Board Games of Skill Vs Board Games of Chance

Board games can provide multiple hours of pleasure to anyone who plays them, although usually through different ways. Some games focus more on a random element, allowing anyone with a little luck to be able to pull ahead and win the game. These games usually require nothing more than some lucky rolls of the dice, good cards being dealt, or a great spin on the wheel. Other forms of game usually rely much more on the skill of the player, putting all the power to win in their hands. These games usually do not have any luck elements involved but are based on only each player taking an action on their turn, making all tools available to the player at the beginning. When the two players start out on even footing, one player will best the other through skill alone.

Games of chance are more along the lines of games that are good for children. Candy Land, Chutes and Ladders, and Cootie all rely on random elements to help the game proceed along. Either cards are drawn or dice are rolled to determine movement along the path to success. Cootie requires a certain number of dice to be rolled to gain all of the necessary pieces for the bug that one is building. These games are good for children, usually, because they do not require them to think hard about what they should do and this allows players of different ages and skill levels to play the game as well. All that is needed with these games are a little luck.

The games of skill, however, are generally geared more toward adult players, as one will need to be a sharp thinker to do well with these games. Since these games are based entirely on players thinking out their moves and confronting the other in a head-to-head battle, their age ranges are usually a bit higher.

Games of skill also generally require two players of the same skill level, as a novice playing against an expert does not provide much fun for anyone. Chess and Othello are both two types of games which are considered solely skill games. Each player faces off against the other and by taking turns, compete for the win. Luck will not come in the form of anything but the other playing making a poor choice in their turn and the only advantages one gets during the game are the ones that a player makes for themselves.

Most games combine skill and chance, however. Games of pure chance are usually boring, but most people like the thrill of a luck element. Many games, even when considering heavy skill games, also use a random element in the form of dice. Likewise, many games that rely primarily on luck usually bring a form of skill to them in making decisions on how to distribute that luck. A blend between Skill and Chance is usually the most common source of game that will be found, but games do exist on one end of the spectrum or the other. It’s only the goal of the player to find the combination that suits them the best.

Sun Porch Windows

Have you considered adding a sun porch to your existing home? These bright airy rooms add value to your home and personal life. Create your own tropical paradise to be enjoyed year round, or a cozy reading room! What you do with your sunroom is only limited by your imagination. There are of course a few things you may not have considered yet.

Building a new sunroom means choosing windows, treatments and more!

Window Options:

Fixed Pane- do you want a solarium style sunroom? Fixed pane sun porch windows are just what they sound like; windows that once installed are permanent. These are generally used in an solarium or the top windows in a typical sun porch.

Double Hung- these are double sash windows that move up and down, most homes have these installed already so the sunroom will blend well with the rest of the house.

Casement- hinged windows that open out with a hand crank, which means you can open the window fully.

Triple Paned Glazing- three panes of glass provide extra insulation for colder climates

Safety Glass- usually reserved for skylights but can be a great option for the rest of the room as well.

These are but a few of the many options you can look into for sun porch windows. If you live in a colder climate double paned, argon filled or low, emission glass is the best choice.

Window Treatments

There is no hard and fast rule about window treatments for sun porch windows; in fact, you do not have to cover them at all! However, if you want the option of closing out the light or adding your own personal flair there are several different window treatments available.

Films- for an unobstructed window treatments that block some rays but not your view of the outdoors consider window films.

Sheer blinds or curtains- a step up from window films are sheer window blinds and curtains. These will soften the look of your sunroom and provide a small amount of privacy should the need arise.

Plantation Shutters- a very popular option for sun porch windows is plantation shutters. They are easy to maintain and offer the most privacy options. In addition plantation shutters block more light and prevent more heat transfer.


Depending on your overall goals for your sun porch, you might want to consider some fun options as well. Skylights are particularly nice for added light and a fireplace can make the whole room cozy! You can also opt for stucco half walls to save on glass costs while not sacrificing style! Let your imagination run wild!


Sun porch windows come in a wide variety of styles and construction types, if you are looking to build a new sunroom consider all these options carefully. You will want to consider the climate, building codes and personal taste as you begin putting this project together. Enjoy the outdoors without having to be “in” the outdoors!

The Importance of Contractor Insurance

Contractor insurance holds great importance for both the client and the service provider. When working on a job site, contractors should obtain workers’ compensation insurance and at least one type of liability coverage. A contractor with insurance is also more likely to obtain the necessary permits and do professional work. To avoid the financial risks of hiring uninsured contractors, individuals and businesses can use contractor screening services such as Insure GUARD. We understand the importance of certificate of contractor insurance when you need it to submit a bid or receive payment on a project.

It’s not common for contractors to accidentally damage buildings or other property. A hammer might fall and break a large window. An electrician could start a fire. A contractor’s mistake could even injure bystanders or one of the building’s residents. It usually proves more difficult to gain compensation from an uninsured contractor. When it comes to the construction industry, general liability coverage compensates for job site injuries and damages in most U.S. states however, it does not refund the cost of shoddy work and the exact level of coverage varies.

