Purchasing a Camp Stove

Camp  stoves  are an essential piece of equipment, whether you’re going for a short weekend trip or a two week hike. There are several factors to consider when purchasing a camp  stove  which will largely depend on your requirements. Examples include how many people you will be cooking for, whether or not it needs to be ultra portable and what fuel is most appropriate.

Camp  stoves  are available in a variety of sizes, and prices range from $25 right up to $250 depending on features. If you typically travel alone, take short trips or need to travel light, a single burner propane  stove  will be more than adequate. Although you don’t have the power of a large  stove  or the extra burners, a single burner  stove  offers great value for money, is highly portable, and the fuel bottles are readily available in the majority of camping stores. The Coleman 1-burner propane  stove  is a good example.

If you’re going to be cooking for a party, or have the luxury of a vehicle to transport your gear, a multi-burner  stove  may be the way to go. But a single burner  stove  will take less room and still get the goob done.

Though camp  stoves  themselves aren’t particularly heavy, remember that you have also got to carry enough fuel to keep the  stoves  going whilst you’re away.

If you are looking for more than just casual use from your camp  stove , you should also look at things such as performance, efficiency and alternative fuels.

Propane is generally the most suitable fuel to use, though if you will be travelling to high altitudes, you may be better off looking for a  stove  that runs on an alternative such as white fuel.

The efficiency and performance of a camp  stove  is measured in BTU, or British Thermal Units. A reasonable rating for a single burner camp  stove  is around the 10,000 BTU mark, and each subsequent burner should yield the same increase. Purchasing a more powerful camp  stove  may be advisable if you intend to be on the go for much of your trip.

Although you can pick up cheap  stoves  in the majority of camp stores, it is always worth paying a little extra and buying a good quality model from a respected brand. A better camp  stove  will be much more reliable and you can expect much more efficient burning of fuel, saving you time and money in the long run. Coleman camp  stoves  [http://www.campingduds.com] are a great way cook when you are in the woods.

How to Use a Slow Cooker

You might be wondering what the point of a slow  cooker  is. After all, if you can cook dinner quickly on the stove or in the oven, what is wrong with that? And if you can cook dinner really quickly using a pressure  cooker , surely that is better, is it not? Actually, there are a few reasons why cooking with a crockpot is not only worthwhile but preferable to the other cooking methods.

First of all, slow  cooker  recipes tend to be very easy. You can add meat or fish to your crockpot along with vegetables and a sauce or gravy, flick the switch and leave the  cooker  to cook your meal to perfection.

Many slow  cooker  meals are as easy as adding the ingredients, stirring it and leaving it to cook. There are of course some where you need to brown the meat, soak the beans or do something else with the ingredients but the majority of these recipes are simple compared to other recipes using other cooking methods.

Tips for Using Slow  Cookers 

In order to get the best results from your appliance and learn how to use it optimally it is best to follow a recipe specially made for cooking meals this way. This might simply direct you to add the ingredients turn the machine on for six hours and leave it alone to cook, or it might advise you to do something else to the ingredients before adding them. A lot of these recipes are very specific about the order in which you add your ingredients.

This is because dense ingredients like potatoes and carrots cook a lot slower than less dense ingredients. So if your slow  cooker  recipe instructs you to place the meat or fish on top of the vegetables there is a good reason for it. When learning how to use a these  cookers , follow the recipe instructions and you will find the meal comes out fine.

Also known as crockpots they come in various shapes and sizes and if you are thinking about investing in one you should choose wisely. If you are catering for a family on a regular basis, choose a medium or large slow  cooker  with all the feature you find useful.

Not only does this ensure that you can make enough food to satisfy everyone but it also means you can make double the recipe sometimes and freeze what is not eaten, thereby allowing you to make double the required amount and have an easy defrost-able meal for one day the following week.

Cooking Meals for the Family

When you are cooking for families it is nice to have easy slow  cooker  recipes because they are so straightforward to prepare and taste great also. Another great reason for using a slow  cooker  is that the food you cook in it tastes so wonderful. The ingredients cook together for hours and the flavors mingle like they do not have time to if you use another cooking method.

If you are making a casserole, stew or soup you will find the flavor of the meat or fish is boosted by this cooking method and the texture is amazing too. Vegetables, pulses and grains cook nicely in a crockpot and the finished meal will have an incredible taste.

Build a Solar Panel Next Weekend

I’m going to give you a list of what you will need to build a solar panel next weekend and get it installed on your rooftop.

If you have seen solar panels on top of other homes, you’ve probably wondered how difficult it is. It really is not too difficult, time-consuming, or expensive.

And the rewards will benefit both your wallet and the planet.

Building a solar panel will require tools you should have in your garage, plus some other materials you can get at a recycling center or even eBay. You don’t need an engineering degree, just a desire to provide an alternative power source in your home, and some free time.

First you will need some solar cells to join together. Don’t buy the cheapest, and select the ones that already have tabs to hook them together. The number of cells you need will depend on how much power you need to generate. Most DIY cells deliver only about 80% of what they claim, so be sure to take that into account. Usually the number of cells per panel is 36.

Next you will need a wooden frame like a box, which you can build to the correct size, some clear   plastic   paneling , black paint, silicone, glue and wiring.

Build the frame box and paint it black.

Now you will just join the tabs of the cells together, usually six per row for 6 rows. Join the tabs to ensure that the electricity produced flows only in one direction.

Place inside your wooden frame, that you have painted black. Secure a clear sheet of plastic on top and seal it with silicone.

Now you need to connect this panel to a storage battery. The storage battery will store up the sun’s energy for times when it is cloudy or during the night. You may want to consult an electrician for this, or if you feel comfortable enough, a DIY guide should take you through this step very carefully.

Now you are ready to mount the system on your rooftop. Be sure you have a wide open space to place the panel. Try to find a south-facing surface, as that will capture maximize the effectiveness.

