Dreamweaver Form Validation Using Spry – Tutorial

Hi everyone and welcome to my Dreamweaver Form Validation Tutorial, glad you could make it!!

I guess you’re here to learn so lets jump right on it.

1. Start by Creating a new HTML Document.

2. Go to the insert panel and select Form from the Drop down menu.

3. Click the Form button at the very top to insert a form tag in you Dreamweaver document. The Form tag is where you enter the settings for the whole form ex. where you want to send it and how to send the form.

4. Next lets insert a table inside the form to be able to organize the text boxes. In order to do this select “Common” from the Drop Down list in the insert panel and the click on “Table”. This opens up a Table Dialog Box.

5. Inside the Dialog enter the following and the press OK.

Rows: 4 Columns: 2 Table Width: 400 pixels Border Thickness: 0 pixels

6. In the left column on the first line enter “Name:”

7. In the right column insert a Spry Validation Text Field by going to the Forms drop down on the Insert panel and click on “Spry Validation Text Field”.

8. A Input Tag dialog will appear where you can give the tag some attributes. Enter name in the ID text field and press OK.

9. Repeat the steps 6-8 in the second row of the table. Instead of “name” use “email” this time.

10. In the first column on the 3 row write “Comment:” and in the second column insert a “Spry Validation Text Area” instead of Text Filed. Give the text area the ID “comment” and press OK.

11. In the last row of the table insert a Button in one of the columns and give it the ID send.

Now, all the objects are added to the form. Lets enter some Validation settings.

12. Select the first validation field by clicking on the blue outline around the text box. The go down to the Properties panel and enter “2” inside the “Min chars”.

This tells Dreamweaver that it needs to be at least 2 characters in that text field in order to send it.

13. Select the email validation field and change the “Type” Drop down, found in the properties panel, to “E-mail”. This tells Dreamweaver that the text inserted in this form needs to have the form of an email address.

To be able to send the form in some way you need to apply some settings to the form itself. The easiest way to send a form is by using the visitors own email program to send it via there own email address. To do this follow the next steps.

14. Select the form by clicking on the red outline around the table. 15. In the properties panel select method “POST” and enter this in the action text box: “mailto:your-email@address.com”

Of course you need to change it to your own email address.

So finally lets save the form by going in to File – Save. Dreamweaver then prompts you that it’s going to copy two files to your site folder, your only option is to click OK. These files are needed by your web browser in order to validate the form.

You can now test the form by clicking on globe right next to the Title text area in the top of your window.

The method of using “mailto:” to send the form is not the best and most secure one. On thing that is easily done to improve the safety is by encoding the mailto function or by using a PHP script to send your form. Dreamweaver Tutorials on how to do this can be found on many places on the web. Google is your Friend!

Are Auto Dash Covers a Good Idea?

The question is clear if you know what an auto dash cover is. It is not so clear if you are not sure what an auto dash   mat  is. These covers go by several different names including: dash covers, dashboard covers, and dash  mats . Does this help or are you still wondering what a dash cover is?

When entering a vehicle one of the first components of the interior of the vehicle to rest your eyes on is the dashboard. As you make your way into the driver seat and settle in behind the wheel your eyes will meet the dashboard. It is the cover for that dashboard that is called the dash cover or  mat .

Dashboard covers are not a high price item. The cost of a dash  mat  will range from about forty dollars to a little over a hundred dollars depending on what customization you add to the dashmat. Most covers are custom made and are held in place on the dash with a velcro fastening system.

The dashboard area takes a lot of abuse from the penetrating rays of the sun. It plays havoc on the dash, causing the dash to dry out, crack, and discolor. Over time the dash can look just plain ugly. An auto dash cover will protect your dash from all of that and add comfort to your drive.

Dash  mats  are available in several material choices. Those material choices include suede, carpet, a molded fabric, and velour. The range in the materials allows for a lot of possibilities. The cover will add personality while giving protection to this important area. The dash  mat  can be ordered plain, without any extras, or it can be ordered personalized. You can add your name or initials to the  mat . If you want to cheer your team on than go for it. Maybe you were a Marine, have a connection to firefighters, or have a cause you believe in, there is probably a logo available for the dash  mat .

A dashboard cover is an accessory that makes sense. When in place not only does the cover protect the dash but it eliminates the glare of the sun adding comfort to your drive.

When ordering, remember to indicate if you have special sensors as part of your dash. If you have a light sensor let the manufacturer know so the custom dash cover is made to accommodate that sensor.

Are auto dash covers a good idea? Add one to your vehicle and you decide.

Hand-Tufted Vs Hand-Knotted Carpets

Hand-tufted carpets, also known as Latex or Full Cut carpets look a lot like hand-knotted carpets but the difference between the two is noticed in the way they are both produced. A tufted oriental rug is made with the help of a tufting gun, which is a hand-operated tool. A tufted carpet does not require any special skill; on the other hand, a knotted carpet not only takes longer to complete but also requires skill in tying the knots neatly and correctly.

In order to make a high quality hand tufted rug, superior quality wool must be used. However, the quality of a hand-knotted rug is measured by the number of knots per square inch. Since latex glue is used to hold the “tufts” in place in case of a hand-tufted carpet, the rug is also termed as latex rug. People often consider these types of carpets as disposable because they do not require much labor or skill. However, they have some benefits of their own such as they are less costly than hand-knotted rugs and often retain their color even in high traffic areas.

Despite their benefits, tufted rugs if not made from high quality wool will wear out quickly. If you want to buy a tufted rug for your room then make sure you buy from a reputable company. High quality tufted rugs often cost almost the same as hand-knotted carpets from Persia or Turkey. Hand-knotted rugs make use of natural dye and therefore they do not drip color when wet. On the other hand, low quality tufted rugs may bleed and fade in color.

The above mentioned two types of carpets can also be compared with a third type of oriental rugs known as flat woven rugs. These types of rugs are light in weight and easy to care for. Normally they are used as show pieces and hung on walls instead of using as floor carpets. There are no knots in this type of rug and is therefore easier to construct than tufted or knotted rugs.

A hand knotted rug with a higher knot count indicates a high quality carpet which is durable and long lasting. Usually these carpets are rated from very coarse to extremely fine depending on the knot count. Extremely fine carpets contain more than 290 knots per square inch, whereas very coarse hand-knotted rugs consist of 30 or less knots per square inch.

Design Styles – Transitional Style

Transitional style refers to the blending of elegant traditional style and sleek contemporary style. It allows a person to take the elements they enjoy about traditional and contemporary styles and leave out the bits they don’t want.