In addition to needing insurance, the client must have assurance that the job will be done safely. Contractor screening and prequalification services can qualify contractors and ensure that they are compliant with project-specific requirements, guidelines and standards. By following certain procedures, worker injuries are less likely to take place. When job site injuries occur, it may yield in thousands to millions of dollars in hospital bills. Many contractors from various industries work in high-risk fields. For example, more fatal injuries take place in the construction industry than in any other American industry, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). If they lack insurance, injured contractors sometimes bring lawsuits against their clients. Contractors should obtain workers’ compensation insurance to ensure that they do not burden themselves or their clients with the financial cost of worker injuries. Contractor prequalification services can verify that a firm maintains proper workers’ compensation coverage.

It isn’t enough to merely ask contractors if they have insurance. It’s important to use a prequalification service that verifies that a contractor’s coverage is genuine, provides adequate benefits and remains in effect. Contractor screening services can determine if firms carry sufficient insurance to satisfy project requirements. They can also verify that the coverage remains in effect throughout the work period. A contractor prequalification service gives both the operator and contractor peace of mind and prevents unexpected costs from injuries or accidents.

Commissioning An Abstract Painting By Brad Bannister

Art buyers and collectors have many ways to acquire contemporary works of art, especially by living artists. In addition to buying at galleries and auctions there is the internet and art fairs.

The array of art that is available is truly fantastic. There are numerous websites for any single genre, style, or medium. In recent years artists, art galleries, auctions and art fairs all have their own websites.

There are times when collectors or interior designers need art for a specific space or effect, or for a unique taste. Commissioning a work of art specifically addresses these concerns. Commissions are not welcomed by every artist. Some commissions are a dubious undertaking even for artists do commissions.

I recently decided to decorate a corporate office in which I am a partner after seeing the abstract paintings owned by our neighboring law firm. Because we shared some common structural issues with the modern architecture of our building I decided the best solution was to commission the art.

I consulted with several like-minded associates and we decided to commission two large paintings instead of a single huge painting. We also ruled out the possibility of a somewhat divided diptych. The two large paintings would have some common color and movements that would denote energy, authority and elegance.

After making some calls and surfing the web, I narrowed the artists to three. I would contact each about their portfolios, commissioning prices and various details. To make a long story short I negotiated the commission with a well known Abstract Expressionist, Brad Bannister.

  • Abstract Paintings by Brad Bannister
  • We had to agree on several issues regarding dimensions, size, frame-or-not-to-frame, completion dates, pricing and incremental payment, shipping and insurance. We decided the dimensions of each paintings would be 32″ high and 44″ wide. The paintings would be oil and mixed-media on canvas. The canvases would be shipped to my office, rolled into a tube. The stretching would be done in Los Angeles at a friend’s gallery with a 2-inch wide bar for gallery wrap presentation.

    The artworks were agreed to contain several colors, with two predominating. The agreed upon price is not for disclosure, but the work began when one half of the commission was paid by corporate check. There were no stipulations as to composition but a loosely agreed upon idea that they would convey “energy, authority, and elegance.”

    The two commissioned abstract paintings arrived about one week ago and were stretched here, as specified. They are absolutely beautiful in my opinion, and the opinions of my associates – who are all happy this worked out well.

    The artworks will be hung and shown at our officewarming party . The media will be there and these paintings will be directly behind and on either side of our podium for the event. After our opening and photographing the paintings I will publish the images. Did these paintings fulfill the particular needs of our offices, business and building? Really very well. I can only recommend the commissioning process and product.

    What Are the Different Styles of Dimmer Switch?

    Installing a dimmer switch in the home can be a great lighting solution for many people, allowing them not only to be able to customise the amount of lighting according to their needs, but also to make significant energy savings at the same time.

    In addition to choosing the right technical specification of your new switch, you will also need to consider the style of the switch that you want. Although many people may be familiar with one or two types of switch, there are also several others widely available on the market that could be more suited to their needs.

    The most common dimmer switch – and one that most people will be familiar with – is the rotary dimmer, which features a circular knob that can be turned to switch the light on or off and to alter the lighting to the desired level.

    Common examples of this type of switch on the market include the Starlight jqp401w and the Starlight Vpro3G dimmer. Each of these are what is known as electro-mechanical dimmers, which require the user to physically turn or move a part of the switch in order to operate the lighting in the room.

    These items are in and of themselves fairly stylish and have a modern look, which is different from the traditional light switch style that many of us are used to with conventional room lighting. They are also very simple and intuitive to use, with the user easily rotating the dial into the position that they want.

    Items like the rotary Starlight jqp401w are also some of the most affordable types of dimmer switch on the market today, making it a simple,stylish and practical solution for any homeowner looking to install dimmable lighting in their property.

    For those who prefer a more sophisticated solution there is also the digital dimmer switch, which differs most significantly from the electro-mechanical switch by being able to be operated from anywhere in the home.

    Whereas you need to be next to an electro-mechanical switch in order to adjust the lighting, digital switches will often have remote controls so you can change the lighting level from the comfort of your armchair or sofa. Some switches can be a mix of both electro-mechanical and digital functions for an even more versatile solution.

    An example of a popular digital dimming product on the market is the Rako Wireless Dimmer, which comes complete with a control panel that can be installed centrally in the home for altering lighting levels in many rooms at once with absolute ease and simplicity.

