Graphic Design – Topography and Images to Present Information

Meaning

Graphic design is process of visual communication using topography and images to present information and attract people. It gives an interesting mix of presenting varied information in attractive formats to increase the overall users’ base. Whether you are reading your morning papers or commuting by a public bus, or open a book to read, element of graphics can be seen every where. It gives a great way to express your thoughts, ideas and opinion to reach millions of other users. This creative process involves different formats of graphics, which are easily available in today’s world:

Logos

Logo is an important form of graphics that conveys lots of ideas to its readers and users. A logo provides identify to the vision and the purpose of the organizations or any other agencies. In addition, it is difficult to register a company without a valid logo attached with it.

Websites

Websites reflect the major works of graphics aiming to attract promising clients to the organization. So, make sure your website reflect good piece of information prepared through graphic design services.

Business Cards

Business cards are essential in this competitive business boasting world. An impressive business card can get you really good impact and you will be successful to express your mind freely and effectively.

Advertisements

Graphics in advertisements have a specific role to play. You can hire a graphic design company to get your advertisement really rocking and reflecting you ideology.

Brochures

Brochures also consist major graphic designing in it. Without a good design, a brochure may not look very impressive. So, graphic can bring a life in brochures.

Billboards

Billboards or hoardings consist of advertisements promoting a product or services so the major attraction point is graphic designing.

Product Packaging

Nowadays, product packaging has a definite role to play in the promotion of a product or a service. Packaging clinches eyes positively and gives you several benefits in future context.

Posters

Posters are one of the popular methods to express the ideas and opinions. Therefore, it becomes necessary to make it really effective with lots of graphics and pictures in it.

Book Design

Graphic has a definite role to play in book designing. While designing a book, it is necessary to represent the content of the book to attract the promising readers.

Magazine Layout

Magazines offer wide information about varied subjects and current happenings. Therefore, it has to be attractive enough to tempt readers to go through its pages. So, the role of graphics can be really important here.

Newspaper Layout

While layout a newspaper, the importance of graphics can not be ignored. Anything colorful and informative attracts readers to a great extent.

Greeting Cards

In greeting cards too, graphics can do wonders and equally express your ideas to the fullest.

Various Types of Indian Hardwood

Indian is the home to some of the best furniture pieces. Indian craftsmen use their superb skills and ideas that have been passed on for generations, to make furniture that speaks of quality and durability. Many furniture and antique collectors believe that a collection is not complete if it does not have Indian furniture pieces, especially wooden furniture.

Among all the pieces that are manufactured in India, hardwood furniture is the most common type. Indian hardwood furniture is revered all across the globe and has found a place in the home of the rich and famous.

Following are some of the most popular types of hardwood that are used by the Indian furniture manufacturer.

Mahogany

This is one of the most expensive woods available in the world. The cultivation of mahogany is controlled by the Indian government and it's only grown for meeting commercial purposes. The tree is not allowed to be grown by all and sundry and one has to furnish before the government valid reasons as to why he wants to grow the wood. Mahogany has a reddish-brown color and is a finely grained wood. It's highly durable and capable to resist shrinking, warping and swelling. It's extensively used for the manufacture of quality furniture like wood facings, veneers, cabinets, tables and cabinets.

Walnut

Walnut wood sports a fine texture, has considerable strength and easy to work with. The wood is resistant to warping and shrinking and is friendly to almost all types of finishes. Walnut wood is mostly used in the making of veneered and solid furniture, gun-stocks, cabinetry, wall paneling and novelties.

Oak

Oak is a common wood used in the making of Indian wooden furniture. Beside its durability, oak enterprises good bending qualities. The wood is considered to be good for trimming, boat framing, flooring and the manufacture of wooden desks.

Maple

Although not found in abundance in India, maple has immense hardness and strength and is a well textured wood. Maple mashes are considered to be good for flooring as it has moderate shrinkage. Maple wood is also used for making furniture and other woodenware like bowling alleys.

Cherry

Cherry is a less-frequently used wood. It's close-grained and resistant to shrinking and warping. The color of the wood turns red when it's exposed to sunlight. The wood ages well and is often extensively used for making cabinets and novelties as well as solid furniture handles.

Rosewood

Rosewood has a dark and reddish-brown color and is close-grained hardwood. Of late this type of wood has witnessed consideration interest among Indian wooden furniture manufacturers. Beside, demands from the western world are also fueling its popularity. The wood comes with an exclusive fragrance, takes high polish and is difficult to work upon. The wood is good for making piano cases, musical instruments, art projects, tool handles, furniture and veneer.

Teak

Teak is moisture resistant. It's resistant to cracking, warping and decay. It's best used for making fine furniture, ship building, paneling, windows, doors and floors. Teak is also a great construction wood.

The Best Final Expense Sales Presentation Ever

Arriving At The Prospects Home

When I arrive at the house, I like to park in the driveway because that is where family parks and they are more likely to greet me. I look for the door that they use the most and I go and knock on their door (usually the back or side door). While waiting for them to come to door, I look down at my clipboard and pretend to read. I try not to make any eye contact until they open the door.

When they open the door, I greet them as if they have been waiting for me all day long. “Mrs. Jones? My name is Joseph and the reason I’m stopping by today is because you recently sent this card in and it’s my job to bring you that information you requested. I’d really like to go over this with you, can I come in?”

If they say yes, GREAT!!! I’m in! If they say it’s not a good time, then I will schedule an appointment with them for the next day. Now you are off to your next one. Some people will let you in and some people will make appointments with you, some won’t be home. (Always make sure you go back or call if they’re not there.) Of course, some will slam the door in your face… ha (fortunately, not usually.)

At the end of the day, you should have made 3-4 presentations and scheduled 4-5 appointments. The point is, you are out there working and making money. I’ve honestly made $8000 in commission in one day!!! No joke.

Making Appointments

Rather then drive around all day, some people prefer to make appointments or hire someone to make appointments for them. Personally, I hired someone to do this for me. I schedule my appointments an hour and half apart. Usually it starts at 10:30am and ends at 7:30pm. I try to get 7 appointments a day, 4 days a week. I always make my appointments the day before because they forget if it’s more than one day away.

Script for Setting Appointments Yourself

Here is an appointment script you can use:

Good Afternoon ____________, This is ____________

I have in my hand, a pink card that you filled out and sent in requesting information on the Social Security Death Benefit Program.

Now, my job is to get this information out to you.

The address I have here is ___________________.

Is that correct?

Okay… Great!

On the card ________, you wrote down that you were 65 and that your wife was 63… is that correct?

Awesome, awesome…

Let me ask you a question: are you (you guys) working, retired or receiving disability?

Oh yeah, that’s good, that’s good… What time… do you/she/he get off work…

chit chat…

anyway, like I said, my job is to this information out to you and I can either get it out to you tomorrow at ______ or ______…

which is best for you?

Great…

Do you have a pen and paper handy or do you have your calendar in front of you?

