Introduction to House Finance

Everyone dreams of being the owner of a house, people work hard all their lives to save enough money so that they can afford a house. A house is of immense importance to us and so people started regarding house ownership as the ‘dream of the free world’ or the ‘Great American Dream’. However, houses do cost a lot and so not everyone can afford to buy them only by depending on their monthly incomes. Thus, the best alternative is to opt for house finance.

What is House finance?

It is the broad term that can be used to describe various lending and borrowing options, for the purpose of buying or constructing a house, like mortgages, home loans etc. It is a huge industry that generates billions of dollars in revenue per year. Lending option for constructing a house is available in almost all the countries, even in rapidly developing economies like Brazil, India and Russia this concept of borrowing capital has become very popular among the working professionals.

Lending Institutions:

Banks: they are the most traditional lenders of home loans and they still continue this practice. In most countries the public sector banks, in which the government has a stake, offer these loans at a very subsidized rate for the betterment of the people.

Mortgage companies: they specialize in home loans and thus offer a reduced loan processing time. However, they do have strict eligibility criteria and offer a higher interest rate on all loans.

Private Lenders: there are many private institutions who lend money for housing purposes. They mostly do it on a regional level but we also have big players who indulge in this business of lending across the country. They often ask for a substantial collateral security for the loan and offer the highest rate of lending.

Main Eligibility Criteria:

Credit history: it is the most important criteria to get a home loan; with a low credit score it would be impossible for anyone to get a loan, even if a person somehow manages to get it with a low credit score, then the interest rate offered will be too high. The ideal credit score in the US is above 600 to get a loan with a low-interest rate on any house finance.

Monthly Income: it is important that the monthly income of the person who applies for a loan is sufficient to pay off the monthly installments of the loan. So, do keep in mind that your salary will determine the amount of money that can be approved.

10 Tips for Installing Concrete Worktops

Whether you are a contractor or a DIY enthusiast, installing concrete worktops or a concrete countertop poses certain challenges that can easily be overcome with the right know-how. These 10 tips for installing concrete worktops will give you the insight required to make the job go smoothly.

1. Prepare a template as you would with any other type of countertop. On the template, leave a 1/8 inch gap to accommodate the reality that all walls feature slight bows and dips. Gaps can be covered by the backsplash or filled with grout, an easier fix than trying to make a unit fit that is just too tight.

2. Where sections do fit too snugly, use a diamond-bladed angle grinder to gently reduce the concrete until it fits. Go slowly with this and recheck the fit after every minute or two of grinding. In cases of extreme misfit, the drywall may have to be blocked out. Be sure any drywall work occurs below or up to the level of the concrete countertop, especially where no backsplash is going to be installed.

3. Properly shim the sink before installing a concrete countertop. This will help to avoid gaps between the top of an undermount sink and any concrete worktops. If slight gaps still exist after installation, lifting clamps may be used to raise the sink to fit properly.

4. If you are casting the concrete worktops, have the plumbing fixtures with you. This allows you to leave the room the plumber will require to reach the tightening nut with fingers and tools. If a problem fit arises, crack out the grinder.

5. Be prepared to shim concrete worktops so that separate sections join evenly. No matter how carefully the separate pieces are prepared and cast, some imperfections will likely be found. Do not use wood shims since they may rot or compress. Plastic shims work well. Another option is to drill metal deck screws up from underneath, through the plywood deck, and turn them until the countertop is raised to the perfect height.

6. Avoid chips and breaks in the worktops by using foam and cardboard. The pieces of the worktop or the concrete countertop should be encased in foam during transportation to the job site. When attempting to shove these heavy pieces together, place cardboard strips between the pieces to cushion them. Then pull out the cardboard and gently coax the sections the rest of the way.

7. Use brackets or reinforcement rod to support cantilevered concrete worktops over 12 inches. Putting weight on an unsupported section can lead to a nasty crack. Proper supports will avoid this damage.

8. Add support to cheap base cabinets if you think they won’t stand up to the weight of the concrete worktops. This can be done by installing a piece of ½-inch plywood to evenly distribute the weight or by adding vertical supports at the back of the cabinets to rest the rear edge of the concrete on.

9. Be prepared for minor patchwork that needs to be done. Always have sand, cement or epoxy filler and liquid pigment blend on hand for minor repairs to concrete worktops.

10. Avoid slow-downs on the installation by having every tool with you that you may possibly need. Prepare a thorough checklist of both tools and materials so you won’t waste time running to the shop or store to get what you need.

Careful installation of concrete worktops or a concrete countertop will ensure a good fit and no damage. Following these tips will produce success whether you are a contractor or are tackling the project in your own home.

DeWALT DCD760KL Cordless Drill

As a contractor by weekdays and handyman around the house by weekends, I love writing reviews on power tools and decided it was time to check out the range of cordless drills. There is more to cordless drills than meets the eye so I took some time to really get into the details to find out the best one on the market today for the home handyman as well as for my professional jobs. My extensive research finally led me to the DeWALT DCD760KL 1/2-inch Lithium-Ion Cordless Drill.

What to Look for When You Are On The Market?

