History of Vending Machines

It’s likely that you’ve probably never taken the time to sit back and consider vending machines. In fact, you have probably never taken the chance to contemplate the history of vending machines. After all who would? I know I didn’t, until I wrote this article and found the history to be surprisingly……well, fascinating. The next time you stop at a vending machine and purchase your favorite sweet, cold soda or that big caramel candy bar you’ll remember that even a vending machine is full of history.

What is Vending?

Vending is automatic retailing. Basically a vending machine allows someone to sell their products when he or she is not present to supervise the sales. It is really quite an ingenious concept (after all, we all want more money and more time), and doesn’t seem to be a new one either. A certain Greek–a mathematician by profession and interest–whose name was Hero created a vending machine of sorts, which would vend water within Egyptian temples. Many centuries later, vending machines were offered commercially in London. In the 1880s vending sales in London included vending machines that would dispense post cards or books.

Vending Machines Take on a Sweeter Flavor in the United States

In 1888 vending machines and vending services and sales were offered commercially in the United States as well. The vending machines in the United States were first introduced by the Thomas Adams Gum Company, whose owners were of course interested in taking advantage of vending machines for the sake of selling their gum. The gum’s flavor? Tutti-Fruiti.

Additional Vending Machines is the U.S.A.

As most retailers do, vending machine retailers and buyers began to realize that just vending gum was not exactly a way to capitalize on the concept of vending. In 1897 the Pulver Manufacturing Company began to vend animated figures in addition to gum in order to increase their sales. Spherical vending machines were also introduced in 1907 complete with lots of candy coated gumballs that could be found inside the sphere. American vending machines also offered cigars, stamps and postcards. A vending machine restaurant was also invented in Pennsylvania in 1902 and managed to stay open until 1962. The restaurant’s name? Horn & Hardart.

Music to the Ear: The Juke Box Vending Machine

Vending machines provided everything from sweets to books but they didn’t produce sound, until the advent of the juke box, which like vending machines had a variety of predecessors. One of the earliest forerunners to the juke box was the nickel-in-the slot machine, which was invented by Louis Glass and Willam S. Arnold in 1889. This machine was actually a phonograph, which would play a recording through sound or listening tubes when a coin was inserted into the apparatus. The tubes soon became a nuisance and juke boxes were invented. Juke boxes allowed listeners to enjoy recordings without tubes and in addition to select from a wider variety of music. Some of the juke boxes, which were commercially available were the Rock-Ola juke boxes (Rockola is a noun, not an adjective), the Seeburg juke boxes, and the Wurlitzer juke boxes.

Discount Vending and Vending Repair

Vending machines soon became a big business in the United States and in other areas around the world as well. New jobs and positions were created in retail vending such as discount vending, vending sales, vending suppliers and vending services. As most inventions do when they help us save time, vending machines made life a little easier for the general population and became a part of the mainstream American lifestyle and culture.

Interesting Facts About the Atlantic Ocean

If the ocean could talk, what tales it would tell! From famous pirates to treasures on its ocean floor, and everything in between, the ocean is full of extraordinary facts! Among the five major oceans, the Atlantic Ocean is the second largest ocean in the world. The name “Atlantic” originated from the famous island of “Atlantis”, according to Plato, the famous Greek writer. You will impress your friends and family with interesting facts about the Atlantic Ocean as you explore the fascinating trivia provided below!

  • The Atlantic Ocean is 31,660,446 miles wide. The Puerto Rico Trench, located seventy miles north of Puerto Rico, is the deepest part of the ocean. It drops down more than five miles (28,374 feet) below sea level. The trench, or slice in the sea floor stretches about 1100 miles to the east.
  • The first ocean crossed by an airplane and by ship was the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean was Amelia Earhart in 1928.
  • A huge underwater mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, runs south of Iceland about ten thousand miles. It is wider than the Andes Mountains and splits the Atlantic Ocean north to south.
  • Greenland is in the north where the Atlantic comes together with the Arctic Ocean. It is the largest island in the ocean and ice covers most of the island. At times, icebergs will break off and move through the water.
  • The largest ship in the world during the early 1800’s was the famous Titanic. The shipbuilders claimed it was “unsinkable”, but in 1812, on her maiden voyage to America, the Titanic sank in the Atlantic Ocean after hitting an iceberg.
  • The Atlantic Ocean is much saltier than the Pacific Ocean.
  • The Tiger Shark, the most dangerous after the Great White Shark, is only located in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Great Atlantic Shark weighs about four tons and is the second largest in the world. There are around 450,000.
  • About one fifth, or twenty-one percent of the earth’s surface consists of the Atlantic Ocean. The widest part of the ocean is between Mexico and Spain.
  • In the 1850’s, the Cunard Cruise Line developed a line of steamers and began carrying passengers across the Atlantic Ocean. They are the pioneers of World Voyage Cruises. Today, the Cunard Cruise Line offers luxury vacations to the Caribbean, Mediterranean, and Europe.
  • The Concorde, carrying up to one hundred passengers, was the first supersonic flight to cross the Atlantic Ocean at twice the speed of sound. It took less than four hours to cross the Atlantic.
  • The most mysterious area in the ocean is known as the Bermuda Triangle. Located off the southeastern coast of the United States, the triangle points are at the island of Bermuda, San Juan Puerto Rico, and Miami, Florida. It covers about five hundred thousand square miles in the Atlantic Ocean. The mysteries began in 1945, when a group on United States fighter planes disappeared. Since that time, there have been many unexplained disappearances of ships, people, and aircraft. The mysteries still continue to be debated.
  • The Atlantic Ocean is home to the world’s second largest barrier reef located off the coast of Mexico. It is called the Cancun Reef.
  • The highest tides in the world, around fifty feet high, occur at the Bay of Fundy, Canada. The bay is on the east coast of Canada and stretches from New Brunswick to Nova Scotia. The area of the ocean bay is one hundred seventy miles long.
  • One fourth of the world’s fish are caught in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The ocean borders the west side of Namibia, in Southern Africa. This is a desert region where most of the world’s diamonds are found. Today most of the diamond mining is done offshore because the supply near the coast has been depleted.
  • From 1716 to 1718, Blackbeard the Pirate and his crew would sail the Atlantic Ocean terrorizing other sailors. He was very well- known along the Outer Banks of the Carolina coast. He had a reputation of being a ruthless monster and was killed in 1718 on Ocracoke Island. His head was attached to the bow of the ship. As the legend goes, Blackbeard left a great buried treasure along the Carolina coast, but it has never been found.
  • In the middle of the ocean, near the West Indies, is the Sargasso Sea. It is also known as the “floating desert”. The water is very calm and is filled with seaweed. The water moves in a clockwise rotation, contains very high salt levels, and is extremely clear and very blue in color. One of the most bizarre things is that eels are attracted to this area and come from all over to mate and lay their eggs.

