Removing That Old Roof

There are a number of do it yourself home repairs that a homeowner can do on their own to save a lot of money. Often, however, when someone thinks about replacing their roof, they automatically assume it is out of their reach. However, this does not need to be the case and there are at least some parts of a roof replacement that can be done with little or no direct roofing experience.

With that said, it is obviously important to never do anything out of your comfort zone and there are many dangers associated with replacing a roof, largely because it is done on top of the house and there are falling concerns. So, you should only consider replacing your own roof if you feel comfortable working with heights, are mechanically inclined, like do-it-yourself projects, and don’t mind learning as you go.

One of the first steps of a roof replacement is removing the old roof, which also is usually one of the most difficult steps. From a strictly technical standpoint, it is rather easy. All the old shingles, nails, and other things on the roof must come off and it needs to be stripped to the plywood base. However, aside from perhaps carrying the new shingles up to the roof, it is often the most physically demanding part.

Removing the shingles is easiest with a special type of shovel called a tear off tool. This has a end that has a number of teeth that can be used to pry off nails and is angled so that it can be slid under the shingles. In older times, roofers would often just use a flat head shovel and this can still be done, but work will go much faster with a tear off tool.

When doing a roof, it is a good idea to just rent a dumpster, rather than trying to haul off the trash on your own. Even discounting all the new trash you will generate, you will still have quite literally tons of debris, like old shingles and possibly wood. To avoid having to make a number of trips, you can rent a dumpster instead, with a number of companies offering a flat fee and leaving it for several weeks at no additional charge.

If at all possible, position the dumpster so that you can throw trash from the roof directly into it and as you are removing shingles, try to toss them into the dumpster, instead of onto the ground. After you have been doing it for a little bit, it will begin to go much quicker and it is often possible to remove large sections of shingles at once, by prying part of them up, moving slightly, and prying some more.

When completed, all of the old roof, including the felt paper, must be removed from the roof. This includes nails and staples, which would damage the new shingles and felt paper if left.’

You may also find water damage from a leak, so do not be surprised if you must replace some wood or other parts of your roof.

Full Color Printing – Explaining CMYK VS RGB

You are looking for the right printing company to render full   color  printing service for your ad  materials . As you browse through your options, you are being bombarded with letters that you cannot comprehend – CMYK and RGB.

Are you lost with such acronyms? First, you must understand that color is an important element in printing as well as in the design process. You must have the eye to spot what will match and what will look good together to be able to provide the right  material .

 Color  can affect the whole appeal of your  material . It will evoke people’s emotions. It will create the impact.


The colors as you see them on your computer monitors are in RGB mode. It will not look the same way once printed though. That is why most printing companies ask you to convert your files to CMYK before sending them over.

What is RGB? This is a color model that is composed of red, green and blue. This is most useful for website design and presentations done on screen because the project will be viewed through a computer monitor.

There are various color spaces in the RGB model. These are the two that are commonly used.

o RGB. This is what most of the monitors of your PCs use. This is also advisable to be used if you are into web design.

o Adobe RGB. This has a larger selection of colors than the sRGB. This is more appropriate to be used if you are designing for print and with pictures that were taken using professional digital cameras.


The CMYK model is produced when two RGB colors are mixed evenly.

o C or cyan is produced when green and blue are combined.

o M or magenta is produced when red and blue are combined.

o Y or yellow is produced when red and green are combined.

o K which means the key color or black is added to the model because when all the three colors of RGB are combined, they can only produce a dark brown.

If you want to avail of the full color printing process for your advertisements and other needs, you have to know that such method uses the CMYK model. Each color is placed on a printing plate. So there are four printing plates that are being utilized in the manner of printing.

The colors are then printed on the paper stock as small dots. But humans would only be able to see the final image.

You have to be really careful with colors especially when you are applying it to your professional arena.  Colors  will have a high impact on the design of your  material , whether you are using the print medium or you are designing for web pages.

It is advisable to match the colors according to you target market. They are the ones who are going to appreciate the final product. So it will be safer to think about them from the start. And the next time you are going to avail full color printing services, you will no longer feel lost with what the acronyms RGB and CMYK stand for.

7 Steps For Painting Bathroom Tiles

If you are reading this article, then you are probably looking for more information about  painting  bathroom tiles. When the tiles in your bathroom look boring, dull, or out of date, you might feel an urge to replace them. But installing new tiles in your bathroom can be an expensive and time consuming task.

So  painting  over tile is the easiest and most affordable way to give your bathroom a fresh look. What makes this different from  painting  other materials is that you first need to prepare the surface so that the  paint  will adhere to it without flaking off.

1. If there are any problems, such as cracking tiles or crumbling grout, they need to be repaired before you start to  paint  your bathroom tiles.

