Guide For Setting Up Lionel Model Train Sets

Getting started is one of the most exciting phases in the model train hobby. Should your train set take over the whole house or settle for just one room? If you opted for the whole house, please speak with your wife before swinging the sledge hammer.

It is good to dream big, but patience is often required before dreams become reality. Most of us have to deal with the reality of limited amounts of space, money and time. Adapting to these realities will help you make your first decisions, where to put your set and how much space to devote to it.

Another decision is selecting a brand train sets. Should you purchase a Lionel model train set or go with another brand? Lionel is by far the leading brand, but other brands such as Bachmann, Athearn, Hornby and others have been around a long time too and have many happy customers. If you are not sure, Lionel is a safe place to start.

So do we have some momentum going yet? The next decision is choosing between complete train sets or individual components. Most beginner hobbyists start with complete train sets while the more serious railroaders opt for buying individual components. Complete sets are cheaper and save you time with shopping. Buying components costs more and requires you to gather more information before buying. Whether you choose to go with sets or components, it is recommended to play it safe by purchasing well-known brand, such as a Lionel model train. You might save a few dollars with a lesser known brand but you might not get the quality you want.

Once you have all of your components, start by spreading them around on the table that will be used for the layout. Be sure you have all the pieces; if not, contact the hobby store for directions. Most train set kits contain an engine, cars, track, and a power pack. Directions for assembly and wiring are included in the package.

You will need the right surface for your model train track. Carpeting doesn’t work well. A simple wood surface works the best. The recommended minimum layout size is 5′ x 8′ as this will provide enough space to curve the track. Smooth wood works best but if there are knots you can generally curve your track around them.

Covering the board with a green felt helps hold scenery and track in place during set-up and ongoing improvements. The green felt also provides a grassy look to any board that isn’t specifically set up with scenes. Additionally, green felt might cover up imperfections in the wood.

Lay out some pieces of track on the table. Look at the ends to verify which ends fit together. Be sure that the “rail joiners” are not broken or damaged. These metal pieces (or ends) have a dual purpose: they allow electricity to move throughout the track and ensure that the rails align properly. Connecting the tracks correctly helps keep the tracks in place and could prevent some derailments. Move the pieces around until you have a set-up that you like. Fasten the track to the board with track pins.

Next, you will need to wire the track. One rail is the positive side and the other rail is the negative side. These two rails combine to provide all the needed electricity for your train sets and scenery. Pay attention when connecting your tracks to ensure that you don’t mix the polarity. Connect one end of the wires to the track (or use prewired joiners). The other end will connect to the power-pack. Be sure that the power pack is unplugged before connecting any wires.

Once the wiring is complete, place your Lionel model train engine on the track and connect several cars. Be sure the wheels are aligned correctly on the track. Plug in the power-pack and advance the throttle slowly. If the train goes forward, you hooked up the wiring correctly. If the train goes backward, unplug the power-pack, switch the wires, and restart the train.

Run your train to ensure that all your connections are properly set up. Test the train by running it at different speeds; in some cases, you may have to increase the radius of the curve to prevent derailments. Before you fasten tracks down, be sure the layout is the way you want it.

Now you are ready to enjoy your train set. As you gain experience, you can add tracks, curves, hills, and interlocking train sets. Reversing sections of tracks is helpful for backing up and disconnecting train cars. Have fun!

Hand-Tufted Vs Hand-Knotted Carpets

Hand-tufted carpets, also known as Latex or Full Cut carpets look a lot like hand-knotted carpets but the difference between the two is noticed in the way they are both produced. A tufted oriental rug is made with the help of a tufting gun, which is a hand-operated tool. A tufted carpet does not require any special skill; on the other hand, a knotted carpet not only takes longer to complete but also requires skill in tying the knots neatly and correctly.

In order to make a high quality hand tufted rug, superior quality wool must be used. However, the quality of a hand-knotted rug is measured by the number of knots per square inch. Since latex glue is used to hold the “tufts” in place in case of a hand-tufted carpet, the rug is also termed as latex rug. People often consider these types of carpets as disposable because they do not require much labor or skill. However, they have some benefits of their own such as they are less costly than hand-knotted rugs and often retain their color even in high traffic areas.

Despite their benefits, tufted rugs if not made from high quality wool will wear out quickly. If you want to buy a tufted rug for your room then make sure you buy from a reputable company. High quality tufted rugs often cost almost the same as hand-knotted carpets from Persia or Turkey. Hand-knotted rugs make use of natural dye and therefore they do not drip color when wet. On the other hand, low quality tufted rugs may bleed and fade in color.

The above mentioned two types of carpets can also be compared with a third type of oriental rugs known as flat woven rugs. These types of rugs are light in weight and easy to care for. Normally they are used as show pieces and hung on walls instead of using as floor carpets. There are no knots in this type of rug and is therefore easier to construct than tufted or knotted rugs.

A hand knotted rug with a higher knot count indicates a high quality carpet which is durable and long lasting. Usually these carpets are rated from very coarse to extremely fine depending on the knot count. Extremely fine carpets contain more than 290 knots per square inch, whereas very coarse hand-knotted rugs consist of 30 or less knots per square inch.

The Wrist Cock Golf Training Aid

Using golf training aids in your golf game is a good practice. There are training aids for everything from putting to hitting a driver. How about the training aids that you use on your body to keep yourself connected or lined up on the target line correctly. The only problem is, there seems to be confusion as to how the wrist cocks in the backswing. This especially true for beginners, because the wrist cock needs to be felt. How can a golf training aid help you to feel how the wrist cocks?

There are plenty of places that you can learn from about how the wrist cocks in the golf swing. You can find them in online golf instruction, golf magazines, and especially my favorite, infomercials.

Seeing a golf tip in action is always better for you than reading or hearing about it. Let’s see what an infomercial can tell us about how the wrist cocks in the golf swing. Here’s some you might have seen.

