Health and Safety Regulations Relating to Balustrading and Handrails

When it comes to choosing handrails and balustrades for a building, the design is one of the most important considerations along with the fact that how well the design and colour go with the rest of the interior, or the exterior in case of external balustrades. Other than the design, the other important thing that you should consider carefully and thoroughly is the safety and health regulations associated with balustrades and handrails.

The first thing associated with the safety of balustrades is that there should be proper checking as to see that the structure in which the balustrade is being fitted is firm and strong and there is no deformation in any part of the structure. The connection points at the beams should also be checked so that it can be made sure that there is no deterioration.

Another factor associated with checking the safety of balustrades and handrails is to make sure that there is no rusting anywhere in the rails and the metal is not rusted. Rusted metal might result in loosening and thus may cause instability of the balustrades and handrails which poses a serious threat.

If the balustrade and handrail of wood, then it is important to check that the timber is not rotted as it does sometimes at the joints. The bolts and brackets should also be examined, and you also need to make sure that the timber is not soft and spongy. Probing something sharp in the wood can help in achieving this.

Other than these careful measures, there are also regulations regarding the height of the balustrade. There is also a fixed difference which has to be maintained, and if the difference is more than that, a handrail is required for supporting the load and for interlinking. The kind of glass that can be used in such a handrail has to be toughened.

The location of the glass and its height in linking a handrail is also regulated while keeping the best safety measures in view, and to make sure that the interlinking handrail functions well for the purpose it is meant to serve.

There are also regulations associated with the glazing of the balustrades and handrails. There are different kinds of balustrades, and hence, different regulations apply to them in terms of handrails and other safety measures.

There is a building code associated with balustrades and handrails, and the buildings have to be constructed while complying with this code as it is illegal to do otherwise. There are also inspections made to see the level of compliance to the code and to look at the safety conditions of houses in relation to balustrades and handrails for children as well as the adults residing in a place. The height of the balustrade and the infill in between is specified in the code and thus has to be followed. It is important that the regulations should be complied in order to remain safe from any financial loss as well as loss of lives.

Samsung PN50B550 Plasma TV – What’s So Special About This Plasma HDTV?

If you haven’t yet heard or read, countless reviews of high praise have been posted for the Samsung PN50B550 50-Inch 1080p Plasma HDTV. Consumers agree that this high-definition plasma HDTV is well deserving of a second look for both first time plasma HDTV buyers and veteran video enthusiasts alike. Claims have been made that the combination between a massive 50-inch screen and a stunning 1080p high-definition picture quality that rivals far more expensive plasma TV sets, though at a significantly smaller price tag than the competition, is what really makes the Samsung PN50B550 Plasma TV stand out among the crowd of flat-panels.

Fully loaded with a large 50-inch screen, outstanding video, exceptional audio, and all standard features have made the Samsung PN50B550 Plasma TV a favorite among the public, even earning it a rank as a “Bestseller” on websites such as When it comes down to color, Samsung’s Wide Color Enhancer 2 adds significant depth to the picture quality, ensuring that colors that are often washed out in lesser quality televisions, such as varying blue and green colors, are kept as vibrant and saturated as possible, making certain that you receive an optimum visual experience. A great new addition in the Samsung PN50B550 Plasma TV is it’s anti-glare technology, FilterBright Plus. What this does is prevent outside lighting from interfering with your picture, making certain that you receive an enjoyable viewing experience any time of the day.

When it comes down to image quality, what’s likely to be the greatest contributor for the Samsung PN50B550 Plasma TV is it’s exclusive E-Panel technology. E-Panel technology is what works in part with FilterBright Plus, but not only to reduce glare in bright, light filled rooms, but to deliver you a premium, crystal clear picture, all while simultaneously working to consume considerably less energy than most other plasma HDTV models in the same class. When combined with the another feature within the Samsung PN50B550 Plasma TV, that being Mega Dynamic Contrast, this high-definition plasma television presents among the sharpest image, the most vibrant colors, and the deepest, most rich blacks seen on any plasma HDTV in it’s league.

It goes to show that Samsung not only has some of the most affordable prices, but that they have some of the very best plasma HDTV units as well. Even for it’s exceptional screen size, amazing picture quality, and abundance of extra features, the Samsung PN50B550 Plasma TV can be purchased from various sources for around an affordable $1,000. Almost every review that’s posted of this plasma HDTV recommends it to a friend for it’s unbeatable image quality and surprisingly low price tag.

