Beautify Your House With Glass Balustrades

In this day and age, many people are now more adventurous when exploring new materials for design. Glass is slowly becoming one of the most sought after materials that evoke a modern appeal and a touch of elegance. Glass balustrades are no exception. Used as a balustrade for staircases, balconies, or terraces, a glass balustrade maximizes a persons view and initiates a sense of excitement. Balustrades are created to keep people from ever falling off a balcony or a staircase. With glass balustrades, you can make them feel a pleasant thrill of being unsupported, while at the same time, maximizing their views of the lower levels.

Originally and historically, balustrades were once only made of metal or wood. The advancements in technology and architecture has allowed the usage of glass as efficient and extremely durable balustrades perfect for commercial or domestic use.

Glass balustrades are created with vertical or horizontal sheets of glass. Now used commercially, you can see glass balustrades in malls and shopping centers, allowing light to flow freely and giving the venue a sense of sophistication. For a modern take on design, why not take these glass balustrades into your own home and line your staircases with balustrades made of glass? Frameless glass balustrades can be beautifully simple, but they can be intricate and ornate as well. Using frosted glass with intricate designs based solely on your own preference, you can add to your homes beauty and sophistication.

Today’s innovation in manufacturing has made it extremely easy for glass to be made as a balustrade, even for your own home. These types of balustrades can now be used for your landings or your staircases. Ready-made kits are even available for you to patch the glass balustrade by yourself, or if you find this process too difficult, you can hire a specialist to help you with constructing it.

When it comes to creating these balustrades, you need shoe moldings, rails, panel clips, and glass panels. Choosing your glass panels is very significant for you need to choose toughened glass or Plexiglas for safety. The shoe molding provides the ground support of the balustrade, securing it in place and making sure it doesn’t wobble or fall out. These moldings can be made of different kinds of metal, but for added foundation, aluminum is often used. To recreate the handrail, cap rails are used to line the edge of the glass. Cap rails prevent the sharp edges of the glass to prevent injury, and they come in various forms and designs as well.

Glass balustrades are very easy to maintain. Using a glass cleaner or solvent and a piece of rag, you can wipe unwanted hand prints and dust in a jiffy. If you’re living in a small house with a staircase, glass balustrades are a great way to create the illusion of space and make your house look vaster. They also allow light to travel and flow freely, giving your house a lighter, more vibrant appeal. Very affordable and easy to acquire, a glass balustrade can be a very good investment for improving your home’s design.

Educational Role Plays

Practice Makes Perfect

You can call a role play a practice opportunity, but pulses still quicken when it comes to this part of a training course.

People feel exposed, that there is a chance that they may be humiliated, that they may fail.

Good interactive training which helps people to learn has to include practice. This is where learning accelerates; because people are making their own sense of the theory and its relevance to their role.

One of our recent courses included someone who was training for the Olympic Archery team. He said ” It’s quite simple when you practice you have to learn what works, and that may not be what feels right. “

The introduction of good well run practice sessions into a training course separates good trainers from bad. As trainers we have to help people step out of their comfort zone, and try different approaches.

Our role is to enable the perfect practice which will help participants gain new skills, and to allow them the space to think about their own style, how it will work for them and where and when it may work against them.

People learn by doing and good skills training has to include well timed practice, which includes the opportunity for meaningful discussion and feedback.

Here’s some tips to get the best from role play:

  • Make it realistic as possible
  • Introduce the first practice carefully
  • Explain the importance of the preparation, do and review cycle in learning and how preparing will give them a better outcome ( which is better for their confidence )
  • Get them to focus on what they personally want to concentrate on and use that in the feedback discussions
  • Ensure there is a clear process for giving feedback, which gets everyone to acknowledge what people do well. Skills practice should be about affirming and building confidence as well as learning skills and approaches that will help participants improve.

What Is the Caveman Diet?

For hundreds of thousands of years, mankind has lived off a hunter gatherer diet. We call this diet the caveman diet. Other names for this include the paleo diet or stone age diet. In the last 5000 years, due to the advent of farming and refining of food, the nature of our diet has changed considerably. In particular in the last 50 to 100 years our diets have changed even more so due to modern industrial methods of refining and preserving food. The caveman diet involves eating foods which are more akin to that of our hunter gatherer ancestors.

The logic behind this is that from an evolutionary point of view you would expect a species to adapt to tolerate and thrive on foods which are readily available from the immediate surroundings. For example cows have lived off grass for a long time and as such have a digestive system which is capable of extracting all of the proper nutrients from grass and a metabolic system which thrives on the nutrients available from grass.

In the same way our bodies have developed in an environment where the foods available to us included what we could pull out of the ground or off a tree or what we could hunt, cook and eat or fish from the local waterways. Although evolution helps any species to adapt to changes in food sources the process is generally slow. However farming and refining of food has been a dramatic and rapid change which evolution has not had a chance to catch up with. As a result our modern diet of refined wheat, low fat, high carbohydrate and processed foods is a major cause of obesity, ill health, diabetes and many inflammatory diseases.

There is increasing evidence that switching to a diet that mimics that of our caveman ancestors will help a person to lose weight, improve fitness and avoid many chronic diseases.

The paleo caveman diet involves modifying our diet and lifestyle to that of our hunter gatherer ancestors. this means making changes not only to your diet but also to your exercise, sleep and stress levels. From the point of view of diet, that means eating lots of lean meat and fresh fish, lots of root vegetables and fruits, and seeds and nuts. It also means avoiding refined sugars and wheat products wherever possible. The paleolithic diet is full of tasty satisfying foods and those who choose to try it experience weight loss, improved energy levels and overall good health.

