Secure Removable Body Panels Using Rivet Nut Tools

The aircraft production industry has perfected the joining and secure fastening of airframe and other body panels using rivet nut tools. A rivet nut is a threaded fastener that is securely installed on the back side of fixed body panels and other internal components. They are especially handy where the joining covers will need to be removed for future maintenance and possible repairs. This makes rivet nuts tools a must have tool on an assembly line.

Rivets are commonly used in detailed industrial and aircraft production plants because of their ease of use and uniform strength. Sometimes there are plans that call for the same strength and fastening power in an area that requires a removable panel or in a tight area where a regular rivet would present issues or problems, and that is where rivet nut tools become necessary. The rivet sinks a threaded fastener nut on the back side of one of the surfaces that need to be secured, making it possible to fasten the panels with a high strength bolt. This application can be inserted with a hand tool, but commonly it is performed with a power rivet tool, that is driven electrically, or by air. The ease of use and great durability of these rivets have made them very popular in the assembling industries. It’s quite rare to see an assembly without this tool today.

Rivets come in a variety of sizes, shapes and metals for just about every conceivable application, many of the more popular kinds were developed for high stress situations, such as airplane body panels, internal service doors and access areas. Some nuts are designed with a recessed or counter sunk head, and some have a secondary securing feature that allow additional protection making this fastening tool more reliable. One of the ease of use features is that it takes less pressure and applied force to effectively sink one when using a preloaded rivet nut gun, or commercial grade rivet installation tools. There are also many high speed pneumatic brake rivet tools that are used to secure brake pad linings to the metal backings. These applications commonly use stainless steel rivets for their exceptional tension and corrosion resistance.

Huck rivet tools are speciality aircraft tools that use a blind rivet nut system where accessibility is limited and the metal requires high stress fasteners that can be removed for future access for repair or inspection. Rivet nut tools make it possible to provide high quality removable fastening to metal and body panels where standard rivets would require costly removal efforts and possibly damage the parts requiring periodic removal.

The 20 Most Popular Bike Brands Sold in the US

Well, this is certainly a controversial, complicated and constantly evolving topic. There are so many bicycle manufacturers, bicycle types and popular brand names sold in the US, that it can be difficult to find a comprehensive summary and to sort it all out.

The top 20 most popular bike brand listing that I’ve compiled here is not based on the number of bikes sold alone or on the quality or perceived quality of the bicycles. Most of the bike manufacturers listed here also sell different bike types (road, mountain, hybrid, etc.) and the list below is not broken down by bike type or category.

This listing is intended to be a guide as to what bike brands are currently the most popular in the USA, at the time of this writing (since bike brands come and go and the sales of various bike types rise and fall).

The Top 20 Most Popular Bike Brands and the bike types that they sell

  1. Trek – Road, Triathlon , Mountain Hardtail , Mountain Full-Suspension , Urban , Bike Path, Cruiser , Women’s , Kids
  2. Schwinn – Road, Commuter, Comfort, Cruisers, Electric, Mountain Bikes, BMX, Kids
  3. Giant – Road, Mountain, Giant for Women, Lifestyle, Hybrid (HCT), BMX, Kids
  4. Cannondale – Road, Mountain, Women’s Recreation (many sub categories)
  5. Mongoose – BMX Bikes (Team Bikes, Freestyle Bikes, Dirt Street Bikes) Mountain / Pavement (Dual Suspension, Jumping, Hardtail XC, Comfort, Commuter, Road Alternative, 
  6. Raleigh – Road, Performance Hybrid, Hybrid, Comfort, Mountain, Cruiser, Women, Youth
  7. Specialized Road, Multi Street, Globe (commute, comfort), Dirt/Street/Vert (BMX), Kids ATB
  8. Diamondback – MTN Full Suspension , Mountain Hardtail , Devine Designs , Comfort ,Cruiser , Performance Hybrid , Hybrid , Youth , BMX
  9. Fuji – Road, Mountain, Specialty, Women’s, Lifestyle, Kids
  10. Haro -All Mountain-Freeride, Dirt Jump/ Urban, XC Trail / XC Sport, 650B, 29er, Metro, Comfort, Cruiser
  11. Shimano – Road, Mountain, Comfort, BMX
  12. Huffy – since 1892 – Mountain, BMX, Kids, Road
  13. Gary Fisher – 29ers, Full Suspension,  Genesisters, Hardtails, Kids, Pavement, Road
  14. Ellsworth – High end Mountain Bikes
  15. Klein – High end Mountain and Road Bikes
  16. Jamis – High end Full Suspension, Hardtail, Road, Street, Sport Comfort, Youth
  17. Bianchi – Hors Categorie (HOC), Born for Performance (B4P), Coast to Coast (C2C), Dama Bianca, D2, Special, Classica, Road Steel, MTB Performance, MTB Leisure, Sport, Cross-Terrain
  18. GT – Mountain, BMX, Road, Womens
  19. Rocky Mountain – Mountain, Road, Urban & Path, Ladies Only
  20. Scott – Mountain, Road, Women’s Junior’s

Some of the popular bike brands listed here can only be purchased at specialty bike shops or independent dealers. Although this marketing technique makes these brands harder to find, in some cases this it improves the perceived quality of the bikes over brands that are distributed to the mass market or that can be easily found at sporting goods stores or even online.