    A type of switch that is popular with those who like modern convenience blended with traditional style is the toggle touch switch, which operates very similarly to a traditional light switch. Its style resembles the conventional light switch, with the user simply having to flip the switch up or down to operate the light.

    Normally, this toggle switch will feature a little slider at the side of the fitting, which can be moved up or down to adjust the level of lighting in the room. This is particularly advantageous because this slider can be positioned in a certain place as a kind of “pre-set” level of lighting that will be produced each time you switch the light on.

    Lastly is the touch switch, which – as the name suggests – is operated simply by touching it. Oftentimes, the light level is adjusted by simply touching a particular place on the touch panel. This is a modern solution that is very stylish and also very intuitive for those who are familiar with using many digital devices and touch technology.

    There is a huge range of different dimmer switches on the market, ranging from the digital Rako Wireless Dimmer and the touch operated switch to the Starlight jqp401w or the toggle switch. Each one has its own distinct advantages and disadvantages, meaning there truly is a dimmable lighting solution for everyone.

    Isocranial Technique

    The study of the cranium as a treatable entity has been the subject of controversy for many years. Cotton, Frye and Southerland were among the earliest practitioners who suggested that the vault bones of the skull could be manipulated to relieve and were responsible for many of the symptoms of mankind if they were in lesion. Theories about the function of the cranial vault range from the concept that the skull is a solid, immovable object that, once ossified, cannot move interosseously and is, therefore, not able to be manipulated to those who view the cranium as a dynamic structure, which maintains motility throughout life.

    The proponents of cranial manipulation suggest that certain hand contacts taken on the surface of the cranium with directed thought and/or pressure can influence and alter the position and function of the cranial bones, which will have an effect on the inner working of the nervous system and the flow of cerebral spinal fluid in and around the brain and spinal cord. The general belief is that cranial “adjustments” can in by some means change the tension of the meningeal dural system as it traverses from the inner portions of the cranial vault to the sacrum, which can alter and correct aberrations in flow of cerebral spinal fluid. This is said to have a beneficial response for the patient in the form of improved health and reduction of a variety of symptoms.

    Research continues regarding the efficacy of cranial manipulation as a viable modality for the treatment of a wide range of human ailments. Clinical data suggests that cranial manipulations have had benefits for a large number of patients with conditions such as headaches, sinusitis, tinnitus, dizziness and even epilepsy.

    My many patients who, on numerous occasions, were unable to hold still during a cranial adjustment inspired this text. While I was in the midst of intense concentration holding a cranial contact and waiting to feel the “release” that would indicate that the correction was complete and motion had been re-established in the skull, my patients often would turn or tilt their head in such a way as to change my perception. I began to realize that specific movements made by the patient facilitated the expansion and release of the cranial sutural area I was working on.

    I began to experiment with the basic motions of lateral flexion and rotation while holding various cranial contacts. I found that in many cases the decompression of the jammed or fixated area was faster and more complete than realized with passive motion alone. I also discovered that if the patient’s motion was too fast or forceful the sutural system would lock and the technique would fail. It became apparent that a balance between the force applied by the practitioner and the strength of movement administered by the patient had to be evenly distributed in order to produce the desired result.

    The difficulty of finding the harmonious combination of the patient’s exertion and the physician’s counter resistance was complicated by the inability of the patient to understand the direction of the movement the doctor was trying to achieve. This became particularly difficult when combined movements were requested. Sometimes it became necessary to demonstrate to the patient the desired motion by moving their head in the correct manner with my hands or demonstrating visually with my own head motion.

    Eventually, I worked out a system, which allowed me the coordinate the direction, and intensity of the subject’s motions to create the desired effect. I began using a demonstrator skull with the patient to orientate them to the concept of flexion, extension, rotation and lateral flexion. I found it was easier to tell the patient, “tuck your chin,” “lift your chin up,” and “turn your head to the left or right “and” side bend to the left or right.” Occasionally, it was necessary to move the patient’s head in the needed direction until they began to understand the directions. Most patients were able to comprehend the concepts of specific motion and were able to grasp the notion of combined movement with relative ease.

    The quality of the motion is as important as the direction of movement in applying the isocranial component to a cranial correction. The muscle contraction must be very slow and in the proper direction to facilitate the sutural release. If the patient contracts the musculature too hard or too quickly the doctor cannot maintain proper contact on the skull and will slip off the contact point. If the doctor increases his pressure to maintain contact the cranial response will be to lock up and no motion will be achieved, the patient will not respond and the lesion could conceivably be aggravated by the treatment. The patient is always given instructions in a low relaxing tone of voice.

    The doctor’s first command to the patient is to say, “I want you move very slowly and gently” and then he gives the required direction of the movement. The slower and more gently the patient applies the contraction of the musculature, the easier it is for the doctor to perceive the changes in the cranial sutural tension. The doctor may also tell the patient to stop or relax the contraction at a point when the suture begins to release. He my also tell the patient to hold and maintain the contraction at a specific point or level which he feels is achieving the desired result. The doctor may feel the need to stop resistance and reinitiate the contraction intermittently during the procedure to optimize the beneficial effects.