I just want you to write down my first name… It’s Joseph. Last name Haworth, H-A….

Now put down there ______am/pm on ___________day… that’s tomorrow.

Well, I really appreciate your time, I look forward to meeting you and __________, at ______________am/pm _____day________.

Have a great day.

When you arrive at your appointment, smile BIG and assume you are getting in. Say you are there for the appointment and ask to come in. It’s easy to get in… most of them remember that you are coming.

Presentation

To put you at ease, I want you to know that I’m not a sales person at all. I’m the most passive, non pushy person you can imagine. There really is no trick to it. So relax your shoulders and have fun.

Once you are in the door, you compliment their home, their yard, their dog, the smell of the house… you know… whatever! Just compliment. My favorite one is to mention how clean the house is. If it is really clean, it means they work really hard at it and they appreciate someone noticing. As I’m walking in the house, I look at the pictures and I either ask who is in the pictures before I sit down or I ask later. In any case, seniors love to share their pictures so make sure you ask about them.

I’m always very casual and I do my best to avoid the sales presentation for about a half hour. I like to have them talk to me and tell me about themselves and their family and their problems etc. I honestly get sucked in. I’m right there, feeling their joy and pain and I’m concerned and interested. I don’t care about the insurance at that point. Eventually, you move to the presentation and by this time you are friends and this helps them listen and helps you know how to communicate to them. Here are the steps:

1. You tell them why they received the card and what it’s about.

2. You bring up the cost of a burial and the fact their family is going to have to pay $10,000.

3. You find out why they sent the card in.

4. Ask who their beneficiary is and if they have ever paid for a funeral (both these questions bring out emotion because they don’t want their kids to pay for the funeral and by asking if they have ever paid for one, this helps them remember the pain of paying all that money for a funeral.)

5. Ask them what medications they take and what they are for. Then you ask how their overall health is. “Have you had any heart problems, or kidney, or liver or lung problems? If so, when?” You need to know when because most applications only care about the past 2 years or so.

6. Now you know what they are going to be approved for and you can show them some prices. I usually write down 3 or 4 prices on the back of their lead card. I try to match what I think they can afford. Once I write them down, I go over the prices and then hand them the sheet. I say, “Now, Mrs. Jones, I want you to look over these three prices and you tell me which one is best for you?

7. Before I give them the prices, I tell them about an immediate benefit and a graded benefit. The immediate benefit means that their family will get the full face amount if they died even after only one payment. The graded policy, however, makes them wait two years before they have full coverage. To find out which one they qualify for, I have to ask the questions on the application. (However, if you asked enough questions earlier, you already know….)

8. Before I ask the immediate benefit questions, I ask them to pick out a price first. (This is called asking for the sale. You have to ask for the sale or you will not sell!!! Plain and simple). Knowing the price they will pay helps with the next step. When you know they qualify for immediate benefits, after you ask the appropriate questions (that you already know the answers to), you stand up and congratulate them.

9. At that point, all you have to do is ask for their personal information. “Mrs. Jones, can I see your SSN and Drivers License”… the point is that you start writing the application.

We hope you will join us to see the full presentation in print, audio and on video.

Balancing the Accounts and Necessity of Ledger

Balancing the Accounts

Whenever it is desired to balance an account, the two sides are added up, and if the totals of the two sides are unequal then the difference is put on the side having lesser total. This will make both the sides equal. The amount of the difference inserted is known as ‘balance’ of the account. In particulars column it is written as Balance c/d (carried down). In subsequent period it is known as Balance bid (brought down). If the total of the credit side of the account is less, the balance will be inserted on credit side with the words “By Balance c/d”. This balance is known as Debit Balance and after closing the account it will be shown on the debit side with the words “To Balance bid”. Similarly if the total of debit side of the account is less, the balance will be inserted on debit side with the words “To Balance c/d”. This balance is known as Credit Balance and after closing the account it will be shown on the credit side with the words “By Balance bid”.

Personal Accounts

It is worthwhile to refresh your memory and recall that personal accounts relate to individuals and business entities (firm; company, corporation etc.) and the rule is : Receiver is to be debited and giver is to be credited. Now if on any particular date the business wants to know as to how much amount is ‘due to’ or ‘due by’ a particular person to itself (business) then it should balance the account of the person concerned. Debit balance as per personal account signifies that the person is the debtor of the business i.e. person owes an amount equal to the balance to the business or the amount, represented by the balance is ‘due to’ the business by the person. Similarly, Credit balance as per personal account signifies that the person is the creditor of the business i.e. business owes an amount equal to the balance to the person or the amount represented by the balance is ‘due by’ the business to the person.

Real Account

These are the accounts relating to property or possession or rights. Rule is : “What comes in is to be debited and what goes out is to be credited.” Thus all incomings are to be recorded on the debit side and outgoings on the credit side. On any particular date these accounts should have ‘debits balance’ representing the worth of the item covered by the account. At the end of the year (generally) or at any other point of time when the financial position of the business is required to be ascertained these accounts are balanced. These balances are shown on the assets side of the statement of position or Balance Sheet. These accounts do have ‘debit balance’ which signifies the ‘book-value’ or ‘written down value’ or ‘going concern-value’ of the assets of the business as on that relevant date.

Nominal Accounts

These are the accounts showing the various heads of expenses and sources of income. At the end of the specified period (generally one year) these accounts are closed by transfer to the final accounts i.e. Trading or Profit and Loss Account.

Necessity of Ledger

Maintaining of ledger is a must in every accounting system. It is necessary as will be clear from its advantages:

(1) Transactions relating to a particular person, item or heading of expenditure’ or income are grouped in the concerned account at one place.

(2) When each account is periodically balanced it reflects the net position of that account. For example, how much is due from a customer or how much is payable to a supplier or what is the value of total purchases or what has been the expenditure on salaries? Such information is available by balancing the ledger accounts.

(3) Ledger is the stepping stone for preparing Trial Balance- which tests the arithmetical accuracy’ .of the accounting books.

(4) Since the entries recorded in the journal are referenced into ledger the possibility of errors or defalcations are reduced to the minimum.

(5) Ledger is the destination of all entries made in journal or sub-journals.

(6) Ledger is the “store-house” of all information which subsequently is used for preparing final accounts and financial statements.

Opening entry and its posting. In the case of an existing business we are required to pass an entry in the journal (on the basis of the Balance Sheet prepared at the end of the previous year) for bringing in the new books all assets and liabilities: this is known as Opening entry.

My Wife Cheated on Me While Drunk – It Was Just Once, But I Can’t Let It Go

Did your wife cheat on you while under the influence of alcohol?

Has your wife’s drunken mistake nearly cost you your marriage because you’re struggling to recover from the news of her unfaithfulness?

It’s frustrating because YOU are the one that works all day and puts food on the table, and the moment that your wife gets time alone she has an affair supposedly because she was drinking.

If you’ve been cheated on only one time by your wife, and it was under the influence of alcohol, then my guess is that there’s one resounding question echoing through your mind:

How Do I Know My Wife is Trust Worthy?