The wiring and the box should be well insulated to avoid heat loss.

There you have it. As you consider building a solar panel, keep in mind that you are not only doing this to protect your wallet, but also to protect the environment. The sun is always going to be here, why not take advantage of it instead of the non-renewable fossil fuels.

Great Hotel Workout – Plank Exercise

A hotel workout is important when you are traveling. If you travel on a regular basis, working out is not always an activity that you include in your schedule. There are several reasons people do not exercise when they are traveling. Some people believe that traveling gives them the license to take a break from exercising. Other people have a more valid reason: they do not work out while they travel, because most of the hotel gyms are too small, making it difficult for many people to work out at the same time. If you tend to avoid working out while you travel, you should realize that there are many great hotel workout routines that you can do, right in your hotel room.

Personally, when I travel for business, I have very little time to spend on leisure related activities. Therefore, the last thing I think about, is to use the hotel gym for a workout. Instead, I work out in my hotel room. I typically plan my hotel workout ahead of time. My hotel workout is almost structured as my regular workout; the only difference is that most of my hotel workout routines are designed for a very limited square footage. Despite the limited space of a hotel room, you can still get a full body workout if you plan your hotel workout appropriately. Recently, I was in Boston for business, and as you may have guessed, I stayed at the hotel for a day. Even though I was there for only a day, I did not want to miss my daily workout; so I put together a quick 20-minute hotel workout routine. Of all the exercises I did that day, I wanted to quickly share with you a plank exercise that is a little more challenging than your regular plank

Hotel workout – Plank exercise

If you do not already know, plank exercise routines are important in helping strengthen your core. A plank exercise is also a great substitute to regular crunch exercises. Most people don’t like doing crunch exercises because they end up feeling pain in the neck and back area. Plank exercise routines do not cause such pains.

For my hotel workout plank exercise, I am doing a variation of the plank with leg raises. Rather than raising your legs, you are moving them at a 45 degree angle to the left, and to the right. Once you bring your leg back to its starting position, you immediately bring it towards your elbow. Make sure your back is as straight as it possibly can, when you bring your knee towards your elbow.

Alternate legs, and keep doing this plank exercise for a full minute. Once you are done, take a 10 second break, and repeat it again nine more times, for a total of ten times

Good Luck!

Business Plan Outline & Checklist

Who needs a Business Plan?

Every business needs one. It’s not just for start-ups or new product launches or business expansion initiatives.

Why? And what should be in one?

Documenting a Business Plan is an extremely useful process to focus management and owners on their business concept, strategies, and operating plans. It forces consensus and decision making that might otherwise be neglected. It requires issues to be resolved and the decisions to be reflected in financial projections.

A well-documented business plan will help you communicate the most important elements of your strategy and plans to the people who need to know them. Including you.

Already in business for years and never needed a business plan? It’s still a good idea for all the same reasons. And now is a good time.

Ready to exit your business? Even better. A solid business plan will be the most important document in supporting the valuation of your business.

The greatest value of a business plan, however, is likely to be in the process – involving your management team in a thorough examination of your business – its purpose, its strategies and its plans to ensure success. When completed, all the key players will be more knowledgeable of the issues, the opportunities, the risks, and the alternative paths considered, before committing to the final plan.

Following is a suggested guideline of the layout and content for developing an effective Business Plan. It is a consolidation of best practices, based on our consulting and management experience with many different clients under a variety of circumstances.

COVER PAGE:

Includes title, date, purpose, prepared by whom, confidentiality statement, issued to whom, and a document control number.

PURPOSE:

Objectives of the Business Plan – attract financing, key executives, customers, or strategic partners? Document strategy and action plan for all participants? Set financial objectives and timetable?

CONTENTS:

1. Executive Summary (Max. 2 pages, written last as a stand-alone document, may be offered for review prior to full disclosure of the business plan, convinces reader to go further, or not.)

o Business Concept, Plan and Objectives

o Current status relative to the market opportunity

o Key success factors, risks, expected results

o Financial situation and needs

o Reference to the complete Business Plan (sections below) for more detail

2. Concept and Business Opportunity (Describe the need being addressed, how this approach is different, and why it is likely to succeed.)

o Market need and current solutions available

o Business concept and product/service differentiation

o Initial market feedback

3. Mission statement (Generate missionaries!, why others should join the cause – have fun, make money, make a difference?)

o Clear, attractive objectives – who and what do you want to be?

o Statement of values and priorities

o Milestones and timetable

4. Market Analysis (Provide relevant, pertinent information to demonstrate your knowledge and competence in this industry.)

o The overall market, recent changes

o Market segments

o Target market and customers

o Customer characteristics

o Customer needs

o Buying and selling process

5. Competition (Demonstrate an awareness of competitors and your ability to compete successfully.)

o Industry overview, recent changes

o Nature of competition, inside and outside the industry

o Primary competitors

o Competitive products/services, relative pricing, advantages, disadvantages

o Opportunities, protection by patents, copyrights, barriers to entry

o Threats and risks, ability of competitors to respond, imitate or copy.

6. Strategic Plan (Describe your starting point, direction, and plan to get there.)

o Company history & background – experience, resources

o Key competitive strengths & current weaknesses

o Business plan and strategy to leverage strengths, reduce weaknesses

o Action plan for implementing strategy

7. Management team (Usually the most important factor in determining your success and in attracting staff and financing. Emphasize current strengths and plan to fill in the gaps.)

o Key personnel, experience & credentials

o Staffing plan

o Organizational structure

8. Product & Service Offering (Consider the reader’s familiarity with the industry, avoid technical jargon, relate to the market and competition.)

o Product/service description

o Positioning of products/services

o Competitive evaluation of products/services

o Future products/services

9. Marketing and sales plan (Another key to success, too often neglected by owner/managers with strong product, technical, or operations backgrounds. Prove you have a plan that will be affordable and effective.)

o Marketing strategy, positioning, presentation

o Sales tactics

o Advertising, Promotions/incentives

o Publicity, public relations, press releases

o Trade shows, industry events

o Web marketing

10. Operations plan (Describe the important issues and factors that will affect customer service perceptions and the costs related to capital investment and operations.)

o Processes for product/service delivery

o Customer service and support

o Facilities and staff required

11. Risk analysis (What can go wrong, what will you do about it?)

o Market factors – economic cycle, interest rates, currency, government regulations, trade restrictions.

o Business risks – key customer & supplier dependence, labour availability, staff turnover, new competitors, new technology, changing demand.