I have included the bike types or bike categories that each manufacturer sells under the brand names listed. The bike type descriptions were, in most cases, taken directly from each bike manufacturers website in order to not only let you know what kind of bikes they make but also how the company perceives the bike types that they make and how they market them to you.

The History of London Bridge

London Bridge today is not the same London Bridge that crossed the Thames when it was first built. Peter, a priest and chaplain of St. Mary’s of Colechurch, began the foundation of the original bridge in 1176 to replace a wooden bridge (expensive to maintain and repeatedly burned down) that had first been built by the Romans. The original London Bridge consisted of nineteen pointed arches, each with a span averaging 7 meters, and built on 6-metre-wide piers. A twentieth opening in the bridge was spanned by a wooden drawbridge. With the building of this bridge, a peculiar effect was discovered – the tide roared through the narrow arches every day with great force; in fact, it was so dramatically affected that it created temporary 5-foot-high cataracts every day as it went in and out.. A new sport based on this nifty effect was “shooting the bridge” – slipping through the arches in a small boat when the tide was turning.

Peter of Colechurch died in 1205, and his work was completed by three other London citizens by 1209. The bridge, already rather narrow for its function, became even narrower (about 4 metres wide) when shops and homes were built along both sides of the roadway right on the bridge itself; by 1358, 138 places of business were recorded in the tax rolls. And, like most older London buildings, the shops were built so that the upper floors stretched over the roadway – at last, the bridge became more like a long tunnel lined with shops, through which travelers and other people flowed. One can only imagine the smell, with the sheltered road, no real drainage, and lots of horses and people! The houses were built so that they overhung the water as well as the roadway, and were anchored by tying them together across the street with arches of strong timber. In 1580, water mills added to the general chaos of the bridge.

The bridge was not only a home and place of business, it was a defensible structure. More than once, its drawbridge was raised and men fought under its strong tower to repulse invaders or rebels, putting the wooden houses built on the bridge at some risk. Until after the Scottish Restoration, the bridge was often decorated by the heads, quarters, or body parts of the executed who were to be put on display afterward. As late as the year 1598, a German traveller counted over thirty heads.

But having so much on the bridge itself became dangerous indeed to inhabitants and travellers. Only three years after it was first completed, a huge fire destroyed its buildings, killing perhaps 3000 people when it jumped from one end of the bridge to the other, trapping firefighting crowds between the flames. The houses were quickly rebuilt – and in 1282 five of the bridge arches collapsed with the weight of winter ice. But they too were rebuilt along with their requisite buildings, and the bridge continued as London’s sole crossing of the Thames until 1750, when Westminster Bridge opened.

At about this time, the designer of Westminster Bridge was hired to repair and renovate London Bridge. Redesign and repair was deemed necessary by the narrowness of the road, the huge supports of the bridge (which took up about a quarter of the river’s width), and by the dangerous sport of shooting the bridge and other health hazards posed by the bridge. By 1762 the character of the bridge was changed: all the houses were gone, the roadway was 14 metres wide, and the two central arches replaced by one great arch, allowing much easier passage for larger boats.

Alas, this central arch proved difficult to maintain, and in the early 1800s a second bridge was built a few meters away. The original London Bridge was demolished by 1832. The new bridge was called Rennie’s Bridge. Designed by George Rennie and constructed by John Rennie, it was composed of only five arches, with the central span reaching 46 metres. Rennie’s London Bridge had a very odd ending. It lasted less than 140 years. Between 1968 and 1971, it was dismantled and shipped across the Atlantic to the United States, where it was rebuilt in Lake Havasu City, where it still stands, crossing Lake Havasu, 255 kilometres south of Hoover Dam on the Colorado River. To see that London Bridge, Londoners have to fly ten thousand miles!

The current London Bridge is modern pre-stressed concrete with a central span of 104 meters.

Copyright 2005 S Wander

Finding Legitimate Home Assembly Jobs

Finding legitimate home assembly jobs proves to be a dilemma for many. And rightly so because this is a field that is laden with scams. Let me explain how this works in many home assembly jobs.