Paradigm Shifts and Quantum Leaps

What is a Paradigm Shift?

First lets look at what a paradigm is, before we can learn how to shift one.

A paradigm could be described as a model, a pattern, a template, a standard or an archetype. It is usually applied to a certain or specific way of seeing or doing things.

A paradigm could be a habit. People are creatures of habit, we tend to do the same things, in the same way for many years and often it is only through chance or crisis that we are willing change our ways.

A Quantum Leap is when you experience an instant shift. When you suddenly find yourself maybe through a co-incidental occurrence (like winning money or a prize) or through years of planning and work… that you are actually living your dreams. It could be that you are in a new relationship, having a baby, running your own business, completing a marathon, graduating, getting that elusive job or contract…

a multitude of things!

Societies can have certain a belief systems or paradigms.

Prior to Roger Bannister in 1954, no one had ever run a 4 minute mile and the prevailing belief in society was that it was not humanly possible. And on that particular day the paradigm was shifted… The 4 minute mile is a classic story. One man changed society’s perception of what was possible and that opened up the way for so many other people to also break the 4 minute mile barrier.

A shift comes when science or an individual discovers a better, more efficient or different way to get the same or better result. Or does something or invents something that challenges current norms.

Technology and the new gadgets that are continually coming out are constantly challenging our paradigms around communication.

Another example is when the digital watches were invented. For hundreds of years watches were made with small metal moving pieces. The way people read or told the time was to look at the watch face, which had numbers or markings from 1 through to 12… and then one day someone invented a digital clock and the way humanity read time shifted…but it didn’t eliminate the mechanical watches, it just gave us more choices.

There are other shifts that will eliminate old ways of doing things…

When the horseless carriage was invented, it paved the way for cars and other motor transportation that have eliminated, for most of the world, the need for using horses as transport.

These changes are beneficial for our ease of life, growth and evolution.

What About Personal Paradigm Shifts?

What does it take for us to change our ways to invite growth and enjoy better circumstance in our lives?

Personal change is often the most difficult. In order to change one must first be able to perceive a better outcome or result. And that is why I like to start with a vision board. If we can first see in our minds eye what we want, then we can comprehend a different way to get us what we want.

There’s and old saying “if you always do what you have always done, then you will always get what you have always got.”

It seems blatantly obvious, when you put it that way, but change can be hard for many people.

There is a story about a farmer who was using oxen to pull his plough through his field to till the soil and then one day someone brought him a tractor. The farmer could not understand the benefit of the tractor… WHY? You might ask? Because he had hooked the oxen up to the tractor and it was really heavy to pull. He didn’t know that he was meant to put the plough behind the tractor and drive the tractor. The tractor was to replace the oxen… not the plough.

Where in life are you being stretched, challenged to step up, become more than who you are now? Are you being asked to shift your current paradigm and perceptions in order to achieve your dreams and goals? If so, what paradigms need to be shifted to give you a new and better, more efficient way to live your best life today?

With guidance, support and patience you can shift gears, change the various paradigms and live a full, happy and prosperous life.

2012 Barbara Pellegrino – All Rights Reserved.

What Do You Know About Duodenal Switch Surgery?

Duodenal  switch  surgery is also known as vertical gastrectomy. It is considered as one of most difficult weight loss surgeries. There are two surgical techniques in duodenal  switch  surgery. One is known as restrictive and other one is malabsorptive. Reducing the size of stomach is included in the restrictive component. Surgeon will remove some portion of the stomach through the surgery.

Malabsorptive surgery aims to reduce the nutrients and calorie absorption of the body. Through this surgery, the flow of food from the flow of pancreatic juices and bile are separated. The small intestine is rearranged and thus digestive juices and food interact only in the lower 20 to 24 inches of intestine. Thus only a few amounts of calories are absorbed by the body. This operation helps individuals to maintain long-term weight loss.

In gastric surgery, weight loss is attained by reducing the hunger of individuals. Due to this, gastric surgery may cause dumping syndrome in individuals. The quick entry of food often cause dumping syndrome. All these drawbacks are eliminated in duodenal  switch  surgery. But duodenal surgery also possesses some potential complications. Duodenal surgery is quite similar to a surgical procedure called biliopancreatic diversion.