DIY – Ignition Switch on an Harley

Some Harley owners like to fix their own bikes, thereby saving both money and riding time. A Harley motorcycle can experience electrical problems at any time, but there can be a wait for a service appointment at some repair shops. The most common cause of electrical problems on a Harley is the battery or the voltage regulator. Troubleshooting is easy to do in any garage, and it saves on expensive service bills.

When an ignition switch is bad, remove the old one, and install the new ignition switch. Please note that this instruction is for a Harley with the ignition switch located on the tank instrument panel. Some ignition switches install on the forks of the bike. Refer to the owner’s manual and switch manual for the model specific instruction.

Make sure you gather all the tools that you will need to do the job. These include, a torque wrench, the ignition switch, the owner’s manual for the bike, a Phillips screwdriver.

Take the new Harley ignition switch and place it on the console, where the old one was located. Line up the screw holes.

Insert the four screws and get them started in their holes. Tighten the screws, in a crosswise pattern, turning each screw a little at a time, until tightened.

Connect the light/key switch.

Place the top of the instrument console bolt in the space at the top of the underside of the console.

Slide the console to the install position. Attach the fuel pump connector. Bend the clamp and insert the fuel pump connection into the main harness.

Place the console in position on the fuel tank. Tighten the nut at the top of the console to 50-90lbs, tighten the Phillips screw and washer that may also be present.

Install the bolt with a flat washer located on the rear of the fuel tank. This is on FLHRS models only. This bolt should be tightened to 15 to 20 lbs.

Install the new cable strap that came with the ignition. Place the cable strap into a hole on the left of the frame. Capture the main wiring harness, instrument console connector, and the fuel vent tube in the cable strap. Tighten the cable strap. Cut off any excess cable strap and discard.

Place the battery cable bolt through the battery negative cable terminal and tighten to 60-90lbs.

Install the seat and test the ignition. Finally, just ride.

Neurological Evidence of the Hypnotic State

Considering that the only exposure many people have with hypnosis is watching nightclub entertainers put audience volunteers in a hypnotic state and then having the person behave like a dog or intimate object, it stands to reason that the general public is skeptical about the usage of hypnosis in clinical settings. Though psychotherapists manipulate hypnosis as part of clinical treatment for numerous psychiatric conditions, many from the medical community question whether placing individuals a hypnotic state comes with a legitimate type of treatment or perhaps the clinical benefits are just a placebo effect. With the advances in brain imaging and devices to watch alterations in brain activity over the last two decades, there is certainly mounting neurological evidence documenting modifications in brain activity that occur when an individual is in the hypnotic state. This clinical evidence supports the application of hypnosis in treatment, and also provides a way to explore new uses of hypnosis in clinical settings.

The Neurological Changes that Occur During Hypnosis

The psychotherapists that have been pioneers inside the clinical hypnosis first tried to treat people suffering from conversion disorders or hysteria. Each time a person experiences a higher degree of tension and chould not find an effective way to release the stress, one of the possible consequences would be that the individual’s body “converts” the psychological distress into physical condition, such as paralysis. Once these people are place into a hypnotic state by way of a trained hypnotherapist, their physical symptoms disappear. Modern neurological evidence can now explain why hypnosis is indeed highly efficient at the management of conversion disorders. When folks are in a hypnotic state, you’ll find changes in the game inside the frontal lobe in the brain, which only occur during hypnosis.

The Function of the Frontal Lobe

The frontal lobe in the brain is the hub for higher thinking and the control center for emotions. If you find a compound imbalance or damage to this portion of the brain, an individual probably have difficulty making decision, controlling impulsive behavior, problems with managing anger and anxiety, modifications in perception, or memory impairments. Since people experience changes in brain activity in frontal lobe section of the brain if they are within a hypnotic state, you can actually observe how hypnosis may be used to treat addictions, emotional disorders, also to improve concentration while keeping focused.

Neurological Evidence Alterations in Frontal Lobe Activity Linked to Hypnosis

Research conducted by a Swiss and Finnish research team published inside the peer-reviewed journal Clinical Hypnosis used electroencephalogram (EEG) readings to research modifications in brain that occur within a hypnotic state. The final results with this controlled study provided neurological evidence of significant and distinct modifications in brainwave activity inside the frontal lobe area, which are unique to those who are within a hypnotic state. On account of these changes, the subject who underwent hypnosis had significant improvements in alertness and concentration. Another critical finding on this scientific studies are that the team learned that modifications in frontal lobe activity continued after the person was no longer within a hypnotic state, which offers neurological evidence with the long-term treatments involving hypnosis (Fingelkurts, Fingelkurts,, Kallio, & Revonsuo, 2007).

Neurological Evidence Supporting the usage of Hypnosis with PSTD

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is often a debilitating psychiatric condition certainly where an person experiences vivid and intrusive memories associated with an event where the person perceived a substantial threat to their life. These memoires often seem so real that this person could have behavioral and emotional responses to them, for example fighting having an attacker or cowering with fear. Many people associate PSTD as being a disorder affecting combat veterans, but this disorder is also common in children who’ve experienced abuse, rape survivors, and people who have lived through disasters.

