Properties and Applications of Ferrocement Concrete

The engineering properties of ferrocement structure are equivalent to normal concrete, and in some applications it performs better. The tensile strength of ferrocement is a result of the volume of reinforcement used in the structure. Apart from the volume of reinforcement, the direction of its use in line with the force direction and tensile stress direction is also important. The tensile performance of the ferrocement concrete or structure can be grouped into three, namely, the pre-cracking phase, post cracking phase, and finally the post yielding phase. A ferrocement member subjected to upwards tensile stress behaves something like linear elastic material until the first crack appears. Beyond this, the member will enter the multiple cracking and eventually continuing to a point where the mesh starts to experience yielding. Once at this stage the number of cracks will continue to grow with the increase in the tensile force or stress. The specific surface area of the ferrocement member or element has been found to influence the first crack in tension, as well as the width of the cracks. The maximum stress at first crack for ferrocement matrix increases in proportion to the specific area of the element. The behavior of ferrocement element under compression is mainly depended on the mix design properties.

The well distributed and aligned reinforcement has made the ferrocement to behave like steel plates. Ferrocement is also has other outstanding properties besides its engineering properties compared with normal concrete. Ferrocement exhibits a very easy mould-ability characteristic, that it can be used to produce any desired shape of structure. Besides that due to the superior tensile behavior and water tightness, the material is widely used for lightweight construction and water-tight structure as well as for portable structures. Some of other succeful applications of ferrocement include boat, sampan, pipes, shell roofs, wind tunnel, modular housing, sandwich panel, swimming pools, permanent forms for concrete structures, and etc.

In this article and the previous article on ferrocement, I’ve put forward some information on ferrocement’s properties and applications. The major advantages of the ferrocenmt can be summarized as:

  • It is offers a possibility of producing a very thin and light structures. This means it is capable of giving cost saving through the material usage. Apart from the material saving, the overall dead weight of the structure also could be reduced by employing ferrocement; thus it will result in more economical foundation design.
  • It is also very suitable for pre-cast concrete industries, which results in easy and cheaper transportation.
  • It is possible to reduce the dependency on skill labor. This is mainly due to the fact the ferrocement application is very simple and easy.
  • In some construction activities the use of ferrocement could reduce (or eliminate in some cases) the use of formwork. The ferrocement members can act as permanent formwork.

Sinus Drainage

Sinus drainage is basically the over production of mucus and blockage of the sinuses that is caused by irritation of the nasal lining. What happens during this process is that as an irritant like dust or pet dander enters the nose defences try to get rid of the irritant by releasing histamines, which end up worsening the condition rather than solving it. Irritants or allergens are not only natural; these can also be from man-made things like cigarettes, pollution and so on.

The inflammation in the sinuses does not only cause blockage but it can also leave individuals with headaches, body aches and post nasal drip from the inability to drain.

Causes of sinus drainage

There are with no doubt ample reasons how sinus drainage is caused but the one reason is that the body produces a large amount of mucus every single day and this mucus has to exit the body at some point. Now if the nose is blocked there’s no other way for the mucus to exit rather than down the throat. Here a few common reasons for the cause of sinus drainage:

  • Having an allergy to common allergens like pollen, mold, dust
  • Being excessively exposed to bacteria or viruses when you have a weaker immune system
  • Accidentally hurting the nose structure and passages
  • Having nasal growths like nasal polyps or tumours

How to avoid getting sinus drainage

Below are precautions that can be taken in the avoidance of sinus drainage.

  • Limit your chances of getting the common cold by keeping a healthy immune system
  • It is difficult to just quit smoking but you have to try your best especially if your health is in questioning
  • Treat all kinds of respiratory infections properly by visiting a doctor about effective treatment
  • If you suspect that allergies are the problem, get yourself to an allergy specialist.
  • Live a healthy life, be aware of the environment you are in and drink lots of water!

Treating Sinus Drainage

There are many ways of treating this kind of sinus problem. One could choose to go all natural or medicated, at the end of the day it is merely about what the patient is best suitable with and how serious their sinus problem is.

Generally, sinus drainage medication involves the following:

Nasal sprays or nasal decongestants: These are a great way to get rid of a blocked sinus fast but they should not be used constantly and for too long otherwise they cause an aggravation in initial symptoms.

Sinus medication: As mentioned before there are different kinds of this medication, and it reduces inflammation and helps with the draining of mucus. These may take up to three days to completely relieve symptoms.

Hydration: One cannot emphasis enough on how important it is to stay completely hydrated while you have a nasal blockage. Hydration can achieved through drinking herbal teas, chicken soup and so on.

You can get to a point whereby your sinus blockage is so bad that only surgery can help you. This is usually at the stage of chronic sinusitis.

