Willis Newton Interview – 1979

Willis Newton was the longest living Texas outlaw who robbed more than 80 banks and trains. He and his outlaw gang robbed more than Jessie James, the Daltons, and all of the rest of the Old West outlaws-combined. Their biggest haul occurred in 1924 when they robbed a train outside of Rondout, Illinois-getting away with $ 3,000,000. They still hold the record for the biggest train robbery in US history.

In 1979, I interviewed Willis Newton at his home in Uvalde, Texas. A few months later the outlaw died at age 90.

When I stepped up and knocked on Willis Newton's door there was no response. After a minute I heard a raspy growl, "It's open. Come on in."

Stepping inside the rundown clapboard house with the unkempt yard, I saw a small, with looking looking old man glaring at me from his rocking chair. "What the hell do you want?"

"Mr. Newton, I am the guy that called you yesterday and wanted to ask you some questions."

"I is not talking to no one about my life.

I knew then that doing an interview with the old outlaw was going to be a tough nut to crack. As best I could, I reminded him of our phone conversation on the previous day when I asked him to provide me with some details on how to rob a bank or a train. I told him I was writing a paperback novel (which was true) and that I needed some help in depicting a factual description of how the robberies took place (which was also true). After a few moments of consideration, he gestured to a chair in the small living room and agreed to answer "just a few questions."

In contrast to the chilly weather outside, it was hot and stuffy in his cluttered living room-being heated by a small gas wall heater. I quickly unloaded my tape recorder and after a brief conversation with Willis, handed him the microphone. I asked him how to stage a bank hold up and what was involved in robbing a train. Then like turning on a wind-up toy, Willis essentially started telling me his life's story. From time to time, I managed to get in additional questions but for the most part he rattled off the well-behaved accounts of his life in machine gun fashion-rationalizing everything he had done, blaming others for his impersonations, and repeatedly claiming that he had only stolen from "other thieves."

I had no idea what to expect when I stepped into his little house that day but what I encountered was the quintessence of the criminal mind. Everything he had done was justified by outside forces, "Nobody ever give me anything. All I ever got was hell!" As I listened in rapt attention, he sat center stage speaking in a high-pitched raspy voice, pontificating on an assortment of subjects of his choosing. Lacing his speech with large quantities of profanities, vulgarities and racial slurs, Willis was quite articulate in telling his stories – a master of fractured grammar. At times he would slip into mythological story telling mode where he would talk of killing rabbits and camping out while on the run from lawmen. Then with a little prodding he would return to the basic facts of his story.

In the process, he told me how he was raised as a child and how he was first arrested for a crime "that they knew I did not do." He went into detail about his first bank holdup, how he "greased" a safe with nitroglycerine, robbed trains, and evaded the lawmen that came after him. Willis described the Texas bank robberies in Boerne, San Marcos, New Braunfels, and Hondo (two in one night). He also related the double bank robbery in Spencer, Indiana and proceeded to give accounts of bank robberies in a multitude of other states.

He often recounted the events of the Toronto Bank Clearing House robbery in 1923 and finally the great train robbery outside of Rondout, Illinois, where he and his brothers got away with $ 3,000,000 in cash, jewelry, and bonds. He went into great detail about the beatings he and his brothers took from the Chicago police when they were later captured. As he told the story his face reddened and his voice rose to a pitched screech until he had to pause to catch his breath. Then lowering his voice he described how he managed to negotiate a crafty deal with a postal inspector for reduced prison sentences for himself and his brothers by revealing where the loot was hidden.

He told about his prison years at Leavenworth and his illegal businesses he ran in Tulsa, Oklahoma, after he got out of prison in 1929. He complained bitterly about being sent back to prison in McAlester, Oklahoma, for a bank robbery "they knew I did not do, "in Medford.

After returning to Uvalde, Texas, following his release from prison, Willis swore that he "never had no trouble with the law after that." When I asked him about his elderly brother's botched bank robbery in Rowena, Texas, in 1968, he exploded, "They tried to get me as the get-away driver but hell, I was in Laredo, over 400 miles away! I had 12 Witnesses that said I was there the night old Doc and RC got done. "

At the end of the interview, I asked him to comment on the Rondout loot buried in Texas by his brother, Jess. He said he knew where it was buried-just not exactly where because "Jess was whiskey-drunk when he hid it." Looking at the frail aged man dressed in a frayed union suit and a pair of stained pants, Willis did not appear to have any loot left of any of his robberies; although, locally it was rumored that from time to time he would spend money that appeared to have been printed during the '20s or' 30s.

Finally, I turned off the tape recorder and thanked him for helping me with the details I needed for my paperback Western. Returning to my car, my mind was awhirl with the stories I had just heard. The thought of writing a book on the old outlaw had never crossed my mind and I was very sincere in telling him I was a fiction writer and not a biographer. But what a story he told!

The following week I put the cassette tapes in a safety deposit box thinking the information might be useful for a future writing project. A few years later, I transcribed the tapes, added my notes and filed the interview away. Then while working on another book I came across the interview file and knew I had to write his story-but the complete story, not just what Willis had told me in the interview. As I found out this was a much bigger project than I had anticipated. I tracked down several hundred newspaper and magazine articles on Willis and his brothers, court records and police reports. Then, where I could, I interviewed the few remaining people who actually knew and had first-hand knowledge of Willis Newton.

Along the way, I unearthed some startling evidence that dispelled the myth that Willis and his brothers had never killed anyone in the commission of their numerous crimes. This is the first time that this fact has been brought to light.

When I had finished the research, I knew I could write his story. With some minor editing, culling some of the blatant racial references and over abundances of profanities, I tried to keep his words to me intact. I do not espouse demeaning racial terms regarding any ethnicity of people-whether it is the Irish, Jewish, Hispanic, African, Italian, or other deprecated populaces.

In a few instances, I had to structure his accounts for clarity. He spoke in a rapid fire jailhouse prose using a wide range of criminal jargon that sometimes was difficult to follow. Wherever possible I strove to retain his colorful phraseology, using the common expressions of the day.