* Greg Norman’s Secret

* The Medicus

* The Glove

* Kallassy’s Swing Magic

Now you don’t have to rush out and go buy any of these golf training aids if you don’t want to. By watching some of these infomercials though, you can start to pick up on a central theme. How and where your wrists are supposed to be during the golf swing. Better yet. How they are supposed to feel.

Take a look at Greg Norman’s Secret. If you watch the infomercial, you might pick up the fact that your right wrist shouldn’t be moving much at all. It’s movement is fixed. The stationary piece of plastic won’t allow any back and forth movement of the hand, only a slight raising of the thumb towards the wrist. Greg even tells you that the wrist cock is like shaking hands with someone. I want you to take this feeling with you. Try to keep the ‘V’ of your right thumb and forefinger pointed at your right shoulder all the way through the swing. This feeling will allow your wrists to hinge naturally.

Then there’s the Medicus. It doesn’t matter if you want to talk about the iron or the driver. That shouldn’t matter much to you. What you need to pick up on is how the hinge is oriented to the club face. The hinge is facing the same way as face of the club. So if you were to break your wrist backwards on itself, wouldn’t the hinge on the Medicus also break. The only way to take the club back without making the hinge break is to cock the wrist upwards. Watch the Medicus infomercial sometime and try to pick out the feeling that you are trying to achieve with this training aid.

The next time that you’re watching The Golf Channel and you see an infomercial from one of the golf training aids mentioned, take the time to really watch it. Study what it is about the training aid that is helping golfers improve. Are you feeling the same thing that the training aid is trying to teach? Are you making your golf game more complicated by cocking your wrists too much? Or the wrong way?

These products, the golf training aids, are helpful if you own them, but you can learn a lot just by watching how they are being used.

Customize Your Toilet With A Handheld Bidet Toilet Seat

I had never heard of a handheld bidet until two weeks ago. Most people know about the European-style bidet toilets that have been popular in many continental European countries for many many years, but have only recently become popular in the United States and Canada. Everybody likes the idea of the ultimate cleansing and hygiene experience, but not everybody has the space in the toilet to add a standalone bidet.

Bidet toilet seats like the Toto Washlet S300 are not a viable option for many people, due to the fact that they will cost you US$700 or more, plus the electrical and plumbing work required to install it. Don’t get me wrong, if you can afford one, this is a fantastic bidet toilet seat that will provide many years of service and has some of the most technologically advanced cleaning and drying technology anywhere in the world. But is there an alternative?

Well the answer is a definite yes! With minimal installation work, a handheld bidet can very quickly be installed into your existing toilet, and although it will not provide the warm water massaging wash that the Washlet toilet seat will, or drying facility, or lift and close the toilet seat automatically, it will provide you with a good quality cleaning facility for a fraction of the price. There are a couple of different models with different installation methods.

One type draws its water from the toilet tank at the top, and uses a battery-powered pump to provide the water pressure. This means you do not have to start tapping into the pressure fed water supply to your toilet tank. The manufacturers state that installation can take a matter of minutes.

The second type requires you to turn off your water supply to the toilet before installation. Most toilets will have a stopcock or tap just above the floor level which will allow you to easily turn it off here. If it does not, you may need to isolate the water supply to your house. All that is involved then is removing the copper pipe work from above the tap to where it enters the bottom of the toilet tank, and replacing it with a braided flexible hose which has a T piece that provides a feed off to the handheld bidet.

These hand held bidets are very much like a shower head and I do not need to go into detail about how one would use it. This is self-explanatory. You can pick one of these up for under $60 and they generally have a nice mounting kit for the handheld bidet handset to sit when not in use.

I bought one and have found it to be extremely adequate. You can even wash your hair with it!!

Single Pane Glass Repair in an Aluminum Frame, Part 2

This week we are going to continue our series on single pane window glass repair. Let’s talk about broken glass in a fixed window, usually referred to as a picture window. The most common type will have metal stops on the outside, around all four edges of the window glass. Sometimes these stops will be held in place with screws, and other times there will be aluminum stops that snap in place. In some rare instances there will be a rubber material in place of metal. If you have the screw type, you remove all of the screws and each piece will come out. If you have the metal snap in stops, carefully pry the stop from the frame using a small, flat screwdriver or a   putty  knife. You want to start in a corner and work along the stop until it comes out. Don’t pry too much because the stops can bend very easily. If you have the rubber type, pry a corner away using the screwdriver, grab it with your fingers, and pull out the rubber. The glass shouldn’t fall out because there is a glue or tape on the edge, holding the glass in place.

From here, You can get your measurements for the new piece of glass. The glass edges will be exposed, and you can hook your tape measure to the edge and get your width and height. If there is a hole in the glass, measure the glass thickness. If there isn’t a hole, put on some gloves and carefully push on the glass where the crack is located. This will expose the edge so you can measure it. When you go to get the new glass, you’re going to need a tube of silicone to replace the glue or tape holding the glass in place. Once you get the glass home, you need to remove the old glass. Go inside and cut between the glass and frame using a utility knife with a new blade. This will cut away the silicone or tape that is holding the old glass. Be sure to wear heavy gloves during this process to avoid getting cut. Start at the top and cut across from one corner to the other. Then cut down one side, from top to bottom. Do the other side the same way. At this point the glass should fall out. You should place a tarp or sheet under the window to catch the glass as it falls out. Using a stiff  putty  knife, scrape off the old silicone or tape from the frame. If there were setting blocks on the bottom, be sure to reuse them. They act as shims to raise the glass off the bottom.

Now run a bead of silicone about 3/16″ thick around the perimeter of the opening. Grab your new glass on the sides, angle the bottom in and the top out, set the glass on the setting blocks, then slowly raise the glass up into place. Push just hard enough that all four edges of the glass contact the silicone, but not so hard that the glass makes contact with the metal frame. Install your outside stops. Don’t clean the glass for 24 hours so the silicone can set up.