What’s Causing Your Energy Drain?

This is such a busy time of year, isn’t it?  Whether it’s school or after-school commitments, social or philanthropic organizations that start meeting again after the summer, end of the year plans at work, or all of the above, fall activities are demanding!  If you’re like me, you know you plan too much, but you still want to be efficient, accomplish everything, and do it well.  There is no time in the schedule for running out of energy or getting sick, and “Collapse From Exhaustion” is not on the TO DO list.  But your body will stop you if you don’t stop it first.  How will you know if you are running on empty?  The number one warning sign is fatigue. 

Abnormal fatigue can be a sign from your body that you are overworking, overthinking, underresting, or undereating.  (I don’t know if all those are words, but they should be.)  A variety of illnesses and medical conditions can cause fatigue, including hormone disorders, depression, and pregnancy, so if you notice a dramatic or persistent change in your energy level, it’s wise to consult your physician.  The good news is that if it’s your hectic agenda that’s leaving you drained, you can give yourself the best chance of staying well by looking at a few key areas – sleep, nutrition, hydration, and relaxation. 

As with many beneficial life habits, these four staples of health do not have catchy slogans or expensive promotional campaigns.  Bottled water brands and sleep number beds are starting to change that, but they’re based on the premise that you need a very extravagant bed or water purification system, rather than the idea that you need sleep and water to be healthy.  (Common sense, you say?  How long has it been since you got eight hours of sleep and drank two liters of water in the same day?)  Most nutrition-related marketing promotes one food or food group over another, rather than the guiding principle that you faithful readers know by now: eating frequent, small amounts of a variety of foods. 

On the other hand, I’m sure you’ve seen and heard multiple advertisements for energy bars, energy drinks, and energy boosting supplements, promising more energy if you eat or drink the magical concoction of chemicals.  Remember what you learned in Nutrition 101: Your body can only make energy from three things: carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.  ONLY.  Other nutrients help your body USE energy, including iron and B vitamins, but nothing you get in a pill can actually give you more energy than eating actual food.  Caffeine, ginseng, guarana, ma huang, ephedra, and xenedrine are all stimulants that make your heart beat faster, so your brain gets more oxygen, so you FEEL like you have more energy…but it’s a trap.  When the effects wear off, you will be more tired than you were before.  If you use the chemicals again, you perpetuate the cycle, or in other words, you’re hooked!
Quick Tip: Real energy means calories.  If a product contains 0 calories, it’s a fake. 

The good news (yes, there’s more!) is that although no supplement can make up for poor habits, changing habits can eliminate the need for these potentially harmful chemicals in your body.  Easier said than done, I agree.  But start in one area, and experiment with a small change.  If you see results, you will have proved to yourself that the change is worth it!  In the coming weeks, we’ll look at each of the key areas, sleep, nutrition, hydration, and relaxation, with the goal of maintaining exceptional energy throughout your day.

If you need an energy makeover, why not keep an energy log?  On 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days write down the following: What time it is each time you eat (you don’t have to write down WHAT you eat); what time it is when you go to sleep and when you wake up; what beverages you drink throughout the day; any relaxing activities you did that day; and a description of your energy (highs or lows) throughout the day.  In two weeks we’ll meet back and see what your results mean and where to improve!  To be continued…

Fencing Drills – Analysis/Commitment Drill

Most fencing drills focus on performance of one skill, or a single skill for each of the two fencers paired for the drill. Technical development of the skill is the objective. However, it is possible to use drills to develop tactical decision-making. One such drill is the Analysis/Commitment Drill.

As the name implies, there are two components to this drill. The analysis component consists of observing and analyzing the drill opponent’s actions. The commitment portion is based on deciding on a course of action and executing it without hesitation and with full speed and power.

The process requires both fencers and the coach to be engaged:

(1) The coach assigns a pair of actions to the fencer who will respond to initiating fencer’s movement. For example, the responding fencer might choose either a lateral parry of 6th or one of 4th.

(2) The coach assigns a pair of actions to the initiating fencer that logically will defeat the responder’s actions. For example, the initiator might choose between a straight thrust and a disengage.

(3) Without conversing with the other fencer, and based only on their best assessment of what that fencer’s action will be, the two fencers choose the action they will execute. When the choice is made the fencer announces “ready.”

(4) On the command “fence,” both fencers execute their chosen action at full speed with full commitment to the action. The fencers may not change the action in mid execution – for the responder, the choice is either correct, defeating the opponent’s action, or incorrect, resulting in a hit (or at least a well delivered miss for those who are accuracy challenged). The reverse is true for the initiating fencer.