After all, she could just be lying about the drinking part. Or if she’s not lying about drinking, she could be lying about exactly HOW drunk she was.

Further more, what if she wasn’t even out with the girls? Many women, when backed into a corner, will lie through their teeth to make an affair seem LESS bad. In her mind she knows that a one-time fling while drunk isn’t nearly as bad a full blown affair, so that’s what she tells you happened.

Before you can do anything else you should make sure that you really and truly believe your wife’s story about alcohol’s involvement in the affair…If she was lying then that could be all that you need to know.

One Beer or Five?

Let me ask you this: Your wife comes to you and confesses that she cheated on you because she was absolutely plastered, but later you learn she’d only had one or two beers to drink before cheating on you…

What do you do?

I mean, obviously she wasn’t PLASTERED after so little alcohol… Do you still forgive her if she was just tipsy instead of full on drunk?

Many women know that the more drunk they say they were the less blame will naturally fall on her shoulders. So it makes sense for her to like about how much she drank. There’s almost no way to find out the truth except take your wife at her word.

My suggestion would be to try and get a hold of one of the people she was drinking with. Perhaps they can confirm what you can’t trust your wife to.

I Can’t Get Over the Fact That She Slept With Another Man

Unfortunately, there’s just no easy way for you to magically forget what your wife did with another guy. This is a sad fact of life; I honestly wish that there were some button I could push to erase your memories or imagination, but I just can’t do it.

Here’s my advice: Only ask what questions you REALLY want the answers to. Avoid asking any questions about the actual act of cheating, at least until you’re more prepared for the answers.

The only real cure in this situation is to hope that your wife will be there for you and do her part to rebuild your trust. You have to hope that your wife is willing to work even harder than you to come back from her unfaithfulness and rebuild your marriage.

Vertical Jump Test

An athlete's vertical jump is a stone in his sports career; in sports like basketball and volleyball, the player with the highest jump is the most scared score winner and defender of all. For Generations, people have been trying to figure out ways of enhancing the explosive power of a person's vertical jump. Aside from the great bout on unlocking the limits, it has also been a problem measuring the accurate progress of a person's vertical jump during his training.

Wall Nut
The most basic way of measuring the height of a person's vertical leap is by standing within a wall while raising one of your hands as high as possible, feet lying flat on the ground; afterwards, put a line or marker on the tip of your finger . This is known as the "standing reach". Put oil or powder at the tip of your fingers then jump several times and touch the wall so marks would be left behind to indicate your highest reach upon jumping. Measure the distance between your standing reach and the highest point you have made. This is the height of your vertical jump.

Kinematics
Some people use a more scientific and accurate way of measuring the vertical jump, by using a pressure pad, laser beams and kinematic equations. This is measured by taking note of the time an athlete can complete a jump before he falls back to the ground. The equation for this is h = g * t2 / 8, where (h) is for height, (g) is for the pull of gravity which is equal to 9.81 m / s2 or 32.2 ft / s2 and (t2 / 8) for the time an athlete can complete the jump from the ground and back to the ground in milliseconds. This equation if usually calculated by a software installed to a computer where the pressure pad and laser beams are connected.

Infrared Laser
This is also an accurate way of measuring the vertical leap of a player, where it is required to stand and jump in between two infrared laser planes facing each other. How does it work? Well, not as complicated as computing kinematic equations; in fact, it just works like jumping next a wall and subtracting your standing reach off your maximum jump reach. The only difference is that first, it is using infrared laser beams and second, it is a way lot more expensive than the regular jump and reach beside the wall.

Whatever method it is you are using, as long as you are sure that your vertical is gaining more and more power and you can feel that there really is progress in what you are doing, you are certainly getting somewhere. Question is, are you? If you are not pretty sure that there is ascension in your vertical jump training, I would advise you to seek help from vertical jump professionals.

You Should Read the Dictionary – I Know it Sounds Crazy, But You Will Be Glad You Did

Who on Earth would bother to read the dictionary? Well, you are reading an article about someone who did and has read several dictionaries from cover to cover, and I must say has learned a lot along the way. And just in case you think I am crazy, did you know Bill Gates read the entire encyclopaedia? Do you think Bill Gates is crazy? What is it that people who read reference books gain? Hmm, well, I think you bought to find out that answer to yourself.

In fact, I am going to recommend that you read the dictionary, no, not the unabridged Oxford version that is one foot square and ten inches high, yes, I have one of those. It does have just about every word you'll ever read except for the create-a-word blogging bandits vocabulary. Rather, I am going to recommend that you read a smaller version with adequate print. My choice is the;

"Webster's Dictionary" with over 50,000 entries for home, school, and office. Edited by John Gage Allee, Ph.D. 1978.

Why do I recommend an older version? Well it does not have all the new buzz words or recent words that you already know, so you do not have any silly distractions. It's only 446 pages and that is not much bigger than a long novel. Yes the print is smaller than a novel, so maybe its equivalent to a 892 page book, but you can handle that, you are a grown up now. And even if you read only one letter per day you will finish in a month without breaking a sweat and your mind will have more time to soak it up too. Go for it.

Introduction to Nutrient Pollution

Introduction

On August 27, 2009 the State-EPA Nutrient Innovations Task Group issued an urgent call to action to EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson. The task group studied documented levels of excess nutrients in our nations waterways. Current, and past, efforts to control these pollutants have been undertaken on the national and statewide scale. Efforts to date have been predominately "regulation at the pipe" and have not addressed the non point sources that are the root cause of elevated concentrations of nutrients in ground and surface waters. Nutrient pollution significantly affects all of us. It affects our drinking water, our recreational water, such as beaches and rivers and lakes, and it affects, and even kills, aquatic life. None of us want a bunch of dead rivers, but what can we do?

What are Nutrients?

Nutrients are elements that are essential to life. Being essential to life they are also essential components of the molecules that make up living tissue. Decaying organic matter and human and animal waste are significant sources of nutrient pollution in ground and surface water. The chemicals we manufacture and use in day-to-day life may also contain nutrients, as well as the fertilizers that we spread on our yards and farms. It is the broad application of fertilizers, the animal feeding lots, the widespread use of septic tanks, and runoff water from rainfall to school kid carwashes that are responsible for the immeasurable depths of nutrients that find their way into the watershed. These are the non-point sources that can not be easily regulated.

For 30 years the Clean Water Act has regulated industrial and municipal effluents. Limits are getting lower and lower. It is easy to take a sample at the end of a pipe. It's easy to know where the sample comes from, and who is responsible if pollutants are too high. Unfortunately, 30 years of regulation of industry has not significantly reduced the problem. Obviously, there are other sources.

And the sources are us. Our everyday activities of washing our cars, fertilizing and watering our lawnns, irrigating farms, and even desiring green golf courses. The essential nutrients that are in the fertilizers and detergents are entering the groundwater, not by an industrial effluent but down the gutter and into the storm drain. Rainfall is washing nutrients into creeks and rivers and carrying them into basins such as the Gulf of Mexico or Chesapeake Bay. Hypoxic zones, also known as dead zones, are forming where excess nutrients are deposited.