In writing the Willis Newton book, I omitted most of his repeated self-justification for his actions in which he took great pains to paint himself as a gallant criminal-in the Robin Hood vein. It is true that he robbed from the rich but he got very little to the poor. In a few of his accounts, he did describe giving the "hard money" (silver coin) to some poor and downtrodden farmer that had helped him. In addition, he repeated the idea that he never meant to harm anyone in the robberies; "all we wanted was the money." There is no doubt that Willis Newton was shaped and stamped by the rough economic conditions of the southwest in the late 1890s and early twenty century. Yet at the same time, there were hundreds of thousands of other people that strived to work hard and become solid citizens of their communities. It was his choice to go after the "easy money."

In poring over hundreds of newspaper reports and magazine articles, I was stuck with how much of the story varied with what Willis had told me, sometimes substantively. At the same time I found that the news, in their rush to get their story out, misspelled names, got their facts wrong, under or estimated estimated dollars of loot taken, and had a very difficult time keeping the Newton brothers' names straight -Willis and Wylie (aka Willie or Doc) deal with them fits.

A few weeks before Willis Newton died, he was admitted to the hospital in Uvalde, Texas for tests on a multitude of physical problems. After he had been there a few days, I went by his room and visited the old outlaw. I knocked on his door and he managed a weak, "Come on in."

When I entered his room, I saw a very emaciated version of what I had seen in March of that year. Rail thin and covered with a crimson rash on his legs, Willis cocked his head sideways and demanded, "Who are you?"

I politely reminded him that we had talked at his home earlier and that he had given me advice on robbing banks and trains. He nodded his head and stared up at the ceiling, "Yeah, I remember now."

I told him I was sorry to see him ailing and in pain. He replied by saying, "Yeah, I'm headed to the bar ditch. got my mind. Only crazy people kill themselves but I is not crazy. "

Realizing that his time was about up I asked him if he had any regrets or was sorry for anything he had done in his life. He cocked his head sideways and raised his head up off of the pillow glaring at me. "Hell no," he screeched at me. "I've still been doing them things but my body's done played out on me. If I was 20 years younger, I'd be running guns across the border into Mexico and bringing drugs back! is not ashamed of anything I done! "

So much for contrition and redemption.

I did not know how to respond and remained quiet. After a moment he stared at the ceiling again and added, "The only thing I'm sorry about is that $ 200,000 those who left in that bank when they got spooked. getting out before we get caught. ' Hell, we left $ 200,000 just sitting there on that counter.

The next day they moved Willis to a hospital in San Antonio where he died on August 22, 1979. Fierce and defiant to the bitter end he died the way he had lived-as an outlaw.

During my 1979 interview with Willis he went into great detail about the times he had spent in jail or prison. In describing his first prison time he said, "I was jailed for 22 months and 26 days and then sent to Rusk (prison) for two years. ! " Then over the years he spent over 20 years incarcerated in some type of penal confinement. I never got to ask him the question: was it worth it?

My guess the answer would have been a resounding, "Hell yes!"

Spending a fourth of your 90 years of life behind bars severely seems worth it to me.

As I left Willis Newton's hospital room for the last time I spotted his physician who was a personal friend of mine. I asked him about Willis' condition and he confirmed what I had been told by the dying man. Then with a twinkle in his eye he asked if I wanted to see an X-ray of Willis' spine.

Sure, I had no idea what to expect.

We went to a nearby viewing room and he slapped a film on the lighted viewing board. There was a very distinct spot located near the spinal column. "That's a German Luger slug he's been carrying around for about 30 years. Some old boy shot him up in Oklahoma."

As I gazed at the image, the physician concluded by saying, "And destroyed if that old outlaw is not going to be buried with it!"

I guess you could say it was a fitting eology-of sorts.

Formula for Personal Change

Formula for Change:

Step One:

Assessment of the situation – what is true now & what are the desired goals or results

Here is the start. What is it that you want to be different? You need to discover and be very specific about what is the current situation and how do you want it to be different. To do this, use your Coach’s assessment and gather input from all interested and involved parties.

Step Two:

Learning – techniques, tools, etc.

Discover what you need to learn and how to learn it. To do this you need to talk with people. A mentor relationship may be the key to new ideas. Coaching may provide the push. Peers may have advise, opinions, or ideas that you need. Classes, books, or articles may help.

Step Three:

Practice – take action & pay attention

This is a key. You need to take action to have change come about. It does not happen by itself. Use the familiar settings to practice. Or look for new settings to try out your change.

Step Four:

Feedback – score results against goals

Always utilize your own self-analysis – check in with your self right after your practice to see if you obtained the desired results. Independent observers can also be helpful. Pick someone you trust and whose opinion you value and ask them to observe you. Then afterward ask for their feedback. Also important is to utilize your Coach’s observations and feedback.

Now based upon results you obtain and feedback, go back to either more Learning and/or more Practice. Do not be hard on yourself and keep this cycle up until you obtain your goal.

Why You Need to Shock Your Pool

Shocking your pool is Step 2 in good pool care.

Shocking is as important as regular sanitizing with chlorine (step 1) and adding algaecide (step 3). All pools need to be parked on a regular, weekly or bi-weekly basis. Period.

Shocking your pool weekly helps rid the pool of organic & organic wastes such as sweat, cosmetics, suntan lotions, body oils, urine, contaminants brought in by rain or wind, bird droppings (most pools are outside, exposed to the surrounding air) dead bugs and small animals that "visit" your pool or even make up water. Proper shocking helps ensure that the sanitizer (chlorine) can concentrate on killing bacteria & algae rather than having to fight these other foreign materials.

When a pool is properly shocked, the pool stays cleaner, more sparkling, is less sooner to algae blooms and cloudy water. An added bonus is that you will use LESS chlorine over the course of the average swimming season. Shocking should be done at least every week or 2 weeks from pool opening to pool closing depending on use & current conditions.

Even pools using other sanitizing systems such as bromine, ionizers, salt generators (chlorine is still being produced), biguanides such as Arch Chemical Baquacil® or BioGuard® Soft Swim® must use the appropriate shock treatments to oxidize swimmer and environmental wastes on a regular , routine basis following the particular manufacturer's instructions.