Next week I will continue this series on window glass repair.

Sex Toys – What Is A Finger Vibrator?

What Are They?

When your fingers feel like doing a little walking, it’s the perfect time to try a finger vibrator on for size. A finger vibrator attaches to your finger and either sends vibration through your finger, or has a contact point for clitoral stimulation. A newer addition to the vibrator family, the finger vibe is a must-try for anyone seeking some extra pleasure.

Some finger vibes are worn like a glove, while others are just worn on one finger, just like you would wear a ring. And even though a vibration can be felt in your fingertip, the pleasure is meant for other, more sensitive areas of your body.

Achieving an orgasm with one of these handy contraptions is easy, as the isolated vibration stimulates the blood flow to the body part that is being manipulated. As soon as your finger hits the sweet spot – bam! That’s when the magic happens.

How To Use It

And speaking of sensitive areas, you can use a finger vibrator on a nipple, a clitoris, or even in the anal region. If you feel like trying it out on your man, it works wonders on the penis and testicles as well. But don’t let that limit you – feel free to try it everywhere you need a little pulsating pleasure. Since it’s worn on your finger, you can easily pinpoint where you want the sensation to go.

Types of Finger Vibrators

Just like any kind of vibrator, you can expect to find the finger version to come in variety of options – they’re available in plenty of different sizes, textures, and are made of both hard plastic and soft silicone. You can even buy a kit that comes with interchangeable tips so you can change up your pleasure – choose from raised nubs, prickly ticklers, or riveted edges (kind of like a screw). You can even get them in different colors, you know, so you can match them to your outfits!

How Do I use A Finger Vibrator?

Just slip it on your finger and turn it on – it’s just that easy. No lubrication is needed, but feel free to use some.

Finger vibes are also fun for couples. Give your partner an erotic massage and touch them all over their body. We’re sure you can find some tense areas that could use some sweet vibrations! Try using it on the nape of the neck, behind the knees and ears and around the ankles.

And since they are so compact, you can take them anywhere – on vacation, to the office or tucked away in your purse. Then, pull it out when needed.

How Do They Work?

These types of vibrators use typical standard AA battery, and usually, it only takes one to get them buzzing up a storm. Since they vary in size, some of the smaller ones use a watch battery, which can be purchased pretty much anywhere. If you use yours a lot, you may want to think about investing in some rechargeable batteries. Not only will it save you money in the long run, you’ll be doing your part for the environment will you’re getting off.

Fencing Lessons – The Bouting Lesson

The Bouting Lesson challenges the student to perform tactically correct offensive and defensive techniques at a high level of technical performance, speed, rhythm, and timing under conditions as close to those of the bout as possible in a lesson. It should develop the fencer’s confidence in his or her ability to apply the tactic under combat conditions.

The duration of the Bouting Lesson depends on the approach taken to the lesson. For bouting lessons taught as one continuous period of activity, a duration of 10-15 minutes would seem appropriate. Longer periods of activity than this may well result in loss of concentration and no increase in training value. However, if the intent is to actually simulate the stresses and timing in a bout, the length and pacing of the lesson should be similar to that of a bout, arguing for a 3-5 or 10 minute length, and a rhythm that includes time for the fencer to quickly analyze what happened and make mental corrections.

Bouting Lessons represent a high level of training and should be used with students who are competitive fencers at a period in the training cycle when participation in competition is near.

The Bouting Lesson moves from simple to complex, introduces changes of tempo, moves from relatively low speed to high speed with accelerating actions, and introduces an increasing numbers of actions. Throughout the Master should use footwork to set up tactical problems for the student and require the student to control the distance.

Lowest Level: initially the set of actions to be used by the student should be restricted to one attack, and one parry and riposte. The Master will specify the action to be used and the conditions under which it will be executed.

Intermediate Levels: the number of actions can be increased to two attacks, two parries, and one counterattack. The maximum number of actions should be limited, possibly not exceeding three to four.

Choice Reaction: the level of difficulty can be increased by introducing choice-reaction.

Advanced Level: now the fencer can execute any attack and any defense or counteroffense.

The lesson should be keyed to the use of the tactical system taught by the Master, and the actions and counteractions of the student should be consistent with the system. The Master may either use his preferred system or simulate actions to be expected by a fencer using a different tactical approach (this would be more appropriate at advanced levels of this lesson).

Corrections of mechanical technique should be minimized or avoided altogether. When corrections are made they should focus on:

(1) Maintaining the correct distance in the bout,

(2) Getting to the distance at which the fencer can successfully launch an attack, or

(3) The moment at which to launch an attack.

In many cases the Master’s actions provide the correction. For example, an attack launched at too great a distance and the wrong moment is either avoided by a step back or receives a parry and riposte to hit. Failure to maintain correct distance is indicated by a swift attack by the Master. A poorly timed counterattack is frustrated either by countertime or by swift completion of the attack.

The alert fencer will recognize the failures and self-correct. The fencer who is not alert, has difficulty recognizing opponent actions, or who is not applying a reasonable tactical system will continue to execute incorrectly. This then requires intervention after the second or third incorrect execution. Such correction should focus on helping the fencer recognize the situation that creates the error. For example, the Master might ask the student what action the student is performing and what action the Master is taking in response. This is followed by a question as to how to correct the situation. Often an intermediate or unfocused student will simply not recognize what the Master is doing, leading to the inability to correct and to frustration. Depending upon the intent of the lesson, proper response to this correction should either be (1) correct execution of the action, or (2) exploitation of the Master’s response to score the hit by compound action, second intention, countertime, etc. on the next repetition.

Bouting lessons represent a significant challenge for the Master. Now you must relinquish control to the student in the dimensions of technique, distance and timing, and tactical choice. At the same time you must maintain sufficient control to be able to create situations in which the student will correct his or her errors without normal feedback, and you must keep the lesson on track toward its objectives. A bouting lesson is not just fencing touches with the student; it is your best opportunity to teach under realistic conditions.

