Barrier Tape

Barrier Tape is a type of adhesive tape however it differs from regular tape because it is not designed to hold products (materials) together; instead it is designed to give a warning or to alert someone to something. There are a few different types available:

Police Barrier Tape This is used within the police force and only within the police force, general public are not permitted to use this and could get in trouble if found to do so, it is usually Blue and White in colour with ‘POLICE’ printed in blue capital letters along the whole length of the tape at measured intervals.

On average it measures out at 150 meters per roll with dimensions of 75mm x 250mm. They are designed to warn the general public that a specific area is being controlled by the police, the tape forms a barrier that only the police may enter, this could be for many reasons, a crime scene is a good example and if the tape is broken then evidence could be tampered with or go missing.

If you see this on your travels be sure to keep clear of the designated area and let the police get on with their job.

Hazard Warning Tape This is essentially exactly the same but for use by a different industry of professionals and to give a different warning. Usually comes in one of 4 sets of colours

1. Red and White

2. Black and Yellow

3. Green and White

4. Black and White

Construction workers are an example of people that would use this tape, they would create a barrier around a hazard, this in turn warns the public of the potential danger and to keep clear.

Fireproof Security Safes to Protect Your Valuable Items

If you have decided to protect your home, then you’re probably considering some kind of home security system. Protecting your house from robbery using spy cameras, lighting or sound alarm systems is a great idea. However, even these powerful security tools will not be able to protect your most valuable data in 100% of the cases.

What if you have some documents you need to protect? Or what about jewelry or similar items? Although a spy camera can capture the burglar robbing the house, putting your most important items into a safer place would be a smart decision. And one of such great places is a safe.

What You Should Know About the Safes

There are different safes built around the world. Some are built very well, to protect the items or documents under the most extreme circumstances. Others are just crappy. It might be a good idea trying to invest into a better quality safe, because you’ll be using them to protect your valuable data in the first place, right.

One of the most important features of a safe is that it can protect your documents. Imagine that you’ve just put all your company’s documents, or personal documents, or maybe some stock papers in your office desk drawer. If burglars sneak in and within just few minutes are able to steal all your most valuable documents, along with some other items maybe, then you’ll find yourself in very uncomfortable position. Many people just go out of business completely. However, if you put all these documents into a safe, you’d have nothing to worry about.

Another great feature of a security safe is that it can be fireproof. Safes are tested before they’re released to the market. A fire safe should hold the temperature inside below 350 degrees Fahrenheit for a certain amount of time. Above that temperature, the paper starts to burn. Fireproof safes work by releasing the steam (sort of moisture) to keep the temperature low. However, that moisture could damage video tapes, CD’s or DVD’s.

In that case, there are fireproof safes that have different construction and technology used. These safes are called media fire safes. They use dry insulation to keep the temperature low. These safes can protect papers and computer data without much trouble. Of course, the price of such safe is much higher, because of more advanced technology used in them.

If you’re thinking about getting a new safe, make sure that you get what you’re paying for. Ask the company’s representatives or other qualified professionals about the safe. Let them explain what the best options for you are. You don’t want to miss when protecting your most important data, right.

If you get some cheap safe, then in case of fire, you might lose the data. Don’t keep your money in your pocket when purchasing a safe. It’s better to spend a little more, but be sure that your jewelry, documents, CD’s or money are kept safe, even in case of fire.

Dollhouse Wallpaper – How to Install It

When it is time to finish the walls, you can either paint them or cover them in dollhouse wallpaper. Wallpaper will give your house a finished look. This background will help your furnishings and accessories stand out. Select wallpaper or room colors that match the style of your house, as well as the furnishings you wish to use in that particular room. If you can’t find the perfect dollhouse wallpaper or want to save time, you can paint the room first and return later to wallpaper.

Whether you are painting the walls or wallpapering them, it’s easiest to do this before the walls are fully assembled. That way you’ll be able to reach into the corners to spread glue or paint. It is far easier to paint each piece separate rather than the completed dollhouse. Your blueprints or dollhouse kit will provide measurements to help you determine exactly where the visible section of each wall will be. This is the part that you’ll need to cover in paint or paper. However, if you’re adding electricity, you’ll need to wait to wallpaper or paint the walls until after the dollhouse is assembled and the wiring has been done.

For wallpaper, you can either purchase special dollhouse wallpaper and borders, or choose a specialty paper, like those used for scrapbooking. You can find dollhouse wallpaper to replicate styles used in the 1800s, or more modern designs. You will probably need 3 sheets for each room, unless it’s a very small room, like a bathroom. Purchase one more sheet than you think you will need to leave some room for trial and error.

Dollhouse wallpaper is not typically glue-backed like the type you would purchase for your own home, although some papers are now being made with this backing. While you can use glue to attach the wallpaper, consider buying dollhouse wallpaper gel, which will not be as likely to wrinkle the paper once you spread on the glue.

To install the wallpaper, first lightly sand the walls so that they’re smooth. Before you glue in the wallpaper, apply a coat of white paint to the walls. This will help keep the glue from soaking into the wood. Then cut the paper to size, using the directions in your kit or blueprint to determine exactly where the visible section of the wall will be, or measuring the actual wall if it is already assembled. Use a metal ruler and x-acto knife to get nice, crisp edges, double checking against your wall to make sure it will fit. If you are using a paper with a pattern, make sure that you fit the pattern appropriately to your wall space.