I hope you enjoyed the interesting facts about the Atlantic Ocean as much as I did. I am sure the next time you are near an ocean, especially the Atlantic, some of these facts will cross your mind!

Feminine Odor Control

One thing that can surely destroy a woman’s sense of feeling desirable and sensual, is to have feminine odor. Since this malady plagues so many women, let’s look at some methods of feminine odor control.

If feminine odor already exists, the first thing you want to do is have a gynecological exam to rule out any vaginal infection, as vaginal infections definitely cause odor. If the result of your exam is positive for infection you will be given medicine to kill the unfriendly bacteria or yeast causing it; however, caution must be taken so that the infection does not reoccur. The methods used to prevent re-infection are, for the most part, the same for preventing feminine odor, so let’s look at these now.


The most obvious feminine odor control method is to have proper hygiene. If need be, wash more than once a day but do not use harsh soap. Unscented natural soaps are the best, and certainly never use antibacterial soaps as they are too chemically laden and can very easily irritate the sensitive tissue around and in the vagina.

Soap also disrupts the vaginal pH. When this occurs the healthy vaginal flora cannot survive and hence disruptive organisms take over and cause infection and odor.

Natural Clothing:

Cotton and wool are not only natural fabrics, but they breathe, which means they allow airflow. Synthetic materials such as nylon and polyester do not breathe, and consequentially hold in moisture; and constant moisture breeds bacteria and yeast.

Now, just as when you perspire under your arms and you get an underarm odor, the same happens when you wear nylon panties or pantyhose, or polyester slacks — the vaginal area perspires; it can’t get air because of the suffocating material around it; and it begins to smell. Therefore, always wear cotton panties and try not to wear synthetic fabrics such as pantyhose or polyester slacks.

Air It Out:

There was a time in our history when women didn’t wear panties at all. I know going without panties might be a shock to some ladies, but unless you feel it is necessary, at least don’t wear panties to bed; let it air out.

Also consider thigh-high nylons instead of pantyhose.

Ditch the Douche:

Many women douche for the simple reason that they want to feel clean, especially after their period or after intercourse. Some women also douche if they notice a discharge, though some discharge is normal.

The trouble with douching, however, is that it can cause the very feminine odor that women are trying to eliminate. Douching is actually counter-productive and is certainly not a feminine odor control method.

When using a commercial douche, the chemicals in the product badly disrupt the vaginal pH. Friendly vaginal flora die because of this and then harmful bacteria take over, which again causes feminine odor.

Another issue with douching is that the force of the douching fluid can push existing bad bacteria up through the cervix, causing pelvic inflammatory disease; and pelvic inflammatory disease also emits odor.

In summation, the best means of feminine odor control is to wash regularly with a gentle, unscented soap; wear cotton panties and avoid synthetic fabrics in that area; sleep without panties and allow the vagina to air out; and do not use commercial douches.

Managing Intellectual Property Rights and Contract Law

Intellectual property rights are by their nature restrictive rights. Rights owners are granted the power to prevent third parties using their intellectual property without their consent. When it comes time for materials in which IP rights subsist to be exploited, it is the law of contract that is called upon to do permit to use the materials, subject to the conditions of contract.

Contract Law

A contract is simply a legally binding agreement. Parties to contract are at liberty to agree to what may take their fancy and the terms that may please them. The law imposes limitations on what may be contracted for when the courts find that an agreement is contrary to public policy or otherwise restricted by statute. With this background, owners of intellectual property are free to agree to deal with intellectual property in any way that they see fit.

Contractual Dealings with Intellectual Property

Dealings with intellectual property take two basic forms. Firstly, intellectual property rights are personal property, which means that they may be assigned to another person, subject to very limited exceptions. An assignment of intellectual this property rights conveys the title to the rights to another person. Far more frequently however these personal rights are licensed to other businesses for a limited purpose or a limited period, in accordance with the particular terms of contract. Amongst many others, movies, music, software, architectural plans, trade marks, designs, patents may be licensed to businesses or the public at large to use them subject to specified conditions and limitations. These licenses, which are in essence permissions, allow the licensee to perform some act in respect to the intellectual property that would otherwise amount to in infringement of the owner’s intellectual property rights.

In the commercial environment contracts allow such dealings to happen.

Copyright Law

Copyright is the palladium of product of the arts, such as manuals, computer programs, commercial documents, leaflets, articles, song lyrics, sound recordings, photographs, film, sound recordings and many others. Businesses that trade using copyright works such as these are entirely reliant granting licenses to their customers on specified terms to trade using their stock in trade.

Contract law allows these companies to restrict and limit use of these copyright works to a fine degree. For instance a photograph might be licensed for use in print media for a set price and electronic media for an entirely different price, or indeed prohibit these uses in their entirety.

Patent Rights

Of all the different types of intellectual property rights, it is patent rights that provide the most extensive and complete monopoly over inventions. Products and processes which are inventive may be patented. As the monopoly rights granted are so extensive, so the bar to surpass for registration is higher than any other form of IP protection. Use of patent rights may be managed in the same way as other intellectual property rights.

Confidential Information and Know-how

A common form of license is that granted by non-disclosure agreements. Non-disclosure agreements are legally binding contracts designed to impose restrictions upon information released to another person, pursuant to the terms recorded by the agreement. In the absence of a non-disclosure agreement, the discloser of information would be left with their rights under the general law to protect the information released from unauthorised disclosure or use. The general law requires a claimant must show that the circumstances of the case justify the court finding that the information (1) retained the requisite quality of confidence, (2) was imparted in circumstances importing an obligation of confidence, and (3) that the information has been misused. Establishing such circumstances requires meticulous preparation of evidence. Thus in the vast majority of cases proving to the satisfaction of a court that trade secrets have been misused is an onerous exercise.

Contract law simplifies this. If it were the case that a contract has imposed obligations of confidence between the parties, the discloser is not simply left with his rights at general law. The non-disclosure agreement imposes separate and independent rights to the general law, and indeed when properly drafted, may far exceed the rights that a claimant would otherwise be left with under the general law. As with other types of contracts, non-disclosure agreements may be framed to allow different types of uses of the information released – what those terms are rely upon what the parties intend to achieve.

Trade Mark Rights

The law of registered trade marks and unregistered trade marks protect brands, business names, logos, slogans, packaging and shapes in many instances. In industry, service marks and collective are also able to be registered, creating a device to set a standard of service and recognition that becomes associated with a particular standard of quality. Again, use of contracts allow businesses to license use of trade marks to other businesses; it may be that a licensor wishes to impose particular restrictions on the size, colour, geographical location or even the place on a website that a trade mark will be used. Provided these requirements may be reduced to writing with sufficient clarity they may form part of the contractual relations and effectively restrict use of the trade mark. For example, franchises depend on trade marks to create a common branding, as do businesses authorising others to manufacture packaging.