12. Financial plan (Convert all the preceding words into numbers, next year by month, then three-to-five years annually.)

o Summary paragraph, Assumptions and Comments, followed by analysis

o Starting Balance Sheet

o Profit and Loss Projection

o Cash Flow Projection

o Balance Sheet Projection

o Ratio’s and Analysis, value of equity

o Financial needs

o Sources of funds

APPENDICES:

Add some personalisation and realism with biographies and photos of key executives, product photos, marketing literature, sample packaging, facility plans, press releases, customer testimonials, relevant research documents, etc.

Following these guidelines will ensure that you have considered all the issues and can defend your strategies and action plans against all inquisitors.

Reliable Wooden Handrails

The presence of wood in a home makes living more cozy and comfortable. That’s the reason why wooden handrails never go out of style because it is economical and flexible. See, it is not difficult to work with wood, in contrast to metal and steel. There are lots of wood varieties to choose from: oak, mahogany, pine, maple, walnut, etc. Wood is a lasting material, provided that it is maintained well. It is also easy to hold on to wood since they’re not as slippery as metal and steel. Remember that the primary purpose of these handrails to give you and the people in your home something to hold on to while going down the stairs. Wooden handrails work for both straight staircases and spiral staircases.

Straight staircases are the best choice for homes that are small. Its simple, elegant, and can be built on a tight budget. The use of wooden handrails does not mean complete wood dominance. Wood can be combined with metal and steel stylishly. A flat and thin European beech handrail can be used along with stainless steel balustrades. The pale ash hue of these handrails and the metallic sheen of stainless steel balustrades will give your home an unfinished look that’s unique yet cozy at the same time. The more conservative ones can go for white hemlock for both handrails and balustrades. Its no non-sense look will never go out of style. Straight wooden handrails can also stand alone without the need for balustrades as long as the stairs is sandwiched by a wall. Combining a solid, red oak handrail with black iron-wrought metal balustrade help the stairs stand out, especially during winter season when they are decorated with Christmas ornaments.

Spiral staircases are much more of an investment. They have to be constructed properly because traversing through this staircase can be perilous. For spiral staircases in small spaces, the handrailing ends where the most dangerous and narrowest part of the stairs is. Instead, it is replaced by a post. However, they are great for maximizing a small space and they always look glamorous. In fact, big spiral staircases evoke a sense of grandeur and royalty. There are different options with this type of staircases. The key is to have fun because the spiral staircase itself is a sign that the owner is not afraid to experiment with different styles. Get a medium oak wooden handrail with minor carvings to go with medium oak wooden balustrades that has symmetrically carved curves. Go all out with a big staircase by choosing handrails with multiple carved indention and pair it with iron-wrought balustrades in very intricate designs, similar to Art Nouveau patterns. Straight staircases and spiral staircases can be pretty much the same, except that the wood has to be customized more. For a completely daring look, get a pale, non-pattern wooden handrail and choose a thick glass as your balustrades. If youre willing to invest, it can work for spiral staircases. It will definitely be eye-catching.

No style is better than the other. Spiral staircases, for instance, may not suit a home filled with energetic children. Straight staircases, on the other hand may consume a lot of space in a place that does not allow a big slope. Your stairs can be of any style and the wooden handrails will simply find a way to fit it. Thats how flexible and useful these handrails are. So consider adding one to your home today.

What is a Better Option – Wooden Or Stainless Steel Balustrading?

A   baluster  is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, in stone or wood, and at times in metal, standing on a unifying footing and supporting the coping of a stockade or the handrail (also known as a banister) of a staircase. Reproduced in this way, they form a balustrade. Individually, a  baluster  shaft may explain the turned form, taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an erect furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier.A  baluster  is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, in stone or wood, and at times in metal, standing on a unifying footing and supporting the coping of a stockade or the handrail (also known as a banister) of a staircase. Reproduced in this way, they form a balustrade. Individually, a  baluster  shaft may explain the turned form, taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an erect furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier.

Wood is the most flexible material used to make turned and simple horizontal balustrades. Apart from conventional, you can give a modern look through the wooden balustrades. Timber is a popular material for designing staircases and balustrades. Wooden balustrades can be skilfully crafted to balance your existing staircase. These are unique in both antique and modern styles. Besides the safety features, a wooden balustrade adds style and a classic look to your home.

The wooden balustrades are also designed delightfully. Wide varieties of colours are available in wooden balustrades, which make it easier for the clients to select from, according to their own choice or the one which suits the building.

The use of wood has reduced in manufacturing of balustrades and handrails. People have become aware about saving the environment, and therefore, the use of wood is frowned upon by some people.

Stainless steel  balusters  are uprights, constructed of iron and used to support railings, such as the rail on a banister. While  balusters  can be composed of other materials such as wood or concrete, stainless steel is often a great way to add a decorative touch, while retaining the vigour and support required to support the railing. Stainless steel  balusters  may be used in houses or for exterior areas.

One of the more widespread applications of stainless steel  balusters  has to do with the balconies. A series of thin stainless steel  balusters  can elegantly support a handrail as well as a bottom rail that outlines the edge of the balcony. The presence of these stainless steel  balusters , as the connection between the two balcony rails, ensures that the balcony is safe, and it is possible to enjoy the exterior space without fear of falling off the balcony.