Biliopancreatic diversion involves many adverse effects like complicated protein-calorie malnutrition and ulcers. Duodenal procedure leaves a vast portion of stomach intact. This portion include pyloric valve too. The pyloric valve is the main part that controls the discharge of stomach content into the small intestine. After this surgery, a small portion of the duodenum is also kept in the digestive system. Duodenum is a main part of the small intestine that is located between jejunum and stomach. After the surgery, the stomach will obtain the shape and size of a banana. The right side of the stomach is kept intact with pylorus.

A pre-surgery consultation is essential for duodenal  switch  surgery. Physician will analyze the health condition of heart and lungs of the patients. The mental health of the patient is also evaluated. Physician will conduct endoscopy on some patients to verify whether there are any polyps, ulcers or tumors in their stomach. Doctors will make a clear analysis about the medication, herbal treatments, vitamins and minerals that the patient is taking.

Weight loss surgery is the most effective solution for individual suffering from morbid obesity. But you have to undergo weight loss surgeries only after trying all other natural and simple forms of weight loss. A good fitness plan and healthy life style will reduce the body weight to a great extent.

Chakra Meditation And Its Benefits

How can chakra meditation benefit you? Read on to find out.

1. Stablize Your Mood:

Research has shown that meditation activates the left pre-frontal cortex, an area of the brain associated with positive feelings such as calmness, inner peace, and happiness. Repeated activation of the left pre-frontal cortex has been shown to reduce stress and anxiety. Meditation has also been identified as a successful treatment method for depression.

2. Lower Your Blood Pressure:

Meditation has been shown to help patients afflicted with high blood pressure. In fact, meditating or sitting alone in a quiet room for just thirty minutes each day enables patients being treated for hypertension to reduce their dosage of medication. Meditation can also help a person improve his or her heart health and lower cholesterol. Improved blood circulation is also a reported effect of meditation.

3. Health:

Research has shown that people who meditate are significantly healthier than those who don’t. In general, they are less susceptible to the common cold and flu, and make fewer trips to the doctor each year.

4. Chronic Pain:

Meditation has been shown to be very effective in helping with pain management. Research has shown that the pain-relieving effects of meditation are greater than morphine. Through one hour of meditation per day, the experience of pain was reduced by 50% in patients.

5. Insomnia:

Meditation can enable those who suffer from sleep-deprivation, or insomnia, to get the rest they deserve. Following meditation training and practice, 75% of insomniacs found some sort of improvement in their ability to obtain sleep.

6. Improves Concentration & Memory:

You can change your brain through meditation! Those who meditate report improvements in memory, concentration, and focus. Those who meditate over long periods of time – have actually been found to have brains with larger hippocampi and increased grey matter – two parts of the brain that enable memory.

7. Aging:

Meditation has been shown time and again to slow down the aging process, with those who meditate appearing to look much younger than their actual age.

8. Getting Rid of Addictions:

Meditation has been shown as an effective treatment for addictions and detrimental habits. Meditation can be used in conjunction with yoga and breathing exercises to be even more effective.

Meditation works by awakening and opening the chakras, a process that can help you battle even the most devastating illness. Although yoga can also be used to open the chakras and achieve the same healing result, meditation is the preferred technique. The physiological and mental health benefits associated with meditation can be gained through conscious awareness of the chakras. It’s more than just sitting down and maintaining a certain composure or position; people who meditate for health need to focus on the seven chakras while remembering that each chakra has its own benefits to the body. For instance, there is a chakra that deals with the stomach, another with the heart, another with the mind, and so on.

Some vow that happiness can be achieved through meditation. Meditation might be considered the most practical and successful of all self healing techniques.

Vermont RV Resorts and Campgrounds

Vermont is a state which can easily be located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. This state is on of the most beautiful places in America. It is rich in natural beauty and splendor that is why many people come here to enjoy various recreational activities. Vermont has various well located campgrounds which have very good facilities and provide excellent lodging services to the guest who come here.

So, now let me tell you about some of the various campgrounds and RV parks located in Vermont that would surely provide a comfortable stay for all your family members.

1. Lone Pine Campsites

This place is also known as Vermont’s favorite campground and is very suitable for children as well as adults. This place provides you a very different camping experience as it is located in the Lake Champlain Valley. There are 265 spacious RV sites here which are surrounded by shady trees. Some of the facilities that you would ge6t here include a camp store, two large swimming pools, a laundry room, tennis court and ice machines. Some of the places you can visit nearby are Lake Champlain, Green Mountains, Church Street Marketplace and Ben and Jerry’s Ice Cream Factory.