Then spread a thin layer of glue on the back of the dollhouse wallpaper using a foam brush, and move it into position. Don’t use very much glue or it will soak through the paper, causing it to wrinkle. As you install the paper, press gently in one direction with a credit card or similar object to smooth any air bubbles. Finally, trim door or window openings with a sharp X-acto knife. If you haven’t assembled the walls yet, lay the wall flat, and stack a few books on top of it to make sure the paper sticks well and doesn’t warp.

Vinyl Siding and Metal Siding Are Relatively Inexpensive, But Fiber Cement Siding is Vastly Superior

The construction days of yore saw structures composed of animal skins, stone, and thatch fade away to be replaced by newer construction technology such as mud and thatch brick.  Brick making was refined over the centuries to what we have today. Working with stone to form walls is probably the only ancient construction technique that has experienced very little change and still available today, although at a prohibitive cost.  Home construction and materials have gone through a number of evolutions in the relatively recent past.  No longer are cedar shakes or thatch frequently used in favor of more durable and environmental resistant materials.  Due to rapidly developing technologies, what homes are constructed with need not be as heavy and solid as they once were.  Most walls are self supporting and hollow with wood or aluminum studs supporting the roof.  The same is true of siding materials. 

Wood sheathing and shakes were once an exceptionally common type of siding material.  Wood, though, required extensive attention to maintain its longevity.  Fast forward to today and an individual can drive by any construction site and see an amazing assortment of materials being used in modern day housing from walls and ceilings composed of solid concrete to exterior walls of styrofoam with a thin coating of concrete on the outside. 

The most common of all siding widely used in today’s construction is metal, vinyl, or fiber cement planks.  Each siding material has its strengths and style.  The newest out of these three is fiber cement board or planks.  Fiber Cement siding is perhaps the most innovative and durable siding material ever invented.  The list of benefits to using this type of siding is long.  Fiber cement siding is impervious to insect damage, as well as, being a noncombustible material so it will not feed a fire the way other materials will, and are rot resistant. The available styles, look, and texture of fiber cement siding provides a real wood or even brick facade.  Should a homeowner desire the look of real wood siding or wood shingles, this siding will fulfill the requirement.  A brick textured fiber cement siding has similar properties with one exception.  With the use of real brick, mortar joints over time will decay and will require repointing to restore the original look.  The cost of fiber cement siding is much higher than vinyl or metal siding, although it is far superior.

Vinyl siding, just as metal siding is durable as well, but will show more visible wear and tear than other types.  Both are impervious to insect damage, however, mildew, dents or cracks are more likely to occur over time from lawn equipment or children.  A big difference between vinyl siding and most other types is that painting vinyl is not an option.  Vinyl, also, is not fire resistant as are  metal or fiber cement.  The largest advantage vinyl siding has over most other types is the initial cost of purchasing and installing it.  It will require the most maintenance in order to retain its look, though.  The benefit of metal siding is, like fiber cement siding, it is able to be painted in the event that a new color is desired or stains from irrigation and untreated well water develop.

One other aspect of these types of siding materials is the impact to the environment.  While metal and vinyl siding do not require deforestation, fiber cement planks are classified as green due to the fact that they are composed of recycled fibers and the color finish is actually part of the material thereby eliminating the need for painting, which releases volatile organic compounds or V.O.C.s into the environment. 

Antique Mantel Clocks – An Interesting Hobby

Collecting antique mantle clocks is an interesting hobby to pursue. Most owners got their antique clocks as an heirloom piece. Although mantle clocks are considered a typical decor of American homes, more and more people are gaining interest in mixing such home furnishing in their modern home. An antique mantel clock can simply bring an elegance and charm to any room in your home.

Mantel clocks are intricately-designed timepieces made during the 1750s. These clocks are commonly manufactured in the United States, with Seth Thomas and Howard Miller companies being the pioneers. American mantle clocks are the traditional ones that are made of a wooden case while the French mantel clocks are extremely ornate. Some of them have the chiming feature that plays a melody on half hour and on the hour. These antique clocks need not to be wound regularly.

Antique stores and auction sites online sell antique mantel clocks of still high quality. Some may be working but others need a little restoration on the mechanical workings. Nonetheless, the style remains a classic. Note that antique clocks that are still working will be more expensive than the ones that have to be brought to a clock maker for repair. Authenticity can be guaranteed by checking serial numbers placed on the clocks and documentation if there are any.

If you would like to start a new hobby or would just love to have a beautiful antique mantel clock for your own, your best bet is to search online for the best selections and price.

Epoxy Flooring: An Introduction

Epoxy flooring is a way of sealing and protecting concrete floors. An epoxy coating can prolong the life of your floor, and also achieve a great look. An epoxy floor is created when a protective resin is applied over the top of an existing concrete slab. This epoxy resin is clear, and will create a glossy but non-slip surface. These kinds of resins are often used over specialist flooring like terrazzo or marble.

Epoxy is a hard and durable material, which is why it is well suited to flooring applications. A floor sealed with epoxy will have a long life dealing with a large amount of traffic. Epoxy is also waterproof and dust proof, meaning that cleaning a sealed floor is quick and easy.

For many years epoxy was used in industrial settings for its affordability and durability. Recently, the designer appeal of epoxy has increased. With a wide range of concrete finishes available, as well as choices in resin, epoxy is being used to create great looking floor finishes in shops, offices, and private homes.