Stainless steel  balusters  are a beautiful alternative to wooden  balusters  or spindles for the design of a stairway. Because the stainless steel  balusters  can be very plain or be moulded to curve or can have complex designs, the look is often outstanding and adds one more layer of texture to the stair area. The stainless steel  balusters  are also strong and are likely to need less maintenance than their wooden  baluster .

Along with a gorgeous appearance and practical applications, stainless-steel  balusters  are often a cost-effective way of creating a balustrade for use in outside or inside areas. In most cases, the stainless steel construction will cost much less than similar wood construction; it requires less maintenance over the years and is comparatively easy to replace in the event that one or more of the stainless steel  balusters  require replacing.

Choosing the Right Balustrading For Your Building

Balustrades not only serve the purpose of supporting the handrails on the staircase, but also make the staircase look good and serve an important design purpose. Balustrades are a part of the staircase that date back to the era of Renaissance and appeared for the very first time in the Italian architecture.

Balustrades for buildings are available in various different materials and designs. The kind of material that you may use on the balustrade of your building depends upon the part of the building where it is going to be used. Balustrades are used within the building as well as outside it. The choice of the balustrades t basically depends on the kind of look and design you want to create for your building.

The kind of balustrade that is used in a building to some extent also determines the kind of architecture that is being used in the building. The balustrades that are used in the contemporary design are different from those that were used in the older times. The main materials used in the balustrades of the contemporary architecture are wrought iron, cast iron, glass, wire, softwoods, and other materials.

The extent of simplicity that you want to achieve also depends on the kind of balustrade that you may use in your building. Besides fulfilling an important purpose, a balustrade also adds value and beauty to the outlook of a building, and furthermore, it can also make a staircase the focal point and thus attract people’s attention towards the stairs.

Considering the fact that the balustrade makes the staircase a point of attention, it is important to choose the balustrade with full concentration and consideration and then end up getting one which is not just perfect but also goes with the design and architecture of the rest of the building as well. There should be a harmony between balustrade and the rest of the building, whether it is used in the interior or exterior part of the building.

If you want to choose the right balustrade for your building, the first and foremost thing which you need to visualise is the look that you wish to create for the entire building and the kind of architecture you want to have. Once you have done that, you would be able to decide what sort of a balustrade would go best with the character and style that you are trying to create for the building.

There are different kinds of balustrades available that suit the design and fit in the budget of different people. The material and design of the balustrades varies with respect to the tastes of people. If you want to create a specific look, you can also get a balustrade created and customised, but this would require you to spend more money.

For people who want a fusion in their contemporary architecture of the building, there are also balustrades with wood and metal, combined in a design, and these are also very easy to fit.

How to Lose Weight Fast With Easy Diets

Many people think that losing weight and dieting is all hard work, but the truth is that diet can be an easy task when you really are committed and determined to do it. You can discover how to lose weight fast simply by checking out and researching on which could be the right diet for you. There are several choices for you check out, all you have to do is go over them thoroughly and find one that best suits your lifestyle.

You Can Do It Quick and Easy

One of the newest diet regimens is the Nutrisystem which is a diet centered on eating pre-packaged meals. Once you sign up and join this diet system, you will have your food sent straight to your door and all you need to do it to prepare and eat it. Nutrisystem is considered as one of the easiest diets as there is no need for scheduling or counting of calories that goes with some other diet systems. They also provide a huge variety of food choices including desserts so you won’t grow tired of your diet. Nutrisystem also have an online support forum that allows members to communicate with other dieters and even healthcare professionals and nutritionist.

Another popular diet that you can go for is Slimfast. This is a great diet system for people having a busy lifestyle. Slimfast includes shakes and snacks bars that provides adequate nutritional value. This is great for short-term weight loss and is very convenient that you will need to cook only one meal in a day. Slimfast shakes are for a great meal substitute when you are in a hurry and make it a great diet solution for how to lose weight fast.

Make Sure You Still Eat

For people working on losing weight, it is important that they focus on diets that allow for sensible eating along with proper exercise. Weight watchers are also one popular diet that is flexible which makes it one of the easiest diets to follow. Weight watchers focuses on assigning points on different foods and provides you with a set of points that you should stick to on a given day. You don’t need calorie counting, prepackaged meals or meal scheduling to buy so you don’t have to spend and you can cut down on the cost. Like most of the popular diets, weight watcher also comes with live member meeting as well as online forum for support.

The internet provides plenty of information on how to lose weight fast. You can find different diets to choose from yet you cannot really guarantee on losing weight on some of your tries. You can try visiting a doctor or nutritionist, which can be really beneficial for you.

What is a Successful Life?

How do you define a successful life? Is it becoming a millionaire or a sports champion? Is it finding the cure for an illness? Or is it raising happy, well adjusted children?

Luck is not the factor that determines our success. Success is the realization of your goals. Ask any successful person what they want to achieve in their life and they can tell you exactly what that is.

It is Bill Gates dream that everyone has a computer at home. He became an extremely wealthy man in the process but it is not the money that makes him successful. He has virtually realized his dream.

In fact, if you look at a lot of people that we consider successful, very few were motivated purely by the money. People who are successful usually get lots of material rewards, which are hard to not be attached to, even when they weren’t the original reasons for them striving for success.

Roger   Bannister  didn’t break the four minute mile for money but to prove it could be done. Mount Everest was the mountain Edmund Hilary wanted to conquer.

Mother Theresa wanted to help the poor but she probably never dreamt she would start a charitable organization responsible for helping millions of unfortunate people worldwide. Although she died poor, it was the general opinion that she had been successful in life.

If you are spoilt and lazy, can you be successful? In fact, I would disagree; I would say that dedication, resilience and hard work are the real secrets to success. You need the ability to pick yourself up and start over when things don’t go according to plan.