The importance of comfort and relaxation in our homes has been growing at the same fast pace as our hectic busy lives. Transitional design is at the forefront of that idea. It takes the stuffy attitude out of traditional style and the cold feeling from contemporary style and melds it into an elegant, updated, classic, yet casual space. It allows for a little bit of eclecticism- you can pick and choose the elements you like, and mix them together.

Here are a few ideas to help create transitional style:


Color palettes are usually very subtle and monochromatic in transitional style. This gives the relaxing effect that many people are after. Creams and browns including, ivory, taupe, beige, tan, and chocolate are among the more popular choices. If that sounds a little too bland, then feel free to use accent colors. However, use them in moderation because the idea is to let the eye rest and therefore create a more comforting space.


As with most things in transitional style, it is best to keep furnishings understated. Proper scale is key to making sure the space feels balanced and appropriate. Choose furniture that isn’t too masculine or feminine. Both Shaker style furniture and Mission style furniture are a good fit with transitional style because of their clean straight lines and warm wood tones. Upholstery pieces with straight boxy lines that lean to the contemporary side are best, but just be sure the big ticket items are timeless and neutral.


Textiles in the form of   rugs , pillows, drapes, and throws are both comforting and an easy way to repeat your color scheme throughout the room. They are extremely important in transitional design because they add texture and interest to the space. Different fabrics include chenille, corduroy, micro fiber suede, leather, cotton, twill, denim, silk, and tweed. Tone on tone patterns or small scale graphics are a good choice. Berber carpets or sisal  rugs  are another way to bring texture to the space. Keep window coverings simple with solid draperies or possibly roman shades.

-Putting it all together-

Now comes the tricky part, putting it all together. Transitional style is by nature a little bit eclectic so how do you keep a space from feeling disjointed? Use common elements to your advantage when mixing styles. For instance, if pieces are a different style, unify them with the same finish or vice versa. Also you can find pieces that pull differing elements together such as a  rug  or a piece of artwork. Keep accessories to a minimum and artwork understated. Remember that you are trying to create a relaxing comfortable space so choose things that you like. Keep it as simple as you possibly can.

Transitional style is elegant, comfortable, classic, sophisticated, sleek, relaxing, and uncomplicated. Now who wouldn’t want that?

Using Tibetan Singing Bowls in Healing

Singing bowls are used for meditation, relaxation and healing purposes. These small, circular bowls function like bells and have a melodious sound when played. Singing bowls come mainly from Tibet although they are also played in Nepal, India, and Bhutan. Tibetan Llamas have been using them for thousands of years. However, they have always been considered sacred and therefore their existence was mostly kept secret until the Chinese invaded Tibet in the 1950’s. Since that time knowledge of singing bowls has slowly spread, and their use has become more common in other cultures.

Traditionally singing bowls are made from a mixture of seven metals, though most singing bowls on the market today are made from only three or five metals. These bowls produce tones that allow you to relax deeply and create harmony between body and soul. When you place the ringing bowl on your body the sound waves reach every cell with vibrations that massage the cells as they pass through your body. It doesn’t take long to reach a state of complete relaxation. This cellular massage has also been known to provide healing results to sick or damaged bodies. Singing bowls can also be used for relaxation while you play the bowl.

There are two ways to play a singing bowl. The first way is to strike it with a   mallet . The second way is to rub the bowl with a wooden stick producing continuous singing tones. Good singing bowls have lots of different tones that come out as you move your  mallet  around the outside of the bowl. To prepare for a cellular sound massage you must first lay flat on your back. Make yourself comfortable and then place the singing bowl on your chest. Because the vibrations tend to make them slide you may want to put a piece of non slip matting, like you would find in the kitchen drawers, between the bowl and your body. Once everything is in place and you are comfortable use the  mallet  to strike the singing bowl close to the rim.

As the bowl begins to ring your ears will begin to pick up lower tones. Not only will you be able to hear the bowl ring, but you will also begin to feel the sound waves as they pass through you body. Your chest area is mainly a large air chamber. This chamber acts in the same way as the hollow cavity of a guitar or violin. The sound will resonate inside your chest and continue on through the rest of your body. As you concentrate on the combined sensations of audible sound and tangible vibration your body will enter a deeply relaxed state.

Though the bowl will continue to sing for some time, it will be necessary to repeat the striking action from time to time, if you can find the energy to do so. You don’t have to put it on your chest. And if you are a flexible enough person to place it on your back and still be able to strike it with the  mallet , then that is always an option. If you want to try placing the bowl on your back, but find it difficult to strike the bowl from this position, it is fine to recruit someone else to be the striker. There are also singing bowl therapists who place the bowls around you, and on top of you. These therapists can adjust the sound and play the correct tone for your particular chakras.

Striking the bowl will make it resonate, but rubbing it will make it sing. The difference between a resonating sound and a singing sound is simply the isolation of a single note. When rubbing the bowl, you need to hold the base gently between the fingertips of one hand. You want to keep the fingers toward the base so that they won’t mute the tones you are going to play. It is sometimes nicer to use a leather  mallet . This will eliminate the clanging sound often associated with a plain wooden stick.

Hold the striking stick vertically alongside the bowl. Wrap your hand tightly around the top end of the stick, and rub the bottom end around the outside edge of the bowl. When you play the singing bowl in this way, you can use a plain wooden  mallet , rather than a leather-wrapped  mallet . Press the wood firmly to the rim in order to keep it from rattling.

As you begin to rub the rim of the bowl you will hear several tones mingled together. As you continue to rub one note will begin to stand out above the rest and the other tones will slowly fall away until you are left with a pure and penetrating ring.

Singing bowls can be relaxing for use in your own personal meditation, and they can also be used for yoga classes and other situations to begin or end a class.

Another Brick In The Wall

In case you haven’t already guessed from the title, this week we wanted to do an article about bricks. Now when you search for the keyword “bricks” online, there are a variety of things that pop up in the search results. Ranging from the brick boards on Pinterest all the way to the do-it-yourself backyard projects using bricks. Bricks can be used in so many different ways around a home ranging from a simple and easy project to a complete house built of bricks. No matter how you use bricks, they offer a quality solution that never goes out of style. Not to mention the fact that they are affordable when compared to other comparable materials such as stone.

While you can find tradesman that are professional bricklayers, it doesn’t take a professional to be able to install professional looking brick projects around the home. Whether you are looking to do a brick project indoors or outdoors, there are a range of simple to complex projects that you (or a professional bricklayer) can do.