Commercial Environment

When it comes time to make commercial decisions as to the types of uses and licences that will be granted in respect to intellectual property, companies would be well advised to ensure that that contract accurately reflects the commercial intentions of the business. Failures to do so may have dire commercial and indeed legal consequences. Problems may arise by a variety of different courses.

For example, a company may inadvertently accept terms and conditions of the other business printed on the back of a purchase order authorising the payment. In such cases, the licensor’s own terms of business may be found not to apply. The consequences of this are that the business contracts on unforeseen terms of contract that may well be contrary to its own intentions, and result in foreseen consequences. In one case that the author has advised on, the author of a University course inadvertently transferred the intellectual property rights to a company rather than license its use. This placed it in a position whereby it had divested itself of the assets in which had invested significant capital expenditure, that it intended to use and re-use for years to generate income. It had assigned the ownership of the course to the other party inadvertently.

A company may wish to license a company to “use” certain intellectual property rights on restrictive terms. Difficulties may arise in the contractual meaning of the word “use” when it is not defined in the contract, and thus introduces ambiguity and uncertainty in the contractual arrangements between the parties. Where a licensor asserts narrow and restrictive rights for “use” and the licensee asserts broad liberal rights to “use” the work, unless there are other material in the contract indicating what the parties intended by “use”, it is extremely difficult to ascertain what the parties actually intended to agree to. In situations such as these where intransigence sets in, litigation is required to resolve the dispute causing distraction and expenses that is otherwise perfectly avoidable.


Fundamentally management of intellectual property rights takes place with contracts. Licences and assignment of owners’ rights may be coupled other objectives of the parties, for instance:

  1. research grants and consequent dealings with the fruit of such research;
  2. funding arrangements and contractual commitments for exploitation;
  3. clinical trials and use of consequent results of the trials;
  4. fixing royalties for exploitation of intellectual property rights;
  5. commercialisation of intellectual property and revenue sharing arrangements
  6. granting of options over intellectual property
  7. grants for licences for evaluation of relevant materials, and onward licenses
  8. cross-licensing different intellectual property rights for mutual research or exploitation; and
  9. software licensing.

Like any other commercial contracts, dealings with intellectual property may be complicated. Frequently this is the case because the delineation of rights and use rights granted are set out in fine, granular detail. To truly appreciate the effect of such dealings, readers need to appreciate the particular types of rights that may vest in a particular form of intellectual property.

How to Feed Your Container Kitchen Garden For the Best Yields

Growing vegetables in containers presents a number of challenges for the urban gardener and following water, the most important is the need to feed your crop and more specifically, to feed it the right nutrients at the right time.

Sadly, I don’t believe that for a kitchen garden it’s really good enough to broadcast a slow release general fertilizer at the beginning of the season and have done with it. Ignoring for the moment my decided preference for organic and naturally sourced fertilizers, lets just look at why a slow release general purpose fertilizer isn’t good enough.

There are a few issues to consider. The first is about how much nutrient any one plant needs at different stages of growth. Another issue is about the right nutrients at the right time and the final issue I’ll talk about is what happens when crops with different needs are planted together or why in this instance tomatoes don’t love basil.

Vegetables need different levels of nutrient depending on their stage and rate of growth. Who eats more, a 40 pound child or a 240 pound adult? I’ll bet you can easily figure out the rest of this point- a seedling tomato does not require the same volume of nutrient as a mature vine in the heat of the summer covered with ripening fruit. Yet the role of a slow release fertilizer is to make available a finite supply of nutrient in a steady stream and it’s not that it will sit around and wait. The problem is complicated by the fact that one of the reasons that containers need to be fed is that there is a constant flushing away of nutrients as watering and rain washes through the growing medium. So while you’ll have lots available for the young growing plants, once you’re setting and growing the fruits of a tomato (for example) you will have pretty much depleted the reserve.

And even if it hadn’t been depleted, it wouldn’t be right. Early growth is vegetative – and uses what I call the green food. The priority is leaves, stems and good roots, but as the season progresses, if you want to see a bumper crop of tomatoes for example, you need to change the balance of food to support the abundant production of flowers and fruit.

But then again, not all vegetables produce fruit. Think about the leafy greens like lettuce and spinach and your herbs like basil, which are an important part of any kitchen garden. If anything you would like to with hold the nutrients that boost flower production, because for these plants flowering, quite literally, is the kiss of death! If you don’t believe me, nibble on a lettuce leaf from a plant that has flowered. Just be prepared to spit it out really fast because now you’ll have a whole new appreciation of bitter. A general purpose, slow release fertilizer, even one that claims to be formulated for kitchen gardens is a compromise. It will have proportionately too much potassium for crops that you don’t want to flower and not really enough for crops whose final yield is inexorably tied with their ability to flower and set fruit.

Another big challenge with container kitchen gardens and feeding them properly is that when you combine two plants with different nutrient needs, like basil and tomatoes, in a single container, the food that’s right for one late in the summer will ruin the other.

What’s the solution? To get the best production from your container kitchen garden, you need to adjust the food throughout the growing season and take into account not only how big your plants are, but what you want (and don’t want) them to do.

Clean Air and Room Air Conditioner Units

When it’s boiling hot outside, room  air   conditioners  can really work wonders to keep you cool! No doubt you, like many others, have probably been known to occasionally dart through the street merely to rush into an air-conditioned room to cool off.

But remember, getting cool is not the only thing to consider; staying healthy and fresh is what should be upmost in your mind. This is exactly what a good  air   conditioner  unit will do, because apart from cooling the room, an  air   conditioner  will filter the  air  flowing into it. A good air conditioning unit is designed to thoroughly filter the outside air and allow only the clean air to return.

What you need is an  air   conditioner  unit that comes with an inbuilt  air  filter. The cheaper models available on the market are not quite capable of draining out everything harmful to you. So if you are really bothered about what you are inhaling or have a medical condition that means you should avoid the inhalation of dust, fumes and smoke etc., then you should go for a high quality  air   conditioner  with a proper  air  cleaner in it.

Therefore, this type of air conditioning unit in your home or office becomes all the more useful if you, or any one in your family suffer from allergies or chronic breathing problems. Having good room  air   conditioner  units is not enough, you must also remember to open your doors and windows from time to time and purge the impure  air  out of your room and make sure you keep your home spotlessly clean.

Make sure that your room  air   conditioner  units last longer by checking your  air  filtration set up functions properly. For this, you will have to pay regular attention to maintaining your unit. Don’t wait until your machine stops working, or the inside air stops being as pure as it used to be. In fact, experts in this field will suggest you change your filter every month to ensure the best function.