People who are successful see setbacks as opportunities. To have a successful life, firstly you need to look at what success means to you personally.

Forget about other people’s definition and find your own. You need to be committed to making this work. This may mean putting in longer hours than anyone else. It may mean studying and working at the same time. No matter what you have to do, the commitment and energy to achieve it will be there for you.

It is only when you know exactly what you want to achieve and make that your goal, will you recognize opportunities being offered to you to help you get to your destination.

If you don’t know what you want, how will you recognize when life is giving you a chance? To be successful you need to use a guide and it just like using a map to reach a new destination.

Know your destination, how to get there and be determined to do anything to make it.

Whether you are successful or not in life is not your parents fault, the fault of your genes or your third grade teacher. Accepting total responsibility for your results in life so far will help you create the life you want.

If you think you can or think you can’t, you are usually right! Henry Ford (1863-1947)

Analog Switches and Multiplexer

Analog switches are ICs designed to switch analog signals via digital control. The internal structure of these devices typically consists of a number of logic control gates interfaced with transistor stages used to control the flow of analog signals. The CMOS 4066B quad bilateral switch uses a single supply voltage from 3 to 15 V. It can switch analog or digital signals within _7.5 V and has a maximum power dissipation of around 700 mW. Individual switches are controlled by digital inputs A through D. The TTL compatible AH0014D DPDT analog switch can switch analog signals of _10 V via the A and B logic control inputs.

Note that this device has separate analog and digital supplies: V+ and V− are analog; VCC and GND are digital. The DG302A dual-channel CMOS DPST analog switch can switch analog signals within the _10-V range at switching speeds up to 15 ns. There are a number of circuits that use analog switches. They are found in modulator/demodulate circuits, digitally controlled frequency circuits, analog signal-gain circuits, and analog-to-digital conversion circuits where they often act as sample-hold switches. They can of course be used simply to turn a given analog device on or off while a digital demultiplexer acts like a data distributor.

Analog multiplexers and demultiplexers act the same way but are capable of selecting or distributing analog signals. (They still use digital select inputs to select which pathways are open and which are closed to signal transmission.) This device functions as either a multiplexer or demultiplexer, since its inputs and outputs are bidirectional (signals can flow in either direction). When used as a multiplexer, analog signals enter through I/O lines 0 through 7, while the digital code that selects which input gets passed to the analog O/I line (pin 3) is applied to digital inputs A, B, and C. See the truth table in the figure. When used as a demultiplexer, the connections are reversed.

The analog input comes in through the analog O/I line (pin 3) and passes out through one of the seven analog I/O lines-the specific output is again selected by the digital inputs A, B, and C. Note that when the inhibit line (INH) is high, none of the addresses are selected. The input/output analog voltage levels for the 4051B are limited to a region between the positive supply voltage VDD and the analog negative supply voltage VEE. Note that the VSS supply is grounded. If the analog signals you are planning to use are all positive, VEE and VSS can both be connected to a common ground. However, if you plan to use analog voltages that range from, say, −5 to +5 V, VEE should be set to −5 V, while VDD should be set to +5 V. The 4051B accepts digital signals from 3 to 15 V, while allowing for analog signals from −15 to −15 V.

Human Evolution Timeline: Bible Quote and Science

The human evolution timeline is found recorded in Bible quotes (Book of Genesis). Adam’s rib symbolizes the chromosome and is the key to the man ape evolution. In discussing evolution vs creation, many convergences like this one are found.

Someone who holds to the theory of evolution and denies creationism might ask why such an important matter as the creation of human beings would be in a symbolic message rather than in explicit language. And, after all, the Holy Scriptures don`t talk about chromosomes. That is a valid question, which shall be pursued below. First off, the main interest is to see the points of confluence between evolution and creation regarding the appearance of the human being.

Parallelism Between Adam’s Rib and Science

There is an amazing coincidence between the numbers in the Book of Genesis involving creationism and numbers in science regarding man’s evolution from the ape. The parallelism begins on the Bible quotes according to which God took out one of Adam’s ribs and made the woman, Eve, with it.

And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh in its place. Then the rib which the Lord God had taken from man He made into a woman, and He brought her to the man.

The number of ribs – Men have 24 ribs – 12 on each thoracic side. The same number is found in women. The text says that God removed one rib and not one pair of ribs. Had He indeed removed only one rib, man would have different numbers of this bone on each side of his chest. Not only that, but there would also remain a doubt about the number of ribs in a female.

These contradictions disappear if the text is examined from the standpoint of information conveyed by Jesus Christ to His disciples: To God nothing is impossible. God may have removed one of Adam’s ribs but He did it in such a way that the woman and all her descendants would have the same number of ribs. However, it is assumed that the rib’s removal is symbolic language and explained it cannot be regarded as direct language.

A look at it now from the standpoint of science. The chimpanzee, from which science now admits that man has evolved, has 24 chromosomes in its sexual cells, i. e., 24 chromosomes in each spermatozoon and 24 chromosomes in each ovulum. This is referred to gametes, those sex cells capable of reproducing the species. Therefore, the number of ribs in a man and of chromosomes in a chimpanzee are identical. The other cells in a chimp, as in a human, are diployd, that is, they have the chromosomes in pairs – therefore, they have 48 chromosomes.

Confluence of Book of Genesis and Human Evolution Timeline

Were we to admit that the rib symbolizes the chromosome, the implicit and explicit Bible numbers say that God removed a chromosome from a chimpanzee and made a woman out of it. In other words, the “man”, a chimp, lost a sex-cell chromosome and thus a woman was formed.

Indeed, the woman, just like the man, has one chromosome less than a chimp in the sex cells. The human spermatozoon has 23 chromosomes and the human ovulum also has 23 chromosomes. It makes sense. The other cells in the human being are diployd, i. e., they have 46 chromosomes. But it is needed to see what science says regarding the man ape evolution, that is, man’s evolution from the chimpanzee.