Bricks Outdoors

Common places for bricks in the great outdoors are seen as a retaining wall, raised flower beds, mailbox enclosures, accents to the front of the home, walkways, brick patios and the list goes on. Creative brick layouts (think herringbone, basket-weaved, arched, etc.) all offer a unique take on a simple brick project. Some brick projects may be more complex in nature such as a brick wall that requires the use of mortar. Most experts will say that the do-it-yourselfer may want to refer to a professional bricklayer for any brick wall that is over 4 feet in height. If you have ever watched a professional bricklayer, then you realize that there is an art that goes into the trade. While you may be able to make a brick project look good, the other side of the coin is if it is structurally sound.

Bricks Indoors

The great thing about bricks is that they can transform an entire space. Rich color tones and textures have a way of adding character to a home. While many homeowners enjoy the natural beauty that bricks present, other homeowners desire to give brick fireplaces and other brick features a facelift by painting them. Often times, painting bricks can really modernize and lighten up a space. The downfall to painting bricks is that if you ever desire to remove the paint then it can be an extremely tedious task.

Is a Brick Just a Brick?

The beauty of bricks is that they are all unique. While they do come in standard sizes, they do offer a range of color choices, texture and weather-resistance.

The mortar that is used with brick projects is generally made up of four parts of sand to only one part water. The addition of plasticizer will make the mixture easier to work with. Special tools are also required for a project. For example, when using mortar a trowel will be needed. A string line and level are also critical in helping to keep wall construction straight and level. Professional bricklayers also realize the importance of patterning. The bond is the pattern of laying bricks. As an example, the running bond is a brick pattern that is commonly found.

Homeowners need to weigh out the pros and cons of brick when comparing the medium to other materials such as stone or concrete. Brick can be an extremely affordable option for many uses around the home, both indoor and out.

Apartment Hunting – 3 Steps to Finding an Apartment

There are some people that get baffled and intimidated with the mere thought of apartment hunting. Much like your ordinary shopping, the wide variety of options is often what confuses most renters, for it may become overwhelming and confusing. It may become a challenge to pick one with so many interesting choices. But there are things that you must consider to narrow down your options. In three simple steps, you can be able to choose the perfect apartment for you. First, make sure you set a fixed amount as your budget. Next, research and explore all your options. Lastly, compare and contrast – you will then determine which one is the best.

Set a Budget

A lot of renters think of their budget before anything else. This is good. You must know how much you can and how much you have available to spend on a monthly basis. This is why this is the initial step in apartment hunting. Think of your monthly income, and try to calculate your monthly expenses as well. Subtract your monthly expenses, including all your monthly regular payables (food, entertainment, miscellaneous), to your monthly income. Also include your monthly savings and emergency money to the amount you deduct from your monthly income. The amount left would be the budget you can spend on your apartment rental. Make sure you establish this well, for this will be the biggest chunk of your apartment hunting factors. This will also determine which type of apartment you can afford.

Research Available Options

Knowing your budget will narrow down your options a lot. But it is important that you research and define which available apartments you can afford. There may be some apartments that are a little over your defined budget and there may be some that are below your given amount, include these apartments in your list. It is alright to include them because you can also double check if you have room for budget arrangements and give you an option to fix your monthly budget further. You, as the renter, will also see whether you should negotiate and get the apartment you want at the price you can afford.

When you are at the stage of looking and scouting for apartments, it isn’t important that you get to see each one of them. You can get all the information you need in many different ways. There’s the internet, newspapers, and even rental magazines that show all the information you may need in scouting. But the primary information you need is the price, and these research method will definitely give you the price of available apartments. Therefore, you will be able to eliminate those that are way too expensive (or too cheap) for you.

Compare and Contrast

Once you have narrowed down your options, it’s time for the apartment visits. It is very important that as the renter you know how being in each apartment unit “feels”. Being in each of the apartment options that are in your price range will let you know of the quality of each of them. You will also get to know yourself the amenities and the quality the apartment complex offers. Take note of each information you get, make a list of pros and cons, and this will help you a lot in deciding which ones are better.

The process of comparing the apartments will allow you to bargain and negotiate as well. It will give you the power to ask for a more favorable rent price. As you visit more and more apartments, you will be able to define the average price of a particular sized apartment. This information is also useful for you as a bargaining tool. As the renter, you can convince the leasing agent to at least lower their price a bit. Don’t expect the prices to drop at this point, but giving due effort will help you decrease the monthly rental price for even a little.

Flat Roof Challenges

Although not commonly found on residential buildings,  flat  roofs do exist. They also face many challenges that a traditional, sloped roof does not face. As a homeowner, your  flat  roof will require much more attention and maintenance than a traditional one. The problems can quickly exacerbate and cost you more in repair. Therefore, it is important that you stay afloat of the challenges you be facing and adequately inspect it for any problems.

 Flat  Roof Problems

The most obvious problem is the lack of slope, which can cause major problems for drainage and the increased potential for water damage. Since there is no slope to promote water runoff, it tends to accumulate water and allow pooling. We all know that water is a roofs worst enemy, causing severe damage that can result in numerous other problems. If the water is unable to drain properly and continues to pool, the result can be severe water damage, leaks into the home and mold problems.

It also meets problems with its material base. Since traditional materials do not work well for  flat  roofs, the materials used come with additional considerations. Typically, a  flat  roof is unable to provide an adequate seal between rooflines or between any structures that protrude, such as a chimney. Traditional metal flashing is not an adequate material to bridge the gap along roofing structures, which makes sealing breaks in between roof materials more difficult.

 Flat  Roof Solutions

Since the most important aspect is a water tight seal and weather resistance, many roofers use only one of three proven methods. The most common material is made from a rubber or plastic material, to prevent water penetration. In some cases, you may find it has asphalt shingles, but you can bet there are layers of rubber or plastic underneath.

One of the oldest methods for installing a  flat  roof is called constructed up roofing. This method involves interchanging multiple layers of tar and water resistant fabrics, which is then covered with gravel. The gravel allows for adequate water drainage and prevents some pooling while the tar and fabric prevent water penetration.

Another method is the modified bitumen method, which involves laying a mineral rich material on top. The bitumen is water resistant and reflects heat from the sun’s rays, resulting in an energy efficient effect.

The rubber membrane method is the last method used to install a  flat  roof. It consists of laying a durable and thick rubber sheet on the roof. The rubber is naturally water resistant and prevents water penetration.