2. Next, you will need to prepare the surface to be  painted , and this requires cleaning the tiles. Start by cleaning off any grime, dirt and soap scum that may be left on the tile surface.

You can use a tile and grout cleansing solution, or some other commercial cleaning product. Then use a non-abrasive scrubbing pad. Wipe it all over the tiles to remove the debris.

3. You may also find that the tiles will have patches of calcium residue. If this is the case then you will also need to use a calcium deposit remover.

4. Sanding is also important before you  paint  bathroom tile, as this will ensure that the applied  paint  adheres well to the surface. A 220 grit sandpaper is recommended, to achieve the best finish. It is coarse enough to remove the surface gloss, but not so coarse as to leave scratches that may show through your  paint .

A hand held orbital sander is a good tool to use make the sanding job easier. For safety, you should wear a mask and eye protection. When finished, wipe off the surface to remove the dust.

5. The next step in the process of  painting  ceramic tile is the application of primer. This is done to seal the surface, and lay down a good base for the  paint . It is recommended that you use a high quality oil based primer on the tiles. Start applying it at the corners.  Paint  each tile individually, using vertical strokes.

6. It will usually take around 24 hours for it to dry. Then you can apply a second coat of primer.

7. For your top coat, you need to select a high quality oil based  paint . Choose  paints  that are suitable for the bathroom and kitchen, as these  paints  are made to resist moisture and prevent growth of mold and mildew. Although oil based  paints  take longer to apply, and have a longer drying time, the finish of this  paint  is of the highest quality, and it will last for a long time.

When  painting  bathroom tiles, instead of using one heavy coat, it is recommended that you use a number of thin coats. Apply each coat after the previous coat has dried. When you have finished  painting  your bathroom tiles, then the bathroom will have a new lease on life, and that will last for years to come.

How to Know If You Are a Reactive Sales Manager

When I was recently coaching a group of sales managers in preparation for a sales force transformation, they quickly advised me they did not have the time to do any more than they were already doing. The demands on their time were far exceeding the usual working day and week.

They were an industrial products sales force with a wide geographical area to cover. The products were complex and a mainstay for many manufacturing organizations. It was a good business for many years but had stagnated for the past two or three years. The sales managers were mature and had held the positions for an average of ten years each. They industry experience and product knowledge was deep.

With the immediate barrier placed down and their minds closing quickly to any sense of doing things differently, it was time to explore what was really going on in their day. After some discussions regarding the tasks they were involved in, it became clear to me that they were not in control of their time and their priorities were definitely not aligned to the business requirements. In fact, they were applying an idealism of management that is most typically of untrained professional sales management.

We continued the discussion and moved to the subject of coaching their teams. Today that is an integral part of achieving sales force transformation and a skill they have to be applying. Interestingly, although they were excessively busy, they reported the spent only about 5-10% of their time coaching and I doubted that was real and it was potentially much lower. When then discussed field trips and the outcome was their attendance was more related to customer problems or “need to be seen” at major meetings basis rather than any designated coaching sessions.

This sales management team was not unusual and you can walk into many companies and get the same report card. So let’s look at what they were actually doing as part of their role and its value to the role of sales manager.

1. Catching the Monkey. This is a common trap that all sales managers (and people) fall into. If you want to be busy then become a monkey catcher. Monkey catchers solve other people’s problems for them and with your added value of being a manager; you can typically solve them faster than someone else. People become so impressed with your ability to solve problems they give you even more. The problem is that is not your job. Your role is getting things done through others.

2. Less is More. You want to be accepted by your team as a good leader and manager and not be categorised as one of those old time authoritarian leaders. Every person has a desire to be accepted or needed by others on some level. You didn’t like being managed so you are not going to do it your team so you limit the sales meetings to monthly and allow people to demonstrate their talents in the market by working autonomously. The problem with that is, ‘what do you actually do for a job if the team are self-managed?’ We are not advocating authoritarian management, but we are advocating leadership and guidance.

3. Decision-Maker Extraordinaire. You want to be seen to be as a good decision-maker. You take action on things and you are always making decisions, quickly, decisively and making the hard calls. Problem is, if you had thought the problem or situation through before making the first decision, you may not have to have made the extra ten reactive decisions trying to pull the situation around to where it should be. Decision-making is not about speed, it is about the quality of the decision and its relationship to the overall strategy.

4. My Team is Experienced. You hired or have taken over a team of experienced talent. They know what they are doing and have deep industry experience. They don’t need coaching as they are on the top of their game. Well the world is changing rapidly and the top seller yesterday may not be the top seller tomorrow. Your role is to keep them at the top of their game and ensure they have the latest and best skills possible to be competitive. Yes, experienced sellers don’t need to hear that same grinding sales training that most offer, over and over again. They need specific skills that keep them attuned to their customer audience and the seniority of those customers. They need to understand the customer’s priorities in purchasing rather than subjecting customers to rapidly dating sales methods.