Approaching Fail Safe Horse Fencing

Although there is no such thing as “fail-safe”  fencing , there are steps you that you can take to ensure that your horses stays safely inside its pasture  fencing . While this article focuses primarily on horse  fencing , the advice applies also to other livestock species.

Consider the visibility of the  fencing  from the perspective of your livestock. Your horse needs to see his  fencing . Otherwise injuries may occur if it tries to access the pasture or breeding opportunity on the other side of the  fence . For example, wire  fences  are not so easily seen by a horse, but a white wood or PVC  fence  is easily recognized. Colorful streamer tape or ribbon attached to the  fence  every yard also makes the horse know where the  fence  perimeter is.

The height of your  fence  is also important. The  fencing  must be tall enough to prevent the horse from jumping over it. There must also be a horizontal bottom wire or board that is low enough to prevent livestock from going under . This is especially important for paddocks with baby horses. How high should horse  fencing  stand? It should be as tall as the nose on the tallest horse in the pasture plus two inches.

There are many types of horse  fencing  from which to choose for your farm installation. The more popular and successful types of horse  fencing  include white painted wood, electrified wire, and PVC  fences .

Electric  Fencing 

One the most economical types of horse  fencing  is high-tensile electrified  fencing . Popular forms of electric horse  fencing  are galvanized wire, electric polytape. In addition to the wire, you will also need to install posts, insulators, hardware, and a charger. I strongly recommend that you choose a solar  fence  charger [http://www.livestkfencing.com/solar.html] because it can operate in remote areas, where an electric outlet is unavailable. Plus you’re you’re using the free energy of the sun.

Wood  Fencing 

Wood  fencing , be it plain lumber board, slip board, or split rustic rail is another  fencing  option. Lumber prices vary among different regions, and wood is usually more expensive than wire  fencing . However a wood  fence  is very attractive, and it will add a nice extra value to your ranch or farm.

A wood  fence  requires some ongoing maintenance. You will need to paint or stain non-pressure treated wood on a regular basis, and you must replace broken and rotted boards. When installing a board  fence , nail the horizontal boards to the inside of the posts. This deters the boards coming off when a horse presses or rubs against them. Hammer the screws or ail heads flush to the boards. Finally as an extra precaution, you may need to install an electrified wire on the inside of the top wooden rail.

PVC Vinyl  Fencing 

PVC vinyl  fencing  products are now manufactured especially for horse  fencing . PVC horse  fencing  is very attractive requires little, or no, maintenance and upkeep, because it never needs painting and will not rot, rust, break, or splinter. In addition, it looks like a white wood  fence  from afar, thus adding to the value of your property.

Regular  Fence  Inspections

It is important to check all your  fences , especially after a big storm. Make sure that no rails or wires are down through which a horse might escape. Remove any tree limbs that have fallen on it, or shrubs and vines that have grown on it. Also check for protruding nails and splintered wood that could injure your horse. Replace all the damaged horizontal boards. Give each post a good tug to ensure that it is solidly in the ground. If a post is leaning out of true vertical, then straighten it back.

Eastbourne Accommodation

Eastbourne is one of the most visited places in Sussex. Located in eastern part of the county, it is frequented mostly by business travelers and tourists who love to explore history. The city is home of some of the most terrific hotels, which offer unmatched rates and uber-luxurious stay. One can make their reservations at hotels or inns or villas at Eastbourne through internet by placing filling their budget details, and thereafter it is not difficult to find a hotel according to one’s choice. It is very easy to book accommodation in Eastbourne but it is always advisable to do an advance booking in order to save holiday rush during summers.

Whether one wants to visit the Congress Theatre, the Eastbourne College or the Sovereign Harbor there are a lot of hotels that are near the sea-side, proving a calming and picturesque view of the ocean.

Among the popular hotels in this sea side town is the Best Western York house which is frequented by travelers. Not only its hospitality is warm, but the hotel is a great place to stay. Housed in an elegant Victorian property, Best Western is situated just 400 yards from the sea. With 87 rooms, the hotel offers a comfortable accommodation for those looking for a romantic getaway, a family holiday or even a business meeting. All the rooms have contemporary amenities that include internet, a phone, steam and sauna bath and outdoor and indoor swimming pool. The hotel is also easy within the reach of shopping centers and malls. Priced at 50 pounds per room per night, Best Western is an amazing place to stay in Eastbourne.

Accommodation at Eastbourne also includes the Atlanta Guest House, located on the beach. Its beautiful setting makes it one of the most desired lodgings in the city. Atlanta has big guestrooms along with most of the basic amenities, which also including iron boards and hair dryers for the guests. A complimentary breakfast is also served in Atlanta and the per night room charges begin from 50 pounds.

Also, the Bay Lodge is a bed and breakfast, among the most popular in Eastbourne. It’s a traditional family run guest house, situated along the coast, and has all the modern facilities that a hotel has. A luxurious family room, along with stylishly decorated guestrooms boats of Bay Lodge’s opulence. The hotel has 12 guestrooms, a bar and a restaurant serving sumptuous meals. Also, it has free wireless internet, free parking, and a movie theatre. A single night at Bay Lodge costs at 60 pounds.

Chatsworth Hotel, also situated on the seafront of Eastbourne, is a four-star amazing accommodation which has the guests go ga-ga over its decorations. It boasts of 45 tastefully done suites, a beautiful garden terrace with some breathtaking flowers, a swimming pool, a popular bar and restaurant and of course a casino too. Built in 1876, Chatsworth Hotel is an incredible piece of architecture which has long alleys, and Victorian style architecture to boast of. Priced at 100 pounds per night, the hotel takes one to the old-world English charm, which Eastbourne rightly boasts of.