The company requires you to choose an assembly kit upfront. They state that your job is to assemble the product and then return it to them. At that point, they will pay you for your work as long as it meets their standards.

Sounds simple, right? Well, it would be an ideal arrangement if the company came through on their promise. The problem is, your work will most likely be rejected for not meeting their standards. Then, you are stuck with the rejected merchandise and out your upfront investment for the assembly kit.

This is the scam. The company has your money for the assembly kit but you will never see any money back for your work.

Are there any legitimate home assembly jobs? There could be, but because the field is so full of scams, you would do best to avoid this type of job. You could assemble the kit and then sell it outright on your own, as long as that does not go against the company’s policy. But then you have to find your own customers, which may not be an easy task.

You should always check out any home assembly jobs with the Better Business Bureau and also do a search on Google. Put in the company’s name + scam and see what comes up. Read through several reviews to get a real look at whether the company is legitimate or not.

Another field that is similar is the “making crafts” niche. You may run into the same scenario as with the assembly jobs. The best way to start a business doing this sort of job is to make the craft and then sell it at craft shows, online, etc. In other words, plan on finding your own customers and selling your crafts outright.

Sadly, scams have become all too common today. It has made finding legitimate home assembly jobs and craft jobs very difficult. One thing you can do is to visit local businesses that do this sort of thing and ask if there is any work that can be done at home. In this case, you know who you are dealing with. If they have been around for a while, it is a good sign.

If you do not success in finding any legitimate home assembly or craft jobs, there are many other ways to work successfully from the comfort of your own home.

LCD TV Mounting For a Better Viewing Experience

The LCD and Plasma TVs which have a great picture quality are the most ideal TV sets for any home as they match all kinds of home decors. The LCD and Plasma TVs, with a light weight and sleek structure, make a great wall  mounting .  Mounting  on the wall is ideal to watch these flat panel TVs as the display quality looks great and its sleek and slender body allows for less space consumption compared to the non flat panel TVs. The traditional TVs might need their own stands and consume a lot of internal space whereas these LCD TVs can be just mounted on the wall. The wall  mounting  can also be adjusted to heighten your viewing experience to the optimum.

You have a choice of  mounting  the TV on either the interior or exterior wall whichever allows a good connection with the other gadgets attached to your TV. Choosing an exterior wall to install your TV is not a great option if you have to attach a sound system or a DVD Player to your LCD TV. Utilizing a VESA compatible Plasma TV is a great option. The VESA or Video Electronics Standards Association compatible TV ensures that it will fit the durable VESA LCD TV mounts. Selecting the right type of mount for your TV is crucial. You need to find the perfect size that fits your LCD TV and also the perfect type. Several flat screen TV Wall mounts can be found with a fixed universal mount, one that tilts fully and an articulating arm mount.

The inexpensive Universal Fixed or Low Profile LCD TV mount is a great option if you need an easy installation. The fixed character on this wall  mounting  comes from the bubble level which is provided to ease the installation process. The only real disadvantage in this type is that, whenever you need to add cable connections, you’d be required to take out the whole installation and install it all over again. This TV mount is ideal for TVs that are 37 to 63 inches and are also fit the standards of VESA  mounting  hardware.

Slightly more expensive than the Universal fixed Mount is the Universal Tilting LCD and Plasma TV mount even though their installation process is quite similar. The main difference between these two models is that the Universal Tilting LCD Wall Mount is adjustable by the viewers to optimise the TV viewing experience. This also means that every time you need to add new cables, you don’t need to uninstall the mount and reinstall it. This also fits 37 to 63 inch TVs and can hold up to 200 pounds. The Articulating LCD TV mount though, has the perfect viewing angles as it can be tilted from -5 to 15 degrees up and down and pans 180 degrees side to side. A good model which fits all the VESA requirements and is highly efficient is the Sylvania SYL-MA3210B. It may be beneficial to get a professional to install the mount if you’re new to the procedure.

Moving With The Ages With Mosaic

When we take a look at history, we notice one common factor prevalent in all walks of life and that factor is ‘revival’. Whatever is ‘in-vogue’ today will revive or resurface after some years. Taking this revival factor into consideration, people generally hesitate to throw out old items that they are fond of, often convincing themselves that the item will resurface as the in-thing sometime in the future.

This revival factor can be observed in the field of commercial and residential architecture as well. Traditional and historic styles of arched facades, tapestries, pillars etc. are often seen resurfacing over the ages.

One such work of art which has revived itself over the years since the 4th century BC is the art of  Mosaic .  Mosaic  art is often associated with designs in bathrooms made of tiny square tiles, installed in monochromatic sheets. However this is a very restricted view of  mosaic  art.