Epoxy Floors in the Home

Epoxy is used in many domestic settings. If you are considering a polished concrete floor, a coloured aggregate floor, or other specialised surface, then chances are it will be sealed with an epoxy resin. Many people with allergies or asthma choose epoxy floors because of the low levels of dust and other allergens. Because it’s easy to clean and doesn’t attract dust and dirt, epoxy is also a hygienic choice of floor covering. Many young families are electing for this type of flooring in traffic areas and living zones.

Industrial and Commercial Settings

Their high level of hardness, durability, and economic viability make epoxy sealants a sensible choice for workplaces. For factories and workshops, epoxy flooring can be strong enough to hold a truck without cracking, but also functional for storage, as well as staff. There is no problems with concrete dust, and cleaning is also easy. Epoxy is a good option for hygienic areas such as kitchens and toilets, as it is waterproof and repels dust, it’s well suited to these kinds of areas.

Retail Spaces

Hard-wearing, durable, and affordable epoxy floors are a popular choice among restaurants, cafes, shops, shopping centers, and other retail spaces. It looks great, can take a high amount of traffic, and is also easy to clean up when things go wrong. While practical, epoxy flooring can also be stylish. Choosing a coloured aggregate mix or other designer flooring options can create a wide variety of different finishes.

The Benefits

The cost of an epoxy floor is comparable to that of other flooring types. The real advantage is the durability that these kinds of floors have, along with their good looks. This ind of flooring is also ideal if you have damaged flooring currently. Epoxy can be used to level out problem areas and ensure and even surface. Epoxy flooring is a true low maintenance option.

Using Rainwater Harvesting For Multi-Dwellings

Rainwater can be used indoors and outside if drinking quality mains water is not required. Almost a third of our daily water is literally flushed down the toilet so, by using rainwater for the washing machine and in the garden, (for irrigation, cleaning and water features etc) about half of the average mains water consumption can be saved. For the individual household, this concept is easy: collect rainwater from the roof, filter it, store it, preferably in an underground tank, and when necessary then pump it to where it is needed. In multiple dwellings there are various configurations possible within this basic concept.

Rainwater Management Systems.

The most straightforward solution is to have one system per dwelling unit and this is obviously possible in property developments with detached homes. However to gain from economies of scale, it is often cheaper to have large capacity storage to serve several dwellings. As the whole point of rainwater harvesting is that rain is “free”, it is not feasible to try and control the amount of rainwater used from a shared tank by the dwellings supplied by it. It is assumed that each dwelling’s use of rainwater will be much the same. In a water shortage, residents must water their gardens sparingly.

With a shared tank, the issues of how to pay for the electricity to power the pump, and how to pay for the mains water (should the rainwater run out) have to be dealt with. The developer needs to anticipate that the rainwater harvesting system, or parts of it, should be owned by the landlord company and render a long term service under contract to the owner/occupant. So, if a pump is shared, it would have to be connected to a landlord’s electricity supply (like street lights and other shared services) and billed back to the occupants in the normal way.

In whatever scenario, rainwater is collected off the roof and stored in one or several linked underground storage tanks. Underground, the water stays cool and fresh (no bacterial action under 12 degrees). Thereafter, there are two principal methods of distributing rainwater to where it is needed, and there are some variances within each principal method. These two methods are direct and indirect feed. Either direct or indirect, each rainwater system has to incorporate a mains back facility in the event that the storage tank runs out. The choice can effect how electricity and mains water costs are evaluated.

Direct Feed with Submersible Pump.

The submersible pressure-sensitive pump sits on the bottom of the underground rainwater storage tank. The different appliances are directly plumbed to the output on the pump. When water is drawn, for example, a toilet is flushed, the pump starts. When no more water is being drawn, the pressure builds up in the network of pipes and the pump stops pumping.

In this layout, the simplest and cheapest way of providing mains water when rainwater runs out is to admit mains water to the underground tank. When the float switch in the tank shows the tank is empty, a mains-electric solenoid tap opens to admit mains water through a tundish (WRAS requirement for air gap) into the underground tank. When the water level has risen a few inches, the float switch rises and turns the solenoid tap off. The bulk of the tank is left empty to accept the next rain shower.

This adapts well to shared systems, i.e. taking rainwater from a communal underground tank to each property. Several homes in a small area (2 to 8 homes typically, semi-detached or within 2-10 metres of each other) drain their roofs to one underground tank. One pump can serve all the homes connected; at 1000 watts and 4 to 5 bar of pressure, the pump will give mains-like pressure with some minor drop-off when several homes are using it full blast. It is also possible to have a pump per dwelling in the shared storage tank which avoids landlord metering of electricity use. But this puts up the initial equipment cost.


Cheap to purchase and install.

A shared storage tank scenario needs only one pump serving all dwellings.


No rainwater if there is a power cut or the pump fails.

Pump hunts to maintain pressure and uses a lot of electricity.

In a shared, direct feed, storage tank scenario, a) the rainwater, b) the electricity for the pump, and c) the mains water for backup must all three be shared. There must be a landlord’s meter for electricity and mains water.

Indoor pump: rain manager.

The German market has for many years preferred to place the pressure-sensitive pump in the house, sucking from the tank and delivering water to the appliances. A mini header tank, mounted in the same console, is used to provide mains water backup if the rainwater runs out. Both pump and mini header are housed in a suitcase-sized console which is wall-mounted in the ground floor or basement. These rain managers take up space, pump can be heard, and are more expensive than other options. Furthermore, each dwelling needs its own rain manager and, therefore, the pump cost cannot be shared. They could be a good option for up-market individual homes where there is no roof space for a gravity-feed tank.