2. White River Valley Camping

White River valley Camping resort is located in the Green Mountains and has 102 camping sites, hot showers, clean modern bath rooms, morning coffee facility, hiking trails and large wooded areas. The atmosphere here is perfect for family vacations and reunions. Some activities that you can enjoy nearby are swimming, hiking, jogging, fishing, golfing, Horseback riding, Bowling and boating.

3. Pine Valley RV Resort

This is an Eco-friendly resort which has something for everyone. It is a family owned and operated campground which is opened from April till late October. Here you have 49 spacious campsites with water, electricity and sewer, 13 pull-through sites, 23 water and electricity hook-up sites, Laundromat, cable TV connection, grocery store, a large play ground, picnic tables, fire rings, a huge pond with pedal boat and canoe rentals, a clean swimming pool and heated shower rooms.

4. Rivers Bend Campground

This campground is located in Vermont river frontage and provides the visitors 67 main RV and tent sites on the river’s bank. Some of the facilities enjoyed here are golfing, biking, canoeing, kayaking and sightseeing. The campground is surrounded by thick trees which are very shady and gives a cooling effect to the whole place.

These are some of the best campgrounds located in Vermont.

About Depression

Sometimes sadness and sorrow just rings the doorbell and waltzes right in with a hearty, “Honey, I’m home,” and you know depression has arrived. Other times, it grows slowly, silently, and insidiously. At some point (along time ago) everything seemed fine but then the days got heavier, then hopelessness and despair crept in. Over time, months, or years, like that famous frog that unknowing sits in the pot of water as it slowly heats to a boil, the sadness wears you down and you find that your enthusiasm for life has vanished.

You feel miserable, discouraged, tired, broken, and hopeless but strangely this feels “reasonable” and you might not notice there is a problem until you find your life in crisis with drugs or alcohol, troubles at work or in your marriage, or you wake up one morning knowing that you just can’t go through one more day.

You might even have success in your career, marriage, family, and finances, because you can pass yourself off as “normal”, but you’re missing the joy, happiness, and that certain lightness that makes life worth living. There might be moments where you escape the dread but after awhile, you will find yourself miserable and despairing once again, having returned to your set point, as if you’ve signed a dark contract that requires you to give up your enjoyment of life.

We master the art of depression because we feel it’s the only way possible to live life without completely going off the deep end. We build the skills that don’t really bring us joy but do keep us going for one more day. We become master artisans in:

  • Blocking and repressing our unwanted feelings
  • Creating a façade where everything is alright
  • Self-blame
  • Procrastination
  • Work-aholism
  • Victimization
  • Co-dependency
  • Guilt
  • Low expectations
  • Putting our needs last
  • Isolating ourselves
  • Never saying “no”
  • Overindulging in comfort foods, alcohol, and TV

We keep it up until the alienation and sorrow become too great and there is a suicide attempt, violent outburst, major panic attack, nervous breakdown, or hospitalization. The mind and body are crying out that there is something terribly wrong.

There is a wonderful quote from Dr. David Burns from his book Feeling Good in which he says:

Depression is one of the worst forms of suffering, because of the immense feelings of shame, worthlessness, hopelessness, and demoralization. Depression can seem worse than terminal cancer, because most cancer patients feel loved and they have hope and self-esteem

You may be convinced that your own case is so bad, so overwhelming and hopeless, that you are the one person who will never get well, no matter what. But no matter how terrible your depression and anxiety may feel, the prognosis for recovery is excellent.

You deserve to live a life of happiness. You can beat depression.

Problem in C5707 Transistor in BenQ T705 LCD Monitor

This BenQ T705 LCD Monitor has a common fault of display shutdown after few you “On” for few seconds. The cause of the problem was usually a shorted one or two of the C5707 push pull transistors. Besides the shorted transistor, one also has to check the tuning capacitor for high ESR value with the help of ESR meter. If you do not own one, you can use the digital capacitance meter to check the capacitance value. However, from my experience, checking only the capacitance value doesn’t guarantee that the capacitor is good unless you confirm it with ESR meter. The reason why I emphasis on checking this tuning capacitors was because the capacitors have a high failure rate that could cause the C5707 transistor to go shorted. You also have to observe the high voltage transformer pins carefully. I had come across quite a number of shorted C5707 transistors caused by dry joints in pins of the high voltage transformer.