Ancient  mosaic  work consisted of pictures, landscapes or mythological events formed initially out of water-smoothed pebbles and later from non-symmetrical pieces of scrap material and pieces of broken pottery. Intricate  mosaic  work illustrating events from the bible have been observed in floors, walls, pillars and even ceilings of European churches.

The ancient art of  mosaic  has grown in popularity over the ages. Though its origin cannot be specifically established, there is enough evidence to prove that various civilizations have actively used this art form. The first school for  mosaic  artisans was developed by the Greeks and initially this art was used to decorate floorings. The Romans however started using  mosaics  to decorate walls thus increasing its popularity. In Pompeii, archaeologists have uncovered evidence showing homes of common people exhibiting  mosaic  work on walls.

Modern  mosaic  works depict revolutionary revival of this art. The décor of any structure can be enhanced by the use of  mosaic  patterns and scenes enveloping the primitive as well as the contemporary ages to create much valued and admired art works.

The ancient art of  mosaic  faces competition not only from ceramic tiles which are practical and offer varied choice of colors and patterns but also from hardwood floorings which are visually appealing and make a style statement. Even then,  mosaic  medallions or ’emblemata’ used for floor covering make a house look distinctly exquisite.

Persian rugs which were used in formal areas and foyers are being replaced by  mosaic  carpets which are easy to maintain, practical and resilient. These  mosaic  carpets prove especially beneficial and safe in areas facing heavy traffic and convenience issues.

Using  mosaic  indoors in places like kitchens and bathrooms adds beauty, practicality, ease of maintenance and a stylish appeal of its own. Similarly, an outdoor pool, fountain, lawn or patio can be enhanced using this work of art.

The Essential Gardening Tools

The Essential Gardening Tools

If you are someone who’s passionate about gardening, you should be armed with the right tools. Listed below are the basic tools every gardener should start with. After years of experience I can provide you with a few types available in each category and tell you what my favorite’s are.

The   Trowel 

This is a versatile gardening tool that should always be ready at hand. It is used to plant small plants and scoop soil in pots. It can also be used to remove stubborn weeds. The  trowel  is the all purpose tool in your arsenal and having more then one is quite acceptable. There are many verities available but my favorite is an all plastic model. I have had a problem with the expensive metal versions before because they always seem to slip their handle while I am working vigorously. No such trouble with the all plastic model.

The Shovel

Shovel is used for many jobs. It can also be used to move or remove dirt but its main purpose in my garden is to dig holes. I recommend you invest in a high quality shovel. You need both kinds- a spade and a flat head shovel. After breaking most every type available I ended up with an all metal shovel, metal handle and metal blade all in one. I have not been able to break this one yet.


If you are working with trees and plants, it is essential that you buy the right shears. Make sure that you buy a high quality model even though it means you will have to pay extra. You should accept the extra cost and get the best. I have bought cheap shears and broke them in one day. Back they went and I came home with the top end model, by the way this shear is still doing it job after 10 plus years. You will find three different types, long blade to trim hedges, lopping shears designed to cut larger branches and small hand shears made to snip and trim small branches and shoots. Shear blades should be kept clean and very sharp and be lubricated with light oil. Follow this advice and your shears will last for years and be there when you need them, or your neighbor needs them!

The Hose

Having water in your garden when and where you need it is very important. In fact it is what separates us from our ancestors who had to make due with ditches or buckets to water their gardens. With the Garden hose we can have that water when and where it is needed. You can choose to spend a lot or a little. I have bargain cheap hoses and expensive hoses and they both do their job. If you seek quality look for a garden hose that has several layers of ply walls and good thick brass fittings. If you have a long hose, buy a hose rack or reel for easy and hassle free storage. I use both a reel that is mounted to the wall and a wheeled rack I can move around the yard as needed.

The Rake

A good rake (maybe two) should be at the ready in your garden. Need to sweep up leaves or debris that gather up in your garden? Your rakes should be ready to go. The rake can be made several ways depending on the intended use. There is the heavy iron rake that can rake leaves and be used to smooth gravel and dirt. There is the rake made with thin metal or bamboo strips. This rake is best used for raking leaves as the tougher jobs will cause the tines to bend too much. I have both the heavy and the light Rakes but mine are made with heavy fiberglass handles. This type of handle cost more but will never give you splinters when the rake and wood handle gets older.

The Wheelbarrow and Garden cart

If you Garden or just need to do yard work, you will need to move things around such as loads of leaves, grass, dirt etc. You may need to work with heavy tools out at a far corner of the yard. The wheelbarrow is best to move the loads and a garden cart may work better to move your heavy tools.

The wheelbarrow and garden cart are very important to help you transport heavy loads without hurting your back. The wheelbarrow is available made from metal or plastic. Both are fine but I actually prefer the heavy plastic model as my first wheelbarrow was thin metal and only lasted a few years before rusting and bending and being discarded.