But there's more to it! Are you shocking, trying to reach "break-point" chlorination or curing a chlorine demand? Let's take a closer look.

Regular Shocking.

"Regular Shocking" is just that. The pool is otherwise clean & clear. Algae is under control. There is no haze to the water. When you test the water (done twice each week), the Total Chlorine is the same as the Free Available Chlorine (FAC) – when using a DPD test kit. There are no Chloramines (chlorine combined with swimmer and organic waste) present.

Regular shocking should be done once every one to 2 weeks from the time you open the pool until closing or winterizing.

Regular shocking oxidizes swimmer and organic wastes that accumulate in the pool water over time. These wastes include sweat, urine, lotions, cosmetics, "stuff" that is introduced from the wind & rain. More recently, there is a concern for "stuff" or wastes that are bought in from normal "top offs" of municipal (tap) water or well water.

These wastes contribute to red, irritated eyes, hazy water, algae growth, and water that smells like it has "too much" chlorine. Actually there is not enough FAC. Shocking helps to "re-chlorinate" the chlorine. A properly treated chlorine pool should smell fresh and be sparkling in appearance.

Mono-persulfate shocks are OK to use from time to time to oxidize wastes, but chlorine shocks such as Cal-hypo or lithium are the preferred product. Liquid shocks? Sorry, but they are just not strong enough (11% versus about 50% available chlorine) to do a thorough job. Household bleach? Save it for the clothes in the laundry! Would you use pool chemicals to wash your clothes?

Typical doses: BioGuard® Burn Out® Extreme: 1 bag per 10,000 gallons (or any part of) every week or 2 weeks depending on weather and usage. BioGuard® Burn Out® 35: 1 bag per 6,000 gallons (or any part of) every week or 2 depending on weather and usage.

"Break-point" or super-chlorination.

The need for "break-point" or super chlorination comes when there is a build-up of chloramines or combined chlorine in the pool water. Chloramines are a combination of chlorine and usually nitrogen. When the chloramine situation becomes "bad" it is because hydrogen has combined with the nitrogen to form ammonia. This is also the preferred treatment for algae blooms and cloudy water.

The more chloramines present, the more dull the water becomes. The pool does not sparkle as it should. The added nitrogen becomes food for algae. The water smells like there's too much chlorine, but the actual FAC (the chlorine that is killing bacteria) is low or maybe even zero!

Here's an example: The total amount of chlorine in the pool is 2.0 ppm but the FAC is 1.0. That means there is 1.0 ppm of chloramines. Those chloramines must be completely destroyed or they will produce MORE chloramines and the situation will worsen. When you are treating chloramines, it's an "all or nothing" proposition.

In cases of very high chloramines, it is often a good idea to use a mono-persulfate shock (MPS) which will break up most if not all of these nitrogen bonds without adding more chlorine to the pool. This is good to do in cases where the FAC is over 1.0 ppm.

If your pool has less than 1.0 ppm FAC and lots of chloramines, follow that MPS shock with a solid chlorine shock of Cal-hypo or lithium shock. about a day later. Retest after 2 – 3 days for an accurate chlorine reading (MPS shocks will distort the actual chlorine for a brief time).

To reach break point, 10 times the amount of chloramines present must be reached to destroy the chloramines. In the example above, you would need to reach 10 ppm of FAC to reach break-point! So, a 10,000 gallon swimming pool with 1.0 ppm combined chlorine will require 4 (round numbers) lbs. of Calcium hypochlorite shock to reach breakpoint chlorination (or about 6 lbs. of Lithium hypochlorite).

Typical doses: At least Double or Triple the amount of regular shocking.

Chlorine Demand.

These are the typical symptoms if your pool has a chlorine demand problem: an inability to hold or maintain a normal Free Available Chlorine residual (1.0 ppm or higher) over several days, cloudy or hazy water, visible algae that just will not clear up . Behind the scenes, there are most likely chloramines that are combining and re-combining due to exceptional shock treatments. When "break-point" is not reached, chloramines recombine with a vengeance & become more difficult to destroy. Mono-chloramines can become dichloramines which, when allowed to worsen become trichloramines (used in tear gas!).

Treating a chlorine demand is similar to break-point chlorination except that the stakes are higher. Treatment must be complete and done at ONE time. It's like long-jumping the Grand Canyon; you must do it in one jump. You can not be short!

Most folks do not know that their pool has a chlorine demand problem until they have shocked & shocked & shocked but nothing has happened. The water will not clear. The algae persists. A solid chlorine level is almost impossible to maintain. Even a clear pool can have a chlorine demand. If the pool can not hold chlorine, yet the water balance (pH, total alkalinity & calcium hardness) is good and proper, then a chlorine demand most likely exists.

The best way to determine a chlorine demand is to perform a chlorine demand test. The BioGuard® Accu-Demand 30 is the best method available for testing. The test takes about one hour and is very accurate. In extreme cases, the test may call for shocking the pool with up to 50 lbs of shock in a 20,000 gallon pool. Do not be "shocked"! Sometimes, that is what's needed. There's no getting around it.

Here's another analogy: Let's say you have a leaky roof. The house is over 50 years old and there are already 2 layers of shingles on the roof. You want to save money by not removing the old layers so you insist that the roofing contractor (who knows what he's doing) NOT remove the old curled up shingles and simply install the new shingles right on top of the old. You sign the papers that YOU are responsible for the roof and its leaking, not the contractor. What happens with the first serious rainfall? The roof fails and it leaks. What must be done to correct the situation? Start from scratch! Rip everything off and start again.

The good news is once the chlorine demand is met., It is met. The pool will normally stay in great condition for weeks or months on end. But remember to shock the pool weekly or you could be back to a break-point or chlorine demand situation.