(5) The fencers then analyze what they have observed in this trial to determine their actions for the next repetition of the drill. Initially, choices will be largely guesses. However, as the two fencers repeat the drill, they will eventually detect tells or patterns that reveal the opponent’s course of action. Vincent Bradford, who first described this drill, suggests 7 to 10 repetitions before switching roles. I suggest that you run a complete 15 repetition cycle, based on one side of the direct elimination bout, to give ample chance for analysis to work.

For a fencer executing an attack, this drill rewards full commitment to the attack. Obviously a choice based on a correct analysis of the defending fencer’s course of action will hit easily. However, a correctly executed full commitment attack may also defeat a defense that should be successful but that is poorly executed.

At the simplest level, this drill can be executed from an essentially static position with the fencers only employing a lunge. A more realistic and more challenging drill introduces footwork preparation by the initiator, with appropriate footwork choices by the responder.

The advantages of the analysis/commitment drill lie in its two primary components. Fencers receive training in executing the skills, much as they would in any drill. However, at the same time they are learning to study the opponent’s actions and make predictions of future actions. And based on that observation and prediction they are learning to make tactical choices and full commit to the success of those choices. This drill format will help you develop better tacticians with enhanced fighting spirit.

What About a Timber Framed House?

In contrast to traditional masonry construction, timber house construction is light in weight which allows the building envelope to heat up very quickly. In a house, where heating is intermittent, this fast response can result in increased comfort and energy saving.

Carbon Neutral Timber

Timber is a natural material and requires minimal energy to process it into construction materials. During its growth, timber absorbs carbon dioxide and stores the carbon in its cellular fibres. When it is burnt, or rots away, the wood releases a quantity of carbon equal to the carbon it has already absorbed through its lifetime, thus making it carbon neutral.

Prefabricated Timber Panels

Prefabricated timber houses are manufactured as panels under factory conditions then transported to the site where the building is assembled. The panels are constructed with timber studding and composite wood board materials, known as sheathing, which are nailed onto the exterior of the timber frame to form the rigid panel.


As well as its low thermal capacity, timber frame construction has several other advantages over masonry cavity walls. Because the insulation is incorporated within the thickness of the frame, a greater thickness of insulation can be provided. An external wall cavity is not necessary in timber framed house construction, as long as an appropriate vapour control layer is incorporated on the warm side (in winter) of the insulation.

Better U-Values

Timber framed house construction can achieve U-values significantly better than the minimums required by current building standards. A typical timber studding wall consists of a waterproof breather membrane, sheathing board, structural timber framing, vapour barrier and inner lining of plasterboard. Insulation is fitted between the uprights of the timber frame, usually filling the full thickness of the external wall. Where higher than normal standards of insulation are required, a thicker external wall can be constructed.

External Wall Cladding

External walls can be faced with load bearing brickwork or cement rendered blockwork to give the appearance of conventional houses. A number of lightweight cladding materials are also available including: tiling, slating, timber boarding, cedar shingles, cement render on lathing, as well as proprietary rainscreen cladding solutions.

Speed of Construction

Timber buildings can be constructed much more rapidly than masonry cavity wall construction, as the timbers are cut under quality controlled factory conditions. The absence of wet trades internally results in reduced drying out time. Shorter time on site means a shorter total build programme.

Airtight Houses and Insulation

The control of air infiltration is an essential factor in prefabricated houses, as this improves the thermal performance and lowers running costs. If the retained heat is lost through unwanted air leakage then there will be no benefit from high levels of insulation. Air tightness can be controlled by tightly fitting structural panels with overlapped plasterboard linings, as well as by the vapour barrier that is located behind the wall panels.

Timber Houses and Building Regulations

UK building regulations require external walls to have high thermal performance levels through high levels of insulation and air tightness. Durability of the insulated timber frame is an essential requirement, as walls need to provide support for the cladding materials. External walls are required to have appropriate fire resistance and resistance to the spread of flame.

Warranties and Guarantees

Housing warranty and guarantee authorities may have additional requirements for aspects of the timber construction such as sheathing materials, breather membranes and the preservative treatment of the external wall framing.

Low Embodied Energy

Timber framed building has the lowest embodied energy of any commercially available building material, while delivering up to 33 per cent reduction in energy consumption for large detached houses and up to 20 per cent for apartments.

If you would like more information on timber framed building then why not visit

Lumberton Texas Home Market

Located in Hardin County Texas about 10 miles north of Beaumont, Lumberton is a bedroom community of around 8,700 population. The urban flight from Beaumont make it a perfect destination for new home buyers looking for a better School District.

The Eastex Freeway is the main thoroughfare ( highways 69/96/287) running north and south from Beaumont to Lumberton, making for an easy commute to the jobs located in Beaumont.

New home sales have been good with many home builders operating in this rapidly growing area. Commercial growth in the last 20 years has been above the state average, with new business openings on the rise even in a sagging economy.