The garden cart is kind of like a little red wagon but made much larger for doing real work. Find a model with heavy construction and larger inflatable wheels. Take note if you have a riding mower, some garden carts are made so as to be able to be pulled with your riding mower like a trailer. Some garden carts have sides that fold down and some models have a rear gate and can dump a load by pulling a pin in front. Look at a few before you buy. Find the model you feel will work best for your situation.

As you can see having the right tools can make life much easier when yard work and gardening is on the agenda. If you love your tools as I do then you should take pride and feel right at home with your garden tool collection.

Hiring the Right Painter for Your House

Every house and structure, new or old must be painted. Painting is the best way through which new homeowners can customize their new residences. The quality of the painting is determined by the knack of the painter and the quality of the paint used. To guarantee a finer quality painting job, there are a few factors to consider.

To start off, search for the pros. There is no room for trial and error as it only results in extra costs that can be easily evaded. Ask around from friends and family for recommendations and take a look at their work. If there is a well painted house in the neighborhood, call on the owner and enquire about the painter. If someone managed to do a magnificent exterior job, then it holds that the same painter has the ability to do the same in the interior. Sample at least four high quality painters sorted from the nature of their previous painting works and organize initial meetings, preferably at the site. On site, observe how long the painters take to scrutinize the building, the longer one takes, the more realistic he/she is.

It is very important to enquire from the painters about the size of their team as well as their levels of competence. If your house is big, then you may require a painter with a larger team lest it takes a decade to be painted.

Some painting disasters don’t always emanate from the painter’s mistakes, but the homeowner’s. This is mainly because some people don’t clearly spell out their expectations to the painters when they express interest on their jobs. Some vital information that must clearly be stated includes, the number of coats you would like, the type of paint and the level of perfections that you expect. Most of these are determined by the budgetary estimates to the project. Listen to the painter and don’t argue so much on the cost for purchasing the material, rather, negotiate on the painter’s labor. If you want quality work, you have to invest in it. After clearly stating the expectations to each contractor independently, you can then ask them for their closest estimates.

Other than past great painting jobs by the painters, it is always safe to ask for their credentials as well. As much as minor details like being a member of a professional organization may not in any way mirror the quality of their work, it is crucial as it shows the painter’s commitment to their work. Is the contractor licensed by the authorities? Find out from your state’s authorities or ask to see the license. The same applies to their insurance covers, as well as that of their staff.

With all the details stated above verified, you can then draw up and sign a binding contract. In the contract, be precise and ask for a guarantee with the painter accepting to repaint any chipped, peeled or blistered painted surfaces within a specific period, say two years at no or very minimal cost. Keep a close eye on them at work to ensure that you attain the expected quality.

Selecting Chandelier Lighting for Your Home

With such a variety of Chandeliers available today there is always that perfect one for any home. With a range of styles, designs and finishes to choose from selecting a chandelier can be as much of a creative process as you would like it to be. Each chandelier adds a touch of class to any room and warmth or vibrancy into any atmosphere. Styles can range from elaborate and large to modern and aesthetically pleasing. Chandeliers complement other lighting well and will add value to your home.

When choosing a chandelier for a dining room, the Victorian style is highly recommended as this popular design will add tranquillity and calm to a room that can be chaotic at even the best of times. There are always popular choices to choose from with Wrought Iron and Crystal styles at the top of the list. Some chandeliers can be hung alone as a center piece feature that will dress up any room. Choose from the vast array of finishes and shade styles to find a design that will create a room of modern style with a touch of love for art. Chandeliers can range decorative styles to create a modern, dramatic, simple, elegant and formal look.

The styles of chandeliers available include Tiffany, Victorian, Art deco, South western, Tropical, Crystal, Transitional, Early American, Lodge style, Whimsical, Old world, Oriental, Traditional classics, Country cottage, Architectural and mission style. Each chandelier style can work best in it’s own setting whether for a modern look, shimmering elegance, relaxed or sleek and shiny. Find the perfect finish for your room and it will work wonders with existing furniture and style. The finishes range from white or beige, multi-coloured, polished gold or brass, crystal, polished nickel or chrome, wood, rattan, iron, brick, bronze, rust and antique or satin brass. The type of chandeliers can include centre bowl, no shade, pot racks, crystal and shaded candles.