In this case, as usual after I have confirmed that only two C5707 transistors shorted, I began to test the tuning capacitors and check the pins of the high voltage transformer. Both the tuning capacitors found to be okay but there were dry joints in the transformer pins. Fresh solder was applied to the high voltage transformer pins and I’m ready to “On” the LCD Monitor. Guess what? The Monitor has the same symptom again which is display shutdown after few seconds! I don’t believe it as most of the time it will surely work as this is a common fault!

I started to recheck the surrounding components that have connection to the C5707 transistors but found no faults in it. Analyzing the board many times didn’t reveal any improper soldering job. There must be something that has gone wrong that had caused the LCD Monitor to shutdown. Deep in my heart I don’t suspect backlights problem because the C5707 transistors shorted was caused by dry joints in the high voltage transformer. Beside, the backlights were quite reliable for this BenQ LCD Monitor model.

Thinking back, I bought a new badge of C5707 transistors from my electronic suppliers not long ago. The middle pin (leg) is a bit shorter than the other two as shown from the photo below. I thought to myself would it be this badge of transistors that have problem causing the display shutdown after few seconds? Of course I can’t blindly suspect the transistors unless I have some proof of it. The finding begins………………

Testing the C5707 transistor with an analogue meter set to X 1 and to X 10 K Ohm doesn’t seem like it has problem. Comparing the result with an original C5707 transistor did have some difference in the X 10 K Ohm range but the reading is acceptable from my years of experience in testing transistor. The only thing that I haven’t compared is the Hfe reading. I used the famous Peak Atlas components analyzer to analyze both transistors and I could clearly see the big difference between the Hfe readings of the two transistors. The original C5707 transistor has Hfe value of 379 while the new badge of the C5707 transistor has Hfe value of 161! At last I found the answer!

I did tried replace the 4 C5707 transistors at one go with the new badge of transistors but the result was the same. Installing the transistors that have the Hfe reading of 350 to 400 solved the display shutdown problem. This circuit look like it can only work with the same type of transistor that has the quite exact Hfe value! That’s why for this type of Monitor circuit, many technicians hardly can find a suitable replacement. In other words, even if you could get the substitution transistor that have higher Volt, Amp and Watt but different Hfe value, you still won’t be able to bring the LCD Monitor back to life again. From the above test, this Monitor circuit has voice out loud and clear that it only need the same part number with the same Hfe value unless you have some similar transistor replacement specification that is identical to the original one.

For my readers that are in this electronic repairing line, although some of you may not be in the LCD Monitor repair, I hope you will absorb this information and apply it in your field. Who knows one day you would have face the same problem that I’m facing and this article could easily help you to solve your problem fast. Have a good and a blessed day!

Hard Drive Recovery Equipment

Today the world revolves around the computer. From homes and offices to schools, airports and hospitals, computers have become an integral and indispensable part of our daily lives.

One of the foremost uses of computers is data storage. Data stored on the computer resides on a physical memory disk known as the hard drive that is a layer of magnetic disks. As people become increasingly dependent on computers, the risk of data loss also surfaces.

Hard drive crashes are a common occurrence. They are classified into two categories — logical and physical. While the logical aspect deals with failure of the file system and software, the physical aspect is related to some sort of electrical or shock damage to the disk. However, modern technology allows us to recover up to 80% of the lost data, thereby allaying some of the fear related to hard drive recovery.

Hard drive recovery, whether physical or logical, is a complex process and requires expert help in most cases. Special equipment and tools are necessary to carry out this process successfully. A functional computer with the necessary software is the primary equipment required for any hard drive recovery process. Data backup devices such as CD recorders, external hard drives and CD and DVD media are also used while recovering data from a damaged hard drive.

If the hard drive has suffered physical failure, proper electronic knowledge and equipment is a must. A soldering iron might prove useful when working on a damaged circuit board. Advanced tools such as magnetometers may also be used to physically extract lost bits from the magnetic media. These bits are used to rebuild a disk image.

In addition to the hands-on equipment required, certain other precautions must be taken. The hard drive, when removed, should be wrapped in anti-static material. The drive should be well cushioned to prevent further damage. Finally, the recovery process should take place in a ?Class 100 Clean Room? to avoid any contamination by dust.

How To Light A Doll House

Doll house lighting is much easier than most people think. Many new collectors are daunted by the task but there are many dolls house wiring kits that make the job very easy and even a novice can light a dolls house.