The excess nutrients cause a rapid growth of algae. The algae grow so quickly that they cut off their own light and die. This is a normal, geologic process, occurring more quickly than normal. As the algae dies it decays and the decay process consumes oxygen. Without oxygen aquatic life can not breathe.

What is Nutrient Pollution?

Nitrogen and Phosphorus are the principal elements reported to when discussing nutrient pollution. Other essential elements, such as carbon, silica, and sulfur are not included in this discussion. Organic nitrogen and organic phosphorus are associated with the organic matter we measure and report as TOC. Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential elements in DNA, RNA, and nitrogen is a major component of protein and urine. Nitrogen and phosphorus occurs as both water-soluble and water insoluble species. Unfortunately, both soluble and insoluble become bioavailable. Looking at this table, we see that Nitrogen and Phosphorus are somewhat similar chemically, for instance, the plus 5 ions known as nitrate and phosphate are very stable and highly water-soluble.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth ranking only behind carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in total quantity needed. The nitrogen gas making up about 80% of the atmosphere is large inert and unavailable to life directly. Lightning will convert small amounts of nitrogen to nitrate. Nitrogen in fertilizers comes from the chemical reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen gas to form ammonia. The ammonia can then be oxidized to form nitrate. Fertilizers will often contain ammonia, nitrate, and / or urea as the sources of nitrogen. Organic matter, referred to as humic matter, manure, mulch, etcetera contains about 5% Nitrogen. This nitrogen is slowly converted to ammonia by bacteria and is always oxidized to nitrite then nitrate. During a storm event, or during erosion the nitrate in soil is easily leached into the runoff.

Dissolved inorganic nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia. Dissolved organic nitrogen including water-soluble proteins, amines, amides, and so forth. Basically declined organic life and some man made chemicals that are dissolved in water. Total Organic nitrogen is the sum of dissolved organic nitrogen and particulate organic nitrogen. Particulate organic nitrogen is, well, the insoluble organic compounds, or organic matter, in the water. Total Dissolved Nitrogen is the dissolved organic nitrogen plus the dissolved inorganic nitrogen, and Total nitrogen includes all of the above. Notice, there is REALLY no such thing as total inorganic nitrogen. This is because inorganic nitrogen compounds are all water-soluble.

Chemical Analysis of Nitrogen Compounds

Total dissolved nitrogen, or the result you get when analyzing total nitrogen on a filtered sample complexes of dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia. Methods used to determine TDN typically rely on an alkaline persulfate digestion that converts all of the nitrogen present to nitrate and then the nitrate is determined colorimetrically. Analyzing inorganic nitrogen alone will only recover about 30 – 40% of the total dissolved nitrogen in the natural environment. Sewage treatment and industrial plant effluents, on the other hand, are predominately inorganic nitrogen (nitrate) since the treatment process is designed to completely oxidize dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonia to nitrate.

Total nitrogen, or the result you get when analyzing total nitrogen on a non-filtered sample complexes of dissolved organic nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite and ammonia plus particulate nitrogen. Since all inorganic nitrogen compounds are soluble, particulate nitrogen is almost entirely organic nitrogen, or PON. Methods used to determine TN can rely on the same alkaline persulfate digestion used to determine TDN with the exception that samples are not filtered. Since samples are not filtered, the automated version is not applicable if there is a significant amount of sediment (or solids) in the sample. In other words, the automated inline digestion methods measure TDN and are only applicable if TDN and TN are essentially equivalent (there is no particulate organic nitrogen).

The DIN fraction, measured to calculate the Total Organic Nitrogen content can be, and should be, analyzed on a filtered sample. Remember that there is no such thing as Total Inorganic Nitrogen since it is equal to Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen. Another infamous parameter in the total nitrogen world is, of course, TKN (Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen). TKN, as routinely used, does not measure nitrate or nitrite. It is essentially a measure of organic nitrogen plus ammonia nitrogen.

TKN is the classical, if you will, analysis for total organic nitrogen. TKN has its roots in food and feed analysis as a way to quantify the amount of protein. TKN has been extrapolated to environmental analysis and is the regulated parameter for Total Nitrogen. Unless steps are taken to include nitrate and nitrite the regular TKN method does not measure it. TKN essentially measures organic nitrogen and ammonia. TKN is sufficient in POTW or municipal influences because these samples rarely have nitrate in them anyway. Recall the nitrogen reactions. An influent to a POTW will contain particulate nitrogen, dissolved organic nitrogen, and ammonia. The particulate nitrogen mostly settles as sludge removing it from the equation. Organic nitrogen and ammonia are oxidized to nitrate during the treatment process. The TKN digestion boils the sample in concentrated sulfuric acid in the presence of a metallic catalyst to speed the reaction. Potassium sulfate is added to raise the boiling point to about 380 C. The digestion will not completely recover all organic nitrogen compounds making the TKN result actually less than or equal to the TN determined by alkaline persulfate oxidation.

According to the EPA definition, Total Nitrogen equals TKN plus nitrate plus nitrite.

Phosphorus

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient found in living organisms as part of DNA among other important molecules. Phosphorus is always found in nature bound to other atoms and usually as the inorganic phosphate. It is phosphate that is available to plants and used as a fertilizer. It is phosphate that is consumed by algae and has the potential to cause algal blooms. Measurement of total phosphorus is important because it can, with time, convert to bioavailable soluble phosphate.

Dishwashing, laundry, and many hand detergents and / or soap contain phosphorus. The phosphorus content in detergent can be as high as 8.7%. Phosphate is a very effective way to improve soap quality, especially in waters that contain high amounts of calcium and magnesium. Unfortunately, the phosphates in these detergents find their way into the environment. In the 1970's green rivers and lakes were becoming common and phosphate usage in soaps began its eventual reduction. Although there is not a federal ban on phosphate is soap many states are taking action. For example, Washington State has limited the amount of phosphate in dishwasher detergent to 0.5%

Chemical Analysis of Phosphorus

Phosphorus can exist in water in different forms. The standard method for phosphorus is meant to measure only phosphate, also called reactive phosphate. This is because what is actually measured is defined by the molybdate reaction itself. Phosphorus species are distinguished from each other empirically by filtration, and then a series of digestions that selectively convert phosphorus to phosphate. After the digestion phosphate is measured. Thus, to analyze organic phosphorus only, one digests for total phosphorus in one sample aliquot, and hydrolysable phosphorus in another aliquot. Reactive phosphate is then determined in each digest and Organic Phosphorus is calculated by difference.