Colonial Williamsburg Virginia

Fifes and drums festivals are among the many top tourist attractions to watch out for when visiting historic colonial Williamsburg, Virginia. The military band follows the tradition begun in 1775, when colonists battled the British in a war for American independence. Fifers and drummers ages ten to eighteen were recruited to boost the morale of marching soldiers. To this day, members of the Fifes and Drums Corps, both girls and boys, start practicing at age ten and stay on the course until they are eighteen.

The town has successfully preserved many historic buildings. The restored and reconstructed buildings account for most of the important sites in Virginian history–more than 500 of them. The work was facilitated by hundreds of archaeologists, historians, and researchers. Much of the investment came from the government and generous wealthy benefactors. And this is to be expected, as Williamsburg played an important role in the shaping of the nation’s history and the values it upholds to this day.

With fully-restored houses, hotels, and parks, Williamsburg has gained back its colonial landscape that attracts tourists interested in the beginnings of American history and democracy. The tours are authenticated programs, ensuring that historical facts are preserved and passed on.

But colonial Williamsburg is not only a destination for tourists on historical trips. Williamsburg is also a great dining and shopping destination. The popular Historic Triangle is one of the best hubs of the local economy.

The next time you plan a vacation, head to colonial Williamsburg and travel back in time to see how the great founding fathers lived. Experience how history unfolded through the town’s many festivals, plays, and tour packages of historic sites. Lodging can be easily arranged through online or phone reservations.

How To Choose The Right Bearings: Industrial Bearings And More

Producing food products is a demanding science. All of the industrial supplies and equipment that are used to manufacture foodstuff has to meet stringent requirements of quality and sanitation. When it comes to industrial bearings, the food industry has to look at unique options. For instance, would you want lubricating oil to contaminate food on the production line? Or what if bacteria were to grow in a machine’s housing? Consumers would be put off to say the least.

While industrial bearings have to be carefully chosen in terms of cleanliness and sanitation, they also have to be evaluated in terms of strength, hardness, durability, and cost. It takes a special set of materials that can meet all of those criteria.

Choosing Industrial Bearings And Inserts

The balls and rings themselves have to be made from high performance materials; regular iron will not meet the required FDA and USDA standards. A common choice within industry is to use stainless steel balls and rings. They combine high tensile strength with good corrosion resistance and will not contaminate food. However, they are one of the most expensive options, so other materials have been designed as balls as well.

Plastic blends and can be utilized by themselves or with stainless steel, especially in plain or non-rolled style industrial bearings. Coated iron is a less expensive option as well. A chrome coating will improve the balls’ hardness and corrosion resistance and increase their durability. Zinc coatings are also common for improving corrosion resistance and preventing contamination.

Housing Materials

Industrial supplies, like machine housings, also face strict standards since they will come into contact with food products during the production process. In general, housings have to be smooth surfaces to facilitate cleaning and help prevent the buildup of germs and bacteria that can occur in rough or porous materials. Polished housings are very common, and there are also anti-microbial coatings that can help protect industrial supplies and housings.

When considering materials of construction, housings are also typically stainless. The combination of strength, durability, and corrosion resistance is required. Industrial supplies in the food industry will be subjected to acidic and caustic wash downs and cleanings, along with oils and other organic materials from the ingredients themselves.

Again, less expensive options are available. Plastic and polymer blends are also chemically inert and will resist cleaning solutions and food products. Plastics can be created with high tensile strengths and smooth surfaces. Coated iron is also applicable for housings. A nickel or Teflon coating will go a long way to preventing corrosion and contamination.

Industrial Bearings And Lubrication

Using conventional oils and lubricants is clearly forbidden in the food processing industry. Lubricant contamination will spoil food, create a horrible taste, and is toxic if consumed. Always use FDA and USDA-approved greases for the food industry. These lubricants are called ‘H1’s’ and are free from odors and tastes and are nontoxic if any contamination occurs with the food being processed. H1 is also formulated to stand up to common food grade chemical washes and solutions used to clean industrial supplies.

Always keep industrial bearings well lubricated; this rule doesn’t change for the food industry. Purging and refilling lubrication reservoirs will also help to prevent cross contamination. If a particular machine is difficult to service, solid polymer lubricants can be employed. These solid strips slowly release grease while the industrial bearings are in operation to keep the system lubricated. This way, the lubricant can be refilled during outages and turnarounds when there is more time to maintain a particular machine.

Completing The Assembly And Other Supplies

There are some applications in food processing that require specialty seals as well. When high or low temperatures are used, such as during cooking or freezing, silicone materials will maintain a tight seal during those temperature changes.

For other parts of the assembly, stainless steel is still common. In particular, cages are typically stainless steel, or nylon to save on expenses. Set screws and grease fittings should be stainless as well. Flingers can be either stainless steel or iron and all collars should be corrosion resistant as well.

Mounted industrial bearings with graphite separators are also ideal for high or low temperature applications. The graphite material will act as a further lubricant at temperatures where other greases would fail. This type will increase service life while lowering maintenance costs in extreme temperature applications.

Overall, choosing the right industrial bearings and other supplies for the food industry only requires a little extra effort, but it goes a long way to ensuring clean meals for consumers.

All About Choosing Rebar and Rebar Bending Machinery

Concrete reinforcing steel is commonly known as rebar and is used in concrete and masonry structures. It is usually formed from carbon steel and is given ridges for better mechanical anchoring into the concrete. The ridges help transfer the load between concrete and steel. Concrete provides the material’s compressive strength, while steel, in the form of embedded reinforcing bars, provides tensile strength. These two materials used together stop a concrete block from crumbling. If you recall the devastation of the last large earthquake in Mexico City it was the new buildings that collapsed while the older structures endured. This is because the new buildings didn’t use rebar, but only smooth solid bar. There was no compression strength given to the concrete.