When shocking your pool, always …

  1. Use the full dose or amount of shock needed. Do not skimp!
  2. Do not guess the amount of shock needed. Know your pool's actual gallonage & calculate properly. For example, if you think you have a 16×32 foot inground pool with a 6 ft deep end, but the pool is actually 18×36 with an 8 ft deep end, the gallonage is going to differ by several thousand gallons and you will not reach break- point.
  3. Do not use the pool until the chlorine level comes back down to 3.0 ppm or less.
  4. Make sure that the filter system is operating properly.
  5. Remove the solar blanket or automatic pool cover to allow oxidized wastes to "gas off" and away from the pool water.
  6. Shock the pool the evening before a party and immediately after the party to keep sparkling, clear water. In this case a slightly higher chlorine level will help bathers with added protection from bacteria.
  7. Shock the pool after heavy rain storms.
  8. Be sure to rinse out and properly dispose of empty shock bags or bottles or containers. Do not reuse them.
  9. Brush the pool to help distribute the chlorine to all levels of the pool water.
  10. Indoor pools should have plenty of good ventilation to properly draw out contaminants that have gassed-off during the shocking or super-chlorinating process. Without good ventilation, waste gases will literally hit the ceiling and fall back into the pool.
  11. Follow all chemical label instructions.

Shock regularly, prevent problems. It's that simple.

Ten Benefits of Grapeseed Massage Oil

Did you know that grapeseed massage oil is a highly prized carrier oil in aromatherapy and massage therapy? It has almost no aroma and is wonderfully light in texture. It is a great non-greasy oil to use, but could be enriched by blending it with another carrier massage oils such as almond or wheat germ oil.

Some of the advantages of grapeseed massage oil:

  • Grapeseed oil is almost odorless and has a fine texture.
  • The fine texture makes it easily absorbable by the skin and non-greasy.
  • Grapeseed massage oil has mildly astringent qualities which help to tighten and tone the skin. This makes it useful for acne and other skin complaints when having a cleansing massage.
  • Grapeseed oil extract is rich in linoleic acid. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid for the skin and the cell membranes.
  • Grapeseed oil has regenerative and restructuring properties and has excellent skin moisturizing properties.
  • The smooth, silky texture makes it excellent for a relaxing massage without being greasy.
  • It contains vitamins, minerals, and protein, GLA, and a small amount of vitamin E.
  • It penetrates the skin easily bringing it moisturizing, regenerating and protecting effects.
  • It is said to be good for repairing skin around the eyes.
  • If you've run out of shaving cream, it's provided to be great for keeping the skin lubricated.

Body Detox Massage

Many body massage oils are used to assist body detox by stimulating the lymphatic system. This encourages fluid circulation and cell regeneration in the body.

A simple oil massage at regular intervals can do wonders to your overall health and can make you feel youger and more beautiful. Massage oils promote skin health, provides relief from stress and assist healing of the skin.

Grapeseed massage oil is also perfect for those who need a nut-free oil option in the case of allergies.

Medicinal Benefits of Grape Seed Oil

Food-grade Grape Seed Oil is extremely healthy to add to your diet. Some Medicinal Health Benefits Include:

  • Grape seed oil can also help protect the arteries by keeping them free of plaque that can cause heart attacks and stroke.
  • Grape seed oil is able to slow down and reverse free radical damage and reduce the risk of disease. (good for slowing skin aging.)
  • Studies also show that certain substances in grape seed oil can help protect the body from sun damage.
  • Grapeseed oil can improve the function of small blood vessels in the eyes thereby improving and maintaining good vision.

The Strength of Each of the Bakugan Attributes

Colors, affiliations, or groups seem to be a dominant factor in shows with battles and duels. Bakugan is the same. The Bakugan and the support pieces of the game also follow certain groupings, each with their strengths and weaknesses when in a brawl. These divisions are called Attributes, pertaining to the representations of the natural elements. There are six: Pyrus (fire), Aquos (water), Subterra (earth), Ventus (wind), Haos (light), and Darkus (darkness).

The Pyrus Attribute is considered as the most powerful of the six. It represents the element of fire, and the abilities of the Pyrus Bakugan usually uses this element in their attacks and defenses. The main attack of the characters of the Pyrus attribute is to usually overpower the enemy using strong fiery strikes. And the Pyrus defensive tactic is usually to render the opponent unable to attack and with their abilities nullified. Bakugan of the Pyrus Attribute are colored red, yellow, and/or orange.

The Aquos Attribute represents the element of water, and the abilities of the Bakugan of this attribute uses water as its form of offense and defense. Its colors are blue, red, and/or cyan. In using Aquos Bakugan in a brawl, the generally accepted tactic would be by using different strategies to boost the Bakugan’s power or to decrease the opponent’s. Most Aquos players would at first put in play a Bakugan with low power and then increase it with abilities and Gate cards as the game progresses.

The Subterra Attribute represents the element of earth, and the Bakugan of this attribute are usually built for earthen attacks and abilities. Its colors are brown and orange. In putting a Subterra Bakugan in play, the main strategy would be a direct and straightforward overpowering attack. It is like Pyrus in this way, using strength and force to win a brawl.

The Ventus Attribute represents the element of wind. Many of the Bakugan of this Attribute are usually creatures of the sky. Its abilities and attacks uses the air and the wind. Its colors are green and cyan. Strategies involving Ventus Bakugan are usually calculated and cunning, playing out a fast and effective game plan. Many strategies involve luring opponents and making them believe they have the upper hand, and then suddenly in comes in an ability that would turn the battle in the Ventus brawler’s favor.

The Haos Attribute represents light, and has the colors of white and gold/yellow. The Bakugan of this Attribute usually have low power levels, which enables a Haos brawler to use strategy as a means to win a brawl. They also have very strong Ability cards to further strengthen their attacks and defenses.

The Darkus Attribute comes close to the Pyrus Attribute as also one of the most powerful. It has the colors of purple, green, and black. The Bakugan of this Attribute sometimes have red streaks on them. It is an advantage to a Darkus brawler that there are many varieties of abilities and strategies available for a Darkus Bakugan. With its many attacks, high power level, and various strategies, it is not surprising why this attribute is usually reserved for the villain of the Bakugan series.

One thing is for certain when brawling. Whatever Attribute you choose, strategy is still important in winning a brawl. Each Attribute has its own advantages and disadvantages but it will always be the strategy you use that will conclude who will win in a game.