Existing homes for sale are rather scarce and are at a premium at this writing, with Silsbee and Kountze being a second choice for home buyers.

The Lumberton Independent School District with its high state of Texas school rating and ever expanding classrooms, is the primary reason for the upswing in the new and existing home sales. Being a rural community, land sales are always at a premium.

In conclusion: It is our opinion that the Lumberton Texas Commercial Real Estate market and the new and existing homes for sale market will continue to grow and expand well beyond the state or even national market. The shopping opportunities are very good with many small merchants from Beaumont opening branches in the area, along with the larger Department Stores. The largely popular Parkdale Mall located in Beaumont is only minutes away. It is truly a great place live in southeast Texas.

4 Nonprofit Board Committees Every Well-Run Organization Has

Regardless of the sector, maturity, or staff sophistication of the nonprofit organization, these four board committees are essential to the health of the organization and well-being of the board itself. Share this article with your board today and discuss how these four nonprofit board committees can help you do a better job providing oversight and support for your nonprofit. If your board lacks the expertise to support the activities outlined below, decide which board skills are needed, and start recruiting board members with these skills now.

Board Development Committee – This committee preserves the quality of your board’s future because it is responsible for determining what skills are required on the board, and for recruiting and orienting all new board members. While many boards have one-time orientation sessions, better boards continuously exposure their members to the work of the organization and the quality board governance they are trying to achieve. Along with the Board President, members of this committee communicate with your board members to ensure that they are making a productive contribution and they are satisfied with their board experience. The design, administration, and interpretation of your annual board self-evaluations is done by the Board Development Committee.

Finance Committee – The finance committee is often the most highly-functioning of all board committees. This committee supports the development of the annual expense budget, tracks the actual spending vs. budget, watches monthly cash flow, and interprets the overall financial health of the organization on behalf of the board. This committee supports the development of the longer-term strategic plan as well as next year’s annual plan. All of the financial policies of your organization should be reviewed by the finance committee prior to board approval. The Audit and Investment Subcommittees help round out the board’s involvement in the financial affairs of the organization.

Fundraising Committee – While the Executive Director is responsible for the organization’s fundraising, well-run organizations engage the support of the board in various part of their fundraising plan. This committee oversees the development of the Annual Fundraising Plan – and tracks the planned vs. actual results during the year. They encourage, train, and thank other board members for their involvement in the fundraising activities. They explore potential, new fundraising activities as part of the strategic planning process. Special Events Subcommittees can be established as part of this committee when appropriate.

Personnel Committee – Contrary to popular thinking, even small, young nonprofit organization need personnel (or human resource) expertise on their boards. Even if there is only one part-time employee working for your nonprofit, this committee helps make sure that all state and federal laws and regulations that affect employment are followed. This committee ensures that the wages you are paying are comparable to wages in other, similar organizations – and that each employee has a current job description, documented annual objectives, and yearly follow-up reviews that include training and career path planning. Employee Handbooks, Human Resource Policies, Staff Planning, Benefits Selection, Pension Considerations, and Vacation/Holiday Schedules for full-time and part-time employees are all within the responsibility of this committee.

Get the ball rolling by sharing this article with your fellow board members and your Executive Director. If your board does not have a well-developed committee structure, start by assigning some board members to these committees now. If your board has committees but they’re not particularly effective, re-invigorate these four committees first. They are by far the most important to the effectiveness of your board and the success of your nonprofit.

Repairing A Broken Porch Swing

Do you have a broken porch swing at your house? Do you miss sitting outside and spending time in it, watching the cars pass by as you take a break from the world? If so, you may have considered buying a new unit.

The problem is that these new units are pricey these days. The cost of everything is going up, and the companies who manufacture and sell porch swings have been forced to go up on their prices as well. All outdoor furniture has gotten incredibly expensive, in fact. recently, my wife and I went to purchase some lawn furniture, and I was taken aback with sticker shock at the amount even the cheapest units cost.

However, your broken porch swing might have life in it yet. Consider repairing it before you go out and purchase a new one. You might just save yourself some serious cash! Here are a few things to consider when you are thinking about repairing your old porch swing

Current Condition

Is it worth repairing? Do you believe that if you fix the broken parts, the rest of it will hold together in the long run, or does it look like the whole thing could come apart at any time? If the whole unit looks rickety, you may be better off going out and purchasing a new model.

However, if it looks basically new other than the broken pieces, it might just be salvageable!

Tool Needs

You will probably need a few tools to get the job done if you want to repair your porch swing. Do you have those tools readily available around your home? If not, does a neighbor or a friend have the tools that they would lend yu for a short time while you do the repairs? If the answer to either of these is yes, then you are ready to do some repair work!