Chandelier Installation

Before you begin the installation check the ceiling electrical box to ensure a new light will be securely supported. If the new light is around the same weight as the old light, then the electric box should be able to support the new light fixture. When hanging over a dining table, centre the light in the middle of the table with 30″ distance between the tabletop and the light, to prevent any bumped heads. When buying bulbs, you should decrease the bulb wattage when larger numbers of bulbs are required. For example, a 2 socket light could be fitted with two 60 watt bulbs, whereas a chandelier with three or more light sockets is probably more suited to 40 watt bulbs. Once correct bulbs are installed, the chandelier should give off sufficient light coverage without blinding anyone. Dimmers are helpful as they allow you to adjust the light to your requirements.

Cleaning Chandeliers

It is always a good idea to clean your chandelier at least once a year to keep it looking clean and shiny. Before you start, turn the lights of at least 10 minutes before you begin so the bulbs can cool down. Never clean the chandelier while the lights are on, this could lead to a burnt hand. If you are going to remove the pieces then separate the light in sections or draw up a picture of how the light fits together so you won’t be frustrated and confused later when trying to put the pieces back together. Place a blanket or duvet under the light to catch any pieces of the light that may fall. Keep the fixture in the same place as you clean and do not turn it around as this may strain the power cable.

When you are ready to begin, remove the trimming such as pendants and place in container. Clean with mild detergent and then rinse in hot water. The hotter the water the less spots. When cleaning festoons, place under water at arm length to stop from intertwining. Always use mild detergents as harsh cleaning products can make the pendants brittle and blackened. Many darken with age but it is always good to delay this as long as possible. When cleaning the body of the light, it is recommended to use a dry, lint free cloth for the best possible result. Remember to dust the bulbs as well as these are give away to cleanliness of the light. Replace all light pieces on the chandelier and lightly polish it to remove any remaining spots.

Basics About Hot Tub Filters

It is a documented fact, that the vast majority of issues consumers face when dealing with a problematic hot tub can be traced back to its filter. Before paying for expensive service call, check the filter PRIOR to contacting a technician.

Most hot tub manufacturers recommend that a filter should be changed at least once a year. Dirty filters can be hazardous to your health, damaging to hot tub components and can actually void out a warranty.

Obviously, common sense dictates that you should always turn off the power to your hot tub before locating and inspecting the filter. Your hot tub manual will provide step-by-step instructions in regard to the easiest way to locate, remove and replace the filter.

It is sometimes possible to clean a filter and reuse it, for a limited period of time, until a new filter can be located. This should only be done if the filter is free of cracks, does not feel limp and can still hold its shape.

If you do decide to reuse a filter, it should be discarded after a period of two years. As a filter gets older, its fibrous material stretches. When this happens it allows larger particles of debris to slip through the filter and clog the hot tub pump.

Remember… these filters are much less expensive than a replacement pump. Make it a point to check your filter at least every four to eight weeks. It will probably save you money, in the long run.

(Caution: if the filter is broken or damaged in any way, do not attempt to reuse it… especially if the element, located in the center of the filter, is loose. It is best to keep an extra filter on hand, as an alternative to recycling.)

If you are unsure of the size of your filter, you can measure it quite easily. For the diameter, measure the widest point, at the end of the filter, from the outside edge to the outside edge. Measure to the nearest 1/16 of an inch. For the length, measure from the outside edge of one end cap to the other.

Another way to locate the hot tub filter replacement, you’re searching for, is to visit the website of the company that manufactured your particular tub. Nine times out of 10 that information is contained somewhere onsite.

Tools For Gardening

Gardening tools is the name we give to any gardening materials. These things help us with garden works starting from watering, planting, grass cutting, and grooming. There can be a lot of equipments that we need to have especially when we get into serious gardening.

Each of these gardening tools for gardening has their own specific task to do. Listed are some of the basic gardening tools we will need for planting and gardening:


· Round point shovel – this is the most often used shovel. This is the one used for digging, scooping, and shoveling dirt from one place to another.

· Irrigation shovels – almost the same as the round shovel, but has a straight and sharper rod.

· Garden shovel – used for a lighter garden tasks life tilling the soil and moving light materials.

· Square point – this one is a lot flatter than the others. Its edges are pointy and used moving gravels, heavy soil and even snow.

· Scoop shovels – this one is used only for light materials like saw dust, dried leaves, and dried manure. It is a wide shovel that is designed to scoop. This isn’t recommended for other heavy duty shoveling.


· Barn fork – this is used for moving hay, pruning, weeds, dried leaves and other organic materials. It has a long angled times that can carry such even the loose weeds.

· Spading fork – this one is used for a multitude of garden tasks. The spading fork is mostly used for soil tilling and in breaking heavy dirt clods. This is not advisable to use within planted areas for it may damage and hurt the roots of the plants. It also goes with different sizes depending on how big the task would be.


· Garden hoe – this is conventionally designed for grooming the soil. It has a long handle with a flat blade that is located at the right angle on its end. It is also good for weeding.