Man’s evolution from the ape – It is admitted that, in the evolution of the species, through some unknown phenomenon, two chimp chromosomes were fused and thus, primitive man, a hominid, came about. Some theories claim that the female came first, which, if true, would give further consistency to the symbolic version of Adam and Eve’s story.

In a nutshell, this is what the matter has:

  • Number of ribs in the human being: 24.
  • Number of chromosomes in the chimp’s gametes: 24.
  • Creation: removal of one rib.
  • Evolution: fusion of two chromosomes.
  • Rib symbolizes chromosome.
  • Removal of one rib = fusion of two chromosomes.
  • Number of chromosomes resulting in the gametes: 23 – New species: man, hominid.

Without wandering too far from these basic issues, it should be asked why there are so many differences between human and chimp, given the “simple” fusion of two chromosomes. Furthermore, those in favor of creationism would argue that, since the similarity between a chimp’s DNA and that of a human being is above 98%, humans and chimpanzees ought to be more alike. These are pertinent questions which must be carefully examined.

Starting with the numbers: the difference between human and chimp DNA is less than 2%. For three reasons, this percentage can be very meaningful:

the science is just barely beginning to understand the human genome, that is, the DNA map, that of genes and each one’s role. On the other hand, we know also little about the chimp genome. Thus, it is perfectly acceptable that this percentage, though small, means much in terms of anatomical and physiological differences between the species;

the differences may be situated in fundamental parts of the DNA, enough to cause the differences between the species;

the amount of DNA in the cells is not always proportional to their complexity. Therefore, the arrangement of DNA components in humans may be more important than the quantity.

Thus, the slightly less than 2% difference between chimps and humans may become more meaningful. The “simple” fusion of one species’ two chromosomes may cause many differences in the resulting species.

Why is the Bible not explicit? – In other words, why, since the issue was raised in the beginning of this article, does the Biblical message not speak directly about chromosomes? At least two answers are possible.

The first has to do with Christian and Jewish dogma: this is a sacred text, dictated or inspired by God, and there is no questioning how God speaks. The second has to do with the Biblical writers: they would be human beings possessing a deep knowledge of evolution timeline and humans nature. They knew that it would not be possible to write what men would not understand at that time (existence of chromosomes, genes, DNA). They further knew that, in a patriarchal society such as the one they lived in, women should remain in a secondary role, in the written version, to make the acceptance of God’s word easier.

The faithful cling to the first answer, the dogma.

But those who are not faithful may properly ask how those writers, barely out of a semi-nomadic life, could possess such knowledge about the evolution of the species.

Examined as a book and without any preconceived position, the Bible is a singular book and its writers differed from common mortals. However, as intelligent as they might have been, there was no way they could have held such knowledge. Thus the answer is: this is a mystery.

Book of Genesis & Science: More convergence

In the pleasant study of Biblical numbers involving creation vs. evolution, there are other convergent points. Example: part of the sacred text reproduced at the beginning of this article and science’s version of the differences in man/ape. The Genesis expression “closed up the flesh in its place” conveys a special meaning and suggests more parallelisms between religion and science. It could be read as “closed up the frontal lobe in its place”.

In the monkeys the frontal lobe is 9% of the brain. In the man it is 30%. The frontal lobe is a tissue (“flesh”), a nervous tissue. The frontal lobe integrates most of the brain functions. Its prefrontal portion is related to the initiation of planned actions, i.e., thinking, idealizing, acting in orderly fashion, and letting out emotional expressions. In the difference is the “closed up the flesh in its place.”

Subsequent Procreation

The appearance of the human being raises the issue of procreation. In the history of creation, this problem does not exist: once created, Adam and Eve started to reproduce. However, in evolution, ONE individual, from the fusion of the two chromosomes, would not give origin to the human species.

To illustrate,suppose that the fusion of the two chromosomes took place in a female, resulting in 23 chromosomes in the gametes, living with males bearing 24 chromosomes in the gametes. Procreation would be impossible. Even if they copulated, no ovulum would be formed due to the lack of symmetry in the DNA. How, then, would the human being have procreated in evolution?

More likely the phenomenon – physical, chemical or physical-chemical – had by then reached several individual chimps, causing chromosome fusion in many of them, both males and females. In the history of evolution, there is still another peculiarity: the bonobos have more elements than the chimpanzees to be man’s ancestors.

Chimpanzees vs Bonobos

Preference for the chimpanzees over the bonobos – In the evolutionary scale, science shows preference for the chimpanzees over the bonobos, even though the latter are more similar to human beings.

See some ones:

the similarity percentage between bonobos’ DNA and humans’ is greater than that of chimpanzees;

their genitals are more protuding and face forward, as with humans;

except for humans, they are the only primates who copulate from the front;

they engage in homosexual and heterosexual relations;

upon reaching adolescence, the females abandon their group and join another one. In their new group they submit themselves to the female – including sexually – and then copulate with the males;

the females keep together in groups and the male respects them because, together, they will fight him for food;

they stand on two legs more frequently than chimps do and their laughter is more expressive. They are also more cordial in the group.

Despite all this, it is believed that man has evolved from chimps, due to the fact that they are found in many African regions, in wide-open areas, which would have favored their territorial dispersion. Bonobos, on the other hand, live in closed-in woods, in some regions in Africa. However, from the genetic, anatomic, emotional and behavioral standpoints, more likely the human species has come from the bonobos. Perhaps, after their community was hard-hit by a cataclysm, they took refuge in closed-in woods.

Man’s Ancestor: Neither Chimpanzee nor Bonobos and Adam`s Rib

Another theory admits that chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutangs, gibbons, all belong to the primate family known as Pongid, just like the Hominid family, whose sole representative is man, all belonging to the Hominoids super family, and would have come from individuals known as Old World Monkeys.