Among the treatment interventions for PTSD patients that were used by psychotherapists for more than a century is hypnosis. Modern research demonstrates the strength of hypnosis in conjunction with cognitive behavioral therapy or as a standalone treatment modality. Recent research provides neurological proof of alterations in brain activity that supports the application of hypnosis in the treatment of PTSD.

People who have PTSD have distinct difference in patterns of Theta waves, a sort of electrical brain activity, with their EEG reading in comparison to people that don’t suffer this problem. Clinical neurological evidence signifies that hypnosis elevates the amount of Theta wave activity in the brain, thus correcting the abnormalities in brain activity linked to PTSD symptoms. Since most individuals who have PTSD can easily get into a hypnotic state easily, the procedure process works for the majority of patients in cutting the occurrence of flashbacks and the degree of anxiety related symptoms (Gruzelier, 2006).

Neurological Proof the Hypnotic State Brings about Medical Ways to use Hypnosis

Using the mounting neurological evidence demonstrating the changes in brain activity that occur the hypnotic state, medical specialties outside the method of psychiatry now explore the main advantages of hypnosis in numerous regions of medicine. By way of example, research has learned that hypnosis can help women reduce the wish of premature labor, as well as to decrease the pain experienced during labor (Reinhard, Huesken-Janßen, Hatzmann & Schiermeier, 2009 Wilson & Dillard, 2012). Hypnosis had been proved to be effective with children in treating migraine headaches (Kohen, 2010).

While people enjoy the antics of nightclub performers who use hypnosis as part of their acts, you will find there’s growing body of neurological evidence the hypnotic state provides real benefits for any broad range of psychological and health concerns.

Calis Beach and Fethiye Turkey

Calis beach is located on the southern Mediterranean coast of Turkey about 5 km from the natural bay and small port of Fethiye. It has a moderate climate and spectacular scenery.

The town has a 3 mile beach   frontage  with restricted watersports and comes alive during the summer season providing an excellent choice for a perfect relaxing holiday. It has areas of protected parks and quiet walks, restaurants with varied menus and styles and boasts the largest local (canvas) covered market – every Sunday.

The 2km promenade along the beach is lined with restaurants and bars to accommodate all tastes.

Fethiye is just a short distance away and can be visited by using the ‘Dolmus’ – a small white privately owned minibus – from outside the Aquapark. They run approximately every 10 minutes. There will be a small green sign in the windscreen that says ‘Fethiye’. The fare for this is 1YTL, which is the new currency or 1 million Turkish lire old currency, approximately 40 English pence. A taxi rank can be found next to the roundabout on your way to the beach, but by far the most enjoyable way into Fethiye is via the water-taxi’s down by the river in Calis. These take you across the bay to Fethiye harbour.

Fethiye has places of historic interest, markets and unspoilt charm where you can watch the world go by from one of the many street or portside cafe’s.

This Mediterranean town is the perfect place to visit with its good selection of harbour-front restaurants and bars, variety of shops and food markets and even a local Turkish bath.

The towns natural beauty – comprising of a stunning coastline and dramatic Touros mountain scenery, cultural heritage and of course excellent Turkish hospitality – is a great way to spend a day away from the beach

On a historical level, Fethiye has castle ruins set on the hillside overlooking the bay and ancient Lycian rock tombs. Ruins of a Roman amphitheater can also be found behind the harbour. The town’s Museum in the centre displays archaeological finds from Lycian, Persian, Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman periods. It’s open every day except Mondays.

In the centre of town you’ll find a good selection of shops selling household items from jewelery to clothes. There’s also a fantastic fruit and vegetable market and an aromatic fish market where you can look and select the fish you want, point to one of the surrounding restaurants where you’d like to sit and they will clean the fish, take it to your restaurant and have it cooked for you there and then. The restaurant will serve it to you with salad and fresh bread. All this can be done at an extremely reasonable price.

Further on from the fish market you will find Fethiye’s amazing small streets lined with shops and bazaars and where in the evenings the buzzing nightclubs come to life.

Fethiye holds a huge traditional market bazaar every Tuesday, selling local produce, kitchenwares, souvenirs and bargain clothes. Turkey is renowned for being the place to buy “cheap as chips”, excellent quality “genuine-fake designer clothes” – and if you want them, this market is the place to come. Be prepared for the friendly locals infamous catchphrases! “Buy one – get me free!” and “Cheaper than Asda!”

A market is also held every Sunday in Calis.

Fethiye also has a post office and good selection of banks and exchange offices.

There is a cinema in Fethiye that often shows films with the original English soundtracks (with Turkish subtitles) and which advertises in the local English paper ‘Land of Lights’.

English newspapers can be found in shops and markets in Fethiye and Calis.

‘HELLO CAFE – This cafe is well worth a visit. It is located at the Calis end of Fethiye harbor. Its green canopy juts out into the harbor a short distance, where you can sit at a table next to the waters edge and place your order ensuring that you ask for a loaf of bread as well! Now all that’s needed is for you to break the bread into small pieces and throw it into the water and watch the amazing sight that will unfold before your eyes. The water will come alive with fish literally climbing on each other’s backs to get the bread. Fantastic!

OLD TURKISH BATH (HAMAM) – Experience a true Turkish delight whilst in Fethiye in traditional style. The Turkish baths or ‘Hamam’ can be found in the middle of the small shops and bars area, behind the fish market.