    I have tried to consider as any option and possible combinations of doctor’s contacts and various movements of the cranium, which can be used individually or in concert with each other to best, correct the cranial fault. I would also like to point out that Isocranial procedures can be used to correct torsion lesions of the midline bones and to close sutures that are perceived to be open or separated.

    The cranial practitioner must use his or her judgment in applying Isocranial techniques to correct cranial faults and misalignments. Time and practice will give the user a chance to develop a feel for the muscle contraction assistance afforded by this procedure and to decide if the is validity to its use. I am sure that doctors that begin using these applications will develop many new and innovative ways to administer and alter them to benefit their patients and improve their results. One of the most significant advantages to Isocranial technique is the reduced time needed to apply the technique and also the improvements in local pain reduction are usually immediate. Correction seems to last longer and recovery time is reduced.


    Coronal suture Isocranial technique: Morphology:

    The coronal suture extends from the right to the left greater wing of the sphenoid and is formed by the union of the frontal bone and the right and left parietal bones. This is a complex suture which interlocks with the parietal bones with serrations beveled surfaces and pin-to-socket couplings. At the superior most aspect of the suture, near the bregma the frontal bone overlaps parietal bones. In the lower third the parietal bones overlap the frontal bone. The middle one-third of the coronal suture is transitional where the frontal and the parietal bones present alternating overlapping and interlocking serrations. The purpose of releasing the coronal suture is to relieve pain along the sutural margins noted on palpation and patient history of anterior cranial pain. Optimistically, the release of the frontal bone from sutural restrictions with the parietal articulations will relieve intracranial pressure in the anterior dura and enhance cerebrospinal fluid circulation around the frontal lobes. In addition to reducing pain along the coronal suture margins, there are patient reports of improved sinus drainage, relief from frontal area headaches and improved mental function in patients complaining of confusion and loss of concentration after frontal area head trauma.

    The technique involves specific hand contacts along the frontal and parietal bones applied by the physician. Once the specific contacts are made, the patient is guided through respiratory phases (inhalation and exhalation) and specific motions to assist the practitioner in releasing cranial sutural restrictions. Physician directed patient motions include right and left rotation, right and left lateral flexion and flexion and extension. The doctor’s contacts are positioned at strategic points to assist patient motion in one direction while assisting motion in the opposite direction. By utilizing the muscles of the cervical spine to aid in the correction or cranial sutural lesions the effectiveness of the technique is greatly enhanced, pain is relieved along the sutural margins and the beneficial effects of intracranial realignment will be experienced by the patient over the next hours and days following the procedure. A hand on training in Isocranial technique is available through the Sacro Occipital Research Society International (S.O.R.S.I.) or 1-888-245-1011.1 1-888-245-1011.

    5 Things to Look For Before Buying a Fishing Kayak

    “If you want fishing experience that you will live to remember then all you need is a kayak.” Those were words that an old friend once told me and they are probably the most honest words I have ever heard. A few years after hearing these words I went ahead and bought myself a Kayak for fishing and since then I have never gone fishing on any other vessel.

    Just like me a kayak will definitely give you a good fishing experience but you will first need to get a good one. Before paying for one you should first consider the following.


    The first thing that many people ask me about my kayak is how stable it is. This is justifiably so because stability is one of the most important attributes that a kayak should have. If it is not stable you will definitely not enjoy fishing on it as you will always be afraid of it tipping over. Look for a wider kayak since this makes it more stable.

    The seat

    Kayak fishing is very interesting and so you will probably spend many hours on it. Since you will be seated most of this time, you will need a kayak with a comfortable seat. There are basically two options to choose from with regards to the sitting. These are either sit on top or sit inside. Just as the names suggests, the seats are located either on top of the kayak or inside. Regardless of which it is choose one with a soft and well-padded seat.

    Location of your fishing

    If you plan to fish somewhere where the water is choppy avoid buying a light kayak since it will not serve you well. If you are fishing in a swamp or small lake then a small and light kayak will do just fine. Location of the fishing spot is also important because if it is far you will need to transport the kayak by car and so you should buy one which you will be able to transport.

    Storage space available

    For this type of kayak you will need some space to keep all you gear and also the fish that you catch. Ensure that the kayak is able to fit all your belongings otherwise you may be forced to leave some behind which you will definitely not like.

    The propulsion system

    Choose a propulsion system that you will be most comfortable with so that your fishing will be enjoyable. You can choose between pedal, paddle or even a motorized kayak if you don’t like rowing. A paddle is the most popular, and least expensive and it will give you a true kayak experience.


    As you go out to find yourself good kayak remember that you should also have your safety in mind. If the kayak does not make you feel safe then it is not worth the risk. Having the above tips in mind when shopping around for one will make sure that each of your fishing escapades will be a memory you never want to forget.

    Clean and Clear? Your Stadium and Your ROI

    The external building envelope (including the façades and surrounding space) make up a large percentage of the stadium’s environment. If this is allowed to weather, fails, become inconsistent or soiled, the stadium space becomes irreconcilably at odds with its core brand values and is likely to open up discussions around product pricing, value for money or visitor experience.