Rebar is measured in fractions of 1/8 increments. They range from #3 bar up to #18 bar. So, a #4 bar is 4/8 or ½” in diameter and a #8 bar is 1″ in diameter. Rebar is available in different grades and specifications that vary in yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, chemical composition, and percentage of elongation.

The grade designation is equal to the minimum yield strength of the bar. For example, grade 40 rebar has a minimum yield strength of 40ksi, grade 60 a minimum yield of 60ksi, and grade 75 a minimum yield of 75ksi. Most rebar used for concrete construction is grade 60. For residential rebar use, which is mostly for sidewalks and low stress concrete construction, grade 40 is used. We find grade 75 used in power plants, bridges, and other heavy duty concrete products.

Since rebar generally comes in 20′ length sticks there must be a way to fabricate these bars. By this we mean shearing and bending to conform to the engineers drawings. Rebar shears and benders come in a multitude of sizes. The capacities are related to the bar size as mentioned above. If a residential concrete mason works with #3 through #6 bar they will usually source a machine that can cut and bend #8 bar as sometimes they will process more than one bar at a time in order to speed up production, so the extra capacity is very helpful.

For heavy concrete construction, it is even more important to determine the correct capacity when selecting the equipment. The bar diameter used when erecting buildings and bridges increases as does the grade of steel, requiring machines of heavier capacity. It is very important to work with a supplier who is knowledgeable and experienced and will assist you in determining the correct capacity of the machine for your application.

Power Drills Buyer’s Guide

Take the hard work out of DO-IT-YOURSELF with a good drill.

It could be on of the most diverse and very useful tools you buy.

Proper drill will save time during your work and make easy drilling holes into metal, wood, concrete etc., as well as drive screws and bolts.

It is useful getting acquaint with a drill’s main feature before you buy, so you could choose the best one.

I. Types

  1. Standard Drills
  2. Hammer Drills
  3. Screw Guns

II. Cordless drills

  1. Cord or Cordless? Pros and Cons
  2. The main features
  3. Power and Battery

III. Drill Shapes

IV. Variable speed

V. Torque

VI. Other features to look out for

VII. Power rating

VIII. Hammer action

IX. Chuck type

TYPES

Standard Drills

Standard electric rotary drills designed for drilling metal and wood. This type of drill is normally small and compact. Motor sizes range from around 500 watts. The lower wattage motors are OK for drilling small holes or minimal use, the more powerful motored machines will cope with larger size holes and more frequent use. The chuck size is another thing to check, the smaller drills have a chuck which will only accept drill bits up to 10mm diameter the larger chuck size is 13mm.

Hammer Drills

The hammer drill is similar to a standard electric drill, with the exception that it is provided with a hammer action for drilling masonry. The hammer action may be engaged or disengaged as required.

The hammer action is cheap but delicate. It uses two cam plates to make the chuck accelerate towards the work. However because of the relative masses of the chuck+bit and the remainder of the drill the energy transfer is inefficient and will fail to penetrate harder materials and vibrates the operators hand. The cams wear quickly.

Compare this to a rotary/pneumatic hammer drill where just the bit is accelerated to the work. They have relatively little vibration and penetrate most building materials. It feels as though the work is sucking the bit inwards.

Large cam hammer drills, especially transverse motor, are crude in their action. The energy delivered in each stroke is highly variable. The cheaper drill will smash its way through the work and vibrate the surroundings, this can cause lots of collateral damage. A good SDS drill will gently pulverize the work material just in front of the bit and glide into the hole without any “fuss”.

However there is a big difference in cost. In the UK typically £12-40 for a cam hammer and £100 up for a rotary/pneumatic. For light DIY use they are fine.

Screw Guns

These Electric Screwdrivers are made specifically for applying screws and hexagon headed Tek Screw to plasterboard and metal cladding. The drywall screws are designed purely for plasterboard fixing. The electric screwdriver uses a specially designed chuck to self guide the specifically designed fixings that feature widely spaced threads to ensure good grip. This is achieved by the unique collar on this type of electric screwdriver.

Some electric screwdrivers are able to use Collated Screws which provides auto-loading of screws which are loaded into the tool on a strip which is then fed onto the bit.

Drill press

A drill press (also known as pedestal drill, pillar drill, or bench drill) is a fixed style of drill that may be mounted on a stand or bolted to the floor or workbench. A drill press consists of a base, column (or pillar), table, spindle (or quill), and drill head, usually driven by an induction motor. The head has a set of handles (usually 3) radiating from a central hub that, when turned, move the spindle and chuck vertically, parallel to the axis of the column. The table can be adjusted vertically and is generally moved by a rack and pinion; however, some older models rely on the operator to lift and re-clamp the table in position. The table may also be offset from the spindle’s axis and in some cases rotated to a position perpendicular to the column. The size of a drill press is typically measured in terms of swing. Swing is defined as twice the throat distance, which is the distance from the center of the spindle to the closest edge of the pillar. For example, a 16-inch drill press will have an 8-inch throat distance.

A drill press has a number of advantages over a hand-held drill:

less effort is required to apply the drill to the workpiece. The movement of the chuck and spindle is by a lever working on a rack and pinion, which gives the operator considerable mechanical advantage.

the table allows a vise or clamp to position and lock the work in place making the operation secure.

the angle of the spindle is fixed in relation to the table, allowing holes to be drilled accurately and repetitively.

Speed change is achieved by manually moving a belt across a stepped pulley arrangement. Some drill presses add a third stepped pulley to increase the speed range. Modern drill presses can, however, use a variable-speed motor in conjunction with the stepped-pulley system; a few older drill presses, on the other hand, have a sort of traction-based continuously variable transmission for wide ranges of chuck speeds instead, which can be changed while the machine is running.

CORDLESS DRILLS

A cordless drill is a type of electric drill which uses rechargeable batteries. These drills are available with similar features to an AC mains-powered drill. They are available in the hammer drill configuration and most also have a clutch setting which allows them to be used for driving screws.

