comes from, who handled it, and just how fresh it really is. And you don’t have to grow just Spinach. I know of people who are growing , chilli peppers, lemon basil, parsley, and lettuce. And thats all in the SAME hydroponic system.

The parts list:

2 x buckets or totes with lids – You have some freedom here. Basicly you need a nutriant reservoir and a growing container. Some people use a 3 gallon bucket ( the growing container) slid into a 5 gallon bucket (the nutrient reservoir). While others use two totes, one set on top of the other. It all depends on how big of a wick system you want and what space you have to fit it into. Just as long as the two containers sit solidly on one another and wont easily fall over. Oh and lastly choose a color or material that blocks out light, else you will end up with a healthy algae farm in your reservoir and not much else.

Wicks – The number of these you want will vary by the size of your system. For a small pot, one wick will be fine for a bigger system 5 or 6 might be needed. The most important thing is what they are made out of. You want a material that is highly absorbent, such as braided polyurethane yarn or fibrous rope. Don’t use cotton (rots out easily) or nylon (not very absorbent). Wash the wick before use to help its absorbency.

Growing Media – Generally this is a mix of perlite, peat moss, and vermiculite. Although Pro-Mix and Coconut Fiber are also popular. It comes down more to what you are able to find at your local gardening center.

Nutrients – Normal fertilizers will not work. They do not have some of the trace elements needed since they expect you to be using soil. You will need to use Hydroponic Nutrients.

Optional – 1 length of tubing to act as a reservoir fill tube.

Putting it all together:

In wick hydroponic systems, plants control watering rates. Simply, the lower end of a highly-absorbent wick is placed in a reservoir containing nutrient-enriched water. The other is packed in the growing medium close to the plant roots. If you are using a bucket as your reservoir then you can set it aside for now. If you are using a tote for the reservoir you will want to take the lid of the tote and (depending on the size of the growing container) and decide where and how many   holes  to drill for the wicks to pass through. Generally in a normal rectangular tote two  holes  in the lid will be enough. Placed in the middle and spaced evenly to the ends of the tote lid.

Now you will want to choose how you are going to lay out the wick(s). You could use one large wick and just bring it up in the center a few inches (far enough into the growing media for it to start drawing water from the wick). I have also seen systems where they took 3 or 4 smaller wicks, braided them together then brought up into the growing container through a single  hole . At that point they separated the wicks and laid them out in a “clover leaf” pattern to evenly disperse the nutrient solution in the growing media.

And lastly the growing containers:

For the 3 gallon bucket just drill a single  hole  in the bottom of the bucket just big enough to pass the wicks through. If you find your wicks keep falling out just tie in a knot in the wick(s) slightly bigger than the  hole  (leave enough wick on top to reach the growing media).

Optional: Drill a second  hole  on one side just big enough to pass the fill tube through. Run the tube up the side of the bucket and leave it for now. This is what you will use to refill the reservoir without needing to pull the buckets apart.

Optional #2: You also may want to drill several smaller drain  holes  in the growing bucket if it gets any watering from the top. Else the water wont be able to drain and you could end up with flooded plants.

For the tote you will also want to drill  holes  for the wicks in the bottom of the container, be sure they match the  holes  in the reservoir lid. Thread the wick(s) in like above with the bucket and your done. Oh I almost forgot, you also may want to put one last smaller  hole  in the reservoir tote lid. Place it just under the corner of where the growing container would normally sit to act as a reservoir refill. Just slide the growing container to one side a little. Refill the the reservoir. Slide the growing container back and cover the  hole  to keep bugs and pests out.

The finishing touches:

– Fill reservoir with water and nutrients. Mix according to directions.

– Put the wicks in the growing container.

– Set the growing container in or on the reservoir, making sure the wicks are in contact with the water.

– Fill the growing container with growing media.

– Wait a few hours / days for the water to wick up into the growing media.

– Plant your plants.

– Enjoy your build-it yourself hydroponic system.

Cinema 4D Planesmart

Cinema 4D has a brand new application that will allow you to import a layered Photoshop ‘psd’ file, then map the individual layers in Z space. This will let you capture the layered images you’ve created in Photoshop and apply this in your Cinema 4D file. With the import in a layered file, you could then individually adjust individual layers in Cinema, even remove layers if you like.

Currently, PlaneSmart is displayed on the home page of the Ciniversity Maxon web site with download option and installation instructions. Ciniversity is a great resource itself and has many tutorials and ‘goodies’ that are available to members and non members alike.