In a shared system, the electricity (one pump per dwelling) and mains water backup are both billed through the dwellings’ own meters.

Pump is accessible, mini header tank for mains backup is integrated.

Control of rainwater even if there is no roof space.


No rainwater if there is a power cut or the pump fails.

Pump hunts to maintain pressure and uses a lot of electricity.

Pump noise.

Expensive to purchase and to run.

A rain manager is required in each dwelling (no option for shared pump).

Gravity Feed with Plain header tank.

Instead of supplying directly, the pressure-sensitive pump in the main storage tank supplies a plain header tank in the roof space and keeps it full using a classic ball cock and float. If the rain runs out, a lower ball cock and float admits mains into the header tank across an A-B gap. The disadvantage of this is that, as in direct feed and rain manager options, the pump works whenever water is drawn. Also the rainwater in the header tank could go stale in higher temperatures and periods of disuse (occupant on holiday).

Gravity Feed with Smart header tank.

The smart header tank has an electric float sensor at the high water level and one at empty. They are connected to a computer controlled set of electric solenoids wall-mounted at the ground floor so that the header tank is left to empty completely before being filled, so reducing pump cycling. Almost 5 times less electricity is needed. The tank can also be programmed to be flushed out and refilled with mains water to avoid stale water.


In a shared system, as with direct feed, one pump can serve multiple header tanks, or there can be a pump per dwelling. Mains water backup (smart header tank and controller per dwelling).

Is billed through the dwelling’s own meter.

Minimal pump cycling reduces power consumption and wear and tear on pump.

Water from header tank even during power cuts.

Manual as well as automatic mains back-up.

Can program mains water for indoor appliances if drought and hosepipe.

bans threaten, and rainwater to be saved for irrigation.

Price is lower than that of Rain Managers and other mini header-tank systems.

Pump in rainwater storage tank so, unlike rain managers, no pump noise in the house.


Difficult to accommodate if there is no roof space.

Gravity provides less pressure and slower flow to toilet or washing machines (a tap for the garden can be provided by teeing off prior to the controller).

Choice Of Storage Tanks For Multiple Dwellings.

For large capacity storage tanks for shared use of rainwater, the choice is between one piece laid-up fibre glass or steel framed and GRP sectional tanks or much smaller tanks linked together. The large tanks tend to be expensive to manufacture, transport and install. They also often require long advance order delays and the booking of a date for assembly on site by the manufacturer. These large tanks have to be transported from the factory in one piece on a low loader and slow convoy, with accompanying expense.

Mass produced two-piece tanks such as the Carat Range from Otto Graf GmbH in Germany are cheaper to manufacture, transport and install than one piece laid-up fibre glass or steel framed and GRP sectional tanks. The moulding process of the small tanks keeps the size to 6500 to 7000 litres when underground and 1-piece tanks above ground to around 10.000 litres. However, these multiple moulded tanks can be easily linked together in parallel, making the total volume required.

Kill Your Fears and Live an Exciting Life

Fear of failure fear, of success, fear of criticism, fear of change, fear of the unknown. There are hundreds of things you can be fearful about. Where do fears come from? There is only one certainty and that is we will all die one day! If you let fears take over your life you will never attempt anything, your life will become very narrow and restricted. Is that what you want for yourself or your children?

Encourage growth and freedom and a sense of adventure. Try new things, new food, new destinations for holidays, new routes to work. Expand your horizons in every area. Change careers if you are not satisfied where you are, learn a new language, challenge yourself daily. Question your beliefs, ask yourself what you really want.

Did you know if you change the order of your beliefs, you change the way you think. Do it and see the difference. Make a list of things you hold dear to you,like: security, travel, love, family etc. then reorder them in the opposite direction, things you thought important are now at the bottom, and less important things at the top and see the world through a different perspective and you will discover a completely different viewpoint.

To explore this further, read Anthony Robins “The Giant Within.”

Now back to your fears, challenge them, take one of them and take it apart, what is it really, probably nothing more than a “what if,” a response to an imagined event; fancy being worried by something that might never happen, something as simple as that. Or maybe there is a 50/50 chance of your fear coming true, that is equal chances either way.

So take some calculated risks, measure the chance of success and face your fear, they are likely to melt away when challenged anyway, and you will have a great sense of achievement. Death is the only certainty, we will all die one day so make the most of every day, and you won’t fear death either.

What will your challenge be? Mine was starting an online business against the doubts of my family, and now my second adventure, we have bought a house in Spain and winter here, working on my laptop.

Have you ever considered starting an online business, well a simple way to set up online is affiliate marketing? Enlist the guidance of a mentor, providing products sales pages and training; (much simpler than doing it all yourself) and because much of the work is done for you, you can start earning faster.

So whatever your fears face them, look them in the eye and challenge them, and you will have a much more exciting life, and feel the freedom: just do it.

Books to help you:

“Ask for the Moon and Get It!” by Percy Ross

“Awaken the Giant Within” by Anthony Robbins.

“The Power of Your Subconscious Mind” by Joseph Murphy.

“Speed Reading and Speed Memory” by Tony Bazan

“I Can Make You Smarter” by Paul McKenna.

“Feel the Fear and Do It Anyway” by Susan Jeffers.

“Thank God it’s Monday” by Charles Cameron and Suzanne Elusor, a book to offer strategies for making life more tolerable whilst you make changes.