Make it a point to clean and change the filter regularly, even if it means marking your calendar to remind you! In this way, your unit will drain out the bad air and allow only the clean and filtered air to flow back in.

So, make sure you maintain your  air   conditioner  unit and the filter regularly. A poorly maintained filter is unable to clean  air  properly and will reduce the cooling capacity of the machine, use up more energy, and ultimately lead to a shorter lifespan of the  air   conditioner .

5 Quick Tips to Lose Weight Fast Naturally in 10 Days!

So you are interested in getting a flat stomach and want to know how to lose weight fast naturally? Well, here are 5 quick tips for losing weight quickly and burning the fat that worked wonders for me! And you can get started right away.

1. More Fruits, More Veggies More Fat Loss Power!

Got a sweet tooth? Eat more fruit

Grab an apple,orange or a mango instead of reaching for a sugery snack.This will satisfy your urge for sweets and give you the essential vitamins and minerals you need to power through your day and help you lose weight fast. At meals fill up on raw or steamed vegetables. Remember think organic! (if you can afford it). Aside from being low calorie most veggies are a great natural source of fiber which will help you lose weight fast naturally by keeping you regular.

2. Forget about the super-sized Pepsi!

I know it tastes good and all but what your body really needs is water.

Aside from all the empty calories, alcoholic and soft drinks (with caffeine) will actually drain your body of the water it needs to function properly. Just drink plain water. Don’t be fooled into thinking that just because a beverage contains 99% water, that it is just as good as water. It is not!

Plus, drinking ice water can actually help you to burn fat! Make sure you drink at least 2 liters a day this will flush your system of impurities. Tired of drinking just water? Try green tea! Green tea contains some powerful antioxidants which keep you healthy which is important if you want to lose weight fast, naturally,

3. More Whole Grains Less Processed Foods

Have you looked at the list of ingredients for most commercially prepared foods? You don’t need all those preservatives, artificial colors and added sugar. Also the fat and sodium levels are usually off the chart!

To burn fat and lose weight successfully you need to have a steady supply of good carbohydrates like potatoes,brown rice and oats, to name a just a few.

4. There are Good Fats and There are Bad Fats

Saturated and trans-fats should be avoided as much as possible. You can boost your immune system by eating foods that contain omega fatty acids, things like olive oil and fresh fish ( You can boost your immune system by eating foods that contain omega fatty acids, things like olive oil and fresh fish (also good for hair and nails!).

Avoid the farmed fish if you can.

5. Pay Attention To Your Meals!

A recent study showed that roughly 73% of North Americans regularly eat their meals in front of the television. Have you done that recently? Have you ever been so absorbed in a TV program that you were surprised that your plate was already empty? Me,too!

If you are serious about losing weight:

  • Turn off the boob tube
  • Take your time and eat slowly. When your belly is full there is actually a delay of a few minutes before your brain gets the message. That’s why many people over-indulge on the holidays and end up like bloated whales on the sofa gripping their swollen bellies!
  • Chew your food 32 times before swallowing (this gives your saliva time to do it’s magic and properly prepare the food for speedy digestion)

So, if you reduce your portions,get plenty of fiber,fruits and vegetables and lean protein in addition to drinking plenty of water you will find the weight will be melting off you.

Of course, a proper diet is only half of the equation in losing weight quickly.A regular exercise regimen can help you lose weight fast naturally in the shortest amount of time. This is what helped me to lose 50 pounds and get a flat stomach.

But I also had a secret weapon!

Following a simple plan I was able to achieve my weight loss goals and the results were dramatic!

Power Drills Buyer’s Guide

Take the hard work out of DO-IT-YOURSELF with a good drill.

It could be on of the most diverse and very useful tools you buy.

Proper drill will save time during your work and make easy drilling holes into metal, wood, concrete etc., as well as drive screws and bolts.

It is useful getting acquaint with a drill’s main feature before you buy, so you could choose the best one.

I. Types

  1. Standard Drills
  2. Hammer Drills
  3. Screw Guns

II. Cordless drills

  1. Cord or Cordless? Pros and Cons
  2. The main features
  3. Power and Battery

III. Drill Shapes

IV. Variable speed

V. Torque

VI. Other features to look out for

VII. Power rating

VIII. Hammer action

IX. Chuck type


Standard Drills

Standard electric rotary drills designed for drilling metal and wood. This type of drill is normally small and compact. Motor sizes range from around 500 watts. The lower wattage motors are OK for drilling small holes or minimal use, the more powerful motored machines will cope with larger size holes and more frequent use. The chuck size is another thing to check, the smaller drills have a chuck which will only accept drill bits up to 10mm diameter the larger chuck size is 13mm.

Hammer Drills

The hammer drill is similar to a standard electric drill, with the exception that it is provided with a hammer action for drilling masonry. The hammer action may be engaged or disengaged as required.

The hammer action is cheap but delicate. It uses two cam plates to make the chuck accelerate towards the work. However because of the relative masses of the chuck+bit and the remainder of the drill the energy transfer is inefficient and will fail to penetrate harder materials and vibrates the operators hand. The cams wear quickly.

Compare this to a rotary/pneumatic hammer drill where just the bit is accelerated to the work. They have relatively little vibration and penetrate most building materials. It feels as though the work is sucking the bit inwards.

Large cam hammer drills, especially transverse motor, are crude in their action. The energy delivered in each stroke is highly variable. The cheaper drill will smash its way through the work and vibrate the surroundings, this can cause lots of collateral damage. A good SDS drill will gently pulverize the work material just in front of the bit and glide into the hole without any “fuss”.

However there is a big difference in cost. In the UK typically £12-40 for a cam hammer and £100 up for a rotary/pneumatic. For light DIY use they are fine.

Screw Guns

These Electric Screwdrivers are made specifically for applying screws and hexagon headed Tek Screw to plasterboard and metal cladding. The drywall screws are designed purely for plasterboard fixing. The electric screwdriver uses a specially designed chuck to self guide the specifically designed fixings that feature widely spaced threads to ensure good grip. This is achieved by the unique collar on this type of electric screwdriver.

Some electric screwdrivers are able to use Collated Screws which provides auto-loading of screws which are loaded into the tool on a strip which is then fed onto the bit.