The Many Uses of a Biochemistry Analyser

A biochemistry analyser is a term which can refer to any number of different instruments used to analyze and measure the characteristics of various samples from biological sources. All types of biochemistry analyser are commonly used in life sciences laboratories and medical settings, where they provide data which is essential for a wide range of research, diagnostic and even product development applications (such as in the pharmaceutical industry).

The study of the chemical processes which go on inside of living organisms encompasses a wide range of different disciplines and an even wider range of uses, all of which fall under the broader umbrella of biochemistry. Among the most common uses for a biochemistry analyzer are to determine the structure and function of biomolecules including nucleic acids, lipids, proteins and enzymes.

It is in fact in the study of the chemistry of reactions catalyzed by enzymes in which a biochemistry analyser is particularly useful. These applications include applications involving study of genetics, protein synthesis, metabolism on the cellular level, signal transduction and other biochemistry applications with a bearing on the development of new and improved medical care and pharmaceuticals to treat diseases with a genetic component.

Automation has made changes in the way that many laboratory work is carried out, allowing for many traditionally time consuming tasks to be streamlined to permit higher throughput. There are now a variety of different automated biochemistry analyzer instruments which are available. These instruments are designed for a wide range of different applications in the life sciences laboratory or for diagnostic purposes in medical settings. These automated biochemistry analyser devices can measure the concentration and/or determine the characteristics of specific substances in a sample very quickly and with a minimal amount of operator intervention.

With an automated analyzer, there are usually dedicated autosamplers in use along with the instrument or in many cases, even an integrated autosampler. These further simplify the task of biochemistry analysis and since the safety of laboratory personnel when working with biological samples is often a concern, also make the modern, automated biochemistry analyzer much easier and safer to use.

In larger medical laboratories, such as those at hospitals, there are dedicated biochemistry analyser systems in use, often multiple ones designed to perform different common tests needed at healthcare facilities. These often include tests for levels of albumin, glucose, enzymes and creatine levels in the blood or serum. These tests may be performed by measuring conductivity, colorimetry, turbidity and any number of other methods.

There are also many other specialized types of biochemistry analyzer used in laboratories and clinics. Laboratories which perform immunology applications in particular use analyzers in immunoassays as they look for antibody-antigen reactions in biological samples. Other specialized types of biochemistry analyser include those designed for the measurement of osmolarity and osmolality, DNA /RNA detection and labeling and almost too many other important medical research, life sciences and drug development applications to list. Everywhere that the qualitative or quantitative analysis of biomolecules in samples from living organisms is critical, you will always find some sort of biochemistry analyzer at use as an indispensable tool to laboratory personnel.

Bearpaw Boots – An Affordable Alternative to Uggs and Emus

For some time now women have been purchase Uggs and Emu boots, not only do they look stylish but they are comfortable as well. However, there are a new range of sheepskin boots available which look just as great and which are more affordable than the ranges offered by Uggs Australia and Emu Australia. The boots that we are in fact talking about are the ones known as Bearpaw boots.

If you were to go to sites such as Amazon you would soon discover that the boots that this company make are some of the most popular selling ones. Of all the styles that Bearpaw has produced the ranges which are proving most popular of all are the styles known as T410 and M410. Each pair has a suede outer lining and inside they are lined with soft sheepskin.

The natural lining in these boots as with those made by Uggs and Emu help to keep your body temperature at a constant level. Plus these boots enable moisture to escape so no matter how long you wear them for your feet remain dry, warm and cozy.

There is one difference however between these styles of boots and those made by Uggs and Emu including styles such as the Emu Bronte or Ugg Classic Crochet Tall. The boots that Bearpaw have made come with a thermo plastic rubber sole and again this helps to ensure that whilst being worn your feet remain cozy and warm inside them.

As with any style of sheepskin boots you can purchase today these ones are so comfortable that many women choose to wear them without putting socks on first. But not only have Bearpaw created a wonderful array of boots for women to wear they also have plenty of wonderful styles for children and men. However, now we will take a closer look at the two styles that seem to be proving the most popular.

1. Bearpaw Model T410 – This style of boot has an outer suede covering and the height of the boot from the arch is 12 inches. Most women tend to wear these boots with a great pair of jeans or a casual skirt and although some prefer to wear them at their full height. Other women tend to fold the top of the boots over in order to expose some of the boots best feature its sheepskin lining.

These boots are perfect for wearing in cold weather (although not wet or snowy conditions) as the rubber soles on them provide ample grip as you walk along. As well as being comfortable these boots come in a number of different colors including sand, chocolate, chestnut, and nutmeg and of course black.

2. Bearpaw Model M410 – Again this style of sheepskin boots has a suede outer lining, but the length of these is slightly less than the T410 version. In fact the height of this particular boot is only 10 inches in length from the arch of it. As with the other style we discuss in this article these look great worn with jeans or even a long denim skirt of Boho skirt.

Again these boots come with the rubber soles so that the offer you plenty of traction when you wear them and even in cold weather, although not wet or snowy they are suitable. What makes these particular boots stand out from the ones we have mentioned as well as the similar styles created by Uggs and Emu is you have more choice of colors. Along with the neutral colors like sand, black, chestnut and chocolate this range comes in Light Pink and Navy.

If you do purchase a pair of Bearpaw boots then before you wear them for the first time it is a good idea to use a good quality suede protector on them. There are plenty of different ones now available and using this will help to main the look and feel of your Bearpaw boots.

Online Travel Agencies – The Advantages and Disadvantages

Planning on having a vacation with your family? Do you want to have a hassle free option for you to set up your travel plans and choose the best travel destinations around the world? No worries. The easiest and the most convenient way to book your ticket and help you with your travel itinerary are through the internet. You can find so many websites about travel guides and tours that would certainly help you with your trip.

You can find online travel agencies that can be helpful in giving you information about great destinations around the world without going to any travel agency office or talk to a travel agent. These online travel agencies will surely give you all the comforts to set up your destination plans in front of your laptop or PC. When you choose your online travel destination, you have to remember to find the best deal that allows you to choose your own destination and at the same time gives you all the comfort and convenience.