It is possible that some violent environmental change hit Africa and Asia, altering the genetic structure of many Old World Monkeys (Cercopitecoids) sometime between six million and twenty-five million years ago. Different Pongids came into being.

Why would not different hominids have appeared? Present day human must have featured differences among individuals from the very beginning. For instance, there must have appeared at the same time individuals with white skin and with black skin in Africa and in Asia. Weather conditions and the fight for survival would have made easier for white-skinned individuals to disappear from Africa and for black-skinned individuals to disappear from ice-cold regions.

The theory of a common trunk for all Hominoids does not change the parallel with Adam’s rib. The whole Hominoid super family would have come from individuals with 24 chromosomes in the gametes. One family (Pongid) continued with 24 chromosomes in the gametes while another (Hominid) appeared with 23 chromosomes.

Houses For Sale In France

The French real estate market is extremely popular with foreign buyers, many of which are attracted to France (either as a permanent home or a second home) by the various attractions that France offers. Top of the list with many buyers are the climate, food, wine and lifestyle. What many of these buyers may not realise however is the diversity of real estate which is also available in France. In addition to the standard types of homes which one finds in all modern countries, there are many unusual and character houses for sale in France.

These character properties include stone-built homes, farmhouses, chateau, stately homes, villas, chalets and so on. In addition to the house itself, one can find a large selection of properties for sale which offer additional features such as a lake (which is often a fishing lake), stream, sea   frontage , outbuildings, large landscaped garden, very large plots of land (e.g. sufficient to keep horses), extra facilities (e.g. horse stables) and so on. Unlike some countries, finding such character homes or extra features is often not difficult as there is a large selection of properties for sale in France which offer them.

Although one can find character properties in every region of France, the types of properties which are available vary from region to region. For example:

  • Ski chalets will be found only in the mountains and villas are almost always found in the hot south of France. This is largely due to the fact that the weather, which varies greatly from one region of France to another, affects the technical requirements of local buildings. For example, in mountain areas the roofs are typically steep in order to shed the heavy snowfalls. In the cool north, windows tend to face south in order to capture the sun while in the hot south they tend to face north to preserve the cool of the house during the long hot summers. Nor is it just the weather which affects building styles; factors such as soil composition and soil humidity determine factors such as the presence, depth and type of basements and foundations.
  • Less obviously, certain building materials (e.g. granite stone) are used mainly in certain regions. Historically, transporting materials long distances was too expensive so each area adapted their house constructions to use local materials, be it a given type of stone, wood or other material. Although transportation is now less of an issue, most people consider it in bad taste to build in a style which is obviously not in keeping with the local region and in some cases local building regulations will prevent it.
  • Similarly, many building styles (e.g. Chartreuse) are specific to given regions. Even decorative features such as wooden balconies or lilies growing in the apex of thatched houses tend to be regional.

Details on the various types of house styles, including which are regional and which are not, are provided at houses for sale in France. However, in this article we merely note the regional element and note that as a result, when one chooses a region, one thereby chooses the types of properties available.

Likewise, for certain property types, a decision to purchase that type of property determines which regions one can find a property in. Some people may think of this as a limitation. However, there are two advantages to this approach. The first advantage is that the use of a building style which is local to a region means that one has a building style which has adapted to local requirements and has been proven over hundreds of years. This avoids the disasters that one finds in a number of other countries (e.g. the building of mediterranean villa style houses in New Zealand, which at one point was very popular but which have been proven to be unsuitable to the New Zealand climate). The second advantage is that it is part of the regional culture. One of the attractions of France is that each region has its own distinct characteristics in terms of food, wine, climate, culture, dialects and so on. Regional architecture is another facet of this attraction.

Visit to Bohol, Philippines – Baclayon Church

Visits to Bohol’s churches are a common activity in Bohol especially during the Lenten season. The most visited is the Baclayon Church which is the oldest church in the province and one of the oldest in the Philippines. It is the town’s main attraction!

Ever since I was small and at every visit to Bohol, I passed by the Baclayon Church on the way to my Dad’s place in Guindulman or to my Mom’s at Mahayag, San Miguel. You would hardly miss the dark, imposing structure looming at the side of the road in the municipality of Baclayon.

Only recently was I able to visit or enter the Baclayon Church and now my mind set was different. I have grown, and I now appreciate art, artefacts and their value. So the chance to visit this famous church in Bohol was a go-go and a cause for excitement.

At close quarters, the church is huge, blackened by centuries of moss and dirt. It is made of blocks of coral stones said to have been hauled by 200 slaves through forced labour and cemented together by millions of eggs and lime.

Lying alongside the road is the bell tower, likewise made of coral stones with a rooftop. Although it adjoins the main facade of the church, it is a separate edifice and does not cover the front facade.

Three arches with huge wooden doors, estimated to be 20 feet tall and very wide, grace the front facade. Coming directly from the brightly lit outside world and going through the huge door at the centre, the church interiors looked dull, dark and gloomy.

It was the first impression I got although that changed after my eyes adjusted to the interior light and slowly noticed the sunlight streaming from the stained glass windows. The varied colourful reflections filled the church and were breathless to behold.

From the door, one sees the rows of pews obviously made from hardwood and a tiled floor. Afar off, the altar looks magnificent with multiple levels reaching up to the ceiling. At a closer look, it was the more beautiful! The six arches of the altar with one at the top displays some saints that I cannot identify. Surmounted on the main altar though is the Jesuits’ emblem and motto “Ad majorem Dei gloriam.”

A pipe organ that dates back to the 19th century is high up on one side yet it is not functioning anymore. The choir and organ loft though have intricate designs and looks attractive.

Come to think of it, why not visit the church yourself? At your own perspective, a visit to the Baclayon Church and its museum would be more rewarding. Besides, Bohol is loaded with heritage sites and home to one of the world’s wonders: the Chocolate Hills. Yet it has more! Come and see for yourself!