Drill press

A drill press (also known as pedestal drill, pillar drill, or bench drill) is a fixed style of drill that may be mounted on a stand or bolted to the floor or workbench. A drill press consists of a base, column (or pillar), table, spindle (or quill), and drill head, usually driven by an induction motor. The head has a set of handles (usually 3) radiating from a central hub that, when turned, move the spindle and chuck vertically, parallel to the axis of the column. The table can be adjusted vertically and is generally moved by a rack and pinion; however, some older models rely on the operator to lift and re-clamp the table in position. The table may also be offset from the spindle’s axis and in some cases rotated to a position perpendicular to the column. The size of a drill press is typically measured in terms of swing. Swing is defined as twice the throat distance, which is the distance from the center of the spindle to the closest edge of the pillar. For example, a 16-inch drill press will have an 8-inch throat distance.

A drill press has a number of advantages over a hand-held drill:

less effort is required to apply the drill to the workpiece. The movement of the chuck and spindle is by a lever working on a rack and pinion, which gives the operator considerable mechanical advantage.

the table allows a vise or clamp to position and lock the work in place making the operation secure.

the angle of the spindle is fixed in relation to the table, allowing holes to be drilled accurately and repetitively.

Speed change is achieved by manually moving a belt across a stepped pulley arrangement. Some drill presses add a third stepped pulley to increase the speed range. Modern drill presses can, however, use a variable-speed motor in conjunction with the stepped-pulley system; a few older drill presses, on the other hand, have a sort of traction-based continuously variable transmission for wide ranges of chuck speeds instead, which can be changed while the machine is running.


A cordless drill is a type of electric drill which uses rechargeable batteries. These drills are available with similar features to an AC mains-powered drill. They are available in the hammer drill configuration and most also have a clutch setting which allows them to be used for driving screws.

For continuous use, a worker will have one or more spare battery packs charging while drilling, so that he or she can quickly swap them, instead of having to wait several hours during recharges.

Early cordless drills started with interchangeable 7.2V battery packs, and over the years the battery voltage has been increased to 18V, and higher, allowing these tools to produce as much torque as many mains-powered drills. The drawback of most current models is the use of nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, which develop a memory effect or internal short circuits due to dendrite growth, severely limiting their useful life, and posing a hazardous materials disposal problem. Drill manufacturers are now introducing lithium ion batteries, most notably DEWALT.

The main advantages are lack of memory effect and very short charging time. Instead of charging a tool for an hour to get 20 minutes of use, 20 minutes of charge can run the tool for an hour. Lithium-ion batteries also have a constant discharge rate. The power output remains constant until the battery is depleted, something that nickel-cadmium batteries also lack, and which makes the tool much more versatile. Lithium-ion batteries also hold a charge for a significantly longer time than nickel-cadmium batteries, about 2 years if not used, vs. around 4 months for a nickel-cadmium battery.


I. Corded Drills

  1. Pack the most power
  2. Most durable
  3. Can handle mixing mud, boring holes, and drilling concrete
  4. Usually unnecessary for most homeowners

II. Cordless Power Drills

  1. Easily transported and used
  2. Less power and run time restricted by battery life
  3. Recharging may take several hours
  4. Higher voltage means more power, but also more weight
  5. Newer technology has improved cordless drills; most are now strong enough for many tasks previously out of their league

Cordless drill:

  • Lightweight, easy to handle and comfortable to use
  • Safer to work with as there’s no trailing cord
  • More versatile – can access more tricky to get to places and can be used anywhere, there’s no restriction on distance or electricity supply
  • Batteries can be interchanged for continuous power
  • Some models double up as an electric screwdriver
  • A ‘quick charge’ feature is handy if you’ve forgotten to charge it in advance
  • Not as much power as a corded model and has limited battery life
  • You need to remember to charge the battery before use
  • Some are not capable of drilling through masonry
  • Corded drill:

  • More power and torque
  • Always ready to use and provides continuous power
  • May have extra features not available on a cordless model
  • Models tend to be heavier than cordless models
  • The cord can be restrictive and intrusive
  • You’re reliant on a nearby electricity socket

    Top 10 points to look for:

    Speed-range switch, generally 2 ratios, both high and low, normally selected by changing mechanical gearing. High is for drilling applications whilst low range is reserved for driving screws. Look out for the widest range between the two settings

    Look for a reliable motor, some models have external brushes for easy changing – when the brushes wear down you can easily change them for new ones, some bosch models have this feature ,it is only of use if you are uning your cordless drill on a daily basis.

    Forward/reverse switch: This should be easy to operate with either your thumb or trigger finger – again this is a standard feature but look for one which is easy to operate.

    Hand grip: Texture and contoured, should aid your grip, some Porter and Cable cordless drills have padded grips which you can choose to match your hand size – useful after an 8 hour shift.

    Voltage: a higher voltage means more drilling power but it can also mean more weight – don’t buy a drill you won’t need, 12 volt drills are powerful enough for most DIY users, bigger models just weigh more so think carefully about what you will be using the drill for.

    Batteries: Two are better than one. New NiMH batteries tend to be better because they deliver more charge and last longer.

    Trigger: Make sure your index finger fits around it comfortably when gripping the drill, Variable speed offers the greatest control.

    Chuck jaws: The maximum chuck capacity on most drills is 3/8 inches. Although some 14.4 and 18V drills can handle 1/2-inch-diameter bits, these have a 1/2inch chuck.

    Keyless chuck: Virtually a standard fitting today, hand-turn it to open and close the chuck jaws. The keyless chuck can grip any screwdriver bit or drill bit securely.

    Clutch: Setting the clutch gives you greater control of the depth to which screws are driven.


    Batteries: A cordless drill is only as good as its battery. Make sure the battery has enough run time to help you power through all your tasks. For more demanding applications, look for a drill that comes with a second battery or purchase an additional one. Chargers can take several hours to fully recharge a battery, so bear that in mind when planning your work schedule. If you need a faster recharge, look for a “smart” charger. Smart chargers work quickly and often reduce charge as the battery becomes full to avoid overcharging to extend the life of the battery. Look for nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion batteries, as they are slightly smaller and tend to have a longer run time.

    Charge a second battery as you work to avoid mid-job downtime

    Smart chargers use fans to reduce heat and decrease recharging time

    NiMH batteries are easier and less hazardous to dispose of than other types

    First thing when you look at a good cordless drill will be Volts of the the battery pack. To simplify it – the more Volts your cordless drill has – the faster the motor spins – the more torque you will get. Unfortunately – the more volts your cordless drills have – the heavier they get (if you ever worked with a 18 Volt drill over a longer period of time – you will know what I am talking about).

    Similar important as the Volts of your battery are the Ampere. Measured in Ah (Ampere per hour) it gives you an idea of how long a battery will last. You can have a 12 Volts battery with 1.8 Ah and with 2.4 Ah. Obviously both batteries should give you the same power initially, but the 2.4 Ah will last 30% longer. Important if you use cordless drills for heavy duty work.