5. Product Knowledge is King. If this was the case then there would not be an ineffective sales force in the world. Product knowledge is a must for credibility, development of solutions, understanding customer needs and making sound recommendations. Product knowledge is part of skill set and not the entire skill set. A person that does not understand the sales process, is not working to a proven playbook, spends many hours in front of the wrong customers and practicing poor sales behaviors is of little value to the company. Your role is to ensure you maximize the value of the product knowledge and have the person’s sales behavior perfectly aligned to the sales strategy.

This type of sales management is acting in opposition to what the role actually is and they are not operating with any real business thinking in mind. They are working within the team and not leading and guiding them to deliver the strategy of the business.

For this sales management team the transformation will potentially be greater for them than their sales force team members. How much transformation would you personally need to go through to improve your team?

Tomato Plants Care and Feeding

The tomato plant is one of the easiest plants to grow in the garden and is a great source of food for the family, they are both delicious to eat and promote good health. Learn how to care for tomato plants and you will be able to produce a lot of fruit throughout the growing season.

There are a few basics to get right concerning both the tomato plant care and feeding so that you can ensure lots of juicy fresh fruit straight from the garden.

The first bit of advice for tomato plant care is to ensure that before planting tomatoes make sure that the last frost of the year is over with, neither the plant or the fruit have any tolerance to freezing, so all your preparation could come to nothing if the plants are exposed to a frost.

Next, prepare the soil, it is a good idea to dig a trench about 18″ deep, fill the bottom with a mulch, many people use newspaper to line the bottom of the trench, then add in a mix of high in nitrogen compost and soil to fill the trench.

The compost will provide the basic feed for the plants but can be supplemented with a tomato feed once or twice a week once the fruit starts to appear, this is important for tomato care as the fruit needs a lot of nitrogen to flourish.

Another important aspect of a tomato plants care is to ensure that the trusses are properly supported, this can be done as simply as pushing a stake in the ground and then tying off each truss, as it develops, to the stake with a soft garden string. Prune the tomato plant to remove lower shoots to prevent contact with the ground and to control the number of trusses, a good number is 4 to 6 trusses.

You will also need a regular watering program, ideally 2 to 3 times a day to keep the soil moist but not saturated. Add to this occasional treatment with a pesticide on an as required basis and you will have dealt with all the basic needs for tomato plant care.

Tomatoes are best eaten fresh, so eat them as soon as they are ready picking from the early, lower trusses, this will also encourage further fruit to grow.

How to Get Your Girlfriend Back Using Dirty Psychological Tricks

A break up can happen to almost anyone who’s been fortunate enough to fall in love, but, if you’ve been there and you want to learn how to get your girlfriend back, I’m going to teach you a few psychological tricks that will put you on the right track.

1. If you don’t leave or work together with your ex girlfriend, make sure you minimize communication with her as much as you can. If possible, do not initiate contact with her at all for a minimum of three to four weeks. This means no calling, no text messages, no emails and no IMs. This step was enough for a lot of guys to get their girlfriends to contact them in a matter of days and there’s a psychological explanation for that…

People want what they can’t have!

…Never forget that! It’s hard-wired in our brains and, basically, that’s what helped us become what we are (the most evolved species on Earth). Also, by doing so, you avoid acting needy and depressed around your ex while setting the stage for your next moves.

2. Add just a little bit of jealousy to the equation. Just a little bit. But pay attention here! If you overdo this, you will end up losing your ex for good. I’m going to teach you some sneaky ways to do this without even talking to other girls, so, you won’t actually ruin your chances to get her back! This is very powerful because of the following reasons: you make her wonder if she made the right decision when she left you and you lower her self esteem by letting her know you also have options and you were able to replace her a lot easier that she initially thought. You were such a valuable guy right under her nose and she didn’t even notice!

3. Make your first date with her very emotionally charged. “What?! How do I get a date with her? Right now, she doesn’t even answer my phone calls!!”. I can hear you screaming already… Well, if you carefully follow the steps I’m going to show you, getting another date with your ex is not going to be a hard task at all (in fact, that’s going to be the easy part!), so, right now, let me explain what I mean by “emotionally charged”. That DOES NOT mean ‘dinner and a movie’. Because, well, it’s BORING! And does not create a bonding… or in our case a RE-bonding experience. In fact, you want to pack in several emotionally charged mini-dates in a span of a couple hours. And I’ll explain to you everything in detail if you follow my simple plan (you can get a gender-specific guide for free if you follow the blue link at the end of this article). If you just do ‘dinner and a movie’ you lose out on a sociologically proven principle…

Emotionally charged experiences = Bond

So, how do you do that? To get started, a short roller coaster ride is one great example. Also, if you can switch places and, preferably, go on several mini-dates with her in a span of a couple hours, you will create what I call “time distortion”. This will make your ex feel like you’ve been together forever (even if you’ve only been together for a few days).