When you download the PlaneSmart plugin, unzip the download and you will see a PlaneSmart folder that has Cinema library files. Go to the plugins directory of your Cinema 4D R12 installation and copy this entire folder to the plugins folder of your installation. I always copy new files sets like this to keep the original download in a discreet labeled location. If there are any issues later, any question about exactly what you downloaded, any updates, you will have the original to review and compare.

Once you have installed PlaneSmart, simply launch or restart Cinema 4D and you should see it under the plugins menu. This is the simplicity of adding plugins to Cinema 4D, usually this simple process of download, copy, then restart the application.

Now when you click on plugins, you will see PlaneSmart presented. When you click on this menu option, it simply prompts you for a Photoshop file. It does offer an option to create a camera layer for your Photoshop file, to resize planes, and apply persepctive correction. It has some other layer options, whether to include sublayers and the Z dimension offset amount (10 cm is default).

It’s fun just to import a few different Photoshop files just to see the layering and camera option effect. When you examine the project file that this import creates, you see the layers of your Photoshop file created as separate planes. The plane objects in turn, have materials applied and if you view the materials, you will see material properties chosen, such as Luminance and the texture file for this property, is the Photoshop psd file. It is a little bit to track down and understand but basically the layers and certain channels have been mapped to plane objects in Cinema 4D. If there is an Alpha property chosen for the material, it will map to the alpha channel of the Photoshop file.

If you take a look around using the viewport options you can see the 3D construction of your Photoshop file. If you look from the side, for example, you will see the layers staggered in Z space at the default 10 cm setting.

It is very easy to build upon your Photoshop import. The very nature of how it handles this structure is its own idea of how to use and layer photographs. Using plane objects with photographs applied as materials, you can mimic this plugin behavior to create your own collage of 3D spaced images and then explore other possibilities within Cinema 4D.

Chronology of Lighting Devices to LED

The Ideal Bulb

While many states and countries have banned the use of old inefficient bulbs such as the halogen, the CFL or compact fluorescent lamp is also being stripped off its former label as “Economical”. The halogen was an ugly, money draining heater and even though the CFL technology enjoyed nearly two scores of attention, its prime is almost over. Folks are looking for better and safer energy efficient bulbs which can serve them as they will. Sounds like a job for LED or light emitting diode, also referred to as the “Ideal” bulb for the new era.

Why the Downfall of CFL

Now the CFL was doing a perfectly fine job as well. The light was bright and even the unit cost of electricity became insignificant. It was later in year 2000 folks became cautious regarding the safety concerns and light quality.

It is customary for CFL to take a delay before brightening up since it contains mercury and mercury needs its time. And since mercury is the active ingredient, it makes the device hazardous for the surrounding. Mercury is a toxic metal and extremely poisonous if comes into contact. It requires a standard procedure of reprocessing once it is done for, and if not disposed accordingly it can leach its harmful contents into the environment and consequently damaging the life that inhabits it.

The UV radiation it emits, even though in small amounts, can be bad for folks who are skin sensitive especially those who have conditions such as Vitiligo and Psoriasis. Overexposure to UV can be serious and according to many reports folks developed reddening of skin, sores, flakiness and bad eyesight.

LED Future

To take these harmful effects out from the equation without affecting the output of light and efficiency, the LED technology was born. The LEDs completely eradicated all these side effects and created a bulb that was even brighter than the CFL with absolutely no harmful effects and delays in lighting up. The LEDs are engineered with energy efficient design that qualifies for era appropriate standards. They produce a powerful spread without compromising the quality of light and the cost of production.

An average 4 watt LED costs around £ 1.2 per year compared to the clumsy 60 watt halogen that burns almost £ 9.8, depending on use.

Switching to Green Technology

The saving from electricity expenses is a great feat for any homeowner or a businessman, but that’s not the best part. The greenhouse gases that are formed as a result of fossil fuels incinerated for energy in power plants, are the top most threat to the environment as acknowledged by the whole world by now. The LEDs are majorly reducing the carbon footprint by consuming less energy so less fossil fuels are burnt, hence doing the natural ecosystem a tremendous favour. So basically when you use the LED green technology, you are shrugging off the bad reputation often associated with folks who use the inefficient bulbs such as the notorious incandescent bulb.

The Great Barrier Reef’s Most Dangerous Creatures

We all know that the Great  Barrier  Reef is known for many things. Its the largest living organism in the planet, it has 900 islands, it is composed of 2,900 individual reefs, it has some of the best diving spots in the world.