    Looking at Volts and Ampere, you should also understand the basic types of battery packs currently available on the market. The (older) Standard Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery packs are cheaper but do not give you much Ah as the newer Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery packs. The Ni-MH packs also give you an additional advantage in recharging, as the do not loose power after being recharged many many times (no-memory effect). Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery packs are usually more expensive, but definitely worth it’s money.

    As batteries changed improved over the past years most manufacturers offer a wide range of power packs. Finding the right Dewalt or Makita batteries can therefore sometimes be a bit of a challenge.

    The higher the voltage, the more power (9.6-28V) and weight (3-10 lb) the drill will possess. Most household jobs will be fine with a 13.2 volt or 14.4 volt battery, but an 18 volt couldn’t hurt. Most 9.6V drills might be sufficient for home jobs, but may lack the needed torque you find in a 14.4V drill — which is usually not significantly more in price. Go with at least a 14.4V. For tough jobs and doing masonry, a more powerful 24 or 28 volt battery is recommended.

    Rechargeable drill batteries should last you about five years, or roughly 500 charges, though with frequent use you might need to replace it sooner. They can be pricey ($50-$80) so if your drill was only $100 or less, you might want to consider just buying a brand new drill. If you have a higher end drill, it’s probably more economical to buy a replacement battery.


    Pistol Grip Drills

    Are held like a pistol.

    Doesn’t that feel powerful?

    T-Handle Drills

    Are most popular.

    Shaped like a T for best balance.

    Right Angle Drills

    Are barrel-less.

    The bit extends from the base at a right angle.


    Drill price reflects a number of features, including torque. Torque, which is measured in foot-pounds, is the drill’s maximum amount of turning force. Some drills have an adjustable clutch with different torque settings for different applications.

    Common features you’ll want in a cordless or corded drill are electric brakes, which stops the drill chuck as soon as you release the trigger, and keyless chucks.


    Keyless Chuck: The chuck holds the drill bit in place, and keyless chucks allow you to conveniently change bits without having to use a separate key to unlock and replace.

    Auxiliary Handle: Drills with side handles provide greater control and two-handed operation. These auxiliary handles rotate, enabling you to find the ideal angle and position from which to work.

    Multiple Clutch Settings: Cordless drills often feature a clutch adjustment ring, which may have anywhere from two to twenty-four settings. Once you know the depth and torque needed on a particular surface, set the clutch accordingly to ensure consistent results and reduce the instance of wrist snap.

    Electronic Brake: This feature causes the drill to stop immediately when you stop squeezing the trigger, preventing you from overdriving or stripping screws.

    Variable Speed and Reversing: Many drills offer multiple speed settings, allowing you to choose the right one for the job at hand, and most have a reverse feature that allows you to remove screws and other fasteners.

    Heat Shields and Cooling Fans: These features protect the drill from overheating, enabling longer, more efficient periods of use.

    IBM Information Server 8.X (DataStage): Parallel Transformer Stage

    DataStage: What is Transformer Stage?

    DataStage provides several stages for extraction, transformations and loading the data into the data warehouse or data marts. The stages are classified into General, Database, Developement and Debug, File, Processing, Real time etc. These stages will fall into active or passive stage categories.

    The transformer stage is a processing stage.

    This stage allows us to create transformations to apply to your data based on the given business rules.

    It can have a single input and any number of outputs. It can also have a reject link that takes any rows which have not been written to any of the outputs links by reason of a write failure or expression evaluation failure or by null handling rejects.

    The transformer stage is divided into

    1. Link Area

    • Define column definition
    • Define Stage Variables

    2. Metadata Area

    • Define column metadata for input and outputs

    Output links:

    1. Pass some data straight through the Transformer stage unaltered
    2. Modify the derivation by entering transform expression.
    3. Specify constraints that operate on entire output links
    4. Can also specify a constraint otherwise link, which is an output link that carries all the data not output on other links, that is, columns that have not met the criteria.

    A constraint is an expression that specifies criteria that data must meet before it can be passed to the output link.

    Reject link:

    You can also specify another link which takes rows that have not be written to any other links because of write failure or expression evaluation failure. This is specified outside the stage by adding a link and converting it to a reject link. All the records that gets dropped because of null handling will also be written to reject link.

    If Runtime Column Propagation is enabled, then metadata is not required for the outputs.

    The Find and Replace capabilities allows to find the particular string with in an expression or search for column names or find an empty expression in the expression types.

    Defining output column derivations:

    • Use drag-and-drop or copy and paste to copy an input column to outputs
    • Column auto-match facility to automatically set the columns derived from their matching input columns.

    Column-auto match

    1. Choose the output link that you want to match columns with the input link from the drop down list.
    2. Match type area.
      • Location match – This will set column derivations to the input link columns in the equivalent positions.
      • Name match – The output derivations set based on the name match.


    A constraint is an expression that specifies criteria that data must meet before it can be passed to the output link.

    • Clicking on the Otherwise/Log field so a tick appears and leaving the Constraint fields blank. This will catch any rows that have failed to meet constraints on all the previous output links.
    • Clicking on the Otherwise/Log field will result in the number of rows written to that link (that is, rows which satisfy the constraint) recorded in the job log as a warning message

    Along with these, we can define the local stage variables, use the system variables and also we can set the partitioning methods and sorting operations.

    Camping Outdoor Mats

    Almost everyone loves to spend time outdoors and one of those favorite pastimes is camping. Campers usually have a list of accessories that they just cannot live without when they venture outdoors and one of those items should be camping outdoor mats. There are a variety of uses for a camping mat some of those include, inside your tent, under a hammock, the entry way into your tent, where you set up kitchen or if you are the type that likes to star gaze, under your sleeping bag.

    If you are an individual that likes to leave no trace after you are finished camping then these mats are ideal because they will not kill grass and you can leave your environment as you found it, by placing the wear and tear on the camping mat rather than your surroundings.

    Size and weight can be a major issue especially if you are backpacking long distance so the ideal size would be a six by nine mat so you can fold it or roll it up and carry in your backpack, this size is lightweight and folds small enough to get into your backpack, leaving enough room for your other camping accessories.

    Spending time in the great outdoors can be very relaxing and enjoyable and there is no reason why you cannot be comfortable and at the same time conscious of how you treat your environment. Making sure you have the right equipment to make your experience enjoyable and safe should be your top priority.

    2011 Top Trends in Home Renovations

    Home renovations always seem to lead in one direction or another each year. What was hot and trending last year is no longer the norm this year and probably is not the following year, either. While trends do come and go, money is spent each year in different areas of the home and as homeowner, it pays to keep up with these trends.

    You can use them to help build a bigger return on your investment of property by updating and renovating your home. This is how you can keep all the rooms and areas of your home looking great, while also keeping up the value of your property.