A Contract Dispute Concerning an Oral Contract

A common myth about contract disputes is that all contracts have to be in writing and signed. Unwritten contracts are commonly referred to as “oral contracts” or “oral agreements.” Oral agreements are quite common and usually fairly innocuous. For instance, if you go to a Tex-Mex restaurant, order a delicious dinner of enchiladas gorda off the menu, and you accept the food from the waiter, then you have a binding oral contract.

In my practice, I often handle litigation that involves both written and oral contract disputes. They are usually quite serious and range from disagreements over construction projects to employment termination to partnership dissolutions. These problems frequently arise because different individuals perceive things differently. For instance, suppose two people are looking at the clouds. One person might see the letter “S” and another might see a snake. Other times, one party was simply trying to take advantage of the other’s good or trusting nature. Below are three of the most common lawsuit claims that arise from oral contracts:

Oral Contract Dispute #1: Quantum Meruit

Quantum Meruit is basically a claim in fairness. One party provided services or materials and expected compensation, the other party knew or should have known that compensation would be expected, but compensation was never provided. One example of this is when a semi-conscious individual receives emergency lifesaving treatment by a doctor in a hospital emergency room. In a semi-conscious state, we would not expect the individual to have the presence of mind to form a contract. But, it is a matter of fairness for the doctor to be compensated for his or her work.

Oral Contract Dispute #2: Promissory Estoppel

Promissory Estoppel is a claim that a promise was broken. One party promised to do something, the other party relied on that promise, but the promising party broke the promise. Here is a common situation in which contract disputes involving promissory estoppel arise. An individual agrees to make a charitable gift to Miscellaneous Charities. Miscellaneous Charities then calculates that gift in its annual budget and spends its funds accordingly. It would be unjust if the individual changed his mind after the point at which it would injure Miscellaneous Charities.

Oral Contract Dispute #3: Suit on Sworn Account

A Suit on Sworn Account is normally when one party provides goods or services which were accepted but not fully paid for. This type of contract dispute can be either oral or over a written contract. It is referred to as a Suit on Sworn Account because the seller files this type of lawsuit with a “sworn” affidavit that attaches a record of the “account,” which is basically an accounting of the amount of money that is due.

All of that said, there are some types of contracts that must be in writing-and requirements can vary by state and jurisdiction, often depending upon their Statute of Frauds. [1] The Statute of Frauds was created to ensure that individuals do not fraudulently injure others by lying about their agreements on certain types of matters. While there are entire books on the Statute of Frauds that can provide an in-depth explanation, this is a list of some of the basic agreements that must be in writing: promises made for marriage (ex. He promised me a Trump Tower condo if we married.), an agreement that cannot be performed and completed within one year, the transfer of real estate, certain promises by executors of estates, the sale of goods worth $500 or more, and surety (ex. She promised to pay my student loans.).

[1] For instance, the Texas Statute of Frauds is in the Texas Business & Commerce Code, Chapter 26. It states that certain types of contracts must be in writing and signed. This applies to certain promises by executors or administrators, the debts of others, marital agreements, real estate sales, real estate leases of over a year, agreements which are not to be performed with one year of the agreement, certain commissions and sales, and certain types of physician or health care provider agreements.

To learn more about contract disputes, see

Aluminum Container Manufacturing Process

One of the most used packaging materials is aluminum. Think about the products that you use every day. The hair spray which you used this morning was packaged as an aluminum aerosol bottle. The energy drink that you had right after breakfast was packaged in an aluminum beverage bottle. And the air freshener that you sprayed throughout the house came in an aluminum aerosol bottle as well. Surely aluminum packaging is used in dozens of industries, ranging from personal care and cosmetics to food and beverages to household products to pharmaceuticals. Still, given its widespread use, surprisingly few people know how that aluminum bottle ends up in their hand. This article will provide an overview of the impact-extrusion process-the most common process used in the manufacturing of aluminum containers.

The impact extrusion process is used by aluminum bottle manufacturers worldwide. It requires a hydraulic press which houses a ‘punch’ and a metal slug which is cooled and lubricated before the process begins. The metal slug is placed on a die, below the punch, and the punch then makes contact with the slug, deforming it and shaping it around the punch. The slug is shaped by a single impact, and is then removed from the work piece by a ‘counter punch’ mechanism.

This process can be used not only for aluminum but a host of softer metals; these include brass, tin, mild steel, magnesium, and titanium. It is used widely because of the abundance of advantages that it provides. When used for aluminum, the impact extrusion process has advantages which are both economic and technical. An aluminum bottle made using this method can be made quickly, last longer, have a lower weight, and have a superior surface quality.