Remote Car Starter Buying Guide

My store has been installing Remote Car Starters since the early 1990s. This experience has taught us what is important in a quality remote starter installation. With the cold season almost upon us, we thought it would be a good time to post our Top 10 List (in no particular order):

10. Warranty

The actual remote starter brain should be warrantied for as long as you own the car. Many quality companies offer this. If they do not, it is a possible sign of inferior equipment. Remote controls, however are rarely warrantied for more than a year. Our Pro line remotes carry a 2 year warranty and all our 2 way remotes have a $25 replacement plan.

9. Engine Speed Sensing

A good remote starter should have some method of monitoring the engine RPM’s. Why is this important? There are a couple reasons:

* On a very cold day, the car might not start on the first turn of the key. The same is true with a remote starter. It might not start the first time the starter does it’s thing. Without a method of sensing engine RPM’s the remote starter will have no way of knowing that the vehicle has failed to start. The end result is that you go out to your car and it is still cold.

* The other main reason is over-rev protection. A quality remote starter will know if the engine speed is too high and shut off. A remote start that does not offer RPM sensing cannot know if this level is exceeded and could end with damage to the vehicle.

8. Transmitter Range

You want to make sure that the remote start that you are buying will allow you to start/stop/lock/unlock, etc from a long distance. Many people say that they just park their car right outside of their house and do not need a long rang transmitter. Just keep in mind the trips to the movies, the mall, the amusement park, etc. You will want to use your remote start then also and you will not be parked as close as at home. Our transmitters offer a minimum of 800 feet and some are over a mile!

7. Hood Safety Switch

Make sure that there is an emergency cutoff installed under the hood. This cutoff is designed to prevent the vehicle from remote starting if the hood is up. This protects you and your mechanic from forever having someone else open your ketchup bottles! DO NOT OVERLOOK THIS! Many shops skip this step because it saves time. Mobile Edge integrates a hood cutoff on every single job.

6. Manufacturer

Make sure that the manufacturer is a company that specializes in remote car starters. There are many companies out there that simply throw a label on a product and call it their own. You want to avoid that. It is our experience that these companies provide little if any support for their products and many will not be in business next year. Stick with the experts.

5. New Car Warranty

Do not let your car dealer tell you that an aftermarket remote car starter will void your warranty. This is against the law. The Magnuson Moss Act prevents a dealer from voiding a warranty simply because of the addition of aftermarket equipment. If that equipment or associated installation causes damage to the vehicle, the dealer does not have to warranty the job. This is more of a reason to go to a specialist shop that sell good remote starters and installs them professionally. I have a detailed PDF on this subject.

4. Do it Yourself?

Unless you are a certified technician with experience in remote car starter installation, DO NOT attempt to install your own remote starter. I know… The one you saw at WalMart comes with an instructional video. That video will teach you enough to make you dangerous. Trust me! It will not teach you how to integrate the transponder in a 2004 Ford or bypass the security in an 06 Trailblazer. The instructional video may have worked in the early 1990’s, but today’s cars are very sophisticated. Save yourself a ton of expense and headache and have it installed by someone who does this for a living and can be responsible for the job. This brings us to number 3.

3. Buy it Here / Install it There?

Do not buy your remote starter on eBay (or WalMart or Amazon, etc) and expect to find a quality, reputable shop that will install it for you. While many aftermarket shops will install stereos and amps purchased elsewhere, few if any will install a remote start purchased elsewhere. During remote starter season, the good shops are busy enough trying to keep up with their own work. If you find a shop that will install someone else’s remote starter, they are likely not very busy. Do you want to trust your vehicle to that guy?

There is another very important reason not to buy a remote starter at one place and have it installed at another. Let’s say something goes wrong. A remote starter is an electronic product and can fail. The guy that puts it in will blame the product and the manufacturer will say that it was installed wrong. Guess who is stuck in the middle with no recourse. When you have the shop that you buy a remote starter from install it, you have one place to go in the event of a failure. There cannot be any finger pointing.

2. Go to a Specialist

Look for a specialty shop. Not to bash any of the chain stores, but they have a much higher turnover rate with installers than a specialty shop. These are people that likely have less experience than a long term employee at a specialty shop. It is my experience that many installer “cut their teeth” at a chain store and, once they have more experience, move on to a specialist (We pay more!).

Many specialists (not all though) will solder all of their connections. I feel that this is very important. Crimp connectors can save up to an hour of installation time, but when dealing with the vehicle’s electrical system, I want a rock solid connection. The only way to get that is by soldering the wires together. Mobile Edge has soldered every connection on every job for nearly 15 years.

Will a remote starter from a specialty shop cost more than from a chain store? Sometimes yes. But put that into perspective. Even if the job cost $100 more from a specialist, that difference is less than 1/10 of 1% of what you probably paid for your car. Why take the risk. Not to mention, when you deal with a specialist, you can talk to the installer, salesman and, in many cases, the owner. There is definitely a value in that.

1. More than Just a Remote Starter

Make sure that you review all of the convenience features that can be added to your remote starter with your salesperson before the installation! Most higher quality remote starters will allow a ton of cool features to be added or controlled from the remote. Anything from heated seats to keyless entry and rear defrost can be integrated with most better systems. It is A LOT cheaper to have this done at the time of installation. If you want to add it later, you may be paying for several hours of additional labor.

The Bottom Line

In summary, the cheapest price does not always save you money! When selecting a shop to have a remote starter put in, ask a lot of questions. How long have they been in business? How much experience do their technicians have? Do they have sophisticated computer programs to aid with installation? How do they handle warranty issues? You get the idea. The better shops will clearly rise to the top. They might cost a little more up front, but that extra expense will pay dividends in quality and piece of mind. I am sure that you will find that Mobile Edge is one of the best shops for your Remote Car Starter Installation.