9 Features of Victorian Homes

The highly decorative Victorian architectural period overlaps the period of reign of Queen Victoria, from 1837-1901. The Victorians drew their inspiration from history, nature, geometry and theory to inspire their designs. There are many styles of Victorian homes, but all share some common features.

  1. Asymmetrical Façade. Victorian homes have an asymmetrical appearance that gives the house different levels of depth. They have an asymmetrical porch, generally one story high and extended along front and one or both side walls.
  2. Architectural Accents. Victorian homes were elaborately decorative due to detailed architectural accents that were added to the house. Gingerbread millworks, such as gingerbread brackets, headers and trim, were incorporated in the Victorian design and combined with other architectural elements, like corbels, spindle rails, sprandels, and cornice molding, to add the element of luxury displayed during the era.
  3. Building Materials. In the 1850s bricks were made in factories and became cheaper and all materials were easier to transport. The availability of the different types of stone, textured shingles and colored bricks allowed the Victorians to mixing these materials to create variety of patterns to their building exterior.
  4. Colors. Traditional Victorian homes of the period use natural earth tones in shades of green, brown, mustard and red. Victorian homes have also used vibrant colors such as purple, pink and mauve.
  5. Windows. There are a variety of windows on a Victorian style house. Sash windows with larger panes of glass, fan light above the door, and bay windows. Common window dressings were decorative trim, pediments, shutters, and even window boxes. Victorians incorporated the use of stained, beveled and etched glass in doors and windows
  6. Roof.Victorian homes have steeply pitched roof of irregular shape, usually with dominant front-facing gable and occasionally has a tower that stretches to different heights. The majority of houses are roofed with slate or clay tiles.
  7. New Home Features. The introduction of sanitation during Victorian times, allow for the addition of new home features such as, hot and cold water, proper drainage, waste facilities, and toilet facilities. Other additional home features included the gas oven, ice closet, gas or electric powered lighting, washing machine, and use of attics and basements.
  8. Interior Decor. Victorian homes are elaborately decorated with a multitude of colors, fabrics, and expensive furnishings and decorations. Rooms had crown molding, wallpaper, detail carved wood paneling and posts, decorative plasterwork and ornate lighting, including chandeliers. The interior windows were topped with cornices and heavily decorated with lace, including valances, swags, drapery panels, tie backs, and trimming.
  9. Iron and Steel. In the 19th century, iron and steel were introduced into Victorian home designs. These building components were used on the interior and exterior, as doors, fences, columns, frames, furniture and staircases, to accent the home.

How LED Light Bulbs Are Made

One-hundred-and-thirty years ago, Thomas Edison completed the first successful sustained test of the incandescent light bulb. With some incremental improvements along the way, Edison’s basic technology has lit the world ever since. This is about to change. We are on the cusp of a semiconductor-based lighting revolution that will ultimately replace Edison’s bulbs with a far more energy-efficient lighting solution. Solid state LED lighting will eventually replace almost all of the hundreds of billions of incandescent and fluorescent lights in use around the world today. In fact, as a step along this path, President Obama last June unveiled new, stricter lighting standards that will support the phasing out of incandescent bulbs (which already are banned in parts of Europe).

To understand just how revolutionary LED light bulbs are as well as why they are still expensive, it is instructive to look at how they are manufactured and to compare this to the manufacture of incandescent light bulbs. This article explores how incandescent light bulbs are made and then contrasts that process with a description of the typical manufacturing process for LED light bulbs.

So, let’s begin by taking a look at how traditional incandescent light bulbs are manufactured. You will find that this is a classic example of an automated industrial process refined in over a century of experience.

While individual incandescent light bulb types differ in size and wattage, all of them have the three basic parts: the filament, the bulb, and the base. The filament is made of tungsten. While very fragile, tungsten filaments can withstand temperatures of 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit and above. The connecting or lead-in wires are typically made of nickel-iron wire. This wire is dipped into a borax solution to make the wire more adherent to glass. The bulb itself is made of glass and contains a mixture of gases, usually argon and nitrogen, which increase the life of the filament. Air is pumped out of the bulb and replaced with the gases. A standardized base holds the entire assembly in place. The base is known as the “Edison screw base.” Aluminum is used on the outside and glass used to insulate the inside of the base.

Originally produced by hand, light bulb manufacturing is now almost entirely automated. First, the filament is manufactured using a process known as drawing, in which tungsten is mixed with a binder material and pulled through a die (a shaped orifice) into a fine wire. Next, the wire is wound around a metal bar called a mandrel in order to mold it into its proper coiled shape, and then it is heated in a process known as annealing, softening the wire and makes its structure more uniform. The mandrel is then dissolved in acid.

Second, the coiled filament is attached to the lead-in wires. The lead-in wires have hooks at their ends which are either pressed over the end of the filament or, in larger bulbs, spot-welded.

Third, the glass bulbs or casings are produced using a ribbon machine. After heating in a furnace, a continuous ribbon of glass moves along a conveyor belt. Precisely aligned air nozzles blow the glass through holes in the conveyor belt into molds, creating the casings. A ribbon machine moving at top speed can produce more than 50,000 bulbs per hour. After the casings are blown, they are cooled and then cut off of the ribbon machine. Next, the inside of the bulb is coated with silica to remove the glare caused by a glowing, uncovered filament. The label and wattage are then stamped onto the outside top of each casing.

Fourth, the base of the bulb is also constructed using molds. It is made with indentations in the shape of a screw so that it can easily fit into the socket of a light fixture.