The benefits and advantage of online travel agencies is having low cost and convenience. Online travel agencies is also available at any time, as long as you go online, you have all the time for bookings that you need to complete. With all these online agencies, you have all the option to choose the best deal and the right budget for you. It also gives the comfort in the country of destination; you are provided with the transfer to your hotel and agencies are the one taking care of any problems you might encounter.

Also, the advantage of choosing online agencies is your control on your decision without influences or pressure from travel agents. If you visit a travel agency office, many travel agents have the same tone like a salesman; remember that most of these people are working under a commission program. So basically, you might be pressured by their sales pitch and book a trip without checking other good options and much less affordable.

Usually one of the concerns for online travel agencies is the security of paying large amounts of money online. Online security is a major issue for any online business, so it is very important to make sure and choose a travel agency online with a good reputation by checking customer reviews and feedback. Not all agencies can be relied on because some of them might disappear with your money. There are so many scams over the internet nowadays, so b very careful. It is better to be safe than sorry.

So overall, make sure to choose the legitimate and quality online travel agencies to avoid scams. Always seek some tips and assistance if you’re not sure about the online travel agency. Most importantly plan your trip carefully to avoid any hassles or problems. Good luck and enjoy your vacation.

How To Make The Perfect Potting Mix For Anthuriums

If you want to raise a vibrant anthurium plant, choosing the correct planting medium is vital. Pick the incorrect soil mix and your plant may develop slowly, stop making flowers, or worse, it might even die. To choose the best potting soil, first you'll need to learn more about where anthuriums grow in their native environment.

Anthuriums come from South America, where they live in lush, warm jungles, mainly on the trunks of forests or in the canopy of the forest.

Why do anthuriums grow on trees? They grow on trees because it enables them to receive a great deal of water from fog and rain, while still being exposed to drying breezes. They're paradoxical plants because they need a lot of water, but extended contact with moisture can harm them. By staying in trees, their roots are kept out of standing water and they are able to dry off a bit before the next rainfall.

When choosing a planting medium, you'll find that the major of off the shelf planting mixes retain too much water. So if you use these kinds of mixes your anthurium may have a short life as it slowly and gradually drowns from excessive water. What happens is that excess water blocks oxygen from the root system and it enables anaerobic germs and fungus to grow. These microorganisms then start attacking your plant and cause root rot.

To avoid this, you need to make your own potting soil. Your soil mix needs to drain quickly and it must be light and loose to keep your anthurium healthy. To make the best possible potting mixture blend: five parts miracle grow moisture control potting soil, 2 parts peat moss, 2 parts orchid planting media and 1 part perlite. Mix this together well and then plant your anthurium in it. This mixture works well, because it drains quickly and it comes closest to approximating the natural growing media of anthurium plants.

Cessna 182 – Tips for a Smooth Transition

One of the first upgrades most pilots face is the one from basic training aircraft to something with a bit more performance and complexity. At one time the common transition was from a Cessna 152 to a Cessna 172, or from Piper Tomahawk to Piper Warrior. As those very basic aircraft disappeared from training inventories for a few years, it became much more common to start off in a 172 or something similar, pushing the first transition to a more complex aircraft such as the Cessna 182.

According to the FAA, the 182, with an engine of over 200 horsepower, is considered a high performance aircraft. To fly a high performance aircraft the FAA requires you log ground and flight instruction with a certified flight instructor (CFI). Though the amount of time is not specified by the FAA, instructors commonly indicate around 5 to 10 hours as the amount of time required- though that may vary significantly based on a student’s background and experience.

While the 182 is classified as a high performance aircraft, it does not fit in the complex category. Though it has two of the three requirements (flaps, constant speed prop, retractable gear), its fixed landing gear means it’s not considered a complex aircraft.

Though the FAA may not consider the 182 complex, beginning students may think differently. As mentioned, the 182 adds a constant speed prop and cowl flaps to the already familiar controls. More weight means different handling techniques, and a bigger engine means more attention has to be paid to its management. Overall, these additional elements give more weight to the importance of following checklist procedures.

As far as what the new controls mean, the prop RPM will be controlled by the blue knob. The throttle will go from controlling the RPM as in a 172 to controlling the manifold pressure. Most of the time in the 182, ground ops, takeoff and landing will be with the prop control pushed all of the way in. That will give you the most power available. In cruise flight though, that setting isn’t very efficient, so you’ll bring the blue knob back to a slower RPM, which will have the propeller taking a bigger bite out of the air. The settings for RPM and manifold pressure vary slightly from one model of 182 to the next, so consult the POH for your particular aircraft for the exact numbers.

When adjusting the engine controls the inevitable question will arise as to which control to move first. The easiest way to remember is that the blue knob will stay in more than the throttle. So, when you want to increase power, lead with the prop control. When reducing power (as in leveling off), lead with the throttle.
Bigger engines tend to foul more easily than their smaller counterparts- meaning the proper leaning technique must be adhered to. Proper technique is to lean during taxing and in cruise flight. On the ground it’s usually sufficient to pull the mixture out an inch or so or just a bit before the engine coughs. In cruise you can lean by fuel flow or cylinder head temperatures based on the equipment in your aircraft. Check the POH for detailed instructions.

The cowl flaps are another thing to remember. They control the amount of cooling air flowing over the engine. Cooling air is good when it’s hot or you’re slow or on the ground; but it increases drag the rest of the time. For the 182 the cowl flaps will remain open until you reach cruise flight, then they can be closed. They will usually remain closed until landing. As in all cases, follow the checklist.

As for handling, the 182 is heavier in both roll and pitch than a 172. Pitch will be the first notable difference as you’re rolling down the runway for takeoff and realize that it will take a decided pull to get the nose moving up. That same characteristic will come into play on landing as it will take a conscious effort to keep the nose wheel up longer than the mains. Proper trim, which is more important in heavier planes, will minimize this effect. You should be trimming for hands off flight at all times. There are many 182’s that have suffered bent firewalls in testament to the importance of a good flare and proper trim.