Motorcycle Helmet – Proper Fitting

It is essential when purchasing a motorcycle helmet to ensure it is a proper fit. Not all helmets are made the same. So keep in mind as you are reading that you may wear a medium from one manufacturer and a large from another. What one manufacturer calls a medium, another calls a large, even though they may be the same physical size inside the helmet. For safety reasons and for comfort, it is imperative to get the proper fitting helmet. After all, this is the most important piece of motorcycle gear worn.

Thinking about purchasing a motorcycle helmet? Then keep reading. Do not take the manufacturers labeled size for granted unless you want to make a second trip to your motorcycle dealer. Below is a list of necessary steps you should take in determining the proper size for your head.

1. Measuring the head is a starting point for the entire helmet sizing procedure. Due to varying shapes, heads that are apparently the same size when measured by a tape may not necessarily fit the same size motorcycle helmet. So remember, this is a rough guide and a starting point, and depending upon your head shape, this step alone may not provide a perfect fit.

a) Using a cloth tape measure is best, but any tape measure will work.

b) The circumference of the head should be measured at a point approximately one inch above the eyebrows in front, and at a point in the back of the head that results in the largest possible measurement. Take several measurements, to make sure you have the largest one.

2. Hat Size – Use your hat size as another starting gauge in determining motorcycle helmet size.

3. Select a motorcycle helmet to try on based upon your head measurement and hat size. Most helmets have printed on the sizing tag either the inside diameter of the helmet, the hat size, or both. If your measurement and hat size are exactly between two sizes, round up to the next largest size as a starting point.

4. Now that you have the helmet on your head, it is time for the visual check.

a. Your eyes should be approximately in the center, with the top edge of the liner padding just above the eyebrows.

b. Now that you are wearing the helmet, use a mirror to look carefully at the way it fits. Check to see if the cheek pads are in contact with the cheeks. Is there excess pressure on the cheeks? Look for gaps between the temples and the brow pad. Check the back of the helmet where the neck roll (if the helmet has one) makes contact with the neck. Does it touch at all? Or is it pushing the helmet away at the rear, causing it to roll down over the eyes in front?

5. After you have made your visual check, grab the helmet in your hands, one on either side of the helmet, and try to rotate the helmet from side-to-side. Note any movement of the skin while doing this, as well as the amount of resistance to movement. Hold your head steady to do this.

Next check movement up and down, again noting skin movement and resistance. If in either test there was little or no skin movement, and/or the helmet moved very easily, the helmet is too large. A properly fitted motorcycle helmet will cause the skin to move as the helmet moves. And, it will feel to the wearer as if evenly distributed pressure is being continuously exerted around the head. Keep in mind that helmets, like shoes, will break in over time. For this reason, the best approach is to select a helmet that is as snug as possible, and take into consideration the length of time it will be worn.

For Example: A drag racer’s helmet can be very tight, because it will only be worn for a few minutes at a time. On the other hand, a police officer, who wears a helmet for hours at a time is more concerned with comfort.

6. Retention Check – THIS TEST IS VERY IMPORTANT. Now fasten the chin strap, so you can check it. After the strap has been tightly fastened, hold your head steady, and note that this test may be a little uncomfortable, but that it is very important. Reach over the top of the helmet, grabbing the bottom edge with your fingers. Then try to roll the helmet off your head. If it comes off, it is undoubtedly too large. Do not use a helmet that can be rolled off the head with the strap fastened! Go to the next smaller size and go back to step number four.

7. Confirming Proper Fit. One way to confirm your evaluation of proper fit is to try on motorcycle helmets that are one size larger and one size smaller than the one you think is right. Keep in mind that people gravitate towards larger sizes, so don’t be afraid to go smaller and snugger as long as the helmet is comfortable and fits the type of riding you do.

8. When shopping on the internet for motorcycle helmets, only purchase from web sites that provide a sizing chart for that particular brand of helmet. Do not rely on a “catch-all” sizing chart because as stated earlier, sizes vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. The sizing chart should contain the head circumference and associated helmet size, and possibly a hat size comparison. If you are still not sure what size to get and want to purchase from the internet because of low prices or availability, go to your local motorcycle dealer and try the helmet on first.

Understanding UK Show Plate Laws

In November of 2008, displaying personalised number plates on your vehicle became an offence. The driving factor in this motor vehicle law change was to deter car thieves from obtaining a seemingly legal number plate and attaching it to a stolen vehicle, thus making it difficult to spot the stolen car. These new laws ascertain that every number meets a certain criteria set. Number plates not conforming to these standards are considered show plates and must be used for off road purposes only. If show plates are used on the road, the act may be punishable in several ways.

If you are considering show plates for your vehicle, make certain they comply with current DVLA standards. These standards state that the plate must be permanently and clearly marked with standard British numbers. The typeface, font size and colouring have restricted standards as well. Finally, the plate must clearly bear a mark identifying the manufacturer of the plate and the postal code from where it was received. The symbols on the plate are subjected to spacing standards and may not convey any potentially offensive or inappropriate message.

If the plate is not in compliance with these DVLA standards, the offender may be punished. Show plates used as standard plates may receive the following punishments. A fine of €2,500 and/or suspension from the register for up to five years may be received. Because the regulations are strict and the punishment is firm, be certain that you do not use a show plate for on-road purposes. Reputable plate manufacturers are well versed in the rules and regulations of DVLA plate standards. These regulations have caused much controversy among motorists.

Motorists who are frustrated with this law have taken to blogging about their gripes with each other. And though buyer should beware, you can take solace in the fact that you can still have show plates that make their mark, so to speak, just be certain they comply with current regulations. Get your creative mind in gear and you can find a legal way to let the world know you have three sons, this is your first car, or what your favourite numbers are. If you can find something creative enough to fit the bill, your non-conforming show plate can make a nice wall hanging that becomes a quick conversation piece. With design your own plate pages, making certain your plate complies has never been easier.

Woodturning Tips – Woodturning Tool Selection For Beginners


One of the first things you need to do when you are getting started in woodturning, is to purchase your tools. There are two basic ways to acquire a starter set of tools: 1.) Purchase a basic set of tools from a manufacturer or 2.) Purchase individual tools and build your own set. For most new woodturners, I recommend that you choose option two, build your own set. While it may be tempting to just buy a basic set of tools from your favorite manufacturer, it may not be the best choice for you in the long run. Tool sets typically require you to settle for a general purpose collection, which usually contain tools that you may not need, or want initially.