Total Phosphate is water-soluble. Instrumental methods require that samples be filtered, or the turbidity and / or solids will interfere. There is certainly to measure total phosphate you must filter the sample. Since total reactive phosphorus is equal to filterable reactive phosphorus the results are the same. Remember though, that for best results, filtration should be in the field. The portion for the total analysis is not filtered. If the particulates (TSS or SS) are high, then continuous flow methods should not be used for the analysis of Total Phosphorus. Total phosphorus is batch digested that converts all phosphorus compounds to phosphate. The digest is filtered and phosphate is then measured, usually by molybdenum blue.

The continuous flow method for TDP utilizes 254 nm UV irradiation to assist in the digestion of organic material. Since continuous flow methods can not be used to adequately digest samples containing high amounts of solids and continuous digestion should not be used unless the total phosphorus is essentially equal to the dissolved phosphorus.

TKN is the classical digestion for total organic nitrogen. The TKN digest can also be used to analyze for total phosphorus. The advantage in this is not added recovery, for the acid persulfate quantitatively recovers all of the total phosphorus. The only advantage in the TKP is the ability for the laboratory to test for TKN and TP in a single digest. The perceived benefit is time and labor savings. Because of the higher acid and salt concentration of the resulting TKP digest compared to persulfate digests, TKP detection limits are typically higher that limits found by persulfate. The other advantage to TKP is, of course, that it is EPA approved.

All of the colorimetric methods used for the determination of phosphate by molybdenum blue are highly dependent upon final acid concentration and the amount of molybdate. Attempts made at analyzing total phosphorus digests without careful attention to acid concentration are often not successful. After the digestion is complete, you are measuring orthophosphate. Any method used to measure phosphate can be used. The problem with extending a total P determination to Ion Chromatography, for instance, comes from the excess sulfate ion introduced in the digestion. Early methods utilizing persulfate in sulfuric acid neutralized the sample and then analyzed orthophosphate. Some continuous flow methods measure the phosphate in the acid solution adjusting the acid in the reagent accordingly. The TKP digestions have really only been tested using a mercury catalyst, and excess chloride must be added to prevent interference from the mercury. Like TKN, the blue color of a copper catalyst may interfere with the method. The auto dialysis method helps to control the final acid concentration and some of the residual color introduced by the copper. Dialysis is essentially an online dilution leading to a higher detection limit than the cleaner persulfate digest. To sum up, for lower total phosphorus numbers (say below 0.1 ppm) it is recommended to use the acid persulfate digestion because the matrix will be easier to control and work with. For concentrations above 0.1 ppm, the TKP digestion is adequate.

Conclusion

The clean water act was signed amid stories of massive fish kills and rivers catching on fire. We all know that these things rarely happen in the US anymore. We have monitored sewage treatment effluents and in many cases applied numerical volumes on the amount of nutrients that can be discharged. We still have a ways to go.

Our chemical analysis methods were written for highly polluted water. The methods we use were not validated at the lower concentration levels we need to measure today. Many of the conditions of these methods assume higher concentrations will be present, and the former rigid nature of the Clean Water Act rules did not let us change anything. Fortunately, in 2007 the EPA added Part 136.6 to the CFR allowing us to make configurations to our nutrient methods providing the modifications improve method performance. These modifications are going to allow us to monitor more water, with better accuracy and detection limits.

We have more to go, because regulation of point sources has not solved the problem. Much of the problem is the non point sources we call storm water run off and irrigation water. We need to watch what we do when we apply fertilizers and watch what goes down our storm drains. But more importantly, what we need is increased monitoring of our rivers and streams. The only way we can begin to solve our problems is to know exactly what they are. To understand this problem we need more data, and the data we need is accurate, low level quantitative analysis of nutrients.

Food Safety Bacterial Growth Requirements

As food safety bacteria are very similar to us they need similar conditions in order to grow. The main conditions are food, moisture, warmth and time.

Food and Moisture.

There are four main food types:

· High risk foods

· Raw foods

· Low risk foods

· Ready to eat raw foods.

High risk foods are common in food poisoning outbreaks. They are usually composed of protein, are ready to eat, stored under refrigeration and no further processing such as cooking is required. Examples include pates, sandwiches, filled rolls, fresh cream and artificial cream cakes, pies and cold cooked meats.

Raw foods are a major source of food poisoning organizations. High risk foods must be kept away from raw foods at all times or cross contamination will result, compromising food safety and food poisoning will occur.

Low risk foods do not pose a food safety hazard mainly because they lack one or more of the requirements for bacterial growth. They could be acid foods with a pH of less than 4.5, they may have a high sugar, salt or fat content which are good natural preservatives. They may be treated products or preserved foods not requiring refrigeration. They may be foods that require ambient storage.

The last category of food is ready to eat raw foods. These include fruit and salad vegetables and they must be thoroughly washed before consumption to minimize the risk from low-dose pathogens.

High risk food contains sufficient moisture for bacterial growth.

Warmth.

The next thing to consider is warmth. If we control warmth then bacterial growth will not occur.

The maximum recommended temperature for freezers is -18 ° C. At this temperature there is no bacterial growth, bacteria remain dormant. Although some bacteria are killed during the freezing process, many remain alive.

Fridge temperatures should be between 1 and 4 ° C. Although the maximum legal fridge temperature in the UK is 8 ° C. At fridge temperatures some bacteria will grow very slowly including Listeria and C botulinum.

The next range of temperatures is the temperature danger zone. This is between 5 and 63 ° C. Once food is being prepared it must be kept out of the temperature danger zone. If food is left in the temperature danger zone bacterial growth will occur, affecting food safety and food poisoning will result. As bacteria enter the temperature danger zone at 5 ° C they start to grow slowly. As the temperature increases the bacteria will grow more profusely. Bacteria grow best at 37 ° C, which is body temperature. As temperatures increase from 37 ° C bacterial growth slows down. Most bacteria are killed by 52 ° C. The UK recognized safety cooking temperature is 75 ° C, although foods can be cooked at a low temperature over a longer period of time.

The hot holding temperature is 63 ° C, which is the top of the temperature danger zone. If food is to be served hot, for example in a carvery situation it must be retained above 63 ° C. If the food is above this temperature, there is no time limit to how long the food can be served for and there is no food safety hazard.

If cold food is refrigerated, it must be kept at 1 and 4 ° C. The time limit would depend on the food product. The food could not be retained without time limit as ever there would be mold growth (mold can grow at very low temperatures).

The two hour hot rule allows foods that had been prepared and are meant to be served hot, to be served at ambient temperature for no more than two hours. For example if food is being retained at 63 ° C and suddenly the heating equipment breaks down then that food which is losing temperature can be sold for a further two hours. After two hours the food is allowed to be chilled and reused at a later occasion after refrigeration.

The four hour cold rule allows foods that are normally sold at refrigeration temperature to be served at ambient temperature for no more than four hours. For example if sandwiches are prepared and refrigerated, and the refrigerator breaks down, the temperature will rise. The sandwiches must be sold within four hours. After four hours any remaining sandwiches must be disposed of.