You should start planning your doll house lighting even before you build your house. The reason for this is your dolls house will look it’s best if you can disguise the wires that run to the electric lights by cutting grooves in the floor’s of your dolls house to run the wires along and this is easiest to do while the dolls house is unbuilt.

Step one when you get your dolls house should be to start planning your doll house lighting.

Step 1 Decide on the location of all the lights in your dolls house. Will they be on the ceiling, walls, free standing or table lights? You don’t have to purchase all the lights at this point but you need to decide on the quantity you will be using and where they will be situated. The quantity of lights you use determines what transformer and   socket  board you use for your doll house lighting.

Step 2 One you have decided on the lights for your dolls house you are ready to get your transformer and wiring. To determine what transformer you need count up the number of bulbs that will be used in your dolls house lighting. Remember that this is the number of bulbs and not the number of lights, so a three armed tulip light will count as three bulbs.

Step 3 Once you have your  socket  board it is time to decide where it will be positioned. This is the heart of your doll house lighting system and should be placed somewhere that is easily accessible. For front opening dolls houses the best place is on the back of the house positioned centrally and at the bottom. Once you have done this stick your  socket  board to the doll house, most boards have adhesive tape attached but you could use double sided tape.

Step 4 Once you have drilled your holes you need to position your lights. If you are using a ceiling roses remember to put these in place first you can stick these down with wood or PVA glue.

Before you can run the wire from the lights through their respective holes and to the  socket  board you will have to remove the plug. To do this pull out the two pins with a pair of pliers and pull on the wire, the plug should slip off. You can now feed the wire through the holes and along the wire grooves.

Next stick the light in place using its adhesive pad, never use glue. You should also hold the wire in place along its route to the back of the house using masking tape.

Step 5 Plug each light into the  socket  board and tidy up the wires by masking taping them to the back of the house.

Finding Free Help for Grand Opening Promotions

A new business’ first job is to let their new potential customers who they are and why they are open for business. But it’s about more than just advertising (which can be expensive), it’s also about spreading the audible word, getting people to talk and interact around the subject of your grand opening. From the very first day of business, you also want to be developing your new company branding. Here are some tips for promotion marketing and increasing your new business’ brand awareness in the community:

Contact other, previously established, businesses.

Other businesses in your community are still around because they have a formed client base. And if they are thriving, they must be doing something right in their business handling and promotion marketing and advertising. Assuming that most of these companies are not direct competition for your new business, consider some of these ways to become a part of a pre-existing, professional community.

  • To advertise your grand opening, ask your local car dealerships if they would be willing to hand out a goodie bag about your new enterprise (complete with your grand opening promotions such as a flyer, some candy, a business card, coupon, etc) to their customers who come in to take advantage of their free test drives.
  • To introduce your new business to the community and get a head start on developing your company’s brand awareness, ask (or pay for) a spot on the advertising tables at local gyms. Display a minimum of 3 promotion marketing products for the best chance of getting snatched up by members.
  • Talk to the owners and managers of the successful businesses in your area. Again, assuming that they are not in direct competition, ask them for grand opening promotions tips (as they’ve “been there, done that”), but also try to develop a relationship with them that you can learn from in the coming months and years.
  • Ask some of these companies that you admire, if you can set up a table in their break area or store entrance. Include the same promotion marketing items and company branding tools and advertisements that you would anywhere else. Except in this case consider leaving some free samples as a professional courtesy, if not for all the business’ employee’s, then definitely for the owners or managers you glean tips from.
  • Even if you don’t feel like you have much to gain from a conversation with other owners and managers (maybe your type of company is just too different, or you’ve done this before), offer specials and free samples to your local businesses anyway. This will increase your new brand awareness in the community, through the mouths of already trusted and known businesses.
  • See if your local delivery businesses (pizza delivery, deli shops, etc), if they would be willing to include your grand opening promotions in their delivery bags. Another similar option, is to have your company branding printed on coasters and ask local area restaurants, bars, coffee shops, etc. to use them in their dining areas.

How to Play the Recorder

A recorder is a wind blown instrument that originated from ancient times and was heavily used in the renaissance period. They come in varying sizes and the descant or soprano recorder is the most common one to play. Students usually learn this one before branching out into any of the others. So how do you play the recorder?

When you learn to play the recorder you learn

1. How to produce the sound.

2. How to vary the sound.

3. How to read recorder music including learning note names, note lengths and basic notation.

Let’s have a look at these in more detail.