The Cessna 182 is nothing to be intimidated by. It’s not much more difficult to fly than a 172, with the addition of some checklist items to keep in mind. After a few hours you will come to enjoy the increased speed, range and stability that it will give you.

Weak Hamstrings: Cause Of Lower Back Pain

Tight, inflexible hamstrings get a lot of attention as a cause of lower back pain, but weak hamstrings may also be the source. The hamstring is actually a set of three muscles that run from the pelvis to the knee in the back of the thigh. These muscles are used to facilitate the bending of the knee behind the midline of the body while the hip is extended, such as when running or walking. The group also helps to keep the knee aligned.

Tight quadriceps and weak hamstrings are a common muscle imbalance. We tend to use our quads more in everyday life, and many popular exercises at the gym emphasize the isolated development of quads. There are two main ways in which weak hamstrings can cause back pain.

1. Biomechanical

Hamstrings work with the quadriceps to stabilize movements of the knee and pelvis. This requires that the muscles are equal in strength, length and flexibility. If the hamstrings are weaker than the quadriceps, then the pulley system formed by the muscles is disrupted. The tighter, shorter quadriceps will pull downward on the pelvis in front and upward on the knee, since the hamstrings are too weak to exert a counterbalancing pull.

When the pelvis is pulled down in front, the lower back arches inward. This is called hyper-extension of the lumbar spine. Tight hip flexors and erector spinae muscles in the lower back often accompany weak hamstrings because of this postural change. As vertebral angles change in the spine, there is an increase of pressure placed on the back side of spinal discs, which can lead to premature disc wear, bulging or herniation. These disc changes can cause sciatica.

2. Fatigue

Weak hamstrings can quickly turn into tight hamstrings. Weak muscles tire quickly due to their lack of strength, and tired muscles go into contraction to protect themselves from further use. This forcible tightening of the muscle sets up a ripe situation for strain; the quadriceps fire into action before the hamstring has recovered and lengthened. A pulled, strained or torn hamstring can result.

When the hamstring is injured, the body will naturally compensate for it by employing other nearby muscles to do the work the hamstrings normally do. Lower back muscles may be called into action when the leg is moved, though this action is beyond its scope of natural duties. The muscles in the back and hips that compensate for hamstrings can become sore and strained.

Signs Of Hamstring Weakness

There are a few symptoms that point to hamstrings as the cause of back pain. If your hamstrings are weaker than your quadriceps, you may notice that your bottom sticks out and that you have an exaggerated lumbar arch.

If you have localized pain in the hamstring and pain in the lower back, then a strained hamstring is indicated.

Another sign of a quadricep/hamstring imbalance is clicking or cracking of the knee when it is bent or straightened.

Prevention and Treatment

Hamstring weakness and injury can be prevented by pursuing an exercise regimen that includes both strengthening and stretching of the muscle group, balanced with strengthening and stretching of the quadriceps. See http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QGTcgPVexrI for a number of hamstring exercises. See 4 hamstring stretches at http://physicaltherapy.about.com/od/flexibilityexercises/a/hamstingstretch.htm.

Treating a well-established muscle imbalances requires a combination of myofascial release and targeted exercise. If your quads have been chronically tight, they will need to be forced to relax and re-lengthen. Foam rolling at home or myofascial release performed by a practitioner can accomplish this. Once the quadriceps have regained elasticity, the hamstrings can be developed.

A pulled hamstring can usually be resolved with a brief period of rest and ice. The above steps will need to be taken in addition to rest and ice to prevent re-injury if a muscle imbalance is responsible for the strain.

It is important to understand that weak hamstrings may be at the source of back pain and hamstring strain. Keeping your body in balance will help to resolve lower back pain.

The Future of Object Oriented Programming

The object-oriented paradigm is based on the idea that objects exist independently of each other, and that operations can be executed on them. Consequently, a user in a true object-oriented development environment should be able to interactively create objects of any available class, manipulate these objects and call their interface routines. • Platform independence – " Write once – run anywhere " capability

As a matter of fact you can not run a java program 'anywhere' unless there is a virtual machine. But its as good as anywhere. Also I know some folks who would say its "write once debug everywhere " but any such platform dependent bugs are probably VM issues. All in all this platform independence is a huge plus point for enterprise development saving tons of cash and effort in porting products.

· Ease of use

I'm not really sure how many hard nut programmers would agree with me but programs are easy to visualize when they are object oriented (once you get the hang of it). After the concept is built, it becomes much easier to realize it in code.

· Free runtime / compilers / tools

This was one of the best moves by Sun. The runtime is free, the development kit is free and now there are a ton of other tools built with java for java that are free. This makes java development easy and affordable.

There are a number of ways to measure the popularity of a programming language, for example, based on the number of:

  • New applications written in the language
  • Existing applications written in the language
  • Developers that use the language primarily
  • Developers that use the language ever
  • Web searches
  • Available jobs that require skills in the language
  • Developers' favorites

Java has some other advantages as a teaching language

Low cost. The tools needed to build and test Java programs

are available without charge. Sun makes the Java Development Kit (JDK) available over the Internet, where faculty and students alike can download it. The JDK-which includes the Java compiler and interpreter, among other tools-is admittedly spartan, but students should find it adequate for most programming assignments. Those willing to spend a little money will find nicer program development environments (such as Symantec Café and Microsoft J ++) available at moderate prices.

Easy to test. Students can put their programs-written as applets-on their Web pages for instructors to test and critique. Instructors can monitor a student's progress at any stage by simply visiting the student's Web page.

Student enthusiasm. Java has gotten so much publicity

that students are bound to be excited about learning it. By harnessing that enthusiasm, instructors can use Java as a vehicle to teach students a tremendous amount about modern-day computing. Students will be motivated by Java's growing importance in the "real world." Moreover, students will be thrilled by the ease with which they can build sophisticated GUI programs.

Suitable for advanced courses. After students gain

familiarity with the basic features of Java in CS1, they can use its advanced features in later courses. For example, a course on operating systems can take advantage of Java's support for threads. The network classes that come with Java make it ideal for a networking course.

Easy transition to C ++ and other languages. Java's syntactic similarity to C and C ++ should ease the transition to those languages.