In order to check temperatures of freezers, fridges, cooking temperatures and delivery of foods, a temperature probe must be used. It must be a thermocouple temperature probe which is able to be calibrated. You can calibrate with boiling water, when the probe should indicate a temperature of 100 ° C. The bottom range of temperatures can be checked with mixture of ice and water. The probe should indicate a temperature of 0 ° C. Probes must be cleaned and disinfected between use. This can be achieved by using alcohol wet wipes or simply boiling water. The temperature probe must be inserted into the thickest part of the food which is known as the core temperature.

For further information and details of food hygiene training courses go to: Food Safety Training .

How To Plan A Retirement Party

A retirement party is an event to celebrate a person's career and achievements and is a great opportunity to show appreciation in a fun and respectful way. Similar to any other party, a lot is involved in planning a party to present an individuals accomplishes. Whether it be a party for your spouse, parent, friend or colleague, a tip to make your life easier is to plan the retirement party online. Having a website dedicated to the retirement party will keep you organized and keep guests informed and involved in all the details of the event.

Here are a few good ideas on how to plan a great retirement party that the retiree will remember forever:

  • Establish a budget

Establishing a budget for retirement party should be one of the first planning steps. It should take into account venue, food, decor, entertainment and a nice gift. Your budget will determine the number of guests you can invite and the price per ticket if you are selling tickets to the party. Your retirement party website will help you keep track of all your expenses, when to make bookings and when payments are due.

  • Select a location

The party can be held at the office, at someone's home, in a restaurant, hotel, club, art gallery, or casino. Your budget, how many guests, when the event will take place (day or evening), and what time of year all need to be taken into account. You should also consider the preferences of the retiree wherever they want a big or small or traditional event. To choose the best location, you should ask co-workers for their suggestions by having an online poll.

  • Create a guest list

You have to decide who and how many people to invite to the party. Do you want an employee only event or one that includes close friends and family? Your budget will help determine the number of guests you can have.

  • Choose a theme

Themed parties are always a lot of fun and should reflect the retirees character, career, interests or hobbies. The type of theme can be determined by co-workers using an online poll. A theme will establish the decor, invitation design, dress code, music and entertainment at the retirement party.

  • Send out invitation online

Inviting guests to retirement party by email is simple and saves you time and money. The invitation should specify the location, time, date, purpose of the event, and how to RSVP online. The invitation can direct guest to the party website where they can learn more about the details of the event including directions, parking instruction, travelers information and about any secret or special guests.

  • Ticket purchase online

If you choose to sell tickets to the retirement party, it will be more convenient for guests to be able to purchased them online, directly from the website, using their credit card. This is simpler then writing a cheque and mailing it in.

  • Selecting a gift

A gift registry can be set up on the website, with details or a direct link to stores or items the retiree would enjoy. Usually co-workers will chip in for one big gift for the retiree. Using the online message board or poll, co-workers can discuss and vote on the gift they want to purchase. Some examples of good retirement gifts include books, golf clubs, or luggage.

A very meaningful gift would be one that would also be a keepsake for the retiree. This could be a personalized framed retirement plaque, or you can ask guests in advance to submit pictures or a few words about their experience or relationship with the retiree, and assemble a memento book to present to the retiree at the party. Another way to really demonstrate appreciation is to name a wing of the office after the retiree, which really indicates how much the retiree has contributed.

The retiree may ask that contributions to their favorite charity be made in their honor rather than gifts. The website can express information about the charity of choice and why it was selected by the retiree. To making giving easy, all donations can be made online.

  • Festive ambience

You want to create a fun atmosphere for the party while at the same time really focusing on the guest of honor. Aside from balloons, banners and streamers, decorations should emphasize the retiree's life, accomplishments, and interests. You can blow up photos of the retiree through the years and place them through the location or each table can have a centerpiece with a specific theme relating to a part of the retiree's life or their hobbies.

  • Plan entertainment

A retirement party differs from other celebratory parties, however you should still have music (can hire a DJ or band or simply set up speakers) and someone in charge of taking pictures and video (can hire a photographer or videographer or have a co-worker do) it.) Photos and videos of the party can be uploaded onto the website for the retiree and guests to browse through after the event.

Seeing as the party is centered on the person's career, the entertainment should also focus on the retirees profession and accomplishments. Guests can make speeches sharing stories, experiences and what they've learned from the retiree, and toasts expressing how the retiree has impacted their lives. Having a roast is also always entertaining and a comical way to show admiration. The guest of honor may also want to make a speech expressing his gratitude to all those involved in helping make professional career a success. All can be recorded and the videos can be uploaded on the website to remember all the kind words that were said at the party.

A slideshow can be created and played through a guests speech or toast or roast or you can have a slideshow running all night in the background as it is a simple set up and amusing for guests. You should start collecting photos from relatives, friends and colleagues in advance that represent the work and life of the retiree. The slideshow can later be uploaded onto the website and watched again at any time.

Other fun pre-planned entertainment at the party can be having co-workers putting on skits, or composing a humorous song or poem to be performed at the party and recorded to be placed on the party website. A big board with many pictures of the guest of honor with co-workers and colleges can be displayed, and guests can sign the board which the retiree can take home with them after the party.

  • Stay in touch

The website is an excellent way to foster communication before and after the party. It is a great way to make suggestions and share stories and photos. Guests and the retiree can visit the website even after the party and continue to correspond with one another as the website acts as a private communication hub. The website will help with sharing and recall happy memories about the retirees career before and after the party.

How to Be Sexy and Find Love – A Stripper's Secrets Revealed

Strippers are real women just like you, but they have learned the secret combination to sexiness and have got it down to a fine art. You do not need a wig, fake tan, stilettos or professional lighting to make men eat out of the palm of your hand. External appearance can help, but it mostly comes down to confidence and attitude. You do not need bucket-loads of money either. Here are a few simple, yet minor tricks you can use to ooze sex appeal and unleash your inner sex kitten.

1. Confidence
Sometimes it can be hard to pinpoint what makes a woman alluring. There's just something about the way she stands, moves or her intrinsic body language that says, 'Hey baby. I am a powerful and sexy woman. Come on over (meow …). ' At the root of this mysterious quality is self-confidence. To become sexy you need to build up your self-confidence. The best way to do this is to accept and love the body that God gave you (with a little perseverance, it's easier than it sounds). Believe me, not all men are attracted to Barbie doll look-a-likes. Your body is unique and you owe it to yourself to compliment and celebrate it.

Find ways to boost your self-confidence and your sexiness level will soar. One way you can do this is to focus on highlighting your best features. For example: If you have beautiful eyes, then apply cosmetics to enhance their impact. Another way to build self-confidence is to practice saying positive affirmations to yourself like, 'I am woman. Hear me roar! ' or 'I feel positive and vibrant everyday,' or 'I love my body. I feel sexy and voluptuous. '

2. Posture
The more you work on building your self-confidence, the more you'll notice your post improvement. Women who are confident and stand up straight, look and feel like they're ready to take on the world. So stand up straight and stick your breasts out. You will immediately get more attention and look more approachable. Your entire energy will change in a more positively sexy and assertive way.