The typically cited drawback is that the impact-extruded aluminum bottle is slightly less environmentally friendly than an aluminum bottle made by another process-the Coil to Can process. The Coil to Can process (C2C) uses thirty to forty percent less aluminum than an impact-extruded bottle. This is because impact extrusion requires that the bottle uses about 3 times more aluminum than the traditional aluminum can for insulation purposes. At the same time, however, any aluminum product is relatively environmentally friendly, because aluminum bottles and cans are easily recycled. The use of recycled aluminum requires only 5% of the energy that is needed to manufacture a product using new (non-recycled) aluminum.

Obviously aluminum plays a huge role in the packaging industry. And the metal is particularly important as a cheap, comfortable, and sustainable material. As a result, the role that the impact extrusion process plays in the manufacturing of aluminum bottles, aluminum aerosols, and other specialty aluminum packaging is extremely important. Without impact-extruding there would be none of the custom aluminum packaging designs and shapes that are seen in innovative beverage bottles everywhere. It is beneficial to executives in industries that use aluminum bottles to know the manufacturing process. Doing so will help them make better decisions as to their packaging needs, and help with the branding and marketing that is so important.

A Quick Look At Trane Through The Wall Air Conditioners For Hotels

Air conditioning was one of the most important technological developments of the twentieth century. Trane is a key manufacturer of heating and cooling systems. Following is an overview of Trane through the wall air conditioners.

The two main techniques for cooling air are evaporation and refrigeration. This article does not address the evaporation method. Refrigeration systems actually use evaporation, but the fluid that evaporates is in a sealed system. After it has provided cooling, it is recompressed and reused.

Trane used to be part of American Standard Companies and is currently part of Ingersoll Rand. It makes many heating and air conditioning systems. In addition to air conditioners, Trane also makes gas furnaces, heat pumps, and integrated systems. They have both commercial and home product lines.

Most of the Trane product line consists of large scale cooling systems such as central air conditioning systems. They also make a line of through the wall air conditioners, but they don’t call them that. The are Packaged Terminal Air Conditioners (PTAC). They are designed to have part inside and part outside, connected through a hole in a wall. They could be used to cool, and possibly also heat, guest rooms in a motel or hotel. This simplifies separate temperature control for each room. It also makes it easy to turn off the unit when no one is using a room.

PTACs can be either heat pumps or conventional air conditioners. Heat pumps are air conditioners that can also heat. They do this by reversing the air conditioning process and pumping heat inside from outdoors.

Trane PTACs can cool at anywhere from 7,000 BTUs to 15,000 BTUs, depending on the model. Some have no electrical heating, others have as much as 5 kilowatts. They use either 208 or 265 volt electricity.

The units can be turned on and off remotely. This could be useful in a hotel, where a central location could ensure that only the rooms in use are being heated or cooled. This could save both staff time and utility bills.

They can work with different kinds of thermostats. Maintenance staff can establish upper and lower limits on thermostat settings. If necessary, a separate temperature sensor can be placed in a better location in the room.

They can be set to dehumidify the air without cooling it. In many circumstances this can give the same comfort level as cooling for less expense. Outside air can be vented in to the room through a filter. This reduces the load of pollen and dust, making the air more pleasant to breath and helping to keep the room from getting dirty. They can be very quiet when the fan is on low.

Heat pump units with electrical heating will turn on the electrical heat if a heat pump failure is detected. If all units come back on right after a power failure, a dangerous surge can occur. This is prevented by delaying each unit’s restart for a variable period. The compressor will not restart for at least three minutes after a shutdown. A faster restart could cause excess wear.

Due to their efficient and quiet operation, centralized air conditioning and heating are often favored. It is good to remember that less central options have their advantages. In some situations one of the Trane through the wall air conditioners can be a good choice.

About Portable Air Conditioner

A portable air conditioner is an easy to carry, install, and remove unit that is usually built into a wall, window, or internal structure of a building. It’s available in a number of power strengths and all you need to do is to choose the one that you like.

Just like the other conditioners, it uses   compressors  to inhale warm air, cool it, and expel it out of a room through a pipe or hose.

How the units work

As mentioned, the units aid in cooling a room by removing warm air. As a result of this, the units have two byproducts: water and heat. Water is condensed as the  compressor  cools the air. The water is collected on the outer surface of the unit.

Heat is produced as a byproduct of the work of the  compressor  and it’s released through a vent which is located at the back of the unit.


Although, the units serve the same purpose, there are of different types with the main types being: split and hose systems.

A split system is characterized by a small indoor floor. It also has small wheels that are attached at the base which make it easy to move and transport the conditioner from one place to another. The inside unit is usually attached to a larger, permanent outdoor unit using flexible plastic pipes.