· Scuffle hoe – these types of hoes are used to cut the annual weeds’ tops rather than chopping them.

· Weeding hoe – it is a two sided tool. The side as a narrow hoe, while the other one as a 3 tined weeder.

· Warren hoe – this is used for the cultivation of the plants. It helps us create furrows and planting rows. It has ears in the back of its head that is used to pull the soil back into the newly planted seeds.


· Bow rake – this is the traditional steel rake that is used for heavy duty raking. This is mostly used for raking large amounts of weeds, dried leaves and others.

· Level head rake – this is just the same as the bow rake except with its straight back head. This one is used to level seedbeds on our gardens.

· Lawn rake – this kind of rake comes with different variety of designs. It can either be made from bamboo, metal, or plastic.


· Pruning shears – this is one of the most important tools a gardener has to have. It is of a lot of usage. It helps prune the weeds and other unwanted stems or twigs on the plant.

· Hedge shears – this one is not merely used for pruning but for shaping the hedge and shrubs.


Used for tilling the soil from containers and even to small plant beds. This is for light duty planting that requires only small amount of plowing. It is also used to dig the soil from small areas.

Those are the basic gardening tools that we should have for our homes. All of these will be very useful and important for our gardening activities.

Thinking Hard About Having a Lower Face Lift

A lower face lift is a surgical procedure that is designed to tighten the skin in the face and neck to reduce the signs of aging. This means that only a portion of the face is touched. A lower face-lift is the preferred method for those with sagging cheeks and jowls. Deep wrinkles around the mouth and the jaw line can also be remedied by this kind of face lift. This is performed by making a small incision that extends from the front of the ear and extends down and behind the ear. A short incision is made under the chin when a neck lift is performed along with the procedure. The surgeon separates the skin and removes excess tissue before tightening the skin and closing it with sutures.

Downsides to a Lower Face Lift

While these are expected outcomes, bruising and pain are two other undesirable effects of a lower face lift. Pain and bruising are expected to persist within several weeks to months after the surgery and full healing from the incisions will take months. Scarring is minimal with a procedure such as this, as the incisions made are usually hidden by the hairline. The scars will usually turn a noticeable pink before becoming white within a few weeks.

However, botched operations can lead to very visible and open wounds that can lead to pretty ugly scarring.

Another downside to the face-lift is the cost. A typical lower face lift can cost you around $7,000. Depending on the procedure the lower face lift can cost you around $4,000 to $10,000. This makes procedures like this a difficult option for those do not have this kind of amount. You can expect more if you are planning to couple other procedures such as a neck lift or a brow lift.

Aside from the above, another downside to the face lift is that not everyone can have it. Those who have concomitant medical problems and increased risk is seen in cigarette smokers and those suffering from hypertension and diabetes are not good candidates for a surgical procedure such as this.

Dangers of a Lower Face Lift

The dangers of a lower face-lift are the same as the dangers to any other kind of surgery. From bleeding to possible infection of the incisions, there are a number of possible reactions that can pose a threat to your health once you undergo a face-lift, even one that is concentrated to just a portion of your face. Patients are also at a risk for developing adverse reactions against medications and the anesthesia used during surgery. One serious risk that comes with this procedure is the risk for nerve damage. Manipulation of the facial muscles can result to nerve trauma, which can lead to a loss of feeling in the affected areas.

Post surgical depression is another risk. Individuals who are prone to depression can develop the condition after surgery as a side effect of anesthesia and other drugs. Having to stay at home after surgery and not being able to do the things one has done before for a period of several weeks can also predispose certain individuals to depression.

Making Great Connections Through Your Elevator Speech

How’s your elevator speech? Sometimes called a 30sec commercial, the very sound of the name, elevator speech, often brings with it feelings of discomfort and insecurity. Just like standing in an elevator with strangers, it’s tough sometimes to speak out in uncomfortable places and make the most of that very short amount of time. The “elevator” could just as easily be a line at the bank or even chit-chat at a party or gathering where you encounter people you may not know.

What if your greatest client or your best referral source is in that elevator? What would you say to them? How you respond could be the difference between making a great connection and losing potential business.

The mistake I often see people make when they are sharing what they do is that they talk about the features and the process of their product or service. This is not effective and it’s certainly not memorable, yet I hear it over and over especially at networking events.

This mistake leads to a bigger problem; listeners don’t resonate with features and processes and therefore it doesn’t spark a call to action on their part and potential business has slipped away from you.

I also recommend creating several elevator speeches. With a variety of speeches you won’t sound too scripted and you can mix them up according to your audience.

Here are four tips for creating a great elevator speech:

1. Share what’s important about what you do and why you love doing it.

2. Share a success story that one of your customers has achieved as a result of working with you or by using your product.