“Microsoft Windows 8 Made Easy” by James Stables

Losing Your Virginity – A Girl’s Guide To The First Time

If you are reading this, and fit the situation, then the subject is already a consideration on your mind.

You may have read something on the subject, spoken to a girlfriend who has passed through the experience recently, and heard about it in school. We hope to help you here, with a short guide. It is for you.

First of all, you must feel it is the correct thing to do. You must NOT be pressured into it, or the experience will fail to bring you the pleasure and good memories you expect and deserve. You are in charge of your life and body. You must really feel ready for it.

If you have been masturbating, you probably had clitoral orgasm, so you know what is possible in terms of feelings. You must also, know your own anatomy.

You know you have some outer lips that cover the vulva, and some inner lips which are very flexible. If your hymen is intact, you are also going to tear that, with the accompanying sensations and bleeding. Find out.

In the second consideration, do not have sex if you have over-drunk alcohol. You can become drunk and lose a great deal of your judgment after even one drink.

The third consideration is INSISTING on the use of a condom with your partner. The reasons for this are well known, and certainly there is no excuse for not using it. You must be protected. This is a health concern, a very good way to prevent conception, and generally a good idea as it will help to slow down your partner by desensitizing him a bit.

So to begin.

You cannot have too much foreplay. This should take the form of mutual kissing, erotic massaging, exploring each other’s bodies, seeing where each of you are sensitive and have erogenous spots. Don’t rush. It will be over soon enough as it is.

All the while as you have foreplay, your womb will be producing the all important moisture that is required. Believe us, the wetter the better. You cannot be too wet for the first time. If you are a bit adventurous, ask you partner to give you cunnilingus, and if you can, give to your partner some fellatio. These are wonderful signs of showing affection.

Getting into it.

Make sure after your foreplay (and perhaps fellatio) put on the condom if you haven’t already. The partner may make the first move to go directly into the standard missionary position. Bad idea. It is the worst position to lose your virginity. You are not in control, and it will be more painful and you cannot do anything but lay there and take it.

Instead, try the girl on top position. Here you are in control. Your vagina has never had anything in it before (like a penis) and it must accommodate it slowly…and it will.

If you are losing you hymen, you are the one determining the speed and pressure with which it occurs. You will not suffer, and if you are still not wet enough, you can apply some water-based vaginal lubricant (such as K-Y). The deed is soon done, and you can get down to thrusting.

At first, have your partner move without thrusting, just applying pressure while fully inserted in your vagina. As it begins to feel natural, you can your self start thrusting.

At this point you can change positions (assuming your partner has lasted) and go onto your back. However, do not settle for the simple missionary position, but tilt your pelvis slightly up, and ask your partner to suspend himself on his arms and not lay on you…this when thrusting will stimulate both your clitoris and G-spot.

There are a lot of variables here, but lose you virginity as we suggest, and you will have in your mind pleasant memories instead of feeling unfilled, or used.

Sun Shades: Protection From All Kinds of Weather

Sun shades are not only meant to protect our homes from the sun, they also protect the exteriors from harsh rains and snow. It also serves as a decorative piece, giving your lawn a touch of class.

Like awnings, it is installed along an overhanging roof, above the window, or the entire exterior. There are different kinds of sun shades. Flat Shade is a structure that is connected right at the wall, providing a flat and roof-like structure protruding from the exterior. Any sun shade that slopes from the exterior is called a slope shade. Slope shades are mostly made from fabric such as coolaroo sun shades. These types of sunshades are able to block 95% of sun’s harmful rays. Materials use in coolaroo sunshades are made from durable fabric. Most of these sun shades are seen on restaurants and cafes with external space for customers who prefer to sit outside of the building. Slope shades are also referred to as shade sails because it provide semi-horizontal slanting or shading. These shades are difficult to dismount and are installed in places where you can leave it all year round. Retractable versions are available but are more expensive. However, it is also of great utility since you can retract the shades during winter.

There are also sun shades that are combination of flat and slope shades. These kinds of shades are meant to protect windows and provide additional protection from alternating weather.

Aside from the flat and slope shade, solar screens are also used as shades. These screens are made from canvas or durable woven mesh that effectively blocks the sun’s rays from passing through the windows. The fabric or canvas is weighted on the bottom, commonly known as gravity-fed fabric, to pull the canvas down between the guy wires or guide rails. However, solar screens are meant to be used for warm weathers only, and are not much of use in the winter or rainy season. Just like awnings and sunshades, it efficiently lowers warm temperature, providing cooler interiors and reduce electricity bill. Due to specialized frames plus the tools required in attaching solar screens, professional installers mainly do the work. If you prefer personalized and DIY sun shades, there are also shade screens that are frame less for you to install your own shades.

Sunshades are available in various materials. Aside from fabric, it can also be made of concrete, glass, corrugated fiberglass and polycarbonate, roofing sheet, bronze, and ferro cement. In high-rises, concrete shades are most commonly used for windows and balconies. To ensure the durability and stability of the shades, metal wires are inserted into the walls. For flat shades that are installed near the roof, a belt is provided to secure the shade. Generally, slope shades are costlier than flat sunshades, which is due to the materials and attachments that are required before the shade’s installation.

Sun shades are structures that improve your home’s exterior beauty and gives you weather-control capabilities. Just make sure that the shades are installed to the right exteriors to maximize the shades functions and benefits.

Copper Prices

Many do not realize it, but the price of copper explains a lot about the various forces of the economy. How, you may ask? Read on below to satisfy your basic curiosity.