The unit’s  compressor  is housed in the outdoor unit in order to easily open and close the smaller door.

A hose system on the other hand is characterized by a medium-sized indoor that makes use of a hose window attachment in order to dispose the heat and moisture produced by the  compressor . The hose system conditioners are of two types: air-to-air and monoblock.

Air-to-air units re-evaporate the moisture produced from the heating/cooling/heating cycle of the  compressor . As a result of re-evaporation the air conditioners are able to work continuously without any problems.

The monoblock system on the other hand collects the produced moisture and keeps it in a drip tray. To prevent the unit from shutting down, the collected moisture is dumped periodically.


This is what you need to know about portable air conditioners. To avoid spending a lot of power, you should buy units that consume minimal amounts of power.

If you want to cool just a small area such as an office, you should go for small units as they will not only consume small amounts of power, but they will also be easy to maintain.

Discovering Candles


The discovery of candle can date way back thousands of years ago. Where candles originated is not really clear. However, there were clay candle holders found in Egypt dating from the 4th century B.C. But the use of “wicked” candle was credited to the Ancient Romans. They utilized used papyrus and dipped it repeatedly in melted tallow, a sheep or cattle fat, or beeswax. There were also other civilizations around during that time that used wicked candles out of waxes from available plants and insects. Early Chinese candles are said to be molded in paper tubes using rolled rice paper as wick and wax from insects combined with seeds. In Japan, candles are made out of extracted wax from nut trees. In India, candle wax was taken from cinnamon fruit by boiling them. On the other hand, in America, there were records that boiling the bark of the Cerio tree produces wax in which they use in making candles.


* Pillar candles. They are solid and self-standing. They are usually round but may com in other shapes. They can sometimes have more than one wick.

* Taper or Dinner Candles. They measure 3/4″ to 1″ in diameter and 6″ to 18″ tall. They should be placed on a stable candle holder to be in an upright position.

* Gel Candles. They are produced from gelled mineral oils or gelled synthetic hydrocarbons. They are transparent, rubbery and are usually poured into various shaped containers.

* Floating Candles. They have a low, stable profile and are designed to float on water. They vary in form from simple, smooth designs to elaborate, realistic shapes.

* Container or Filled Candle are non-flammable, heat resistant containers which are filled with wax and wick. Containers such as heat resistant glass jars and ceramic pottery are commonly used.

* Specialty Candles may be found in any three dimensional shape imaginable. They can be molded or sculpted by hand and are mostly for decorative use.

* Votive Candles are normally 2 1/2″ high and usually square or cylindrical in shape. They are burned safely in small, heat resistant, glass containers to control the liquefied wax, as the candles burn.

* Tea light Candles are usually about 1 1/2″ in diameter and around 3/4″ high inside a cylindrical metal container. These small filled candles are used in food warmers or as candles in a tea light holder.

* Luminaria Candles are for outdoor use. They are placed in a container which is filled with sand.


History tells us the different sources of wax used to make candles. Depending on the type of candle, the ingredient also varies. Most commonly nowadays, paraffin wax is being used. Paraffin wax is formed by combining certain chemical substances. Thus, it is a chemical compound that is colorless or white, somewhat translucent, hard wax consisting of a mixture of solid straight chain hydrocarbons ranging in melting point from about 48 to 68 degrees centigrade. It is obtained from petroleum by dew-axing light lubricating oil stocks. Inside a candle is a wick which is made of cotton. It is where the light is produced. Scented oil and colors can be mixed. Others combine leaves, beads, or sticks for an additional trick and decoration to the candle.

The usage of candles is basically as light. As the modern life develops, the need for candles has changed so much. Candles have been used as air deodorant, decoration, even as wedding favors. Candle as a favor can come into many unique shapes, colors and designs. It is also very artistic to be used as a centerpiece on the reception tables in any occasions.

How To Use The VBA Current Region Method In Excel

Accessing the Current Region is one of the most valuable VBA techniques in Excel. Not only can it select a data set or table, it enables you to access individual cells, rows and columns within the region; making it very useful for new Excel developers:

  • Search an entire table
  • Select multiple columns to use in a chart
  • Define rows and cells for highlighting

An Example Of Selecting The Current Region

The normal syntax for selecting the currentRegion is as follows:


While it makes sense to use the first cell of the table as the base for the region, any cell reference within the region can be used. Let’s look at an example of how you can use the current region in real life.

Let’s say we need to search an entire table starting at “A1” for a defined text string:

myText="text to search for"

for each c in selection
if instr(c,myText) then
' match found
End if

Accessing Cells, Rows And Columns Within The Current Region

Because a region covers multiple rows and columns there are a few different techniques to access items within the region:

In a 2 row by 4 column table (2 x 4) you might want to know the address of the last cell in the table, so you can add data to the next row. This code identifies the next cell address for data input by finding the final row and moving to the next cell.