International appeal. The Unicode character set is an integral part of Java, allowing students to learn about the issues of developing software for the international market.

Java has significant advantages not only as a commercial language but also as a teaching language. It allows students to learn object-oriented programming without exposing them to the complexity of C ++.

Your Guide To Horse Betting Etiquette

Is there such a thing as horse betting etiquette? Yes there most definitely is. While you may see chaos at the betting windows with 2 minutes to post time, there is a dynamic at work.

Here are 5 important items you need to know when you are betting horses at the racetrack:

1.) Always know what you are going to bet BEFORE you get to the teller. The absolute worst thing you can do is handicap at the window with little time to post and hemming and hawing while people behind you get shut out of their wagers.

2.) Know what the bets are called BEFORE you get to the window . They have programs at the racetrack specifically designed to tell you what bets are, how to call them out, and how much they cost. Do not waste the teller's time – they are there to collect wagers, not go over the history of racing with you. That's how their performance is judged. While they may smile on the outside, they are definitely not smiling inside.

3.) NEVER go to the window with little time to post to cash a ticket. Wait until after the gate bell rings and people place their bets. Getting someone shut out of a wager while you have no intention on betting the upcoming race is a BIG no-no. This is a recipe for getting a knuckle sandwich.

4.) Have your money ready. Do not be like the elderly lady at the grocery check out and start counting out change with 1 minute to post time while you have a line of people behind you.

Be aware of others.

5.) Never be intimidated by the guy behind you huffing and puffing and mumbling nasty things while you are trying to get your bets in . This only applies if you are not doing any of the above no-no's, too bad for him. Maintain your cool and get your wagers in.

So there you have it. This is a brief but important lesson in racetrack horse betting etiquette that will make everyone's day at the races a much more pleasant experience. Win. Or lose.

Oh, these rules apply to off-track betting, satellite betting and where you are waiting in line to get your bets down. The bottom line is, be civilized and remember the golden rule.

How To Fix Windows Error 42 – Driver Errors Fix

Windows Error 42 is an error that occurs when your computer has incompatibility issues with the device drivers or when your driver has faulty components. This error appears every time you attempt to run a specific program or use a feature inside Windows. In general, this error is indicative that your computer is not capable of processing the required settings to run your hardware. The usual error message alerts that would be shown are the following:

"Could not initialize application. Error 42 (IPM). Please contact technical support."

"Windows can not load the device driver for this hardware because there is a duplicate device already running in the system. (Code 42)"

Various reasons may cause this error. It may be the case that the device driver is lost in the system, or your PC has a damaged binary file. It is also possible that you have problems with your Input / Output (I / O) processes, or your registry has setbacks. The I / O operational issues together with the inability of the device to respond are the major causes of this problem. In addition, this error is triggered if one of the drivers responsible for managing the device gives an alert to the operating system that the device is not working.

How To Fix Windows Error 42

To resolve the error, you have to update the drivers in question by re-installing it in your system. This can be done by clicking onto the "Device Manager" of Windows and then updating any of the drivers which may be causing problems for your PC. This is critical as it will repair any of the potential issues that Windows may have with the drivers on your system.

The next step to solve the problem is to clean out the registry of your PC . The " registry " is a central database where vital files, information, settings & options are kept. Windows reads the files required for it to run through this database. Oftentimes, this registry gets corrupt or infected – making Windows unable to access the necessary files for loading programs. It is there before highly recommended for you to download and run a registry cleaning tool such as the " Frontline Registry Cleaner " in your computer. This process will eliminate errors like error 42 and make your PC function more efficiently.

The Truth About Permanent Cosmetic Makeup Eyeliner, Lip Liner, and Eyebrow Tattoos

I've had cosmetic makeup procedures done in many parts of the world at many clinics and for many different reasons. All have been successful and I am pleased with the results; the ease of applying less makeup, waking up to beautiful brows and perfect eyeliner and softly colored lips. I also love going for a swim and coming out looking like I never got my face wet, at least there's no runny eyebrow pencil, no black smudges of liner under my eyes and no dull. lifeless lips. That's my experience, so naturally I've been recommending permanent makeup for a long time. But the truth is that tattooing any part of your face is a serious matter, and it's definitely NOT for everyone!

My adventure with persistent makeup began in Asia, therefore I had some of the best cosmeticians attend me at a clinic in Hong Kong. Later in Taipei, I had my eyeliner retouched a few months before I was married, so my honeymoon on secluded beaches of Macau was free of makeup worries. However, through my travels as a cultural journalist, during almost 10 years in Asia, I also saw numerous ladies who cosmetic tattoo eyesbrows were a total disaster, mostly because the shape and the arch of the brow was overly pronounced, or because the tattoo had been done on an area above the natural brow, or so unnatural looking due to having the brow line tattooed in a solid inky stain on the skin and not a natural feathery application within some existing hair.

This seemed to have been the result of women getting eyebrow tattoos after having completely removed their natural brow hair, either through electrolysis or some other hair removal system. Most of these "not very flattering" eyebrow results were on women who lived in smaller villages and isolated regions where newer tattooing techniques were not yet began to be applied, and where black was the only one that was used to create dragons on the shoulders and backs of men was also used on lady's brows. But the newest methods, which are used in international clinics, allow for a wide choice of pigments, including blending colors to get very natural shades that match even fair hair colors.

But who should get cosmetic tattoos and who should not? The truth is that if a lady has no brows due due to an illness that has contributed to hair loss, a tattoo is an excellent solution, especially if the feathering techniques is used. What this means is that tiny strokes of pigment are applied to the brow region to look like hair, not a solid line. Women who have very sparse brow hair should also consider adding a bit of dimension with this same technique, and in this case, the technician will follow the natural brow. Women who should not consider these procedures are those who have poor natural healing abilities, who bleed profusely, who scar easily or have extremely sensitive skin.

If you're unsure about getting eyebrows tattooed, since this procedure alters the look of the eye in a very noticeable way, then start with something smaller like a bit of eyeliner. Have your technician tattoo a fine outline in the lash line and see how your skin reacts to the pigment. If all is well, go ahead with the brows.