Woodturning tools are basically divided between spindle tools and faceplate turning tools. Spindle tools are typically used to turn spindle projects like pens and table legs, where the grain of the wood is parallel to the bed of the lathe. Faceplate tools are typically used to turn bowls, platters and other projects, where the grain turns perpendicular to the bed of the lathe. Specialty tools are also available including tools designed for deep hollowing, center saving, threading, texturing and more.

Alloy Choices

Numerous tool alloys are available in modern woodturning tools however, two main alloys are commonly used, M2 High Speed Steel (HSS) and Powder Metal technology steel, including the ASP 2030 and ASP 2060 alloys. If you’re just getting started, choose M2 HSS for most of your woodturning tools. It’s the least expensive alloy available in the high speed steel range and it offers very good edge life for the money. Although more exotic steels are available that offer increased edge life, they can cost several times more than a basic M2 HSS tool of the same size. Once you are more established and your interests are more clearly defined, you can look to the expensive exotic tool steels to meet specific requirements.


M2 HSS is the industry standard alloy in woodturning, with an edge than can last approximately 5 – 6 times as long as traditional high carbon steel. M2 HSS can maintain its edge even if “blued” during the grinding/sharpening process. M2 HSS tools are economical and offer excellent value. M2 HSS is now available from some manufacturers in cryogenically treated versions. These tools are specially treated at temperatures of -300 degrees below zero. This treatment increases the durability and edge holding capability of the base tool steel approximately 250% or more.

ASP Powder Metal

Powder metal steel is a special type of tool steel that can hold its edge up to 4.5 times longer than traditional M2 HSS, depending on the particular alloy used. ASP powder metal tool steels offer exceptional edge life and are more expensive than M2 HSS. If you’re working very abrasive timbers, or prefer longer edge life on your tools, a few powder metal tools in your workshop will be a welcome addition to your chisel inventory.

How Are Turning Tools Measured?

Most spindle tools are measured by the diameter of the round tool shaft. Most bowl gouges are measured by the width of the flute, with the diameter of the shaft being approximately 1/8″ larger than the width of the flute. When selecting turning tools, bear in mind that many woodturning tools have multiple applications. This means that one turning tool may in effect, have many different uses.

Determining What Woodturning Tools You Need To Get Started

The first step in selecting which woodturning tools you need to get started, is to decide if you want to turn spindle projects, faceplate projects, or maybe a little of both. Next, you need to determine what size lathe you will be using, mini, intermediate, or large. Obviously, larger projects on big lathes require larger tools than what you would need with small and medium sized lathes.

Tools To Consider Purchasing

The following basic tool list is suitable for a beginner woodturner, organized by the type of tool. This list assumes you want to do a variety of spindle and faceplate projects and you’re turning on a lathe that swings 12″, or less. Lathe swing is defined as twice the distance from the bedway to the center of the spindle. Looked at another way, the swing is the maximum diameter round blank that a lathe can turn without hitting the bedway. If your lathe is larger or smaller than the example above, you will need to adjust the sizes of tools listed to meet your specific requirements.

Spindle Gouges

1/4″, 3/8″ and 1/2″ spindle gouges. These will be your mainstay for spindle work and fine detail work. They can also be used on the outside of bowls for detail work, but never on the inside. Spindle gouges are unsuitable for bowl hollowing work.

Bowl Gouges

1/2″ deep fluted bowl gouge for rough-out work and bulk wood removal. A 3/8″ deep fluted bowl gouge would also be very useful for finishing cuts.

Detail Gouges

If your budget allows it, a 3/8″ or 7/16″ detail gouge would be useful for reaching long distances off the tool rest. Detail gouges feature a shallow flute, which adds rigidity to the shaft and reduces vibrations.

Parting Tools

Two main styles are needed a 3/16″ diamond parting tool for general work and deep parting cuts and an ultra-thin kerf 1/16″ tool for minimal waste when grain matching, working on boxes, pens etc.


A thick scraper is a great tool to use occasionally during bowl turning. The best scrapers are thick and wide with the 3/8″ x 1.5″ half round nose being a good overall choice. In addition, if your budget allows it, add a 3/8″ x 1.5″ dual angle scraper. This tool is an excellent choice for shear scraping of many faceplate projects.

Skew Chisels

If you’re doing a lot of spindle work, a Skew Chisel is a must have to produce glass smooth surfaces right off the tool. A 3/4″ or a 1″ skew chisel would be a good choice. There are several styles including a straight skew, rounded skew, oval skew and full round skew. Most of my students prefer the straight skew, or rounded skew when learning this tool.

Micro Turning Tools

If you anticipate doing lots of bowl and platter detail work, or smaller spindle type projects such as pens, small inlays, vases etc, a few micro turning tools are nice to have on hand. Among the more useful are 1/4″ and 3/16″ micro spindle gouges, a 1/4″ micro round nose scraper and a 1/4″ micro skew chisel. You will use these regularly for various types of detail work on your projects.

How to Become a Sound Engineer

Sound engineers are half problem solvers and half creative artists. He must ensure sound is captured, controlled, and reproduced without issues, and that the sound is pleasing and moves the audience in the intended fashion.

Careers as an Audio Engineer


  • Live sound engineer working in venues
  • Recording engineer in a studio
  • Mix engineer
  • Mastering engineer


  • Boom microphone operator
  • TV or Film mixer
  • Sound designer
  • Re-Recording Engineer
  • Voice over Engineer

Many sound engineers work a freelance basis, technically working for themselves and finding clients who need their services. While there are no technical qualifications for this, one needs to have technical knowledge, experience, and determination to ensure a prosperous career.


Many universities and colleges now offer audio engineering programs in which students learn how to operate equipment and sound and acoustics basics. The advantages of a program are possible networking opportunities, a degree or certificate, and a fast track gaining experience. However, the programs can be quite expensive with no guarantees of a job.

Mentors / Internship

No matter if you attend school or not, learning first hand from a mentor through an apprenticeship or internship is highly valuable. While school often teaches theory, mentors teach real-life work flow and application.


In sound, one is always learning and trying to improve their craft. Many sound engineers learned through self-study and experience. There are countless books on the subjects of recording, mixing, mastering, and sound for film. Online e-courses, videos, and tutorials are also a great way to learn from others. There are many forums dedicated to different aspects of audio engineers with well-known professionals taking part in enlightening discussion covering the industry. Many magazines exist with up to date articles covering sound as well. All of these resources are extremely valuable to your audio education.