1. How To Produce A Recorder Sound

A recorder comes in 2 or 3 sections consisting of the mouthpiece and body piece or pieces.

A sound is produced when a player covers the end   hole  and closes their lips further down the mouthpiece, usually about an inch and then blows air down through the mouthpiece  hole  and down the tubing out the other end and any uncovered  holes , causing the air to vibrate.

2. How To Vary The Sound

The recorder body has 5 single  holes  and 2 double  holes  on the upper side and 1 single  hole  underneath for the thumb. These  holes  are covered by your fingers in various fingering patterns or configurations to vary the sounds.

When the air vibrates down the recorder tube, it will escape out the other end and through any uncovered  holes . The more  holes  you cover the lower the sound is because the length of the air column is longer.

Just imagine covering

1. the upper top 3  holes  with 3 fingers and the thumb  hole  with the thumb. The air distance is the distance from the top of the mouthpiece to the end of the third  hole . * * * @ @ @ @

2. the same  holes  as in 1 but with 2 more  holes  covered. The air distance is also from the top of the mouthpiece to the end of the fifth  hole  this time. * * * * * @ @

The note produced from this configuration is lower than the note produced in 1 because there are more  holes  covered creating a longer air column and less  holes  for air to escape.

NB * =  holes  covered @ =  holes  uncovered

When you learn the recorder you learn specific finger patterns for each specific sound or note the recorder can produce and the recorder range of notes is greater than two octaves. You will also learn that you put your left hand above your right hand, like with all wind instruments.

3. How To Read Recorder Music:

Music is written in the form of notes and rests using the treble clef.

You need to know the following to play recorder music.

barlines: the horizontal lines seen at regular intervals

double barline: indicates end of piece

bar: music written between the barlines

time signature: the fraction type number seen at the beginning of each line of music to represent the number of beats or counts per bar.

note lengths: You will meet these ones first but in varying orders depending on the book you learn from.

crotchet ( quarter note ) = 1 beat

minim ( half note ) = 2 beats

semibreve ( whole note ) = 4 beats

dotted minim ( dotted half note ) = 3 beats

quaver ( eighth note ) = 1/2 beat

They are represented by specific symbols so you know how long to play a note for.

note names: These are represented by the first 7 letters of the alphabet A B C D E F G plus their flattened and sharpened forms. These 7 letter names repeat themselves. If you know how to play the piano then it is easy to visualise using the white and black keys.

So basically when you learn how to play the recorder you need an understanding of how to produce a sound and vary it using different finger patterns and what some basic notation is including note lengths and note names. Then you will be able to play pieces and have fun making music.

Facts About Nocturnal Animals

Nocturnal animals are those who become active in the night hours. Owl, red fox, skunk and bats come under this category. The behavioral patterns exhibited by animals and birds are similar to man. The word ‘nocturnal’ refers to the preference of sleeping throughout the day and remaining awake and active at night.

According to the sleep pattern, animals have been broadly classified into three categories — Diurnal means those animals who remain active during the day, Crepuscular implies those animals who are very active at dawn and dusk, and finally the Nocturnal animals are those who are awake in the night hours and also stay active during that time. While most of the animals fall in the first category, some of them, like flying squirrel and mink, are quite active during dawn and dusk.

The nocturnal behavior exhibited by certain animals is due to the reason that it firstly adds a variety to the animal kingdom and secondly, they are meant for bringing ecological balance to the environment. Nocturnal behaviors are usually seen in the animals of the desert regions because nocturnal activities increase osmoregulation.

There are some of the nocturnal animals such as sea turtles and sea birds that prefer to make trips to the breeding grounds at night to lessen the chances of predation. These animals adapt to the nocturnal pattern in order to safeguard themselves and their offsprings. Otherwise, these are diurnal animals.

Most of the nocturnal animals’ senses are very strong. Their senses of smelling, hearing and also sight are especially heightened to meet the night illumination requirements. There are some exceptional nocturnal animals whose sense of sight is easily adapted to day as well night illumination, whereas there are some like bush-babies and bats whose night vision is only strong at nights making them active only during the night hours. They usually burrow deep and sleep in these burrows during the whole day and then wake up at night to hunt.