    Without a holistic maintenance approach or attention to detail within the built environment, profits may decline as stadium visitors search for new experiences and positive environments in which to spend their time. Visiting a stadium is often a special occasion for many people, so the façades and built environment need to match the desired experience of the visitor. As a result we can ensure that the visitors return home and gush about their day on social media as well as with family and friends, ultimately marketing the stadium and events for the owners.

    I believe a clean, cared for and well maintained stadium environment has a direct impact on the visitor’s level of positive experience and therefore the stadium’s ability to retain customers, attract new visitors or events to generate further profits, ROI and a sustainable stadium and business space for the future.

    With the leisure industry competing increasingly for the monopoly on our spare time, the need to proactively clean, maintain and protect the external building façade has never been more important. Those stadiums that show commitment and consistency in delivering a more holistic solution and visitor experience will win the profits and ROI battle.

    A positive and clean building envelope also provides a tangible reason for stadium owners and managers to increase their premiums. This enables them to deliver a greater visitor experience or to use the extra funds to clean and maintain the environment. Entering into a positive cycle of proactive façade maintenance will protect the asset and the life-span of each material for the future, thus reducing maintenance costs and increasing ROI.

    So as well as reaping the benefits of a positive visitor experience, the stadium owners and managers are likely to spend less on reactive maintenance or material replacement as the façade materials are maintained and may outlast their predicted life-span.

    I believe that the stadium owners and managers don’t necessarily feel a need to think about the direct link between the façade environment and profits. They may commoditise the process of cleaning or maintaining a building façade as it’s a reactive task constrained by budgets within traditional procurement frameworks.

    Stadiums and events spaces need a more holistic and proactive façade and environment management programme. Through a more site/elevation specific and detailed procurement approach, stadiums can manage the environmental condition more effectively and therefore create opportunities in the future to generate further income and positive experiences for visitors.

    Easy To Do Stained Glass

    The tools needed to create your own stained glass are tools such as glass grinders and saws, drawing tools, foiling tools, grinder accessories, hand tools, leading tools, glass cutters, soldering irons and solder.

    Quality Stained Glass Tools are a Must

    To keep frustrations to a minimum your glass cutters need to be extremely sharp at all times. When cutting curves it’s easy to do if you have a lot of patience and cut away little bits at the time. Trying to cut a large piece while going around a corner can be disastrous.

    How the Stained Glass Tools are Used

    Foiling tools are used for stained glass projects that have foil over the lead. It’s a tedious process and requires specialized tools to make it easy to do. Leading tools assist in making the lead fit as precisely and snugly along the glass as possible.

    For a window you would want the most precise fit for the sake of weather proofing. Soldering irons and solder are used to connect the joints of the leading. The leading meets at certain angles. The solder fills in any gaps caused at the connection points and allows for a smooth appearance overall.

    Stained Glass Tools Make it Simple

    Now that you know what tools to use, you can see why creating your own stained glass can be easy to do. It’s easy once you know and when you have the stained glass tools that make it easy for you to perfect your craft.

    Toner Refill Kits – Do They Work?

    I recently got rather fed up with spending a fortune on replacing my laser toner cartridges and decided to try out a toner refill kit. Now I had been warned of these a couple of years ago by a friend (he ordered a kit and just received a bottle of toner!). The problem is my Lexmark printer is costing over £200 ($400) a go to replace the toner.

    Whilst looking for a toner refill kit I did some investigating – there is an enormous amount of waste in this industry – everything is set up to be used once and only once. Laser toner cartridges used to be easily refillable but now the printer manufacturers actively try to stop this – can you believe that many cartridges have little chips on them to stop them working after printing so many pages. This is basically the same as fitting something to your car that stopped it working after 20,000 miles so you had to buy another one.

    Frankly the more I read about this, the more I was determined to try it – what’s the point in me trying to be greener, recycling my rubbish, reducing carbon emissions if I throw away a perfectly good cartridge when it runs out of ink. That’s right – simply put more ink in the average toner cartridge with a toner refill kit and the printer carries on printing.

    It took me a little research to find out a good supplier (check below for my recommendation) but finally I found a firm whom I was happy with. They are called Toner Topup and when I contacted them they did inform me that with my particular Laser printer you could sometimes get a problem (lucky me) but the worst case scenario was I saved the toner ink for another cartridge. They were very knowledgeable about all things to do with toner refill kits and I was happy to do with business with them.

    I used the online selector and it told me what I needed – so I ordered the special kit (which I only needed once) and the replacement toner ink. It arrived the next day complete with full instructions including a chocolate bar to eat whilst I waited for the little   solder  tool to heat up.

    Basically this was what I needed to do – let the specially designed and supplied  soldering   iron  heat up (pack included an egg timer so you waited the correct time). This was then applied to the side of the cartridge and it automatically made a little hole – shake the toner, pour in from the bottle and then seal with the supplied plug.

    The toner refill kit contained absolutely everything I needed to do the job – it was so easy!

    I’ve never used a  soldering   iron  in my life but all you had to was press it against the side of the cartridge and it made the hole. You have to be careful with the ink as it’s so fine it’s almost like liquid but that’s quite simple. Probably took about 15 minutes to do 4 cartridges and they carried on printing fine – no difference to the originals. I still have loads of toner left as well so can refill them again.