In addition to knowledge, you’ll need to put the knowledge to practice using any gear you can get your hands on and working in a variety of situations. You will make many mistakes, but learning from mistakes is how you make progress. Over time, you will be good enough and have enough experience under your belt to begin charging for your work as a freelancer or looking for a job in sound. You will need to hustle and present your best work to stand out from the crowd of other aspiring engineers.

As always with sound, protect your ears at all costs as they are your most valuable asset and hearing damage is irreversible. With hard work and determination, you can be a sound engineer and work on the subject that interests you.

Law Of Detachment – Flowing With God

There is another Law in conscious creation of reality that is as equally important to understand as the Law of Attraction. It is the Law of Detachment. It is this Law that gives the crucial distinction in utilizing the Law of Attraction successfully. The Law of Detachment is complimentary to the Law of Attraction.

The Law of Detachment says that in order to successfully attract something, you must be detached to the outcome. If you are attached, you project negative emotions of fear, doubt, or craving which actually attracts the opposite of your desire. You are operating from a position of worry, fear and doubt rather than serenity, trust and faith. Of course there are times when negative emotions are meant to be felt and acted upon, but your dominant emotions should be positive ones.

Let go and let God. Anything you want can be acquired through detachment, because detachment is based on resting in the complete grace of God and knowing that He is always working everything through you and together for your greatest good. To be detached is to realize that everything good is from God and nothing at all is from you. It is God doing it through you and the other elements in your reality so there’s nothing to hold on to as your own, all you have to do is to have the right beliefs and let God do it.

Ease and perfection of action depend entirely upon the degree in which we cease to depend upon the consciousness. You have to take your conscious mind off it in order to let your subconscious mind take over. The pilot and the autopilot cannot control the plane at the same time. You have to let go in order to let God take over. To detach is to allow the universe to bring your desire into manifestation whichever way is best for you. When you are detached, your desires will manifest much faster.

To be attached means to be powerless because what you attach yourself to, you give your power to it. When you look to outside sources to bring you fulfillment, you are giving your power away. When you are looking to something outside yourself for power and happiness, you are making something other than your true self your source. Detach knowing that whatever you detach from has no power over you, but you have complete power over it.

Attachment to anything will always create insecurity no matter how much of it you have. In fact, some of the people who have the most of what they want are the most insecure. Attachment to something makes you wonder if you will keep having it or if your may lose it. Insecurity causes unhappiness.

The search for security and certainty is actually an attachment to the known. There’s no evolution in that, absolutely none at all. And when there is no evolution, there is stagnation, entropy, disorder, and disintegration.

Uncertainty and the unknown is the field of all possibilities or pure potential. It is ever fresh, ever new, always open to the creation of new manifestations. It is the realm of pure creativity and freedom. When you are attached, your intention gets locked into a rigid mindset and you lose the fluidity, the flexibility, and the spontaneity inherent in the field of pure potential.

When you experience uncertainty, you are on the right path so don’t give it up. You don’t need to have a complete and rigid idea of what you’ll be doing next week or next year, because if you have a very clear idea of what’s going to happen and you get rigidly attached to it, then you shut out a whole range of possibilities. Realize that there is an infinite intelligence working alongside your own and it is the one that can bring you a better way or more worthwhile experience. All you have to do is state your intentions and desires and detach from the how and when they manifest.

Are there times when you want to work something out, but yet the more you try to work it out, the worse it gets? When God works, it is effortless. God arranges the situations for you when you are not in it, so that when you step in, you experience the blessings. It is so much better to depend on God than to depend on your own strength. Unless the Lord builds the house, they that labor do so in vain. What you can control, you should control. What you can’t control, you should let go and let God. When you trust God, everything is under control.

God will never deny our request because whatever we want for ourselves we can manifest. But to experience nonresistance and effortless accomplishment, we must surrender to the will of the Universe who only wants for us nothing but the best for we are the beloved children of the Creator who wants us to have it all. As Jesus reminds us, “it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom.”

You may have the intention of going in a certain direction but between point A and point B there are infinite possibilities. With uncertainty factored in, you might change direction in any moment if you find a higher ideal, or something more worthwhile pursuing. You are also less likely to force solutions on problems, which enables you to stay alert to opportunities. One door seems closed, but there is another open. What you want can always come in another way. God never closes a door without opening another one, so we need to stay alert to see whatever new opportunities life presents us.

Imagine you found a job you’re looking for. It looks like the job you want, and it appears the odds are in your favor as you move from interview to interview within the office, yet at the last minute they choose to hire someone else. If you are detached then you trust that another opportunity, the right opportunity is on its way. However, if you are so attached to getting that job for whatever reason, you cause yourself lots of anxiety and stress if you don’t get it, which means you are looking for this job as an outside source to fulfill you on some level.

The Law of Detachment accelerates the whole process of evolution. When you understand this law, you don’t feel compelled to force solutions. When you force solutions on problems, you only create new problems. But when you wait patiently and in faith, the right solution will arise on its own. Confusion is the doorway to a new understanding. Order will emerge from the chaos.

We must have goals otherwise we are denying our inner desires, cutting ourselves off from growth and development. Goals inspire us to live, create and move forward. If we are not doing this, we are dying on the inside. We want to embrace desires and intentions but we just don’t want to cling to them. Of course, we all want to realize our goals and desires, however if realizing them is the source of our well-being, the source of our happiness or worthiness we will fail!

We have all heard of or know the classic stereotypes called overachievers who appear to have it all, the money, the fame, the status, only to be miserable on the inside. They’ve been setting and realizing goals all their lives, and are still miserable.

This is why detachment is so crucial. When you don’t have to have this thing in order to be well, or be happy, then you can let go and enjoy the process. Understand it is the process that is the joy, because the minute we realize our goal, we are going to be setting new goals. There is no realization of any goal that is going to be the completion of us, once we realize one goal we are going to keep moving forward, we are evolutionary beings. I am sure you have all experienced this. There is no way that the realization of goals is the source of our peace of mind or wholeness.

The purpose of life is growth. Life without progress becomes unbearable. It is the cycle of continuous progress that makes us happy. We are Energy Beings and energy is always in motion. To live is to keep moving and flowing. When we stop we die. Nothing rests, everything moves. Only at the highest rate of movement where God is flowing continually in us is there rest.

We learn from the law of attraction that all we experience is the result of what we feel. When we feel undesirable feelings, we attract undesirable experiences. Realize that when we feel undesirable feelings, it is because we are in a state of attachment to certain things that create those feelings. Break away from the attachment, stop worrying and bothering about it. Have not a care, act like it doesn’t matter and your feelings will be liberated to more positive ones of fun, joy and peace.