    The top trends for 2011 have been projected to be smaller projects that are more necessary in nature rather than working on large-scale renovations.

    Here are some 2011 Top Trends in Home Renovations

    Bathrooms – The bathroom is a much quicker and less expensive renovation than other rooms in the house, in most cases. Renovating the bathroom can be as simple as putting in new tiling and flooring. The return on the investment can be much more than the cost of time and materials particularly if it is a DIY project instead of using a contractor.

    Warmer Tones – It is has been very popular to be minimalist and to use whites and clean looks for homes. The new trend is moving away from that outlook and home interiors are becoming warmer. Instead of black and white floor tiles, warm tones of oranges and browns are taking their place. Carpeting is also becoming warmer along with painting and other upgrades and renovations. Simply switching out the flooring is a great return on the investment as buyers are looking for these warmer tones when they are considering their choice of home.

    Immediate Repairs – If a home has repairs that are needed, they should be taken care of before renovating a room that does not have any issues. Simply fixing a leaking roof or replacing a cracked driveway can add thousands to the value of a home and are repairs that absolutely must be completed. These types of renovations are not as cosmetic as others but need to be completed nonetheless.

    Create One Space – One of hottest trends this year is creating one large living space out of two or three smaller spaces. If the home has a small kitchen, living room and dining room, knock out the walls and create one large space that has a flow to it. This can also work in the bedroom that has an adjoining bathroom. Create a larger area by opening up the bathroom and only enclosing the toilet. Put in a Jacuzzi tub and an enclosed shower and you have more space and larger fixtures. This renovation also has a great return on investment and adds a great deal of value to the home.

    The Green Theme – This is a trend that is continuing and getting more and more popular. Anyone who wants the best investment percentage and the highest return on their investment in their renovations is “going green”. This means uses sustainable materials such as bamboo for flooring, water collectors for collecting rainwater for gardening and tri pane windows. Any type of energy saving renovation does increase the value of a home by a great deal. Some are more costly than others, but if a homeowner starts with small projects, in no time at all they can have a home that is worth much more and is much better for the environment.

    Home renovations follow trends just as any other industry and the savvy homeowner knows that they need to stay on top of these trends if they want to increase the value of their house. Simply changing flooring colors or replacing a leaking roof can add thousands to the value of it. Do an assessment of your home today to see what types of changes you might make in keeping with the 2011 home renovation trends as well.

    How to Make Your House Feel More Like Home

    Be it ever so humble, there’s no place like home. No matter the size of your home or your bank account, you can find ways to make your house feel more like a home. When a guest walks in, you want them to see a reflection of you, not just four walls and some furniture. There are several different tools you can use to show the love you have for your home.

    Photographs are probably the easiest and most popular way to make home look loved. Set up a collection of black and white photos of “way back when” to give the feeling of family connection. You can use large canvas prints to frame a window and show off your beautiful children or wedding photos. There are many photo websites where you can order poster sized prints. Just find a great frame for them, and they can have the same effect as the canvas. Another neat thing to do is have a photo wall. This can be a wall in your living area or entryway, or even in a hallway. Basically, frame photos of all sizes and shapes and arrange them in an interesting way from the top to bottom of the wall. This is a really beautiful way to give guests a look at your family’s timeline, and the feeling of love that is in your home.

    You can tell how much a home is loved simply by walking in the door. When you see warm inviting colors and furniture, you know this is where a person’s heart is. By simply taking the time to find furniture that reflects your personal style can make all the difference in how your home is perceived. If you are an old fashioned person with mod black furniture, it will probably look out of place, and maybe as if you did not even pick it out. Try to look for things that compliment your personality. It will make a world of difference in how your home looks.

    An often overlooked element of any home is the floor. You sweep and vacuum, and mop and scrub, but you give little thought about what the floors say about your home. By simply adding a little area rug in your kitchen or living area, one that reflects the room’s ambiance, you are showing that you even love the floors in your home enough to dress them. The area rug is a simple, elegant addition to your home that will not only cover trouble areas, but show those who enter that you have interest in all aspects of your home

    This may seem obvious, but a clean house is a happy house. While you should not worry if your kitchen chairs are pushed in, or if you have swept today, there are some things that are simply unacceptable if you want your home to look loved. It is best not to have junk piled high in your living areas, or mud and filth on the floors. If you have animals, make sure you clean up their messes right away. A sink full of dirty dishes or old food lying about is a sure sign that you do not love your home. And chances are if you do not love your home, no one else is going to love coming there either.

    Apartment Accommodation

    Providing the comforts of home combined with some much welcomed added extras,  apartments  are a popular choice for many travelers.  Apartments  are a great choice for the self sufficient traveler equipped with their own kitchen and laundry  Apartments  often suit families away on vacation or travelers looking to base themselves in a central spot for a longer period of time. There was a time when  Apartment  Style accommodation was always serviced – meaning that staff employed by the complex would carry out duties such as cleaning, making beds, laundering sheets etc. However, now many  apartments  have evolved and are unserviced, giving you the option to perform all the duties you generally would at home such as washing, cooking and cleaning, thus giving you the option of cooking your own meals – often a much cheaper option than dining out every night.

     Apartment  hotels are adaptable types of accommodation; rather than the stiff arrangement of a hotel room an  apartment  hotel building generally boasts a complete fully fitted and furnished  apartment . These compounds are normally custom built, with similarities to that of a hotel multipart containing a diverse multitude of  apartments . The amount of time people choose to stay in these  apartment  hotels can vary anywhere from a few days to months or even years. Prices tend to be more reasonable than hotels.  Apartment  hotels are used for many as a home away from home, and thus they are more often than not fitted with everything the average home would need.

    There are many different styles of  apartments  available to rent in all of Australia’s capital cities. From luxurious penthouses ( singular  apartments  taking up an entire floor of an  apartment  block – generally the top floor) to modest studio  apartments  and everything in between, weather you are a looking for temporary or permanent accommodation there are a multitude of  apartments  available to rent throughout Australia.

     Apartments  can be classified into many categories;

    Studio  apartments  are small, one room  apartments  which combine your living space with your bedroom, generally they have a small kitchen area and a separate bathroom area. Studio  apartments  are particularly popular in inner city areas as they provide the cheapest option for living in areas where rent can be notoriously expensive.

    1, 2, AND 3 bedroom  apartments  generally have a combined living/dining area with a separate kitchen and bathroom; multi bedroom  apartments  may sometimes have ensuites attached to the main bedroom. Internal laundries are generally a common feature – especially in more modern  apartments . The more bedrooms an  apartment  has will generally be proportional to the amount of rent you pay, for example a 1 Bedroom  apartment  with the same sized living space as a 3 bedroom  apartment , located in a similar area would have a great difference in price. Many young people choose to rent larger  apartments  – which although on surface value may look more expensive than a smaller  apartment , when the rent is divided amongst 3-4 people it is quite affordable.