Similarly, if we wanted to format each row, we’d need to know how many columns were included in the region:


And if you had 3 columns and wanted to return the 2nd column to include as a series range in a chart you could use this line of code:


In a 3 x 4 table, this would return a value in the form $B$1:$B$4 which coincidentally is the format to include the column in a chart.

It might be useful to think of the Current Region as a collection, and the cells, rows and columns are items in the collection having their own properties. In this way when you need to access the items within the region you can do so intuitively, rather than relying on knowledge of specific properties and methods.


The Current Region is one the most useful tools for both new and experienced VBA developers. A good understanding of its methods and properties is essential for effective and productive Excel applications.

3 "Little-Known" Exercises to Make You As Strong As a Bull on the Wrestling Mat!

If you want to gain a strength advantage over your competition, and don’t have a lot of fancy equipment, don’t worry. Here are 3 tried and true “unique” strength training exercises that can help get you stronger for the mat – FAST!

1. Bottom Squats – Bottom squats are incredible for developing hips and gluteal strength. In layman’s terms, that would be working your rear-end. Ok, have a quick laugh, and then get to work. These are a perfect addition to your wrestling strength training routine. Here’s what you do. With an Olympic barbell, you perform a regular full depth squat. This means you descend until the top of your thighs break parallel with the floor. Instead of standing straight up, you come up only half way. You pause in the half-way up position, descend to below parallel, and repeat. I would throw them in about once or twice a month, to keep the muscles “confused”. This forces the muscles to respond by getting stronger. In fact, you might want to perform a regular barbell squat or machine squat during the first workout. The next workout you might perform a barbell or trap bar deadlift. The third workout might be a bottom squat. Just perform each exercise with 100% intensity (with a spotter at all times) and seek to improve strength over successive workouts.

2. Negative-Only Chinups – This one is fantastic for developing the kind of upper body strength you need for the mat very quickly. Why? Because performing negative repetitions incorporates many more muscle fibers than the positive part of the repetition. In other words, you are 40% stronger lowering a weight than you are raising a weight. To apply this to chinups do the following: Grasp a chinning bar with a close, underhand grip. (Using this grip is much more effective than a wide grip for developing the latissimus dorsi muscle. The “lats” work with the biceps when you are performing a single or double-leg takedown.) By standing on a high bench or chair, hop up so that your chin is over the bar, and hold for 2 seconds. Slowly lower yourself under control until you reach a hanging position where the “lat” muscles are stretched. This lowering should take a good 8-10 seconds. Hop right back up to the starting position and again lower in 8-10 seconds. Repeat until it is impossible to lower with control. You may have to use additional weight around your waist if using body weight only gets too easy. Keep an arch in the middle back area when performing to force the back muscles to work harder than the biceps.

3. Negative-Only Dips – Just as the last exercise works the back and biceps muscles hard, this one works the antagonistic (opposite) muscles to them. This one will get the chest, shoulders, and triceps stronger fast. To perform you lock out the arms and support yourself at the top on a dipping bar. Keep the chin tucked into the chest to force more work from the chest muscles, and less emphasis on the triceps. Lower until the chest is fully stretched. This will take 8-10 seconds. Repeat. When you can’t lower in at least 6 seconds, the set is over. At this point take a much needed breather and get a drink.

Negative only training is very taxing on the body. I would do it for no more than 3 weeks at a time, about 4 times a year, to help push past a sticking point in your training. These 3 exercises can be performed by any wrestler. If a wrestler is young and hasn’t reached physical maturity, perform the squats with bodyweight only. For older, more mature wrestlers, go for broke. If you aren’t huffing and puffing, and can’t wait to get out of the gym, you didn’t work hard enough.

Discover the power of negative only training and watch your performances improve almost overnight.

Controlling Dust Mites – 15 Tips You Can Use Now!

Dust mites and the protein produced by their feces are the most common allergen contaminants found in the indoor environment and is the number one cause of asthma in the home. In fact, persons which exhibit serious symptoms to house dust are confirmed by testing to have a strong allergy to the protein found in dust mite feces.

What are dust mites?

Dust mites are microscopic bugs which live in most homes and are 1/100th of an inch in length and have translucent bodies, so they are not visible to the unaided eye. To identify one of these microscopic mites, one would need a 10X magnification device. The American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology identifies them as an insect which belongs to the family of eight-legged creatures called arachnids that also includes spiders, chiggers and ticks. They will thrive in temperatures above 70 degrees F, especially with humidity levels above 65 percent and usually die off when the humidity falls below 40 percent. They are more prevalent in areas which have moderate to extreme humid climates. A female mite will lay many eggs which are coated with a sticky substance that clings to most materials. An immature egg will reach adulthood in just four weeks time.