The power of copper

Copper trades for about 12 cents per ounce. This may not seem like much compared to gold that trades today for about $467 per ounce, but copper is the world’s third most widely used metal. It is not an investment metal but a working metal that moves dynamically as the economy changes. And copper prices have all posted double-digit gains in the Commodities Research Bureau index.

Copper traders are becoming wealthier by the minute, as the consumption and production of copper rises. Copper production around the world increased by 20% between 2002 and 2004 alone – that is a remarkable development in a two-year period of time. In fact, copper is largely responsible for the economic success of Chile, the supplier of about 1/3 of the world’s copper.

It’s therefore no surprise that the price of copper has doubled in the recent years. And this increase is a very accurate indicator of the demand for it. Copper is very stable trade – unlike precious metals such as gold and silver, nobody hoards copper, and yet it is always in demand.

What does this all say about the world economy? It is apparently booming. The progressively rising production and prices of copper indicates that companies all over the world are buying copper to transform into industrial output.

How to Landscape a Large Yard

If you are scratching your head on how to landscape a large yard, this article will offer a step-by-step approach towards designing and building your dream yard regardless of its size. But take note that some tips here may not be applicable to you since the climate and soil conditions of your front and backyard may be different.

1. Start planning the project. As usual, you need to decide how many hours and how much is your budget. Take a look at the designs that you desire to have. Magazines, online sites or even your neighborhood are some places to start looking. Landscaping a large yard can be a lot easier if you already have a good idea of what you want.

2. Draft the entire layout of your yard detailing the lawn area, location of trees, fixtures, stone   pavements  etc. The more detailed it is, the better it is.

3. Indicate topographical lines to indicate slopes, rocky areas etc that are not flat.

4. Think about how you want to landscape your large yard on the overall. First, plan your lawn area. If you have children, you may want to set aside space for a playground. Those who wish to have a vegetable garden should also set aside land for it. Take note that wetlands, rocky terrains and low places are not suitable for lawn as the grasses do not grow well. Areas that are shielded from the sun, for example below a huge tree is suitable for a patio, bench or swing. Do not grow anything there.

5. You may wish to level the sloping areas, ie cut back or backfill parts that are depressed. In any case, you need o have a good idea of how much soil you are going to remove and fill. This allows you to know how many truckloads of soil you need to purchase or dispose of. Talk to the truck or trailer company you are hiring.

6. Visit the local nursery and speak with the experts. With your plan in hand and an estimated budget, request them for a design if you are going to hire them to landscape your large yard. If you plan to do it yourself, there is no harm in asking them for their recommendations and suggestions of the type of green suitable for your yard. It could be fruit trees, nut trees, shrubs and bushes. Pecan trees, blueberries, grapevines, berry shrubs etc are often suitable for the southern climate.

7. Lay out and install irrigation piping, set up the electric conduits for power supply to the patio and landscape lighting. If you are planning to have a manmade pond, then pumps are necessary.

8. Once you have planted your flower beds and permanent landscape fixtures like lightings, patio, barbecue pits, stone  pavements , etc, it is time to finish off the work by grading the area.

9. If you are planning a mini vegetable garden, make use of the corners of the boundary fence to optimize space. Set up a garden netting about 1 to 2 feet away the fence for planting beans and peas. Make sure this is at a distance away from your playground to protect these vegetables from trampling.

10. Lay the layer of lawn grass and water them. Now, you have the complete steps to landscape a large yard.

Intel Core I7 Laptops – Know The Difference

Laptops which are powered by an Intel Core i7 CPU are some of the best laptops available today on the market. Top laptop brands have already started to take advantage of the Intel i7 CPU power and they have released some of the most powerful notebooks, suitable for those who require a lot of computing power for high demanding applications and need portability on their side.

Intel is currently at the 3rd generation of Intel Core i7 mobile and desktop processors, also known as Ivy Bridge CPUs. So before rushing into buying an Intel core i7 laptop, it is good to make yourself familiar with all the i7 CPU series to avoid any confusion you may have.

The first generation of Intel Core i7 mobile CPUs, aka “Clarksfield” and “Arrandale”, have been introduced to the public back in September 2009, a year later after the first desktop CPU based on the same microarchitecture, Nehalem.

“Clarksfield” Quad Core i7 mobile CPUs:

  • Core i7-9xxXM Extreme Edition
  • Core i7-8xxQM
  • Core i7-7xxQM

“Arrandale” Dual Core i7 mobile CPUs:

  • Core i7-6xxM
  • Core i7-6xxLM
  • Core i7-6xxUM

The second generation of Intel Core i7 mobile CPUs, aka “Sandy Bridge” have been introduced in early 2011. These processors have been some of the best CPUs at the time, with great success to the public.

Sandy Bridge Quad Core i7 mobile CPUs:

  • Core i7-2xxxXM
  • Core i7-2xxxQM
  • Core i7-2xxxQE

Sandy Bridge Dual Core i7 mobile CPUs:

  • Core i7-2xx0M
  • Core i7-2xx9M
  • Core i7-2xx7M

The third generation of Intel Core i7 mobile CPUs, aka “Ivy Bridge” made its appearance on April 2012, and brings a few improvements over the Sandy Bridge, which includes less power consumption, higher clock speeds and better integrated graphics.