The truth about States in NLP is really all about being in or out of alignment with your Higher Self. When you are in alignment, you experience all your desired states such as happiness, confidence, freedom, joy, peace, fulfillment, empowerment. When you are not in alignment, you experience all your undesired states such as worry, fear, anxiety, uncertainty, weakness, frustration, depression and disempowerment. So in essence, there are only two states, a state of alignment and a state of misalignment.

The Higher Self is the divine and universal aspect of God in us. Paul says “in my flesh wells nothing good”, but not “in my spirit”. Our spirit is the universal spirit of God. The image of God.

No one else can take the place of your center except two persons. Christ in you and you in Christ. Anyone else that is close the center of your heart can only be allowed to orbit around the center and not placed in it. You are not to be attached to anyone or anything. To be in a state of non-attachment is to be like God. God is unattached to everything, he allows his creation to be free. If it wasn’t so, He wouldn’t give anything free will.

Have not a care in the world. Be free spirited and carefree. Have fun, play the game. Remember there are no rules and there are no limits. Just have the attitude of doing something and then seeing what happens. Be in a position where you have nothing to lose. We are beings of evolution. It doesn’t matter whether the past experience was good or not. Keep moving on to the next one.

Some of the best things you desire just seem to happen to you when you are in a total “I don’t give a damn” mode. And while it is happening, it is no big deal to you and it doesn’t matter. But you acknowledge the paradox of what’s going on in the situation, that you get what you want when you don’t really seem to want it.

Be insistent yet detached. You focus on what you want, expecting it to happen and even when it didn’t happen, it doesn’t matter. Have a detached involvement. There is a fine line between caring in a detached way and being truly uncaring. Just like there is a fine line between perfect good and perfect evil. Because the opposite ends of a polarity spectrum are really just next to each other.

Detachment does not mean we feel nothing. Detachment is not apathy or indifference. Detachment feels freeing! When we are successfully detached from the outcome we feel like the Universe has our back, like all is well, like we can trust in our greater good, like we are absolutely certain that all that we desire is already ours. It is essential to intentional creation to get into a feeling place of peaceful expectation that what we want is already at hand. As long as we are ‘attached’ we will continue to focus on the negative aspects of what we don’t want and the fears that come up as we doubt our ability to manifest.

Do not engage in something if it is the only option you feel you have. You are being attached. You will be disappointed and mentally shifted out of alignment with your center, if the thing you want to do is not available for one reason or another at the time you want to do it. Create several other good options to take on in place of it at the time as well before you choose to engage in it. When you go ahead and do it in that manner, you will most likely get what you want because your energies are right.

Enlightenment is a state of non-attachment. It is the realization that all suffering is burning energy on the uncontrollable. To be unattached is emotional freedom and psychological stability. Keep you thoughts flowing. As long as there is flow, there is abundance. The moment you rest at any place, you stagnate and there is lack.

We are beings of evolution. When we accomplish goals, we set new goals. We either progress or regress, we never stand still. We feel like we are dying if we are not growing, and collapsing if we are not expanding. When you keep advancing, your intelligence and knowledge will be in effect. When you become attached, your intelligence and knowledge will be of no effect.

To be in grace is to live in the truth that all things flow from God through you and so there is nothing to cling on to as yours. To be under the law is to be enslaved by the yoke of bondage which is attachment. To be attached is to fall from grace because you are trying to hold on to emptiness and are no longer flowing. When you are attached, Christ your Higher Self is of no effect unto you. When you are detached, you acknowledge that you are using God’s power and not your own.

The more you are unattached, the more you allow God to flow in you and the more rapidly your desires will manifest because your Energy and vibrations are more aligned with the flow of God’s Energy and therefore that which you desire in your life.

It is an enlightened way of living your life. You have to let go and trust that life itself is taking you to the things you desire. As you let go and trust, you feel different, you radiate a different vibration to the world, and better things and experiences come to you Again, the whole secret is in learning to simply let go.

Learn to follow the quiet voice within that speaks in feelings rather than words. Follow what you hear inside, rather than what others may be telling you to do. The universe itself will act to move you to what you want, and move what you want to you. All you have to do is let go, while acting on your inner prompts. Let go of fear, doubt, worry, disappointment, and any other negative emotion that might make you feel low.

Being unattached gives you the ability to drop whatever it is you are focusing upon at the moment and focus on something new. It makes you able to switch your concentration from one thing to another. It keeps your consciousness in flow and not fixed at any spot so it can be free and spontaneous in experiencing unfoldment.

Effectively applying the law of attraction requires both desire and acceptance. Practicing the law of detachment is how we can accept and expect what we desire. The two laws work harmoniously to support us in effectively applying the power of our minds and the universal laws of creation.

Every problem you experience in life is an opportunity for you to gain precious awareness that you do not already possess. A problem is an experience with a lesson to learn. The lesson contains the valuable awareness that will increase the sum total of your soul’s knowledge, that empowers you to a greater level of living and being. The key to learning the lesson is in perception and lateral thinking. Be flexible and have an open mind. You will find the solution that you are happy with.

We are all instruments of God whether yielded or unyielded. When we are yielded, we are of more use and become more powerful instruments and also enjoy the process with greater happiness. Do not care, just surrender yourself to the flow of God. It is flowing all the time and when you are ready, it will flow through you. When you are detached, you are trusting and surrendering to God. Anytime you are not detached, you are not trusting, not surrendering and not yielding to God.

The law of detachment explains why productivity increases when a person takes frequent breaks from work. Being able to constantly walk away from what you are doing puts you in a state of rest and thereby able to continuously reconnect with the flow of God by keeping your energy in motion and your mind afresh. You may have stepped out from the flow for a while and feel lost and break in momentum, but the flow is always there and you can step back into it again and it will be perfect.

Insulation – Home Insulation Basics

With the ever-rising cost of energy, good quality  insulation  methods for residential as well as commercial setups have become indispensable. In this article we’ve included some basic knowledge about home  insulation , all the things you need to know before you think about making necessary changes to your space.

How does heat move from one place to another? What is fibre glass  insulation ?

With the help of fiber glass  insulation , you’ll be able to keep your home warm during the winters and cool during the summers. There is a simple principle behind the fibre glass mechanism. Firstly,  insulation  inhibits the flow of heat and secondly, that heat always flows from a warmer area to a cooler one. This means that the heat in your house (if it’s not insulated) will flow out of your house in winters and into your house in summers. With proper  insulation , you’ll be able to reduce the heat flow thereby expending little energy for heating and cooling.