Matching Colors

If you have a swing that is made out of wood, will you be able to match the colors on the pieces that you replace? If the rest of your swing looks worn except for one slat of wood, that might look a little silly. However, if you think you can match the colors of the pieces, you should be OK!


Can you safely repair the problem? Are you certain that your repair will hold? If you have ever been in one these swings when they break, you know how unpleasant it is, so make sure you are careful!

If you have all these questions answered positively, you should be well on your way to saving some money by repairing your own swing!

Choosing a Commercial Roofing Contractor

There is going to be a time when the roof of your office building or school needs to be replaced or at least repaired. Mother Nature can be cruel sometimes, and the roofs on our buildings are the ones that take the brunt of her powerful forces. When it comes to making the decision to replace or repair the roof of your building, it is important to choose a roofing  contractor  with the experience necessary to do the job properly. Below are a few tips for you when it comes to selecting the right commercial roofing  contractor .

Ask for references

You never know how well a job will be performed until after the scope of work is complete. The best way to get an indication of what you can expect from a prospective commercial roofer is to ask for references. Once you are given a list of references make sure you actually call on these individuals. Don’t simply go through the motions just to see if they have references, follow up with them. Be sure to ask a lot of questions such as did they stay on budget, were they easy to work with and, most importantly, would you use them again if you had to. Getting the answers to these simple questions is a great way to helping you find the  contractor  that is right for your roofing job.

Review their website

This seems like a logical place to start, but it is often overlooked. A commercial roofing company wants to put their best foot forward, and this starts with their website. A good website, one that is easy to navigate and shows past work, will help you get a better idea of how proud a company is of their work. If they do good work, they usually want to show it off. Check to see if their site has detailed photography. A plain white roof photos from high above might not tell you a lot, but an up close image of specific repair, and the care that goes into it, will help greatly.

Ask questions

When you search for a commercial roofer and you choose the one you think is right for your project, make certain you ask a lot of questions. Installing and repairing commercial roofs is something  contractors  do daily, but it could be a brand new experience for you. Good roofing  contractors  will be more than willing to answer any questions you may have when it comes to installing or repairing a section of your roof. You may also be surprised to know that the more questions you ask, the more dialogue you can have with a  contractor . The more communication you have the more insight and options you may have available when it comes to your roof and your budget.

Changing a Light Switch – DIY Guide

Changing a light switch is a job which nearly any competent do-it-yourselfer can do but there are a couple of things to watch out for.

Please bear in mind that in the UK it is illegal to work on any part of the electrical installation in a kitchen or bathroom without notifying the local authority or employing a Part P registered electrician.

When you decide to change a light switch you must consider the circuit that the switch is on. Prior to the mid 1960’s lighting circuits rarely incorporated an earthing conductor, properly called a circuit protective conductor (cpc).

If you have an electrical installation in which the lighting cables do not incorporate a cpc. then you must not replace any plastic light switch with a metal one such as brass or steel. It would be extremely dangerous to do so.

Next you will have to ascertain what type of switch you are changing.

A switch plate which has only one switch is called a one gang or single switch. One plate with two switches is called a two gang and so on.

There are basically three types of light switch, a one way switch, a two way switch and an intermediate switch. All switches are rated at either 6 or 10 amps.

A one way switch operates a light or lights from one position, normally by a door. A two way switch will have a partner so that a light can be turned on and off from two positions, say, by the kitchen door and the back door. An intermediate switch is used when the light has to be turned on and off from three positions or more.

A one way switch will have two terminals on the back for the cable connections, a two way will have three and an intermediate will have four.

To change the switch, first turn on the light and then take out or turn off the fuse or mcb, this will ensure you have the right circuit. Put the fuse in your pocket or tape down the mcb so that it cannot be re-energised.

Remove the switch plate from the wall by removing the two screws and pull it gently towards you. You will now see the connections in the back.

Now is a good time to make a note or sketch of where the cables are connected. If you have a similar switch the terminations will be a straight replacement but if it looks different then make these notes.

The majority of switches follow the same format for marking. ‘C’ for common, L1 and L2 for the others. One a one way switch the common will be the red/brown wire and L1 will take the black/blue wire with a short identifier of brown or red sleeving or tape.

With a two way switch it is not uncommon to have five wires connected into the back. Making a note is strongly recommended. The five wires will be split up into two pairs and a common. The two pairs can go into either L1 or L2, it does not matter but the single wire must go into the common or the switch will not work correctly.

When you first remove the switch you may notice some blue or black wires connected into a block, these are the neutrals and must not be connected to the other live wires or you will cause an electrical short and a small bang.

The earth or cpc wires can be left alone also unless you are fitting a metal switch in which case you must make a connection to the plate to the terminal provided. This can be achieved with a short piece of copper wire, preferably sleeved with green and yellow sleeving.