    Thoroughly recommended – check their site – they supply all over the world – you’ll save a fortune and help the environment by using a toner refill kit.

    How to Make a Camping Light From 5 Gallon Bucket

    In my past article titled “5 Gallon Buckets at the Camp Site”, I promised to write a tutorial on how to make a camping light from a 5 gallon bucket. Here is how.

    First of all, you might wonder why you would need a 5 gallon pail light if you can just conveniently bring your propane light. Well, not everyone has this propane lantern. And this camping light made of 5 gallon bucket is an inexpensive alternative to get enough light at the camp site.

    You will need:

    1. A white 5 gallon bucket with lid.
    2. Utility light socket.
    3. Extension cord – adjust the length with what you need and are comfortable with.
    4. Light bulb.
    5. Epoxy.
    6. Drill.

    And these are the steps to make your camping light.

    1. You can either use the bucket lid as the location where you will attach the utility light socket or the bottom of the pail. If you intend to hang it on a branch of a tree or elsewhere during your camping trip, it is best to do it on the bucket lid. Then you can just hang the bucket light by attaching the pail handle to a pole. If the light is to be placed on the ground, the bottom of the pail is a good place to install the utility light socket.
    2. Place the light socket in the middle of the surface (of the lid or the bottom) and mark the holes where you need to screw the light socket later on.
    3. Also mark a hole right in the middle of the center where you can feed the extension cord.
    4. Cut the female end of the extension cord and slid it through the hole in the center from outside to the inside of the bucket.
    5. Attach the wire to the utility socket.
    6. Secure the utility light socket to the inside surface by bolting them onto it.
    7. Screw a bulb onto the light fixture.
    8. Put the lid back on and plug it in. If it lights, then all you need to do is to add the final waterproof touch.
    9. Apply epoxy putty generously to the access points where you drilled the holes before. This is to ensure that there will be no drip of rain water ever getting into your camping light.

    That’s it! If you are familiar with the materials above, this should be an easy task for you, and cheap too! So happy camping with your DIY camping light with your 5 gallon bucket!

    Opening the Door of Possibility

    I’m all fired up from spending the afternoon with a friend yesterday and talking about creativity, writing, and books. I love hanging out with other people who are actively engaged in their own creative process, daring to live their lives, and daring to live their full creative potential! The energy that arises organically from a conversation between two people on this path is astounding. I left the conversation with renewed enthusiasm for two projects on which I’m working as well as clarity about some decisions I’ve been trying to make for a month about two books I’m writing.

    Yesterday afternoon, I was doing some research online related to the decisions that I made in conversation with my friend when I ran across something that reminded me of a creative project that I had considered doing four years ago. I was in process of moving, settling into a deeper commitment in a relationship, and changing my work then, so the project got dropped, but for a moment yesterday, I got clear about wanting to pursue it again. Within two hours, out of the blue, I received a call from someone who invited me to do exactly the kind of project that I had been imagining. I love it when this sort of synchronicity occurs. I’ve seen it time and time again: getting clear about our intentions opens the door of possibility.

    Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist, coined the term synchronicity and used it to describe meaningful coincidences. I could take up an entire blog entry writing about synchronicity, and perhaps soon I shall, but for now, suffice it to say that Jung felt that synchronicity was about a an alignment of unifying forces in the universe. The moments of my life in which I’ve spent following the slender threads of synchronicity in my life and work have proven to be the most meaningful, enlivening, and creative moments of my life. And it seems that the synchronistic events happen most frequently when I’m living my own creative potential and stirring up resonant energy with others who are on the same path.

    As artists and creative people, we must learn to navigate all of the seasons of our creativity. I receive emails often from friends, colleagues, or potential clients who say they are creatively blocked or stuck in some area of their lives. I hear from some of these same people amazing ideas that they aren’t pursuing for one reason or another. I hear from yet others who are in jobs that are killing their spirits and wearing them down. There are so many resources available to us. There are countless articles, therapists, coaches, workshops, or classes that can help us to move through creative blocks, manage or break free from what holds us back, and support us along the path.

    There are plenty of people out there who will whine and commiserate with you about the circumstances of your ambivalence, indecision, or staying stuck, and staying in those conversations will likely help you to more deeply feel the rawness of your inability to change. But there are also plenty of people who are choosing to move forward, to create changes in their lives, to walk toward what they love in the face of their fear, anxiety, and self-doubt, and talking with those people will help you to do the same. Life is short. Don’t spend your life stuck in the muck! Stop wasting your time on the Internet in superficial disconnected relationships, watching TV, or spending your days randomly doing meaningless things. Get clear about your intentions for your life, and spend your waking hours doing things that are congruent with your intentions. Spend time with like-minded people who are on the same path. Open the doors of possibility in your own life. Are you ready to begin living your full creative potential? What step can you take in that direction today?

    Cosmic Black Holes Are God’s Energy Recycling Bins!