How can one effectively insulate an enclosed space like a home?

 Insulation  is not only required for outside walls as well as attics but is also required for other areas of the house such as floors, porches, knee walls, vented crawl spaces, basement walls and other unheated spaces.  Insulation  is especially required for areas like bathrooms and restrooms.

What amount of  insulation  will you need for your home?

The amount of  insulation  will generally vary depending on where you live. People living in extreme climates will need more of it than the ones living in places with tropical and extreme climates.

Do you know the fundamentals of R-value?

R-value or ‘Resistance to Heat-Value’ is a unit of measurement of  insulation . Insulating power is directly proportional to R-Value.

How to look for the right R-Values while purchasing home insulating materials?

Most manufacturers of such products print R-Values, either along with their label or on their bags. Make suitable choices depending on the climate conditions prevalent in your area. Ideally, you can also consult with your supplier if you aren’t able to make an appropriate choice.

As far as insulating materials are concerned, what all options do you have?

There is a huge variety available in the market these days, some of which are cotton, foam, cellulose, mineral wool and fiber glass. However, the two most popular insulating materials in use today are cellulose and fiber glass. Fiber glass is not only a good heat insulator but is a good sound absorber as well. It’s often used in recording studios for sound isolation.

More about Fiber Glass Material

One good thing about fiber glass material is that they do not settle or deteriorate over time. Fiber glass material, once installed for the purpose of heat isolation will last you a life time. Besides this advantage, fiber glass is resistant to combustion as well. This is one reason that it is preferred over other insulating materials. Most insulating materials lose their power if they absorb moisture. Fiber glass material is non absorbent!

We hope you liked this article and will make good use of this information!

Jump! Jump! Two Great Tips to Start Your Day

Just like Tigger on Winnie the Pooh, I think bouncing is fun. What I didn’t realize is what great health benefits there are for your body. One of my best girlfriends introduced me to it several years ago. She used to start each morning “rebounding”. If you haven’t heard the term, I’m not talking about basketball or dating after a break-up; I’m talking about bouncing on a mini-trampoline. If this is news to you, keep reading.

I want to give you two GREAT tips for starting your day. First is to start your day with a warm cup of lemon water. Think of the first things you put in your body. For a lot of the world, it’s coffee. For others it may be milk, store-bought juice, or pop (ouch). I could go into each one of these and describe the negative health benefits associated with each like acid, sugar spikes and digestive issues but instead I’ll explain why warm lemon water. Water will wake you up on the inside. Believe it or not, you are pretty dehydrated after sleeping through the night. It not only helps you with feeling awake and alert but goes in and gets the “gears” in your body working right. Your digestive track and all your major organs will thank you for it. The lemon (or lime if you prefer) is a nice addition as far as taste goes but it helps with your body’s alkalinity, hydration factors and has detoxing benefits. Some people say you should drink ice cold water. The thought behind this is thermogenics; meaning your body has to work to warm the water thus burning some additional calories. However, if you are talking about what’s best for your body, the warm water is easier on your liver and gallbladder than slamming some ice cold water. Additionally, the lemon can make up in other “weight loss” attributes and you’ll burn the extra calories on the trampoline as well.

Next you can go to the mini-tramp and get your bouncing going. We have ours in our room and would start the day that way. I believe that’s the easiest place to keep it and make it part of your routine. I’m not sure about you but with two small kids and the fact that I live in Ohio, I am at least one hundred times more likely to get up and rebound than go for a jog, walk or jump rope first thing in the morning. It’s nice because if you have a high bed, you can just turn it upside down and slide it under there or roll it behind a door. The list for the health benefits is HUGE. There are the common sense ones like it just helps your body wake up, gets your blood circulating… helps with your mood. This exercise helps with prevention and those who have symptoms of “diseases” like cancer, diabetes, blood pressure issues and depression with the movement of the lymphatic system. What’s great is that if someone is not well, this is one of the few exercises you can do physically that can help them get victory over the symptoms. Some women that have issues with cellulite see products or machines out there that are said to help with cellulite. Cellulite is just fatty stores and rebounding is a real solution to getting rid of it. Rebounding helps your lymph system – it can increase the flow by 15-30 times! It’s like doing a little maintenance cleaning every day – helps your body get out the gunk.

In the beginning you may feel your muscles are loose but as you rebound more, you will notice everything gets tighter. Everyone keeps telling me about Spanx but I have yet to discover them. I imagine rebounding is like making built-in Spanx for your body. You may not believe it but this exercise can even help with menstrual comfort. You can get a mini-tramp at most sporting goods stores, maybe even Meijer. I got mine at Dick’s Sporting Goods, I think mine cost $40. Now it even doubles as a toy since my daughters “rebound” too. If you know what to look for you can find workouts online. I think just doing anything on there for 10-15 minutes will make a big impact for your life. Rebounding for longer than 20 minutes at a moderate intensity at least 3 times per week increases the mitochondria count within the muscle cells and increases endurance. You can add arms, do one leg alone, jumping jacks, kick your legs front/back, swing your arms… Imagine all the health benefit of jumping rope and this is basically low impact rope jumping. If you want to burn the extra calories you can even move your arms as if you are jumping rope or do small circles at your sides to really feel the burn. If you Google rebounding workouts you will even find routines or workouts online.

Here are some listed benefits:

1. Provides an increased G-force (gravitational load) and strengthens the musculoskeletal systems.

2. Protects joints from the impact of exercising on hard surfaces.

3. Improves body fat composition.

4. Stimulates lymphatic circulation helping fight disease and illness.

5. Delivers more oxygen to the tissues promoting repair and creates more available oxygen to the body’s environment.

6. Assists in the rehab of heart issues with blood pressure and circulation but in a low impact state. Increased flow creates less stress on the heart.

7. Increases the proper activity of the red bone marrow in the production of red blood cells.

8. Improves metabolism so calories are burned during and after the workout.

9. Benefits alkaline reserves assisting in fighting acidity.

10. Improved balance and brain activity.

11. Aids digestion and elimination – crucial to health.

12. Benefits body alignment and posture thus relieving neck and back pains, headaches, and other pain caused by lack of exercise and improper alignment.

13. More energy means less need for naps and better sleep in the evening.

14. Boosts the immune system and cuts the number of colds, allergies, digestive disturbances, and abdominal problems.

15. Rebounding tends to slow down atrophy in the aging process.

16. Enjoyable and easy to maintain through the years thus improving quality of life and self-image.