When you have made all the connections and are satisfied that they are correct replace the switch onto the box, ensuring that all the wires are pushed away from the screw positions and screw it down securely.

Follow these tips and changing a light switch will not seem to be that difficult again.

Learn Affiliate Marketing – Full Frontal Niche Marketing Week 1 Review

Are you successful in Internet marketing? Have you just got started or are you a seasoned failure? Most people never make a dime selling products on the Internet. The main reason? They don’t know what they are doing. They were attracted by the “If I can make one penny on only 10% of the people on the Internet, I’ll never have to work again.” While that sentiment is true, you are not the only person who has had that revelation.

There are hundreds of millions of websites. A study at Cornell University revealed that the top 3 search results get 79% of the clicks. The traffic that goes to the Internet to buy products is not evenly dispersed. To make those millions of dollars, you need to get to the top 3 spots. You have 2 choices, you can pay someone else to do it for you or you can learn how to do it yourself.

One of the most talked about Internet marketing training programs is Full Frontal Niche Marketing by Bryan Zimmerman and Jeremy Kersall. These guys are in-the-trenches affiliate marketers who do this on a daily basis. They don’t work for some large corporation and have access to millions of dollars for research or development or large payrolls. They do this by the seat of their pants. Probably the same way you are going to do it.

Their class is an over-the-shoulder approach where they record their computer screens while doing daily activities. The voice-over is them explaining what they are doing. The nice thing about this approach is they can talk at normal speed but if you miss something you can rewind and watch it again.

During the first week we covered the following topics. They also made a sale during the testing phase. Prior to watching this program I had no testing phase so I learned something already. My actual campaigns were in effect testing phases.

After watching the first week I had already gained a lot of respect for them. I learned why I probably have not been successful. I could actually see my evolution over the past couple of years. In the beginning I had chosen markets that were too competitive. Later I was choosing better markets but was not getting the traffic. Then I would chose a market and learned how to buy traffic but that means the margins were razor-thin and I barely broke even. Now I was in the mode where I wanted to learn and automate functions. I could have compressed this 2 year learning curve into a couple of weeks watching videos. I could then use the videos to duplicate a campaign step by step.

That’s exactly what these guys teach.

Day 1

Video Length 39:19

Intro by Instructors – Bryan Zimmerman and Jeremy Kersell

Steps in selecting a niche to market

What kind of niches should you consider

What to look for in the vendors websites

How a vendor page should flow

What are some things a vendors website should have

Day 2

Video Length 45:44

Testing a niche using article directories

What competitive factors should you consider

Estimating initial traffic BEFORE committing to a niche

A trick to maximize exposure and create more traffic

What patterns should you look for in the competition

Activities and time estimates for testing a niche

GOAL Setting and Planning

This supplemental video sets the tone for the business. If you don’t commit to a goal, your business will be a failure. I was very surprised to see this addition as its usually something that’s completely overlooked except by the most exceptional people in industry. The authors show you how to set reasonable, achievable goals on a long term and short term basis. This allows you to track progress and make adjustments when necessary.

Should be required viewing by anyone about to start a business.

Day 3

Video Length 31:13

Writing article

What are the 5 components of a good article?

How do you build needs to get someone predisposed to buy?

Day 4

Video Length 36:00

Analyze competitors websites to find strengths and weaknesses

Go to ezine to see how other websites promote same keywords

What do the other websites linked from the article look like. Steal the good stuff.

Look for ideas

Day 5 Video

Length 16:16

Analyzing click throughs (CTR)

What is a reasonable rate?

Using Facebook to test a niche

Failure to Yield to Oncoming Traffic

Failing to yield to traffic that has the right of way can be a costly mistake. In many driving situations there are instances where we must yield to vehicles that have been granted the right of way by signs or traffic lights. When a driver doesn’t notice or disregards a yield sign, s/he may cut in front of fast moving traffic that was not expecting to have to slow down. The result can be a devastating accident at high speed that injures the drivers and passengers involved, totals the vehicles, or worse.

Yield Signs

Yield signs are often disregarded by drivers or are simply not noticed. These signs are placed at intersections or where two roads merge to help drivers better negotiate the flow of traffic. Some of the confusion with yield signs may stem from the fact that some drivers do not fully understand what it means to yield. Many drivers will either speed up to try to “beat” the oncoming traffic, or will slow down but continue to move forward when the road isn’t clear. Both of these are not proper yields.

To yield, a driver who is approaching a yield sign should slow down and look for oncoming traffic. If no traffic is present, the motorist may proceed into the intersection or roadway. If traffic is present, a driver must slow down and allow all traffic to pass before passing the yield sign. When traffic is congested, the driver may have to stop at the yield sign until the way is clear. Simply slowing down is not a proper yield when the road is not clear.