Ivy Bridge Quad Core i7 mobile CPUs:

  • Core i7-3xx0QM, i7-3xx0QE
  • Core i7-3xx2QM, i7-3xx2QE
  • Core i7-3xxxXM

Now that you are familiar with all the i7 processors, all you have to do is to find a notebook that uses one of these. And the easy way to do this is to go to your favorite online store and filter the available laptops by the type of processor. Make sure to check the processor model number to see if it’s a 1st, 2nd or 3rd generation i7 CPU.

A few things that I need to mention:

Sandy Bridge and Ivy Bridge CPUs have an integrated GPU, and a discrete graphic card may not be present in the laptop configuration. If your main tasks don’t implies video transcoding, 3D graphic design and hardcore gaming you’ll be fine with the integrated graphics, otherwise you should look for a laptop that has a discrete graphics card.

To take full advantage of the i7 power, also make sure the laptop has at least 4GB DDRAM, though most of them have at least 8GB.

For fast booting, a 64GB or 128GB solid state drive (SSD) is required.

The rest of features like HD webcam, 3D display, blu-ray drive and so on, are up to you to decide what you need and what you don’t.

Aircraft Structural Design and Build

There is no doubt that the cost of producing the “next generation” of transport aircraft has to be the lowest possible, so that the aircraft will sell at a price which enables profitable airline operation. Advanced design concepts need to be developed to achieve the goal of reduced manufacturing costs.

Current design practice for Aluminium structures is based on the use of semi-finished products and mainly four categories are purchased in the following product form:

– forgings 6%
– extrusions 13%
– thin sheets 17%
– thick plates 64%

Clearly the use of thick plates keeps a major share within the total amount of Aluminium products needed. However very large quantities of the raw material being machined away in most current applications, end up in an extremely high buy-to-fly ratio.

Cost effective design of Aluminium components would tend to reduce the utilization of thick Aluminium plates and to increase the use of extrusions and forgings or to enter into entirely new manufacturing technologies in order to keep the buy-to-fly ratio as low as possible. Extensive research and technology programmes were initiated some years ago, throughout the Airbus system, to acquire and validate the necessary advances in the most promising manufacturing techniques, such as

– aluminium castings
– integrally extruded wing and fuselage panels
– welded structures.

Just to mention some predominant examples:
Casting is the most consistent “near-net-shape” process. The cost saving potential of investment castings is considerable for Aluminium alloys. Due to the good surface quality, practically no finish processing is required.

The successful example is an A320 bulk cargo door, which has now resulted in an industrial application study for the A340-600 Airbus passenger door.

Extruded panels for fuselage structures with integral stringers or alternatively, welded-on stringers compare very positively with today’s riveting process in terms of weight and cost reduction. On riveted structures there is a substantial additional volume of stringer material and additional skin thickness to compensate for the rivet holes.

Currently, the Airbus partners traditionally producing fuselage structures have made investments in large C02 laser beam welding machines capable of producing integral panels, about 4m wide and about 10m long. Initial test panels are being manufactured to optimize the process and to collect statistical data. High welding speeds up to 15m/min and a high degree of automatization allow a reduction in manufacturing costs of 20% compared to the automatic riveting process.

Aluminium extruded panels.

For wing structures the technology for heavy and very long extruded panels is under investigation. This principle has been used for many years by the Russian aviation industry, mainly on large transport airplanes designed by Antonov.

The large An 124 wing structure, for example, is built up from 44 extruded panels, up to 28m long. Indeed, machining is still necessary to a certain extent, but first investigations show a double profit which could be obtained from reduced buy-to-fly values as well as increased structural efficiency over conventional riveted structures.

Airbus wing design provides outstanding aerodynamic performance. However achieving this requires the use of complex double curvature wing panels, particularly near the root end where thickness is greatest. This presents an exacting manufacturing challenge, whether considering our current skins with fastened stiffeners or integrally stiffened panels. A process called Adaptive Creep Forming (ACF) is being developed by Airbus Industrie partners in consortium with various research organisations, which provides for rapid panel forming to a precise contour with software control of adaptive tooling. The ACF process also supports our automated wing box assembly project. This system, currently at the demonstrator stage, is to provide a jig-less, tool-less high throughput assembly, using machine visual feature recognition and laser position scanning. This manufacturing process promises maximised use of factory facilities. It offers increased production rates and flexibility to introduce any developed or new products that are within the machine geometrical capacity, in principle by software changes alone.

Welding of thin fuselage structures, using laser beam technology, for welding of thick wing panels, the friction stir welding technology is currently being investigated with very promising results.

Friction stir welding is a non-fusion solid phase welding process based on research in a consortium with the TWI. It is a continuous hot shear process. A non-consumable rotating tool made from a material harder than the work piece is passed along a joint between two closely butted sheets.

The friction heat creates a plasticized region around the immersed welding pin which consolidates behind forming a solid phase bond.

This process causes a more limited heat affected zone than conventional welding. This allows retention of a high proportion of parent metal properties for high strength heat-treated aluminium alloys.

It is also suitable for long joints and high tracking speeds, using machines similar to those for milling. It offers the possibility of low cost, high integrity assembly of integral wing structures.

These few examples of innovation in airframe design and manufacturing give an indication how Airbus can improve overall aircraft efficiency.

Advanced metal and composite materials combined with new manufacturing technologies are the possible means to face the economic challenge for meeting the expectations of the airlines for a 15% to 20% improved operating costs over current large transport aircraft.

One should not deny, however, that significant efforts will be required in innovative technical and industrial approaches, in a world in which progress has become an increasingly self generating process.