3. Premeditated Body Language
Just like posture, body language has a powerful effect on the senses. You might ask why I refer to it as 'pre-meditated?' I call it this because body language is usually something you're unaware of. However, in the following techniques we kindly think about how we are going to use body language to influence and seduce men.

You can use body language to your advantage by echoing the movements of the man you're attracted to. If he looks in a certain direction, take a few seconds, then look in the same direction as him (this could also give you both another talking point in your conversation). Also, if he takes a sip of his drink, synchronize with him and take a sip of yours at the same time. You can also use your hands to rub or softly trace lines and circles on your glass, on the bar, your handbag or on either of your bodies. Only do this in nonsexual places, like his arm or tie (you want to be sexy, not tarty). Move slowly and gracefully in everything that you do. These tame, but flirtatious movements go along way to concreting your sexy mojo vibe. Tip: Do not play with or flick your hair too much. It does not project the desired sexiness and some men find it irritating.

4. Appearance
Take pride in your appearance. You do not have to take on an exhausting beauty routine, though you must at least shower regularly and moisturize your skin. Usually the bigger the beauty routine, the better the confidence. Add a few little finishing touches here and there, week by week and see what makes you feel the most seductive. For example, use a scanned body wash or paint your nails.

5. Listen
Listen to what he is really saying and focus all of your concentration on him. Forget about "trying" to be accepted and making yourself look good. Stop talking, and let the spotlight fall on him. This does not mean you will not make any contributions to the conversation. It just means that it will not be so focused on you. Many males have the mistaken belief that women talk too much. Ask him questions about topics he's passionate about and slowly he will open up to you. If you take the time to listen to him, it will give you an element of mystery that will increase your sexiness. This is because most people can talk about themselves all day and when somebody else is interested, they immediately feel connected and more intimate with them. By doing this, you create the space for more sexiness to breed.

6. Pheromones
On the subject of breeding, I always struggled in my science classes when I was at high school. Even though I sucked at it, I did pick up something worthwhile. Here's a valuable chemistry lesson every woman should know. Pheromones are invisible secretions from our sweat glands that travel through the air and let men know that you are ripe and ready for breeding. These pheromones encourage attraction, intimacy and action! Some scientists believe oral contraceptives can interfere with your natural pheromones and change their quality.

If you're on the pill you could consider alternative methods of birth control and see if your sex appeal changes. But it's most important your method of contraception works effectively for you. There are natural alternatives you can try that will boost your invisible booty call. They include taking herbal supplements like zinc, sticking to a healthy diet, getting regular exercise and showering with no soap (as long as you do not get too stinky). There is also a range of products on the market that claim to increase your pheromones. Some of these perfumes, gels, oils, lotions and love potions are a little 'hocus pocus' so only choose reputable companies with proven results.

7. Self-respect
If sexiness was a diamond, self-respect is probably one of the diamond's hardest facets. Self-respect can be tough to build and does not usually just happen overnight. It can take a lifetime to develop and involves caring about yourself and acknowledging your worth on all levels. The best way to develop self-respect is to be true to yourself and your needs while still respecting the needs of others. Look after yourself and take care of your appearance because it will help you to build confidence. Another way to nurture self-respect is not taking criticism personally and not comparing yourself with others.

If you become jealous of someone else this can make you feel worthless in his or her shadow. The key is to celebrate their success with them and treat it as another source of happiness available to you. Be comfortable with yourself, rather than trying to impress others with fancy cars and accessories, etc. Look for the good qualities in everyone and they will be mirrored back to you. Why is self-respect sexy? It is the epitome of class that we all strive for, gives you a particular air of mystery and colors your mannerisms in an intoxicating way.

You might think that some of these ideas are unorthodox, but trust me when I say they've been tested on thousands of men with great success. Some elements of sexiness like building self-respect and self-confidence will take practice, but others are easy to gain like changing your post and improving your appearance. The more you work at it, the better results you'll get. Do not give up if you do not get a response immediately. Once you get the combination of these factors just right, 'Mr Right' is sure to come your way. On the road to finding (or keeping) your man, you may even discover you have gained something more valuable. You can not put a price on feeling happy, passionate, confident and positive about who you are and the life you are living. Every woman describes to feel sexy and so do you! So, go get em 'tiger …

Steps to Diagnose Connection Problems in Netgear Wireless Router

The article explains the steps that can be taken to diagnose and resolve connection issues in Netgear wireless router. The methods compiled here are simple and correct until date. It is strongly recommended that users follow the instructions carefully to avoid running into problems. This will eventually save them time as well as money that would otherwise be sent contacting Netgear router support.

Netgear wireless routers are known for their excellent wireless speed and performance. After that, these may create internet or wireless problems at times due to several reasons including recently made changes to the computer or device settings, connection problem, and outdated drivers among others. The below mentioned guide will help you scan as well as fix the connection issues on your own and without the help of Netgear technical support.

Instructions:

Turn off all the devices including computer, router, and the modem respectively in the order and wait for a few seconds (20-30 seconds). Thereafter turn them back on in the same order. Connect to the internet and check whether the problem has been fixed or not. This is the simplest and most widely used method to resolve common connection problems as it clears up the existing settings and starts a fresh connection.

If the previous method did not fix your problem, then check this out. Update the router driver (s) by visiting the Netgear website. Check if any updates are available to download for the drivers. If there are, download and install them. If prompted, reboot all the devices. Beside, run Windows Update and simply download and install all the latest updates. Restart the computer when prompted. Upgrade the router's firmware also.

First check, whether you can connect to the internet on a wired connection or not. Make your wireless computer a wired one by connecting the Ethernet cable to your computer and router. If internet works on the wired one but not on the wireless, then you can follow any of these steps mentioned here. However, if internet does not connect on the wired computer, then this can be considered as the root cause of the problem. Take corrective steps to resolve this problem and then move on to the wireless connection problem. One of these steps include checking the cables etc. Whether these are firmly placed in or not. These should not be broken or damaged that may be causing your connection to drop repeatedly. If everything is fine on your end and you are still not able to go online, contact your internet service provider (ISP).

Login to the router's interface (you will be required to make a wired connection to logon) and review the settings. To do so, open your internet browser and type '192.168.2.1' (without quotes) in the address bar. Hit the Enter key on the keyboard to proceed. When prompted for login credentials, enter this in and hit Enter again. Review the settings and if required modify them. For example, assign or change SSID, channel numbers, mode, security key WEP or WPA, and / or access point etc.

If you recently made changes to your computer, undo these by restoring the computer to an earlier point in time when things were fine. It should resolve the issue caused by the changes.

Additional Tips:

If you are using Windows XP with Service Pack 1 (SP1), then upgrade it to SP2 or SP3. It has been strongly recommended to upgrade to the latest SPs to avoid facing wireless connection drop problems.