Yielding on a Green Light

At many green lights, vehicles waiting to turn left across traffic may proceed through the intersection if there is no oncoming traffic that presents an imminent danger. This means that motorists who wish to turn left on a green ball light must wait until all close oncoming traffic from the opposite direction has passed. If there is a gap in the oncoming traffic, the driver may proceed and make the left turn once it is safe to pass.

Yielding on a Highway On Ramp or to an Exit Ramp

When entering a highway, vehicles on the on ramp must yield to traffic already on the highway. This yield, however, is slightly different from city street yields. Vehicles entering the on ramp should accelerate to the speed of traffic on the highway, then maneuver into a gap in the traffic. It is not recommended to slow down on an on ramp, and stopping on a ramp is extremely dangerous. Typically on ramps are longer than normal yields and provide a gradual merge so that drivers have time to negotiate a busy highway.

Vehicles exiting a highway have the right of way in traffic. Drivers on the access road or frontage road must yield if there are vehicles exiting. If many people are exiting at once, it may be necessary for frontage road traffic to slow or even stop to let the exiting traffic pass first. Because exiting traffic may still be traveling at speeds close to those on the highway, it is crucial for drivers on the access road to be alert to avoid a severe accident.

For More Information

An accident caused by a driver who failed to yield can be extremely costly in terms of both injuries and damages. If this has happened to you, you may be entitled to compensation for the costs of your accident, including medical bills, lost wages from time off work for recovery, and pain and suffering.

To learn more about common car accident scenarios and how you can initiate a lawsuit for compensation, please visit the website of the Wausau car accident attorneys of Habush, Habush & Rottier, S.C. today.

Secrets of Bonding 119: Lien On Me

“It’s what you don’t know that gets you into trouble. It’s what you know for sure that just ain’t so.” A famous quote by… ?

Let’s go over what you need to know about construction liens. They can have a big impact on construction contracts and companies.

A Mechanic’s Lien is filed when a subcontractor or supplier on a construction project fails to be paid. The lien is a form of claim filed against the project itself. For example, the unpaid mason (subcontractor) files a claim against the building owner. “My bricks and labor are in that fa├žade. I can’t take them back now, but assert that I’m owed money!”

Liens are used on non-governmental projects. Typically, claimants are prohibited from liening a public building – which is where Payment Bonds come in. Issued by surety companies, the payment bond is a resource to protect suppliers of labor and material from non-payment.

So far that’s all pretty straight forward. On private contracts unpaid subs and suppliers can file a lien. On government jobs they make a claim on the payment bond instead.

Here are some permutations worth knowing.

Release of Lien

The lien can be released, or “bonded off,” by the filing of a (you guessed it) Release of Lien Bond. This removes the lien from the property in question, which is beneficial for the project owner, while still providing financial protection for the plaintiff (unpaid sub or supplier.) The dispute is still unresolved, but the plaintiffs security shifts from the physical project to the surety bond.

A release of lien bond is not easy to obtain. But if a payment bond was issued, that surety has motivation to prevent a payment bond claim, and issuing the lien release bond could do so.

When the lien release bond is filed, it takes some pressure off the defendant (general contractor). You can assume the unpaid mason hopes the lien will cause the owner (who is the recipient of the lien) to force the GC to respond. When the lien is bonded off, that effect disappears from the project owner – but not the surety.

Stop Notices

California, Mississippi, Arizona, Alaska and Washington use a slightly different procedure. On governmental projects a Stop Notice is filed which freezes a portion of the project funds to protect the claimant. This forces action on the part of the GC, or they can file a Release of Stop Notice bond to keep the project funds flowing while dealing with the dispute.

Understand the Difference

Mechanic’s Liens are filed against the project owner. The claim attaches to the real property and is recorded against the property title – which therefore restricts the owner’s ability to dispose of the property.

With a lien, the claimant may be paid regardless of whether the owner paid the GC. In fact, the owner may have to pay twice: First to the GC then again to the sub / vendor claimant, to clear the lien (and property title).

Stop Notices “trap” contract funds, assuming there are funds to trap.

If the claimant files a Stop Notice after the funds have been disbursed, the Stop Notice has no value.

Other basic differences:

  • Unlike a lien, the stop notice does not give the debt any security.
  • The stop notice is sent to the relevant parties, but it is not legally recorded such as a lien filed against the property title. The claim is inherently less official and is sometimes even ignored because of it’s less formal appearance.
  • Unlike a Mechanics Lien, the Stop Notice can affect the entire project because it freezes a portion of the contract funds – which the GC may need in order to continue working.

We are not attorneys. If you need an attorney… call one. This article is for entertainment only. Gimme a break!