Fifth, once the filament, base, and bulb are made, they are fitted together by machines. First, the filament is mounted to the stem assembly, with its ends clamped to the two lead-in wires. Next, the air inside the bulb is evacuated, and the casing is filled with the argon and nitrogen mixture.

Finally, the base and the bulb are sealed. The base slides onto the end of the glass bulb such that no other material is needed to keep them together. Instead, their conforming shapes allow the two pieces to be held together snugly, with the lead-in wires touching the aluminum base to ensure proper electrical contact. After testing, bulbs are placed in their packages and shipped to consumers.

Light bulbs are tested for both lamp life and strength. In order to provide quick results, selected bulbs are screwed into life test racks and lit at levels far exceeding normal. This provides an accurate measure of how long the bulb will last under normal conditions. Testing is performed at all manufacturing plants as well as at some independent testing facilities. The average life of the typical household bulb is 750 to 1,000 hours, depending on wattage.

LED light bulbs are built around solid-state semiconductor devices, so the manufacturing process most closely resembles that used to make electronic products like PC mother boards.

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a solid state electrical circuit that generates light by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material. LED technology has been around since the late 1960s, but for the first 40 years LEDs were primarily used in electronics devices to replace miniature light bulbs. Within the last decade, advances in the technology finally boosted light output high enough for LEDs to begin to seriously compete with incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs. As with many technologies, as the cost of production falls each successive LED generation also improves in light quality, output per watt, and heat management.

The computer industry is well suited to manufacture LED lighting. The process isn’t a whole lot different than making a computer motherboard. The companies making the LEDs themselves are generally not in the lighting business, or it is a minor part of their business. They tend to be semiconductor houses that are happy cranking out their product, which is why prices on high-output LEDs has fallen so much in the last 15 years.

LED bulbs themselves are expensive in part because it takes a number of LEDs to get wide-area illumination instead of a narrow beam, and the assembly cost adds to the overall price. In addition, assemblies consisting of arrays of LEDs create more opportunities for product defects.

An LED light consists of four essential components: an LED circuit board, a heatsink, a power supply, and a shell. The lights start out as bare printed circuit boards (PCB) and high luminance LED elements arrive from separate factories which specialize in making those components. LED elements themselves create a bit of heat, so the PCB used in lighting fixtures is special. Instead of the standard non-conductive sandwich of epoxy and fiberglass, the circuit board is laid out on a thin sheet of aluminum which acts as a heatsink.

The aluminum PCB used in LED lighting is coated with a non-conducting material and conductive copper trace lines to form the circuit board. Solder paste is then applied in the right places and then Surface Mount Technology (SMT) machines place the tiny LED elements, driver ICs, and other components onto the board at ultra high speeds.

The round shape of a traditional light bulb means that most LED printed circuit boards are circular, so for ease of handling several of the smaller circular PCBs are combined into one larger rectangular PCB that automated SMT machinery can handle. Think of it like a cupcake tray moving from one machine to the next along a conveyor belt, then at the end the individual cupcakes are snapped free from the tray.

Let’s take a look at the manufacturing steps for a typical LED light bulb meant to replace a standard incandescent bulb with an Edison Screw. You will see that it is a very different process from the highly automated processes used to manufacture our familiar incandescent bulbs. And, despite what you might imagine, people are still very much a necessary part of manufacturing process, and not just for testing and Quality Assurance either.

Once the larger sheets of LED circuit boards have passed through a solder reflow oven (a hot air furnace that melts the solder paste), they are broken up into the individual small circuit boards and power wires manually soldered on.

The small power supply housed in the body of the light bulb goes through a similar process, or may be delivered complete from another factory. In either case, the manufacturing steps are the same; first the PCB passes through SMT lines, then it goes to a manual dual in-line package (DIP) assembly line where a long row of factory workers add one component at a time. DIP refers to the two parallel rows of leads projecting from the sides of the package. DIP components include all integrated chips and chip sockets.

While LED lights burn several times longer than incandescent or CFLs and require less than half the energy, they need some form of passive heatsink keep the high-power LEDs from overheating. The LED circuit board, which is made from 1.6-2mm thick aluminum, will conduct the heat from the dozen or so LED elements to the metal heatsink frame and thus keep temperatures in check. Aluminum-backed PCBs are sometimes called “metal core printed circuit boards,” and though made of a conductive material the white coating is electrically isolating. The aluminum PCB is screwed in place within the heatsink which forms the lower half of the LED light bulb.

After this, the power connector board is fixed in place with adhesive. The small power supply converts 120/240V AC mains power to a lower voltage (12V or 24V), it fits in the cavity behind the aluminum PCB.

Shell assembly consists of locking the shell in place with screws. A plastic shell covers the power supply and connects with the metal heatsink and LED circuit board. Ventilation holes are included to allow hot air to escape. Wiring assembly for plug socket requires soldering wires to the bulb socket. Then shell is attached.

Next, the completed LED light is sent to burn-in testing and quality control. The burn-in test typically lasts for 30 minutes. The completed LED light bulb is then powered up to see if it is working properly and burned in for 30 minutes. There is also a high-voltage leakage and breakdown test and power consumption and power factor test. Samples from the production run are tested for high-voltage leaks, power consumption, and power factor (efficiency).