The Great  Barrier  Reef is home to many sea creatures as well which is why before you venture into the water to wade, swim, snorkel, or dive know that beautiful aquatic animals coexist with the most dangerous animals in the reef. Knowing or becoming familiar with these animals will help you understand why there is a need to follow danger signs and the “no touch” policy.

Stingers

The Box Jellyfish which is also called Sea Wasp is one of the most deadly animals in the planet which can be found near the shores of the reef. Its toxin which can be found on its long tentacles is so strong that very few survive its sting. When someone is stung, vinegar or peeing on the spot will somehow reduce pain but should not replace medical assistance.

The next deadly stinger is the Irukandji Jellyfish which can be found at the deeper waters of the northern portions of the Great  Barrier  Reef but due to currents may be swept to shore. It might be small, just a few centimeter but its poison also packs a punch in that being stung can be life threatening.

There are stinging fish as well such as the Stonefish and Lionfish. Their spiny fins are toxic so avoid getting punctured as this is the way the venom is introduced into the body.

The next in our short list is the Blue Ringed Octopus so called because of the blue rings on its body is a small and the only poisonous octopus in the whole planet. You can find it on rock pools and when you try to pick it up, it will bite you with its sharp beak.

Second from the last is the Sting Rays which are really beautiful and graceful creatures but be careful with their tails that where the barbed spine is.

If you thought shells are safe think again. The are many species of Cone Shells in the Great  Barrier  Reef and they are found on rock pools which is why it’s easy to step on them. If they feel threatened they would fire a harpoon-like dart on you that has a venom powerful enough to kill a human.

Biters

Sea snakes may be venomous but they rarely waste their toxin on something they can’t eat and most of their bites are purely for self defense. You’re relatively safe if you don’t annoy them.

Bites by Sharks, Moray Eels, and others may be uncommon but if you are on a shark feeding dive it’s best to follow instructions from the dive master.

Safety Precautions

Never ever touch anything no matter how beautiful or inviting. Teach your kids this motto because they are more likely to pick lovely but poisonous shells.

When you need to rest at the bottom of the ocean when diving shuffle the sand first with your fins to give sting rays or other creature which might be hiding in the sand, a chance to go away.

At the Great  Barrier  Reef there are reef education sessions before you go snorkeling or diving put them to mind lastly, always listen to your dive masters and always follow danger signs.

How to Choose A Fireproof Gun Safe

Attaining a gun safe is ideal for both you and those around you. You want to protect your guns from being damaged, and also keep them out of the reach of unauthorized people. “But how, ” you might be asking, “am I supposed to choose a gun safe if I’ve never bought one before?” You should definitely start with buying a fireproof gun safe- you should always be looking to protect your guns from fire.

Now that you’ve narrowed down your gun safe options a little bit, the next step in the process is deciding what size safe you need. Your gun safe should hold your ammunition and your guns, and be large enough for any purchases you may make in the future. Small-sized safes can also be easily stolen. There are specific safes made for specific types of guns, featuring different sizes and shelves.

Decide the level of security that you need. This determines the kind of lock you will want to purchase. You will want to protect your guns from people who cannot use them as well as burglars or other dangerous people. There are many types of different locking mechanisms, such as digital, mechanical, biometric, or fingerprint-recognition. Some locking mechanisms have an anti-tamper system which disallows the entrance of incorrect passwords after a certain number of tries. Make sure your safe cannot be easily broken into. At the very basic level, a decent gun safe will prevent access to children or people otherwise inexperienced with guns.

You should also make sure the safe has been tested by Underwriter Laboratory and has earned a certification.

More expensive fireproof gun safes will have better fire protection. Fireproof safes have fireproof ratings, and those with higher ratings (they normally come in minutes or hours) will shield your guns from fire hazard. You may want to consider also buying fire-retardant gun sleeves to further protect them.

If you are truly concerned about your guns being protected, you should look into buying a high-quality safe. It is a good idea to buy a safe made of solid steel. Reputable companies include Browning, Liberty, Sentry, Remington, and Winchester.

You may also want to look into other features for your safe. Consider your home and its location. You might want a safe with a higher burglar rating or one that’s waterproof. Burglar ratings also come in hours or minutes, and give an idea of how long it would take someone who knows how to pick locks to break in with common locksmith tools. Again, a higher rating means that the locking mechanism is more complicated to break into.