For continuous use, a worker will have one or more spare battery packs charging while drilling, so that he or she can quickly swap them, instead of having to wait several hours during recharges.

Early cordless drills started with interchangeable 7.2V battery packs, and over the years the battery voltage has been increased to 18V, and higher, allowing these tools to produce as much torque as many mains-powered drills. The drawback of most current models is the use of nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, which develop a memory effect or internal short circuits due to dendrite growth, severely limiting their useful life, and posing a hazardous materials disposal problem. Drill manufacturers are now introducing lithium ion batteries, most notably DEWALT.

The main advantages are lack of memory effect and very short charging time. Instead of charging a tool for an hour to get 20 minutes of use, 20 minutes of charge can run the tool for an hour. Lithium-ion batteries also have a constant discharge rate. The power output remains constant until the battery is depleted, something that nickel-cadmium batteries also lack, and which makes the tool much more versatile. Lithium-ion batteries also hold a charge for a significantly longer time than nickel-cadmium batteries, about 2 years if not used, vs. around 4 months for a nickel-cadmium battery.

CORD OR CORDLESS. Pros and Cons

I. Corded Drills

  1. Pack the most power
  2. Most durable
  3. Can handle mixing mud, boring holes, and drilling concrete
  4. Usually unnecessary for most homeowners

II. Cordless Power Drills

  1. Easily transported and used
  2. Less power and run time restricted by battery life
  3. Recharging may take several hours
  4. Higher voltage means more power, but also more weight
  5. Newer technology has improved cordless drills; most are now strong enough for many tasks previously out of their league

Cordless drill:

  • Lightweight, easy to handle and comfortable to use
  • Safer to work with as there’s no trailing cord
  • More versatile – can access more tricky to get to places and can be used anywhere, there’s no restriction on distance or electricity supply
  • Batteries can be interchanged for continuous power
  • Some models double up as an electric screwdriver
  • A ‘quick charge’ feature is handy if you’ve forgotten to charge it in advance
  • Not as much power as a corded model and has limited battery life
  • You need to remember to charge the battery before use
  • Some are not capable of drilling through masonry
  • Corded drill:

  • More power and torque
  • Always ready to use and provides continuous power
  • May have extra features not available on a cordless model
  • Models tend to be heavier than cordless models
  • The cord can be restrictive and intrusive
  • You’re reliant on a nearby electricity socket
  • THE MAIN FEATURES

    Top 10 points to look for:

    Speed-range switch, generally 2 ratios, both high and low, normally selected by changing mechanical gearing. High is for drilling applications whilst low range is reserved for driving screws. Look out for the widest range between the two settings

    Look for a reliable motor, some models have external brushes for easy changing – when the brushes wear down you can easily change them for new ones, some bosch models have this feature ,it is only of use if you are uning your cordless drill on a daily basis.

    Forward/reverse switch: This should be easy to operate with either your thumb or trigger finger – again this is a standard feature but look for one which is easy to operate.

    Hand grip: Texture and contoured, should aid your grip, some Porter and Cable cordless drills have padded grips which you can choose to match your hand size – useful after an 8 hour shift.

    Voltage: a higher voltage means more drilling power but it can also mean more weight – don’t buy a drill you won’t need, 12 volt drills are powerful enough for most DIY users, bigger models just weigh more so think carefully about what you will be using the drill for.

    Batteries: Two are better than one. New NiMH batteries tend to be better because they deliver more charge and last longer.

    Trigger: Make sure your index finger fits around it comfortably when gripping the drill, Variable speed offers the greatest control.

    Chuck jaws: The maximum chuck capacity on most drills is 3/8 inches. Although some 14.4 and 18V drills can handle 1/2-inch-diameter bits, these have a 1/2inch chuck.

    Keyless chuck: Virtually a standard fitting today, hand-turn it to open and close the chuck jaws. The keyless chuck can grip any screwdriver bit or drill bit securely.

    Clutch: Setting the clutch gives you greater control of the depth to which screws are driven.

    POWER AND BATTERY

    Batteries: A cordless drill is only as good as its battery. Make sure the battery has enough run time to help you power through all your tasks. For more demanding applications, look for a drill that comes with a second battery or purchase an additional one. Chargers can take several hours to fully recharge a battery, so bear that in mind when planning your work schedule. If you need a faster recharge, look for a “smart” charger. Smart chargers work quickly and often reduce charge as the battery becomes full to avoid overcharging to extend the life of the battery. Look for nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH) and lithium-ion batteries, as they are slightly smaller and tend to have a longer run time.

    Charge a second battery as you work to avoid mid-job downtime

    Smart chargers use fans to reduce heat and decrease recharging time

    NiMH batteries are easier and less hazardous to dispose of than other types

    First thing when you look at a good cordless drill will be Volts of the the battery pack. To simplify it – the more Volts your cordless drill has – the faster the motor spins – the more torque you will get. Unfortunately – the more volts your cordless drills have – the heavier they get (if you ever worked with a 18 Volt drill over a longer period of time – you will know what I am talking about).

    Similar important as the Volts of your battery are the Ampere. Measured in Ah (Ampere per hour) it gives you an idea of how long a battery will last. You can have a 12 Volts battery with 1.8 Ah and with 2.4 Ah. Obviously both batteries should give you the same power initially, but the 2.4 Ah will last 30% longer. Important if you use cordless drills for heavy duty work.

    Looking at Volts and Ampere, you should also understand the basic types of battery packs currently available on the market. The (older) Standard Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery packs are cheaper but do not give you much Ah as the newer Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery packs. The Ni-MH packs also give you an additional advantage in recharging, as the do not loose power after being recharged many many times (no-memory effect). Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH) battery packs are usually more expensive, but definitely worth it’s money.

    As batteries changed improved over the past years most manufacturers offer a wide range of power packs. Finding the right Dewalt or Makita batteries can therefore sometimes be a bit of a challenge.