    Black holes (or gravity wells) seem to be part and parcel of the ongoing process of creation as massive amounts of matter get sucked down into terrifyingly huge cosmic drain holes some weighing as much as billions of solar masses. What happens to all the mass that gets consumed by black holes? It is instantly transformed back into pure energy in a dimension outside of space and time, which then reappears back in our own universe as the universally expansive force of dark energy.

    A “7 Up” Universe that Runs on Free Energy!

    The visible universe exists in a continuous state of growth and change as immense voids “bubble up” between vast “walls” of filamentary superclusters consisting of numerous galaxies and quasars all with massive black holes lurking at their centers. New cells would constantly be created in these ever expanding voids with this energy collapsing or concentrating back into itself in the form of mostly dark matter and then a small amount of physical matter. Because particles of dark matter are much finer than particles of baryonic matter, they are much easier for dark energy to create, explaining why there is so much more dark matter than baryonic matter in the universe.

    In these vast voids of dark energy between galaxies, trillions of asymmetric virtual particles would “bubble up” from the void, creating vast, but very, very tenuous streams of particles that may eventually form into subatomic particles such as neutrons (not to be confused with the trillions of nearly massless neutrinos that emanate from stars) or rivers of electrically charged particles of plasma swirling down into galaxies where it condenses into vast star-building nebulae. Such huge electrically charged rivers of plasma have been found all over the universe. Conventional astronomers assume these neutron streams came from the “Big Bang.” Along with dark matter, these currents of plasma create massive filaments which form the backbone of galaxy creation. Countless stars are created from these massive and ever present cosmic streams of charged particles most of which are quite invisible but can be detected at various microwave frequencies. Some of the oldest stars and the most massive new stars would form into black holes which in turn would give off more vast streams of charged particles through its intensely concentrated magnetic poles while giving off Hawking radiation before eventually evaporating back into the rest of the universe. The eternal cycles of preservation, destruction and creation are therefore repeated throughout all existence!

    Are New Worlds Being Created from Natural Particle Accelerators?

    Could new hydrogen atoms also form from the vast streams of plasma particles accelerated out from massive electrical/magnetic energy vortices (magnetic poles) piercing the center of vast black holes or quasars? If so, such hydrogen atoms would eventually concentrate into nebulae, stars and ultimately, form whole new worlds.

    Contracting and Expanding Forces in a Dynamic Equilibrium

    There may be a constant balance of expansion, creation, contraction, and recycling of old matter into new particles through the formation of energy vortices or black holes. There may therefore be a dynamic universal balance or relationship between dark energy, black holes, and the creation of new matter. It may very well be that the contracting energy of black holes and other gravitational sources are dynamically and universally balanced by the ever expanding and all pervading influence of dark energy.

    Super Massive Black Holes Reside in Every Galaxy Give Off Massive Amounts of Radiation

    There is much evidence to support the idea that most galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, must have at their centers super massive gravity wells in the order of millions of solar masses. It has been known for a long time that quasars are most likely new galaxies yet to mature into full spiral and other types of galaxies as they go through their evolutionary stages. Black holes tend not to be “black” at all; they often, in various strange ways, seem to emit all sorts of particles and types of radiation. One medium sized gravitational vortex, for instance, gives off X-rays 260 million times brighter than the radiation from the sun even though it is only 500 times its mass. Generally, the multi-million solar mass gravity wells seem to “create” out of absolutely nothing entire galactic formations around their equators as massive rings of glowing stars and bands of opaque gaseous nebulae. Of course, most of the matter seen or detected may simply be originating from an outside source as gravity pulls it in.

    “Alpha Omega” Black Holes Recycle “Old Matter” back into New Particles of Dark Energy Throughout the “White Hole” of all Surrounding Space

    Black holes, often thought as being a location in space where all time ends, seem to act also as its own beginning similar in fashion to the Christian “Alpha and Omega” or “the First and the Last.” If there is an end to time, it may be in a black hole, while its beginning may be found wherever dark energy brings forth new matter. Scientists have often wondered what happens to the energy of a substance that gets lost forever down a gravity well. The universe is filled with massive black holes and other sources of gravity. The energy that is lost in the attraction of gravity is always sent back out into the surrounding space as quantum particles of dark energy, a sort of universal or collective “white hole” for all of the black holes in the universe. The gravity well singularity is a way that all “old” matter at its ultimate point of final entropy (end of its time) is recycled back into particles of dark energy throughout the universal “white hole” of deep space.

    Black Holes Represent an Amazing Spectrum of the most Violent Extremes of the Universe and Are Points of Conjunction or Unification of All the Main Forces of Nature

    What I see in black holes is a profoundly significant conjunction of all the main forces of the universe: such as gravity (centripetal), dark energy (expansive), magnetism, nuclear, centrifugal, and most significantly, quantum or zero point energy. In other words, a black hole could be a dynamic, matter creating, cosmic engine powered by the vast amounts of quantum or zero point energy naturally present throughout the universe. Black holes are generally single, extremely massive particles or “holes” of timeless quantum (five-dimensional) space (often of around hundreds of millions of solar masses) bordered by an event horizon and having a huge rate of spin, creating an ergosphere where it is theoretically possible for massive amounts of energy and matter to emerge from.