Is G & G Airsoft Good? A Quick Look at the Guns From G & G Airsoft

With all of the popular brands of airsoft guns on the market it can be difficult to know what brand is good and what brand is bad. One of the more popular brands that is popular right now is G & G. Below I will tell you a little more about the offers from this company.

Is G & G Airsoft Good

The answer is yes they are for a variety of reasons. The nice thing about this company is that they offer guns in a wide range of styles and price range. This means that beginners can buy a lower entry level gun that still performs well and move up when time and money allow them to.

What Are The Popular Series of Airsoft Guns From G & G

One of the more popular series is the combat machines series. These guns are made from thick high impact ABS plastic and cost under $ 175.They come in many variants like the M4 and AK47. Do not let the low price fool you the combat machine series offer high rates of fire and velocities around 350 FPS and can hold their own in any skirmish.

Electric Blow back Models

Another cool option in the combat machine series is the electric blow back models. These offer the same performance of the standard combat machine series but have a air operated blow back bolt that really adds the realism of the gun. These are still priced under $ 200 and are made from primarily high impact ABS plastic

High End Guns

After that price point the higher end G & G airsoft guns begin to have all metal construction, tight borers and shooting velocities approaching 400 FPS. The prices for these higher end models can range in price from high two hundred dollar range to over $ 400. Many of these guns are assault rifles but there are also many sniper rifles available as well. There are many blow back models in the higher end guns as well.

The Facts You Need To Know About Mud Bogging Trucks

If you are a fun off-road sports fan and you find it thrilling to have a good time, you can have a great experience by riding mud bogging trucks. These vehicles are popular particularly in Canada and the United States. Riding them is a very exhilarating experience. The mud bogging sport combines the thrill of racing, the fun that comes from off-road racing, the love of performance vehicles and the love that little boys have of playing in the mud, which many adults still have.

This sport was introduced in the 1970s when lovers of off-road racing started competing against each other in muddy, boggy and dirty areas that they could find and this was mostly in swampy areas of North Carolina. Mud bogging is now an organized competition since organizers of motorsports shows picked up on it. They started including large pits filled with mud for racing in their shows and the sport became popular for both racers and spectators. This popular event is usually arranged on a monthly or yearly basis and at certain places, the competitions are held on a weekly basis. These events are great for a weekend out with your friends or your family.

The goal of the mud bogging sport is to try your best to drive through huge mud puddles. The person who is able to drive all the way through a huge mud puddle becomes the winner. If a number of drivers make their way through, the driver who took the shortest time is considered to be the winner. These trucks are usually four wheel drive since it is not possible for two wheel drives to make it through the huge mud puddles.

Mud bogging trucks also have a strong engine that is able to provide the needed power to take them through the puddles. They usually have special modifications such as very large wheels so that they can be more efficient in accomplishing the task. The mud bogging sport continues to grow each year and competitors engage in interesting actions to ensure that they become winners. For example, they modify the body of the vehicles and some even alter the tires in certain ways.

Most competitors attach lift kits on their trucks, which serve the purpose of giving the vehicles the needed elevation that allows them to clear off the mud. The other common alteration made in these trucks is the installation of larger tires that have deeper tracks. They give the vehicles more traction and enhance the chances of a driver becoming a winner in the sport. These vehicles are also turbo charged and have nitrous injections. They are like monster trucks on steroids.

The trucks are usually very attractive since they usually have shiny and sleek bodies that are in the best conditions. They then battle out in the filthy mud and come out covered in it and even if one does not become the winner, the entertainment offered is great. Bog tracks can be of various kinds; some are open, others hilly and others flat. The length of these tracks can be up to 300 feet and this is usually determined by the amount of space that the arena allows.

Nowadays, mud bogging competitions are usually held along with events that feature the driving of monster trucks since the trucks are highly similar. Equipping mud bogging trucks with the right accessories is essential in ensuring that the trucks will be able to navigate through sticky mud puddles. You can start off with the tires by ensuring you get the tires that are able to handle deep holes filled with muck.

The best tires are those that contain aggressive treads. Spaced out tread patterns allow the truck to be able to throw out the mud better. Another helpful idea is to get larger and wider tires since the rig will be able to hold on to more ground. The other thing that you should do is to seal up the electrical system. You can use vulcanizing silicone to seal up exposed areas like the distributor and other engine parts that will fail to work if they come into contact with water.

The other component that mud bogging trucks should contain for increased efficiency is a bigger gear box. It will be able to push the tires better and you can choose to get after market gear box packages. After installing bigger gear boxes, you should ensure that you grease them well in order to prevent damage. You should also consider modifying the intake system so that it will not suck in water. One way to do this is through the installation of a snorkel system, which will make it possible for the intake system to breathe in fresh air.

The other modification that you can do to a mud bogging truck is to secure the radiator. You can move it to the back of the truck so that its chances of getting damaged are reduced. In order to keep it from getting overheated, you can connect an electric fan to it. To increase traction, you can get a set of locking hubs that will allow the transmission to turn the front wheels as they turn the back wheels. This will give the truck more power to move through obstacles.

Are High Performance Olympic Gymnasts Less Likely to Get Sea Sick or Motion Sickness?

It is amazing the amount of talent and ability that our Olympic gymnasts have when it comes to balance. For instance, in gymnastics we have Olympians doing incredible acrobatics on a very thin balance beam. Only rarely do they fall off, or lose their poise even in the most incredible maneuvers. This is one tough apparatus to compete on, and one can only ask; how do they do it? Years and years and days upon end of practice, often six or more hours per day – the results are amazing and no one can disagree with that. Okay so, I'd like to pose another question to you along this line of thinking.

Would high-performance Olympic gymnasts be less sooner to motion sickness or seasiness on a boat? You may not think the answer is relevant, but it actually is, it would mean that people who do training and work on their spatial techniques could prevent themselves from getting sea sick. If that were the case, then sometimes our fighter pilots, sailors, and folks in various other industries and careers might take some gymnasts tumbling classes. Perhaps they may practice on a trampoline, or doing somersault type dives off a high dive into the water.

Could it be that simple? As a pilot, I have noticed doing mild acrobatics (loops, aileron rolls, spins, etc) that it seems to help one's spatial orientation and after a while you do not get vertigo very easily and your body seems to be able to adapt to this. Still, I can also say that when you are doing the maneuvers yourself and you are controlling the process it is much different than when someone else is doing the aerobatics and you are along for the ride such as when you are on a roller coaster. If you are ready for the maneuver, prepare yourself mentally for it, and feel as if you're one with the aircraft during these maneuvers it's also much easier.

Would it be the same for Olympic gymnasts? I'd say it's time we do some studying on our top gymnasts to see if this is relevant, or if we can duplicate this in virtual-reality or augmented-reality until the humans overcome their motion sickness. Why not employee some of these Olympic gymnasts for research and development, and training to prevent motion sickness and sea sickness which imposes the performance of those doing certain tasks in certain careers? Indeed I hope you will please consider all this on a philosophical, psychological, and physiological basis.