Waterproof Channel Letter LED Lighting

Whenever the need of the hour happens to be external or outdoor lighting, it is apt that one goes in for lighting which is waterproof. Remember that anything placed outdoors is easily exposed to all the numerous vagaries of nature, be it rain or sunshine and so on. Therefore, one needs to guard against these elements, to the maximum extent possible.

Now, this aspect becomes all the more true in the case of lights as it does in the case of anything else. Remember that lights have an aspect of electricity attached to them – on which they run, so not being waterproof can affect their functioning in the first place. Further, when it comes to the purpose for which they have been set up, we find that if they are not waterproof, then that purpose is unlikely to be served. Take a sign board that you set up outside your departmental store or café; if the lights are not waterproof, they might cease to function appropriately, which would in turn affect knowledge or awareness about your premises.

Thus, we clearly see that when it comes to lighting solutions, it is best to have them in the form of waterproof lights. But the buck does not stop there; ideally, you should also have these waterproof lights offered in the form of LED lights. That way, you also ensure superb quality of lighting as well as minimum running costs.

It is for all these reasons that we find, when it comes to channel lighting say for signboards, LED lighting is invariably the preferred choice. So if you need to have the name of your business enterprise put up as a channel light icon outside your physical premises, then you could have it put up in channel letter LED form. That way, the durability of the signage would be assured while also ensuring low running costs.

Another major reason for which patrons prefer these lights in a big way is because they emit very little heat as compared to other forms of lighting. So when you have a signage which is essentially composed of LED lights, then you are assured that you will receive best quality light with minimal emission of heat. This is definitely a major advantage when we consider the fact that some light forms emit so much heat that it becomes practically unbearable to as much as stand anywhere around them, not to forget the fact that they are really very bad for the environment.

Overall, if outdoor channel letter lighting is what you have in mind, then the most suitable option for you would be to go in for waterproof LED lighting. Once you have lights of these kinds installed, there is little that you need to be concerned about in terms of their day to day functioning and maintenance. And of course, the frugal energy bills would be the icing on the cake – which will surely leave you with a big smile on your face, for a long time to come!

How Does Radiant Barrier Work?

The term radiant  barrier  refers to a reflective coating that is typically applied to the underside of the roof, there are however several different types and different ways that it can be installed. The two major types are spray on and sheet  barriers . Sheet radiant  barrier  comes in large roles that you then roll out in your attic. This can be laid directly on top of your insulation, nailed to the bottom of the roof, or hung from your rafter supports. This is also the type of radiant  barrier  that is sometimes used underneath shingles. In new construction or re-roofing projects you can roll out sheet radiant  barrier  on top of the roof but under the shingles.

The second kind of radiant  barrier  is spray on, which is sprayed onto the underside of the roof like paint. This has the advantage of being more durable and easier to install correctly. It is in fact a paint mixed with metal flecking that provides the reflective property required to reflect the heat. Another advantage of spray on  barriers  is that they are easier to get total coverage with as compared to the sheets. However, there is one drawback to spray on radiant  barriers , they do not provide quite as much heat shielding as properly installed sheets can. However, many experts feel that you will see just a much benefit from spray on radiant  barrier  due to its greater durability and ease of installation over the entire surface of the roof.

Both of these radiant  barriers  function on the same basic principle. Reflecting heat away from your house will keep heat away from your insulation, which in turn will lower the amount of thermal radiation that passes through your insulation and makes your house warmer. Radiant  barrier  is primarily designed to keep heat out and does not show significant benefits in reducing heating costs for people living in cold climates. That being said, it can make a major difference on roofs in southern states and dramatically decrease your cooling bills. The reflective metal in the  barrier  will prevent the heat on the outside of your roof from the sun turning your attic into an oven. No amount of insulation can totally prevent heat transfer, and the higher the temperature difference the more heat transfer their will be. So by decreasing the temperature in your attic you make it easier for your insulation to do its job and keep the cold air in and the hot air out.

Many people feel that if there house has adequate insulation they either do not need, or won’t see much benefit from, installing a radiant  barrier  in their house. This is not true primarily because radiant  barriers  and traditional insulation function very differently in how they keep your house warm. Radiant  barrier  prevents the transmission of heat radiation into the air around it, it stops heat that is radiating into your attic space from outside. Traditional insulation on the other hand primarily serves to trap air, thus preventing heat transfers due to air movement known as convection. So even if you have adequate traditional insulation preventing convection warming of your house from your attic, you can still benefit from adding a radiant  barrier  to prevent heat radiating into your house from outside.