Your choice of a gun safe is very important if you own guns. It protects not only you and your guns but your loved ones as well. You should never skimp on your choice of storage, especially if you’ve already spent time on choosing your guns. Keeping them in and other people out is of utmost importance- and a fireproof gun safe is the way to do that.

Developing and Creating Holographic Wallpapers

Holographic wallpapers have been recently developed for computers. Holographic wallpaper is a very entertaining to view since the images pop out from the screen. Different holographic images are available including famous personalities and athletes, landscapes, cars and other designs. The wallpaper uses different effects and techniques to make the images appear in a three dimensional view. In fact, the image can be made to appear in motion since the angle of the lighting and shading change automatically. Many marketers use the wallpaper to advertise different products, items and services sold in the market. The consumers can find thousands of free holographic wallpapers in the internet. It does not require any installation since it would automatically play once configured.

The holographic backgrounds and wallpapers work by changing and manipulating the different elements and features of the images including lighting, tone, consistency, shade and color. Even though the image is not moving, it would appear in a three dimensional view. The image is simply represented in different ways. For example, a picture of a car is used to create the holographic background and wallpaper. The same image would be used in all the frames being featured. The only difference would be the modifications and changes in the picture elements established. The lighting and shading can be directed towards different angles. This would allow the shadow of the car to be changed.

The consumers can also choose which pictures and images to be used as holographic wallpaper. Programs and software are available which can be used to create holograms. The consumer would simply need to load a single picture. The hologram would usually consist of several frames. The standard number of frames would be twelve to fifteen. The consumer should put different modifications on the images in each frame. This is possible by changing the color, shadows and other necessary elements. Once the frames are continually played, it would appear in a three dimensional perspective. The software can add details allowing the image to have more depth.

The holographic backgrounds can be manually controlled. This is necessary to make the desktop easier on the eyes. The presentation, color and rate of frame presentation can be adjusted. Some holographic background and wallpapers are distracting due to the many details added. For example, the item being shown has a very strong lighting and reflection. This would distract the attention of the person while using the computer. In order to deal with this, the makers of the holographic backgrounds allow manual adjustments. The brightness or tone of the wallpaper can be lessened based on the preference of consumers.

The holographic wallpapers are very entertaining and enjoyable. It would improve the desktop and background of the computer. The customization options provided allows consumers to create their own designs. People can download any image or picture to be used as the main design for the holographic background. Many tools and software are available to create the wallpapers. It is very easy to use which is why it is recommended for beginners and inexperienced users.

Interior Design – The Secrets Of Home Interior Design

Are you moving to a new house or apartment? Are you wanting to give your existing home a whole new look? Whatever your situation, learning the basics of interior design will give you results that you will be happy with. Read on to discover how to make your home look like a pro designed it.

The very first step in interior design is to determine a theme or color scheme for a room. If you are buying new furniture for the room then you are only limited by your imagination. But, if you are keeping your existing furniture, then your color scheme will revolve around the colors in your furniture. Decide if you want the furniture to stand out in the room or if you want the furniture to blend into the background. That will help you decide what color you will paint the walls. It will also help you choose window treatments.

Once you have the room painted and the furniture in place, it’s time to start on the walls. This is where you can be very creative. You may choose to hang only family photos. Maybe you want something more sophisticated so you may want to shop for fine art or reproductions. What about a more modern look with abstract art? It’s all up to you and what you feel comfortable with.

Now, turn your attention to the window treatments. Many interior design companies will have websites that will help you decide the best window treatments for your room. Don’t hesitate to look through interior design magazines for ideas. You can choose from many styles of fabrics for the curtains. There are also other options such as wooden window blinds to add warmth to the room.

Don’t forget to add your personal touch with decorative lamps and shades. Strategically placed vases and potted plants can add elegance to the room. Carefully placed books and magazines can give a casual, homey touch. You will know what is a good match for your room once you start decorating.

If you still feel overwhelmed with interior design and you don’t have the money to hire a professional, you can buy interior design software that will guide you step by step on how to design your rooms. Interior design software is great because it allows you to virtually design your room. You can see how it will look before you commit to paint and other decorations. The software will also give you suggestions for colors and floor coverings.

There is no need to let interior design intimidate you. Take it step by step. Study interior design magazines to get ideas. Search the internet for other great ideas that will help you with your interior design venture. Before you know it, your home will become a showplace and all of your friends will want the name of your interior designer.