The finished bulbs pass through one final crimping step as the metal socket base is crimped in place, are bar-coded and identified with lot numbers. External safety labels are applied and the bulb is inked with information, such as brand and model number. Finally, all that’s left is to fix on the clear plastic LED cover which is glued in place.

After a final check to make sure all the different parts of the LED light are tight, then it is packed into individual boxes, and bulbs are shipped out.

So, if you have wondered why LED light bulbs are so expensive today, this explanation of how they are manufactured and how that compares to the manufacture of traditional light bulbs should help. However, it also reveals why the cost will fall pretty dramatically over the next few years. Just as the cost of manufacturing other semiconductor-based products has fallen dramatically due to standardization, automation and other key steps along the manufacturing learning curve, the same inexorable forces will drive down the costs of LED light bulb production.

Materials to Make a Solar Panel

The first step: the panel

In order to make your own solar panels, you need to start with the support frame on which the solar cells will be mounted. A sheet of copper is ideal for such purposes, but you can also use plywood or PVC to create the panel. Ready made panels are also available on the market, so it should not be very difficult to get started.

The most important materials to make a solar panel

The next on your list should be the solar cells. The best solar cells are made of silicone and phosphorus, but there are many variations on the market, so make sure you buy cells that do not break easily. You will have to place the solar cells on the panel purchased or built previously, in rows, and solder them together, so they can transmit the power produced.

Deep-cycle batteries

Among the materials to make a solar panel you will use, some batteries are a must. Deep-cycle batteries are the most recommended, as they serve to store the energy harnessed by the solar cells from the sun. With the right set of instructions on how to build a solar panel, you will be able to put together your own renewable energy device over a weekend, or whenever you have a bit of free time.

An inverter

Since you cannot use directly the energy produced by the solar cells, you will need something called an inverter. This transforms the energy you get from your solar panels into energy you can use for powering up the appliances in your household. All these materials to make a panel come quite cheap, and they all can be found in any hardware store.

How to build a solar panel

After you gather all the necessary materials, make sure you have the right tools, as well, such as a soldering iron and a screwdriver. You will have to connect all the solar cells in equal rows, and then mount them on your panel. Use the soldering iron to create the connections, so that the energy harnessed by the solar cells can be transmitted to the batteries and the inverter.

By using the proper materials to make a solar panel, you can put together a handy device that will help you cut down the costs on your utility bills. More and more homeowners appeal to this solution and make their own solar panels as the prices for energy are soaring, taking a toll on families’ monthly budgets.

Let Your Computer Be the Disc Jockey

Your friends have been cajoling you into hosting a party and after a long time, you finally relented to their request. So you, along with some of your friends, went out to buy the necessary food and drinks that you would need for the party. You were all so busy that you forgot that the CD rack on your audio system got fried two days ago. Using your computer’s CD drive is out of the question because you only got two small speakers and music from which would definitely be drowned out by the chatter that is going to happen.

You were in a quandary on what to do because the hour for the party is drawing near. Well, you really should not worry because you can have your audio system and your computer work hand in hand to become the best disk jockey anybody has ever seen.

First, try to find a wire that has a stereo mini-jack audio plug on one end and dual RCA audio plugs on the other end. If you cannot find one at home, try to go to the nearest convenience store or a late night electronic store and get one. Do not worry about the price because it is really cheap. To be safe, you can also simultaneously purchase one which has a USB audio plug on one end and RCA jacks on another just in case your computer has high definition audio and has been proven not work on mini-jack plugs.

Next, locate the banks of RCA   sockets  at the back of your audio system and find the one that is marked AUDIO IN or AUX. If these are RCA inputs, their  sockets  are usually color coded, normally white and red or black and red, and it is important that you plug the proper audio RCA jack with the same color into the right  socket .

After this, locate the audio  socket  at the back or front of your computer, then plug the stereo mini-jack into the  socket  which has the label OUT, or sometimes just denoted by the audio out symbol. If you normally use USB audio with your computer, then try to plug in the USB audio plug into the port and plug the other end, which has RCA dual plugs, into the correct RCA AUDIO IN or AUX  socket  at the back of your audio system.

Now, select the AUX mode on your audio system and test your modified configuration if it works. If you cannot hear anything, try to increase the volume on your computer and on your audio system. This configuration is guaranteed to work and in just five easy minutes, you will have configured your computer to be the best disk jockey you and your friends have ever seen.

Chess Openings – Stonewall Attack

Category – Closed Game

 Opening  Move Sequence – 1 d4, 2 e3, 3 f4, and 4 c3, or similar.

ECO Codes – D00, A03, A45

Stonewall Attack is more of a position that White achieves than an  opening  with specific sequence of moves. White places pawns at c3, d4, e3, and f4. In most cases White will also place the Bishop at d3 as well. The same position may be reached from many different  openings , coming under Queen’s pawn game  openings . It does not matter how Black plays while White sets up this position. Black too can achieve a similar formation with pawns at c6, d5, e6 and f5 through the Dutch Defense.

Stonewall Attack, as can be assumed from its name, is a highly defensible position. It also allows White the initiative to start a devastating attack if Black does not play vigilantly. The whole attack is carried out by bring the required pieces to specific positions rather than by playing tactically to gain positional advantages as happens in usual play. White’s attack will be characterized by advance of the pawn on g file, moving Rook to h3, and a Bishop sacrifice at h7. All this have to be carried out in timely fashion however. This attack on Black King does not need the support of White’s Knight and Bishop on the Queen side so they are usually not developed.