Dust Mites Have Huge Appetites

They may feed on dead human skin cells which are in the air and on furniture surfaces. Since humans may shed as much as 1/5 ounce of dead skin each week, dust mites never run out of a food source. They will also consume animal dander and may be plentiful in the bedding of family pets. Since we spend about one-third of our lives in the bedroom, higher levels of mites are usually found on the surfaces of a mattress and bedding materials. A typical mattress may have millions of mites living inside and on the top surfaces. They can also be found in large numbers in carpeting and furniture where humans spend the most time.

Dust Mite Symptoms

A person who shows an allergy towards dust mites will produce an antibody in response to the proteins from their feces. An allergic individual will produce white blood cells that release histamine thus triggering allergic symptoms. Histamine may produce allergic symptoms at various places in a persons body. Allergies caused by these microscopic creatures can range from mild allergic rhinitis to severe asthma attacks. Extreme exposure cases have reported a red rash around the neck, arms or legs.

Controlling Dust Mites

Regular cleaning of the places they can be found can make a real difference in the number of dust mites in your home. The only effective method of controlling them is to focus on microscopic dust control. A high efficient particulate air (HEPA) vacuum is the primary weapon for effective cleaning of all areas which they can be found. Here are some other great ways to control dust mites in your house:

  1. In the bedroom, encase your pillow and mattress with allergy proof covers.
  2. Wash all bed linens in hot water (130 degrees F) weekly.
  3. Use fitted sheets to help keep dust off the mattress covers.
  4. Replace feather and down pillows with synthetic filled alternatives.
  5. Keep stuffed toys off beds and discard stuffed toys for children with asthma conditions.
  6. Make sure that your hair is dry before going to bed since the moisture may attract dust mites.
  7. Keep blankets enclosed in allergy free bags or covers when not in use.
  8. Thoroughly vacuum all upholstered furniture and carpeting weekly with a HEPA cleaning device.
  9. Limit the use of a humidifier unless needed for other health reasons.
  10. Maintain a dry environment in your bedroom especially if it is directly connected to a bathroom.
  11. Wash all curtains and window coverings on a monthly basis.
  12. Purchase a quality Relative Humidity (RH) meter and attempt to keep RH levels below 50 percent. Central air conditioning is effective at lowering RH in the warmer months.
  13. Use a pleated high efficient filter in your heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system to control dust. Avoid all filters which are sold as “washable”.
  14. Utilize a HEPA air purifier in bedrooms and heavily used rooms.
  15. A common recommendation is to treat dust mite areas with a powder chemical compound. I strongly warn against using any powder chemical of any type for any reason since the chemical itself can be inhaled causing other acute or chronic respiratory problems.

Decorating a Boy’s Bedroom With Sports Themes

Most boys love sports of almost any kind. Some have one preference over another of course, and others just love any kind of sports. So decorating their bedroom with a sports related theme is one sure way to make them very happy!

How you decorate your little boy’s room will depend a bit on how old he is when you choose to do your redecorating project. In most cases, once a boy reaches about five years old, decorating his room with sports related accents and accessories is a good bet, because it will likely not need to be redecorated again for 10-15 years.

If you know for sure that the boy you’re decorating the room for loves a particular sport, then try to go with that as your primary theme.

If for instance, he loves football, then focus on creating a football decorating theme in his bedroom. If he prefers basketball instead though, then you’d of course want to decorate in that theme instead. If the boy is still fairly young though, he may not yet have a favorite sport. And if this is the case, then the safest move is to sprinkle a little bit of a few common ones into the theme. That way you can build on one or another as the years go by.

Here are some simple, easy ways to turn your boy’s room into a nicely decorated bedroom with sports as the primary theme:

1. Get sports related bedding. You can start by simply buying extra pillows shaped as footballs, soccer balls, and basketballs if you’d like, or you can go the full gamut and get him and entire bedding set complete with sheets, comforter, and pillow shams. Many bedding sets come with multiple sports in the design, and you can also find plenty which are sport specific too.

2. Put in an area   rug . Another easy way to turn your boy’s bedroom into a sports themed area is to simply put down an area floor  rug  or two. You’ll find some that look like a basketball court for instance, and others which look like miniature football or soccer fields too.

3. New lamps or shades. Buying new table lamps, floor lamps, or even walls lamps with sports related themes is quite easy to do, because these are very popular with grown men as well as boys. Alternatively you can simply buy new lampshades to put on the existing lamps you’re using in the room.

4. Sports decals, pictures, or posters. If the boy you’re decorating for is still quite young, then he’ll be sure to love having sports related decals and stickers all around his room. These can be put into place using simple cling decals that he can move around at will, or you can put a sports related wall border in place instead. If your boy is already in love with a specific sport or athlete though, then another excellent way to decorate his room is by hanging up photos or posters.