    The higher the voltage, the more power (9.6-28V) and weight (3-10 lb) the drill will possess. Most household jobs will be fine with a 13.2 volt or 14.4 volt battery, but an 18 volt couldn’t hurt. Most 9.6V drills might be sufficient for home jobs, but may lack the needed torque you find in a 14.4V drill — which is usually not significantly more in price. Go with at least a 14.4V. For tough jobs and doing masonry, a more powerful 24 or 28 volt battery is recommended.

    Rechargeable drill batteries should last you about five years, or roughly 500 charges, though with frequent use you might need to replace it sooner. They can be pricey ($50-$80) so if your drill was only $100 or less, you might want to consider just buying a brand new drill. If you have a higher end drill, it’s probably more economical to buy a replacement battery.

    DRILL SHAPES

    Pistol Grip Drills

    Are held like a pistol.

    Doesn’t that feel powerful?

    T-Handle Drills

    Are most popular.

    Shaped like a T for best balance.

    Right Angle Drills

    Are barrel-less.

    The bit extends from the base at a right angle.

    TORQUE

    Drill price reflects a number of features, including torque. Torque, which is measured in foot-pounds, is the drill’s maximum amount of turning force. Some drills have an adjustable clutch with different torque settings for different applications.

    Common features you’ll want in a cordless or corded drill are electric brakes, which stops the drill chuck as soon as you release the trigger, and keyless chucks.

    OTHER FEATURES TO LOOK OUT FOR

    Keyless Chuck: The chuck holds the drill bit in place, and keyless chucks allow you to conveniently change bits without having to use a separate key to unlock and replace.

    Auxiliary Handle: Drills with side handles provide greater control and two-handed operation. These auxiliary handles rotate, enabling you to find the ideal angle and position from which to work.

    Multiple Clutch Settings: Cordless drills often feature a clutch adjustment ring, which may have anywhere from two to twenty-four settings. Once you know the depth and torque needed on a particular surface, set the clutch accordingly to ensure consistent results and reduce the instance of wrist snap.

    Electronic Brake: This feature causes the drill to stop immediately when you stop squeezing the trigger, preventing you from overdriving or stripping screws.

    Variable Speed and Reversing: Many drills offer multiple speed settings, allowing you to choose the right one for the job at hand, and most have a reverse feature that allows you to remove screws and other fasteners.

    Heat Shields and Cooling Fans: These features protect the drill from overheating, enabling longer, more efficient periods of use.

    Women’s Board Shorts

    Board shorts were originally the most popular choice of swimming attire for men but they have increasingly become all the rage for women too, and not just for female surfers. The female surfers love them for all the reasons male surfers love them, they are easy to wear around the beach, quick drying for going in and out of the water, they are light to wear in the heat, they allow you to move freely which is necessary on the board, and they look fabulous.

    Are women’s boardshorts different to men’s board shorts?

    Women’s board shorts are the same as men’s boardshorts and they are different as well. The style of women’s board shorts can be found in the standard long length as the men’s but they also available in a short length. These is great because it gives the girls a choice to what style they prefer, usually with women’s clothing the options are always girl-y-fied but with board shorts you can wear exactly what the boys wear but you also have the choice to show off your legs as well.

    Who makes women’s board shorts?

    Men’s board shorts were the first to make a killing in the market due to the more male surfers, but with the female surfer population increasing they were quick to recognize the open market for a range of female board shorts. Roxy was the first brand to open up a range exclusively for female surfers including board shorts and general surf wear in the 1990’s. From here the style of the surfer for girls really hit the world by storm and not only surfers were wearing the boar shorts but every girl on the beach or around the pool were wearing them as well. The funky designs, and casual comfort make them a popular choice for all women.

    What styles of board shorts are available for women?

    The range of styles and designs of boar shorts for women is massive, literally, any colour, any style, any design, you can think of and the board short exists. They are available in plain colours, different patterns, different shapes and sizes, different lengths, draw string or elastic, pockets or no pockets and so much more. Have a shop around and try some styles on to see what you prefer and what feels comfortable for you.

    Screen Porch Windows – An Easy Option

    Looking for a good screen porch DIY idea? Here is one that is easy and has an added bonus -screen porch windows. Porch windows are custom made to fit your existing porch or if you already have a screen porch, use them to create a three season porch.

    Better than a glass option, screen porch windows do not need additional framing which will reduce your overall installation cost. Install them yourself or hire a contractor. Just accurately measure the distance between your existing framing (no matter the size) and the panels install easily. You can have floor to ceiling panoramic viewing.

    Made from 10-mil vinyl these transparent glazed panels are extremely flexible and will not break or shatter like glass. This makes it ideal for families with children and pets. No need to worry about someone accidentally running into windows. If distorted, they quickly return to their original shape.

    They come in two track and vertical four track options. The four track option glides up and down to give you 75% of your opening in ventilation compared to 50% or less for a standard glass window. Another convenient feature is that you can adjust the four track panels in a variety of ways to capture the breeze or keep the rain out. The horizontal panels give you full air flow throughout your screened porch.

    Want privacy? Screen porch windows come in tints to allow you visibility but restrict unwanted viewing from the exterior. This also helps protect your furniture from fading and reduces heat and glare.

    Maintenance is so easy also. The panels tilt for easy cleaning and the aluminum framing only requires a mild soap and water rinse occasionally.

    Storage is not an issue. Open the panels in summer to catch the breeze and close them in the cooler months; no additional storage is required.

    And because size is not an issue, you can even enclose your garage with these windows! This convenient option allows you to convert your garage or larger structure into a screened or three season room. Think about the possibilities.

    Definitely investigate this window option if you are thinking of converting your existing porch or even your screen porch into a three season room. They make it an easy and relatively inexpensive option to standard glass windows without the hassles of storage, framing, and safety.