The fact that Stonewall Attack is not based on tactical play means it can be used with effect against Chess playing computers which usually analyses and evaluates their positions and moves along tactical lines. Computer programs like that will probably miss the attack until it is well under way.

Main weaknesses of Stonewall Attack for White are the weak point at e4 square and the non development of White’s Queen-side or dark squared Bishop. In fact the Bishop is shut in by White’s own pawns.

Weaknesses mentioned above can be exploited by Black when defending against Stonewall Attack. If Black plays correctly, the effect on White will be so debilitating that this  opening  is hardly ever seen in tournament play nowadays. However it is played by players at lower levels. On the other hand the Black equivalent of Stonewall Attack, the Stonewall Defense Variation in Dutch Defense is still played at all levels of chess.

Black’s options against Stonewall Attack include fianchettoing either one or even both Bishops and taking control of center through pawns. Black can also play b6 followed by Ba6 in order to exchange the White’s Bishop at d3.

Stonewall Attack is hard to classify under the ECO or Encyclopedia of Chess  Openings  because that classification is based on the  opening  sequence of moves and Stonewall Attack does not have a specific sequence of moves. For instance it comes under both D00 Closed Game  opening  starting 1 d4 d5, and under A03 and A45 as well, which deal with a Flank  opening  called Bird’s  Opening  starting with 1 f4.

The Perfect Score

What is the perfect score for a round of golf? Ben Hogan answered this question once but did not elaborate. So let’s find the answer step by step.

Playing scratch is the ultimate dream of all double digit handicappers though it is the single digit handicapper who does actually achieve it once in a while. It is not uncommon for a good pro, however, to play nearly error free golf and also score a few birdies, thus posting a score in the mid-60s. These pros, however, are within striking chance of a birdie on most of the   holes  they play and there is no reason to think that with some luck thrown in, one day somebody will birdie each of the 18  holes  in a round.

Yet, 54 is obviously not the perfect score for we have not taken into account the eagle possibilities in the par 5s, a real possibility with the long hitting pros today. If a player were to shoot all birdies in the other  holes  and also make eagles in all the par 5s, taking the average of four par 5s for a 18  hole  course, the score will be 50.

But this leaves out the possibility of scoring  holes  in one, a real possibility. In fact, Arnold Palmer scored  holes  in one on the same par 3  hole  on consecutive days of play. So, it is something which can be done and repeated too. Most people attribute  holes  in one entirely to luck. Yet, skill obviously plays a substantial part for only a well-struck ball gives luck a chance to  hole  it. No doubt, even a good shot requires luck to roll into the cup but we are talking of perfect score here. So assuming lots of luck,  holes  in one in all four par3s of a typical 18  hole  golf course will give a score of 46 provided, of course, birdies and eagles are also made as described earlier. All this looks quite improbable but perfection is not something routine or probable.

I am sure you can guess that scores can conceivably be lower. Why, green in regulation for par 4 is two shots-far too many, some may say. Tiger Woods, Vijay Singh, Ernie Els and many others routinely drive the green in short par fours. In fact, the likes of J B Holmes and Bubba Watson are known to bomb 400 yard drives when they get going. And if you can reach the green in one shot, it shouldn’t be too difficult to putt the ball into the  hole  with your second stroke. It’s only an eagle. Suppose you could do it for all the ten par 4  holes  in a round, your score goes down to 36. But, if you are such a long and accurate hitter so as to reach all the par 4s in one shot, it would not be too much to expect you to drive a par 5 within short wedge distance and then  hole  the wedge shot with a little luck. You would have scored an albatross. If Gene Sarazen could  hole  it at Augusta from 235 yards, surely you can do it from about a hundred odd yards you have left it to the  hole  after your first shot. If you could double- eagle all the four par 5s, then you have arrived at the score of 32 which is not bad but not perfect yet.

For, if you are reaching the par fours in one shot, you deserve the luck it takes to make the ball trickle into the  hole . If you can reach it, you can  hole  it and if you can do it once, you can do it again. There is strong logic to that and golf mind-doctors would approve of the way you have not allowed any of the probability equations to clutter your mind. All that your mind recalls is that Swami Vivekananda scored a  hole  in one on a par four  hole  with his first golf shot ever. You have now arrived at the sweet score of 22.

Now, we are close but we need to take into account the long hitting champions with their so called illegal drivers who can sometimes touch 600 yards. And if you can reach a par five green in one shot, you can  hole  it too. It would, in fact, be surprising if you didn’t considering your consistent  hole-in-one  play on this round. Your score is now 18. You can’t go lower than that for even if you make the ball magically carry to the  hole  from the tee, it will either count as a stroke or you will have to play the shot again without penalty.

Holy Paladin Build

In the situation that a player such as yourself will enjoy pvp’ing alongside a teammate to crush an opposite allegiance while playing WoW Player versus player, a player like you could find a paladin PvP strategy incredibly helpful. The team with the holy paladin has a plethora of sneaky tricks against an opponent which include holy light and different blessings.

Signing up as the Healing Class doesn’t mean that a paladin have to go deep in the Paladin Tree; a few pallies who fight the battlegrounds PvP have attempted to combine Holy and Retribution and it is performing good for those pallies. However, in this Holy Pally talent tree this article will focus on is the Holy/Protection spec.

In the event that you’re ever up against a party with a talented Healing Paladin, It’s certain you have figured how bothersome plus it’s difficult to get rid of her.