Antique Gun And Powder Flask Repairs

In good condition, these guns are valuable antique collectors’ pieces. Others that require a bit of work can often be cleaned and restored by amateurs. Cast-metal parts or wooden blanks, which can be shaped to replace damaged or missing stocks, can be obtained from specialist suppliers. Even old gunpowder explodes, so be sure that any gun being repaired is not loaded. Insert the ramrod, or a length of wood, into the barrel to check if there is any obstruction. If there is, remove it with a modern shotgun-cleaning rod that has a screw tip, or use an ordinary steel screw soldered to a stiff piece of wire. Screw the rod gently into the obstruction and pull it out like a cork. Wash the barrel with hot water and dry it.

To dismantle the gun, first half-cock it, then remove the screw which holds the cock (in the flintlock) or the hammer (in the percussion type) and slide it off. Unscrew the pan-cover pivot and screw securing the spring beneath the pan: remove the parts. Unscrew the holding bolts or screws and remove the lock-plate. Several screwdrivers may be needed: the blade must fit each screw or bolt slot exactly so as not to burr the screw or bolt. If they are hard to remove, applying a bit of penetrating oil will do the trick. To dismantle a flintlock mechanism, loosen the four screws that hold the mainspring, sear, searspring and the bridle. Compress the mainspring (in a small hand vice), take out the spring screw and remove the spring. The pin at the rear of the mainspring engages in the lock-plate and the other end of the spring engages in the toe of the tumbler.

Remove rust with fine emery paper or powder. Make sure to remove all abrasive powder after cleaning. Smear all parts with petroleum jelly and reassemble. Press the tumbler down to the fired position so that the end of the mainspring goes over it. Put the cock on and pull it back to the half-cocked position so that the tumbler toe compresses the mainspring. Refit the rest of the pieces in reverse order to removal.

To clean the barrel, first remove it from the stock. A metal extension of the barrel – the tang – runs into the stock. Remove the tang screws and any retaining bands or pins. The trigger guard, butt cap and ramrod pipes are screwed or pinned and must be removed with extreme care. If the screws do not yield to penetrating oil, leave them alone – it will be a job for an antique restorer to drill them out. Barrels and other metal parts can be cleaned with a mixture of oil and paraffin. Re-polish all parts with progressively finer abrasives; finish with jewellers’ emery or crocus paper. Some barrels may have been blued to prevent rust and, special bluing fluid can be bought from a gunsmith. Try not leaving fingerprints on the barrel as this causes rusting.

Clean the stock with steel wool and linseed oil. If the stock is broken, mend with epoxy resin mixed to a paste with matching stained sawdust. If the stock is beyond minor repairs, a new stock may be fashioned with an entirely new piece of wood. Small dents in the stock can be extracted by using hot steam from an iron. Place a cloth over the dent and apply the hot iron.

Powder flasks were made in hundreds of designs and several materials. However, the majority of antique flasks were made pear-shaped and made from tin, brass or Britannia metal. Metal flasks were usually made in two halves soldered together. If the seam has parted, find out what alloy the flask is made of before trying to re-solder it. A simple test is to put a few drops of water in a cup and add an equal number of drops of nitric acid, obtainable from a chemist. Put a drop of the solution on the metal to reveal the colour. Red-brown indicates bronze; yellow and yellow-red, brass; dark grey, pewter; and bright silver-grey, Britannia metal. To polish the antique flask, use the technique appropriate to the material it is made of. Many powder flasks have very fine detailed etchings, embossings or engravings that give them their unique look. An antique gun without its matching or specific powder flask loses its appeal when antique collectors are looking to add to their collection.

Easy To Do Stained Glass

The tools needed to create your own stained glass are tools such as glass grinders and saws, drawing tools, foiling tools, grinder accessories, hand tools, leading tools, glass cutters, soldering irons and solder.

Quality Stained Glass Tools are a Must

To keep frustrations to a minimum your glass cutters need to be extremely sharp at all times. When cutting curves it’s easy to do if you have a lot of patience and cut away little bits at the time. Trying to cut a large piece while going around a corner can be disastrous.

How the Stained Glass Tools are Used

Foiling tools are used for stained glass projects that have foil over the lead. It’s a tedious process and requires specialized tools to make it easy to do. Leading tools assist in making the lead fit as precisely and snugly along the glass as possible.

For a window you would want the most precise fit for the sake of weather proofing. Soldering irons and solder are used to connect the joints of the leading. The leading meets at certain angles. The solder fills in any gaps caused at the connection points and allows for a smooth appearance overall.

Stained Glass Tools Make it Simple

Now that you know what tools to use, you can see why creating your own stained glass can be easy to do. It’s easy once you know and when you have the stained glass tools that make it easy for you to perfect your craft.