    Here is a spectacular recent image of what a galaxy-forming massive black hole looks like. Note also the massive polar jets of synchrotron radiation shooting out in both directions characteristic of quasars. All the larger sized stars (more than five times solar mass) ultimately turn into black holes, yet black holes, when large enough, seem to become massive matter and energy processing engines that appear to form entire galaxies from nothing.

    Aviation Design

    A380 design and Goodrich dual-lane escape slides.

    Goodrich-developed dual-lane escape slides played an important role in the evacuation interiors certification of the A380. The slides were extra wide and projected farther out from the sides, making them appear less steep. Higher sidewalls and built-in   illumination  were also added to further reassure the passengers, while also improving the seaworthiness of the slides as liferafts in case an aircraft needed to be ditched at sea.

    Computer-based models, an integral part of the aviation design process, were used to demonstrate and prove that final exit and cabin configurations would satisfy the 90-second rule.

    Aerostructures design

    Weight-reduction initiatives in aviation design include structural modifications such as the use of composite ribs in the wings and also, interior fittings. Operator’s items adding to the weight include fuel, oil for the engines and APU, water for the galleys and lavatories, plus waste-tank treatment chemicals, aircraft documents and tool kit, seats, catering and galley plus escape slides and other emergency equipment.

    Airbus had to sell the idea of upgrading facilities to Airports so that the new aircraft could be accommodated. The high-capacity, high-efficiency of the A380 was to be a solution to the growing congestion, not the cause. The aerostructures design in just the positioning of the doors of the aircraft would contribute to faster turnaround times.

    B757 Design Errors

    All aviation design is a product if its time. Boeing’s main mistake in the 757’s design was conceptual: the assumption that fuel prices could only continue to rise. In 1983 a gallon of fuel cost US$1.20, but by 1986 it costs just 55 cents: the reduction was almost entirely due to Saudi Arabia’s increased output of crude oil. The 757-200 was a product of the 1970s and the fuel crisis that followed the Yom Kippur War. The 757 had been designed for fuel efficiency above all else, but by the time it came to market, fuel economy was just one of a number of important purchase criteria. As a result, Boeing’s predicted sales of 1400 757-type aircraft by the early 1990s proved wholly inaccurate and just 332 757s were delivered by 1990.

    The 757 had other problems. Airlines felt that that it was too big and had unnecessary range. It was a single-aisle aircraft with trans-Atlantic capability. In 1979 USAir publicly complained to Boeing that the 757-200 intended to replace the 727 was now almost as big as its widebody counterpart, the 767-200.

    IGBT Stage Lighting Dimmers – A Primer

    Imagine being able to plug your stage and theatre lighting fixtures directly into dimmers that are quiet and don’t generate the heat of SCR dimmers. You’re imagining IGBT dimming, a revolution in dimming technology.

    IGBT dimmers bring the future into your theatre, club, auditorium or sanctuary with drastically-reduced installation costs. Mounted wherever you mount lighting fixtures, they are smaller and lighter than SCR dimmers. Better yet, they do not produce any mechanical buzz or hum.

    Distributed Dimming Benefits

    o Easy to design, expand and install

    o Drastically reduces installation and equipment costs

    o Locate silent dimmer strips next to the light fixtures

    o Much less wiring

    o Reduced voltage drops

    o No dimmer panel required

    Power and Silence Benefits

    o State-of-the-art dimming technology

    o Quiet dimmers and load

    o Low neutral harmonics

    o Protection against short-circuits

    o High-density racks

    o Control of various load types including magnetic/electronic transformers and electronic fluorescent dimming ballasts

    Intelligence and Control Benefits

    o Stations, keypads, wireless PCs and consoles for simple or complex applications

    o Broad range of matching, attractive controls for fully-integrated projects

    o Industry standard wiring practices

    o Windows®-based open control protocols

    A Case Study

    When Cornish College of the Arts began converting Seattle’s historic Sons of Norway Hall into a theatre, plans called for installation of a complete air conditioning system just to cool the old-style, heat-producing SCR rack dimming system they planned to use. Dave Tosti-Lane, chair of Cornish’s Performance Production Department, started looking for a different solution.

    The college had already been through the ordeal of retrofitting a concert hall to the tune of thousands of dollars just to relocate a noisy dimmer rack. They didn’t want to go through that again. Mac Perkins of PNTA recommended the Intelligent Raceway system from Entertainment Technology, a Genlyte Thomas company. The beauty of an IGBT system, as Dave discovered, was that it would not only circumvent the noise problem, but it would also reduce the heat loads.

    The savings of not having to do a full-blown air conditioning system practically paid for the dimmers. They also saved money by not having the associated costs of load wiring the dimmers out to the circuits and all of the additional wiring and time it costs to run cables from the dimmer rack to the lighting instruments.

    While the cost savings may have been the leading benefit, close behind was the system of focus buttons that were installed. This feature enabled the crew to finish hanging the first show in the new theatre in record time. The trio hung, circuited and rough-focused 130 fixtures in two five-hour lighting calls.

    And as a sound designer, Dave was really appreciative of the lack of fans and chokes.

    With all their benefits, IGBT dimming systems are a boon to the staging of theatrical productions.

    Copyright 2007 PNTA