Healing Spec

Spiritual Focus: you need to use Holy Light often, so this becomes very useful.

Healing Light: adds to the paladin’s healing power.

Pure of Heart: another talent to use when fighting Warlocks

Divine Intellect the talent is necessary.

Aura Mastery: an protection from silencing effects; nice since you are nothing without your spells.

Sanctified Light: chance to increase your healing with your attack.

Illumination: another mana talent.

Unyielding Faith: needs to be used when fighting casters.

Improved Concentration Aura: reduces how long a stun lasts.

Divine Favor: at any time you need better heals or offense.

Holy Power: another gain chance powering the Holy abilities.

Holy Shock: instantaneous dmg to an enemy or healing for your teammates.

Light’s Grace: Useful in last ditch effort situations.

Holy Guidance: increase your damage.

Divine Illumination: useful if you are going use a spell that costs a lot of mana like as Beacon of Light.

Holy pally talent build gives a lot of strategies to keep you and your allies out of danger; don’t just use your healing spells to keep the allies safe, use other abilities like Hand of Sacrifice.

If the pally can use the spells right, a paladin is able to raise the party’s survivability and aid them in winning against the opposing allegiance.

Using Hand of Sacrifice saves you from getting stuck in that sticky situation. In the case that a situation becomes full of danger, cast Beacon of Light on yourself and use holy spells on your group members.

Different Paladin battlegrounds manuals focus on unique playstyles, but I believe Holy Paladin gets a very important part in battlegrounds than the one that focuses on damage dealing. Another Holy Paladin Build can be found here.

Commercial Outdoor Lighting

Luminous billboards, shop signs and twinkling lights create a fairy tale ambience, luring bargain hunters and casual observers to malls, eating places, gaming centers and commercial establishments. Las Vegas would be a desert town if it did not have glitzy, leering neons in all shapes and designs shining in the night sky. Or imagine a scenario where there is a single commercial outdoor light for a cluster of salons and stores. Outdoor lighting evolved over the years and in process lost its bearing. The abundance of electricity gave place to haphazard placement and usage leading to energy wastage and pollution. It is a health hazard as too much exposure causes eye problems and momentary blindness leading to automobile accidents. Poorly lighted or skewed fixtures have similar effect as in glares or rotating beams inconveniencing neighbors and residents.

Whatever the after effects of too much or too little, commercial outdoor lighting enhances the location and is best possible advertisement for product and premises. Excessive use multiplies the electricity bill of the establishment. The answer to this is an environmentally efficient commercial outdoor lighting fixture powered by solar energy. This is economical and environment friendly as only fixtures responsive to this lighting system are used. Another way to save on electricity bills is usage solar energy or new LED or light-emitting-diode technology to create brighter lights. LED technology is efficient and can be used effectively in commercial areas.

With urban areas expanding and rebuilding, commercial outdoor lighting is much in demand. Streets, schools, colleges, shopping and financial establishments, cultural and sports centers all require appropriate lighting arrangements. One need not invest in old designs but select contemporary and modern designs that are durable and water-resistant. Other contemporary designs in commercial outdoor lighting include bronze fixtures mounted on matching fiberglass poles ideal for parking lots or recreational areas. Another popular design is cobra head fixture perfect for parking lots, highways or city streets.

Fireproof Safes

Of course everyone has those personal items which they do not want destroyed in case of a fire. So where to store these items becomes a question. Purchasing fireproof safes are a great idea for different parts of the home where you have items which need to be hidden and stored safely. If you are looking for a smaller one just for jewelry or such the Sentry Safe H2300 1/2 Hour Fire Safe / Waterproof Chest may be for you.

The Sentry Safe Chest will cost you around $50.00 and you will be able to fit a few items of choice which you want to save if you ever become a victim of a fire. This Sentry Safe will withstand a fire up to a half hour as well as being submerged in water. You may question how something could be waterproof, but with the insulated interior you will not see anything inside be damaged by water.

With so many different customer reviews this Sentry Safe Chest is a great investment for someone who does not have a lot of items or documents to store in a safe. These types of fireproof safes are recommended to individuals who do not have a lot to store in them to protect from fire or water damage.

If you are looking for something a bit larger you might be interested in the Sentry Safe DS3410. This safe is much larger than a few of the other personal fireproof safes which are available but this one is the one which will give you just that extra room you might be looking for. Many will enjoy this safe due to the value which it will cost, around $200.00.

You will also notice that this safe, unlike a few others, can be bolted into the ground to make sure if your home is broken into, the safe will stay put. The DS3410 will withstand fire for around one hour which will also keep all your valuable belongings and paperwork safe and away from harm if something would happen to the home unexpectedly. You will have the option to use the key or even the dial to access the items in the case. Make sure you register your safes on their personal sites just in case you would misplace a key or even forger the code or you may not be able to get into your own belongings.

Now if you are looking just for a small basic fireproof case, the Sentry Safe 1100 which is a smaller version of the others they have produced will still withstand a fire for a half hour and give you enough room for a few basic documents or even a few items to place in it to keep it out of harms way.

This chest is around $23.00 making it one of the cheapest ones to purchase for basic use. Just remember, a box which is smaller will way much less so if your home would ever be broken into, this safe could be lifted and stolen.

No matter what type of fireproof safes you look at, make sure to read reviews from other clientele and see if they have had any issues with these products. This is a great way to find out if it is worth spending the few extra monies in the end for a better brand.