With limited opportunities in the current climate, UK companies like Marshall Aerospace are sustained by some long term contracts. MA has begun the structural design and build of the aero engine nacelles for the new advanced light jet, HondaJet.

Flash Drive Not Detected? Solution is Here

There can be several reasons for Flash Drives not being detected by your computer.

First your computer is not able to provide drivers for your Flash Drive. Now, for your information, you do not need to install any drivers from outside if you are using Windows 2000 SP4,Windows XP or Windows Vista as they come with native support for these devices.

If you are thinking that you are already using one of these versions of windows still your computer is not able to mount your Flash Drive. Don’t worry,that’s why I am writing this article. Just read on…

If your are not on one of these Windows version then your problem can be easily resolved by just installing the drivers which you get on a disc that comes with your Flash Drive. If you did not receive any disc,try checking out the manufacturer’s website and it should be there for sure. If still no luck,then try contacting me….

Remember, everything is explained here assuming that you are on Windows XP but need not worry as other Windows like Vista should work the same way.

Let’s come back to the topic..

There are several possible reasons for Flash Drives not mounting on your computer. Mentioned below are few of them:

Drive Letter Conflict

Flash Drive not formatted properly

Windows require some patch or update

Problem with the USB port

Physical connection problem

So, let’s start with the first one, that is, drive letter conflict.

Now, this can be the problem when you are trying to use your Flash Drive in a network environment. The best possible solution to this problem is to change the drive letter assigned to Flash Drive. This can be done by going to Disk Management and right clicking on Removable Drive and then clicking on Change Drive Letter. You can select any drive letter which is not assigned by windows to any drive or partition in any computer inside a network. Also, before changing the drive letter it’s recommended to check if your Flash Drive is showing in Device Manager under Disk Drives. If it’s not there that problem can be something else.

If changing Drive Letters does not help and drive is showing in Device Manager then probably you should try disconnecting that computer from the network by taking out the network cable or if you are inside a corporate environment then try contacting you IT deptt to know the drive letter not being used anywhere.

Let’s talk about the second scenario. If the drive is not formatted properly that means that it’s mounting up and being detected by the computer as well. It’s just would be giving a message to Format the Drive when trying to access it. This can happen if the File System has corrupted on Flash Drive or its not formatted in the supported format. For example, if you are trying to use a Flash Drive formatted in Ext2 file system in Windows Computer. The only solution to this problem is to format the drive in the supported format. For windows you should always format the drive in Fat or Fat32 and in Macintosh you should use MSDOS as this will also be supported by Windows computer. Please note formatting the Drive will ERASE all data. So, if you have any important data kindly try using a different computer to see if drive works or contact a Data Recovery company. If you want some reference kindly leave a comment.

Also, if you are not able to format the Flash Drive, please try using the HP USB Disk Storage Format Tool. It’s made by HP but works on generally all Flash Drives.

Now let’s talk about problems that can happen because of any updates or patches. No matter if you have the latest service pack for your Vista or XP computer. Still, there are few updates or rather say patches which need to be installed if you face any such problem.

Vista Patch

Please find the link to Vista Patch at the end of this article.

As per Microsoft the patch will fix the following issues:

” When the computer resumes from a suspend state or from a hibernation state, the computer stops responding. Additionally, you receive a “0x9F” stop message on a blue screen.

” The computer takes a long time to resume from a suspend state or from a hibernation state.

” The computer takes a long time to resume from a suspend state or from a hibernation state when you use a VIA controller.

” The computer stops responding when you use an Authentic USB fingerprint reader. Additionally, you receive a “0xFE” Stop error on a blue screen or a “0x9F” Stop error on a blue screen.

” The computer stops responding when you use a USB Bluetooth audio device.

” The computer takes a long time to resume from a suspend state or from a hibernation state when you use an Enhanced Host Controller Interface (EHCI) controller.

” The computer stops responding when you remove a USB device. Additionally, you receive a “0xFE” Stop error on a blue screen.

” When a computer resumes from a suspend state or from a hibernation state multiple times, you receive a “0xFE” Stop error on a blue screen.

So go and install this even if you are facing a different problem related to but not similar to this.

Another patch for XP Service Pack 1 is also include at the bottom.

There are chances of problems with USB ports as well which happens rarely but the possibility is still there. The best way to identify is to attach any other USB device on the same port and check if that device works or not. For Example, USB Printer. Also of you are using a Desktop and inserting the drive in some front USB port then try using some port at the back.

Here , I would like to add one more point. If you have a high capacity drive like 8 GB and you are trying to use it on an old computer then due to inadequate power support the drive may not mount properly.

Sometimes, even if the icon for Removable disc appears under My Computer,the drive may not work properly as the complete capacity will not be mounted in case of inadequate power. You can check this by right clicking on Removable Disc and then clicking on Properties. If one this window, both free and used space is showing 0 KB then this can be the possible problem. In order to fix any issues related to inadequate power supply you can purchase USB Power Hub from any computer store and attach it to the USB port. What it does is that it will convert the low power supplied by USB port to little high power.

But, remember this problem generally happens in case of old computers. Before purchasing USB power hub, you can also try the back port of your computer if you are on Desktop.

And Last but not the Least, improper physical connection is the general cause for Drives not getting detected. This may happen if USB port or connector on Flash Drive has bent or physically damaged due to which drive is not able to make a contact with pins on USB port. In this case, you should also look the inside area of port or connector and if any damage found please take it to some local technician of Drive manufacturer to get it fix.

So, this was my first article. Any feedback will be appreciated.