     Apartments  can be quite luxurious. In Australia in particular, where most families live in suburbs on the fringe of the capitol cities or by the coast, it is not unusual for mum and dad to sell the family home once the kids have grown up and moved on and buy an  apartment , by the beach or in the heart of the city. These luxurious  apartments  are popular for many reasons, 1 being that they offer the comforts of home such as swimming pools , and landscaped gardens – but without the hassle of maintaining them.

    Holiday  apartments , like residential  apartments  are available in all price ranges. Even within the one resort you will find an array of  apartments  available at differing costs.

    Flat Tummy

    How do you get a flat tummy? The question has been asked many times and it’s what most people want, but there is a huge misunderstanding as to how to make the fat in your midsection disappear. There is more to getting a flat tummy than just doing a bunch of abdominal crunches.

    I am sure you have seen the numerous infomercials on how to get a flat tummy by using the latest exercise gadget. Most people discount infomercials and their products, yet there is still the misconception that you can get washboard abs by concentrating on abdominal exercises alone. Exercising your abdominals is just a small part to getting that flat tummy.

    If you pass the magazine section in a store you will undoubtedly see a bunch of periodical covers with good looking guys and gals and their washboard abs. What you don’t know is that the model on the cover has a body fat percentage of no more than 12%, most below 10%. So, what does this mean for you? If you want to get a flat tummy you need to focus on getting your body fat below 12%. If you can do that, you will start to visually see your ‘six pack’.

    So, the real question you should be asking is NOT how do I get a flat tummy, but how do I get my body fat under 12%.

    In order to get your body fat below 12% you have to be dedicated to a program of daily exercise including both resistance training and cardiovascular conditioning. Along with your exercise program, you need to be following a strict meal plan to reduce your body fat.

    Your exercise program to a flat tummy should include some abdominal/core exercises, but you also need to include all major muscle groups in the body. Make sure your regimen includes lower and upper body exercises. Schedule your resistance training session at least twice per week. You should perform a minimum of 2 sets for each major muscle group, ranging from 8-15 repetitions. Each set of movements should be exercised to exhaustion! Weight training will increase your metabolism to help burn fat.

    Most people think that cardiovascular exercise is a great way to burn fat and it can be if done correctly. Walking on a treadmill for an hour will help, but if you want to stimulate your metabolism, continue to burn calories after your workout, and get a flat tummy, shorter sessions of high intensity work better. Research has demonstrated that interval training with high intense bursts of 60-120 seconds followed by a moderate recovery period of 30-60 seconds will produce better results. If you use this format keep your session under 30 minutes.

    Lastly, if getting that flat tummy is your ultimate goal you better plan your meals and snacks accordingly. You will need to cut out most of the sugar in your diet. This includes sodas, juices, alcohol, crackers, cakes, cookies, pastas, rice, potatoes, breads, etc. Your meals should include a source of protein such as: meat, fish, eggs or cheese. Your carbohydrate sources should be from veggies. Snack on a handful of nuts, a piece of cheese, olives, veggies, or a quarter of an avocado if you get hungry throughout the day.

    Getting that flat tummy is not easy but it can be done if you have a well rounded program to follow. The program should include both weight training and cardiovascular conditioning along with a meal plan devoid of most sugar. Abdominal exercises are important to getting a flat tummy, but this is only a small piece to the puzzle.

    Dr. Kevin Dobrzynski DN,

    The Fitness Doctor

    Finding the Right Motorbike Helmet

    You have spent a lot of time already doing your research into finding the right motorbike  helmet  along with other important gear. However, you now still need to look at some motorbike  helmets  in person; this is the most important protective gear for every rider. Since this will protect your head from injury in the event of an accident, the importance of wearing a good motorbike  helmet  cannot be stressed enough.

    It’s shocking that people will spend thousands on their motorbike, yet cheap out on a  helmet  in an attempt to save money. A good quality  helmet  is more than worth the price, so remember that as you shop.

    What you shouldn’t do is buy a  helmet  just because you like the way it looks. You need a motorbike  helmet  which protects your head while you ride – safety should always be the first thing on your mind.

    – Size Does Matter

    Bigger doesn’t always mean better when it comes to choosing the right motorbike  helmet . Your  helmet  should fit snugly and be comfortable to wear. When trying on  helmets  put them on and tighten the chinstraps. Next, try moving the  helmet . If it shifts around on your head easily, then it’s not the right size. Having a good fit means a safer  helmet , so take your time and try on lots of  helmets  before deciding on the right size.

    – Safety First

    The back of the  helmet  should feature a DOT and ideally a SNELL sticker as well. These safety certifications let you know that this  helmet  has been safety-tested. The SNELL sticker denotes rigorous standardized testing – DOT certification goes on the honor system, so look for both stickers.

    – Type of  Helmet 

    There are several different types of motorbike  helmet , some offering more protection than others. There are full face  helmets , motocross  helmets , shorty  helmets  and open face  helmets . The safest of all is the full face  helmet ; some riders do prefer open face or shorty  helmets , but keep in mind that these will not protect your face if you get into an accident.

    – Anti-Scratch and Anti-Fog

    There is an ever increasing number of  helmet  makers who are producing  helmets  with visors that feature scratch resistance and anti-fogging features. You should definitely seek out a  helmet  which includes these or consider purchasing an after market visor which does. Anti-fogging is a great safety feature – after all, the last thing you need while on the road is reduced vision because your visor is fogging up! There are also anti-fog sprays and anti-fog film which you can place in your visor.

    – Ventilation

    Every  helmet  should have adequate ventilation so that you don’t have to ride while dripping with sweat. There is a trade off between ventilation and noise levels while you ride, however – the more vents, the louder things will be. Aerodynamic  helmets  will be quieter though and there are even  helmets  where you can open and close the vents as needed. Earplugs are also an option if you need less noise but more ventilation in your motorbike  helmet .

    – Straps

    Good chinstraps help to make a proper fit. Make sure that your chinstraps are easy to adjust and can be locked to your rear trunk for easy  helmet  storage.

    – Inner Liner

    Your  helmet’s  inner lining should be comfortable the first time you try it on. Remember that the lining will become more comfortable with wear, but you’re better off riding in comfort the very first time you wear your new motorbike  helmet .

    – Design

    Not that looking cool isn’t important, but safety should always come first in considering motorbike  helmets . The choice of design is entirely up to you – only you can say for sure what looks good on you and more importantly, feels good. Some of the brands to look for are Scorpion, Joe Rocket, AGV, Icon and Shoei, all of which provide you with the protection you need and are available in a range of style to suit every rider regardless of his or her tastes.