3. If they show genuine interest, offer to continue your conversation over lunch or even a phone meeting.

4. Ask if they would like you to stay in touch with them, if so, get their information and follow up the next business day.

Once you have your short conversation ready, practice it over and over until you are completely comfortable saying the words. Do this in front of a mirror or ask a good friend to critique you and offer advice. Make sure you are relaxed and be sure to smile.

Remember that speaking to people you don’t know is never easy. In fact, they may be more nervous speaking to you so putting them at ease will make what you have to say even more attractive to them.

How to Do a Free License Plate Search

Here’s how you can perform a Free License Plate Search

If for some reason, you want to locate the owner of a vehicle, then you can use a Free License Plate Search> to get this accomplished. Pursuant to the Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994, you need to a legitimate and valid reason for getting this information. One valid reason may be that if the driver of a vehicle strikes your car and doesn’t stop but, you have their plate number you can perform a free search to obtain this information.

Another valid reason might be that you see someone driving erratically and they are swerving all over the road, you can jot down their license number and do a lookup to find the owner of the vehicle.

Be careful when searching for a site that offers a free license plate search. Most sites that offer this information charge anywhere from $60 to $150 just for the records of that one individual.

A private investigator can search for this information on your behalf but, they also charge upwards of $75 to pull driving records of someone.

The best way to get the owner of a vehicle’s identity is to pay around $35 per year and join a membership site that will allow you to search their database an unlimited amount of times for anyone you want to investigate.

In addition to dmv records you can also search backround records, criminal records, court records, marriage records, divorce records, asset records, liens, judgements, sex offenders, birth records and so much more.

By getting their dmv records, you’ll have their name, address, phone number, work place and much more information about that person.

A legitimate membership site is your best option for getting someone’s information from a license plate number. By searching their database you can find the identity of someone for free.

How To Use a Gas Stove

With the electricity supply dwindling over the past few years and power outages becoming a daily reality, people have to consider alternative means of energy for cooking. That is why so many people are turning to gas stoves for cooking and baking purposes. It is a more reliable source of energy and is not dependent on the national electricity grid. However, there are still many people who are reluctant to go this route, simply because they are not sure as to how to use a gas stove.

How do you use a gas stove?

Firstly, you’ll need to find one. I found that the ranges of Elba gas stoves are safe, reliable and durable. You can get them in either built-in hobs or freestanding cooker options, depending on your preference. Considering the amount cooking you do or space you have would, determine the size of hob or cooker you will require. Elba Appliances has a variety of sizes, burner options and colours to choose from. Once you’ve decided which gas stove you would like, generally the store sales person will guide you on how to use the gas stove if you’ve never used one before. An Elba gas cooker will save you time during the cooking process.

This is what you need to know when you take your new Elba gas stove home with you. With a conventional electric stove, you simply turn the knob to switch the stove on. Then it takes a few minutes for the electric plate to heat up. The Elba gas stove works in a similar way, so you don’t need to change much from your usual cooking routine. The gas stove also has the knobs to turn it on but it works slightly differently. These stoves have an electronic ignition that ignites the flame on the burner. There is no need to light the stove with a match as they did in previous times, unless you are out of electricity. The electronic ignition uses little sparks to create a tiny flame that will ignite the burner. You will hear a clicking sound which is the spark. The surface hob will be lit and will be encircled by a moderate blue flame. At this point you will have to hold the knob down for about 5 seconds; this will cause the flame making use of the flame failure device. You can now adjust the flames with the controls, thereby setting it either on a low flame or a high flame, as you prefer. This may seem scary but there’s nothing to worry about because Elba gas stoves have built safety devices. All Elba products come factory fitted with a flame failure device which will automatically switch off the flow of gas into the unit in the event that the flame blows out. It is important to note that in the event that you smell a usual amount of gas in your kitchen, to ventilate the area well before igniting your cooker.

It is a requirement in terms of South African regulations and standards that the stove or hob is installed by a registered gas installer. Registered gas installers are issued with a registration card, similar to a driving licence, and it is important to check the card to ensure the installer is registered for the type of gas i.e. Natural Gas or LP Gas, that the registration covers domestic appliances and that the card has not expired. All this information can be found on the card.

It is a further requirement that the installer issues you with a signed Certificate of Compliance when the installation is completed and that he instructs you in the safe use of the gas installation. The certificate must carry the name and registration number of the installer and be dated.

Please look after this certificate as it is an important document.

It is important to note that with a gas stove, the burner does not require time to heat up as with an electric stove plate. The flame will heat up any pot or pan surface in a much quicker time frame so be sure to keep an eye on it while you get used to the new Elba stove. Using a gas stove is quick and easy. It will improve your lifestyle and you will gain more time in the day.