Based on my extensive experience using power tools, there are a few important elements to keep in mind when looking for cordless drill. These are:

  • Battery Voltage
  • Battery Types and Technology
  • Overall Weight
  • Speed Range and Torque
  • Chuck Size
  • Any additional features that will make us more efficient to finish our jobs

If you just buy a tool based on the price alone, or based on the nice look or color, then soon you are destined for trouble particularly if you are going to be using the cordless drill on a regular basis. So stick with me here as I will be explaining each of those elements in relation to the DeWALT DCD760KL Cordless Drill.

What Battery Voltage? What Type and Technology used?

Cordless tools powered by battery. Hence, one of the most important components of a cordless tools is the battery itself, what voltage the battery is, what type of battery and technology the manufacturer implemented on their battery products. The first element is the battery voltage. And the greater the volts the faster the motor spins and therefore the more powerful the drill.

DeWALT DCD760KL powered by new 18-Volt compact Lithium-Ion batteries for top notch charging and long life battery usage. Lithium-Ion battery considered one of the best for cordless drill use. Compared to old technology of NiCad batteries which are commonly used in older models, Lithium-Ion batteries last longer and are lighter too. They also have a quick recharging characteristics so you can get back to your job much quicker. The Compact Lithium-Ion batteries will quickly charge in just 30 minutes and you are ready to go. DeWALT include not only 1 but 2 (two) batteries for longer runtime. This batteries are amazingly provide back compatibility with any of the existing battery system of DeWALT 18-Volt power tools produced since 1996, which is really big saving in case you already have other DeWALT cordless tools. With 2 (two) Lithium-Ion batteries in the package and super quick charger, you will experience very minimal downtime for your project.

Power VS Weight

As mentioned earlier, this DeWALT DCD760KL use high power 18-Volt batteries, and it does have a downside that generally the more volts you have the heavier the battery and therefore the heavier the drill will be. So you need to keep this in mind when choosing a drill. Think about whether you will be using it for long periods. If so, you don’t want anything too heavy – you will really be feeling it by the end of the day.

This DeWALT DCD760KL is powered by 18-Volt battery, making it so powerful but amazingly lightweight at just 4.0 lbs, so that it won’t put undue pressure on your wrist. You’ll thank it by end of the day or after a long jobs.

Speed Range and Torque

DeWalt DCD760KL offers the convenience of a Dual Speed Ranges of 0-500 and 0-1,700 RPM (Rotations Per Minute) for optimal versatility. Use lower speed for driving screws while higher speed for drilling holes. DeWalt DCD760KL equipped with 17 clutch settings! That’s a lot of settings to serve you for various projects. Most cordless drills have a clutch setting to limit the torque for different jobs. Located immediately behind the chuck, the clutch (an internal mechanism) will disengage the drive shaft of the drill and make a clicking sound when a preset level of resistance is reached. This will prevent not stripping screws and at the same time protects your drill’s motor. As a basic reference, better drills tend to have more clutch settings.

What is 1/2-Inch Chuck Size?

Drills on the market typically available in one of two different-sized chucks, 3/8-inch or 1/2-inch. These measurements refer to the largest drill bit shank the chuck can accept. Generally most drills have 3/8-inch chuck but this DeWalt DCD760KL has a 1/2-inch chuck, meaning that it can be used with 1/2 inch drill bits, offering greater flexibility.

Any Additional Features?

Additional nice feature is LED Work Light which provides increased visibility in confined spaces and dark areas.

What Warranty Provided?

Buying DeWALT DCD760KL Cordless Drill is a risk-free business. It’s backed by a limited three-year warranty, 90-day money-back guarantee, one-year free service contract, and two-year free service contract on the batteries.

What’s Included In The Package?

  • DCD760KL Cordless Drill/Driver
  • 2 (two) Compact Lithium-Ion Batteries
  • 30-minute yellow top Lithium/NiCad Charger (meaning it can be used to charge NiCad battery as well)
  • Heavy-Duty Carrying Case

Using an Ouija Board – Frequent Questions & Answers

Questions raised when using a Ouija board and answers provided based on my own experiences:

Is the board evil or dangerous?

I never really understood this question.  No the board is not dangerous.  I have had a couple of very strong spirits come through who were persistent and arrogant but I have never experienced any danger as such.  Of course, there are negative/evil spirits out there, just as you have evil people in this world, but remember spirits are all around us, everywhere, all the time.  The board itself is not evil, nor dangerous and in saying this, the board should also not be associated with the Devil or Demons!

Do I need any symbols like a pentagram?

It is entirely up to you. If you personally feel safer using a pentagram then use one.  Being in control is a state of mind. If you feel stronger using a symbol or crystals or anything then go for it.  It won’t make any difference to the spirit, it is entirely for yourself and your own peace of mind.

Will I get haunted?

I have no idea. People get haunted without ever even using a board.  This question is a bit like asking “If I drive a car will I have an accident”.

How do I contact someone I knew?

You invite them to come to talk to you. Never ever summon someone from the other side unless it is an emergency. I have utmost respect for spirit and I personally do not agree with forcing them to come through. They have jobs to do on the other side too.

How will I know that my friends or perhaps even myself are not pushing the planchette or glass?You will never know if someone else is pushing it, you need to trust your instinct. As long as you rest your fingertips very lightly on the glass or planchette there is no way you would be able to push or pull it.

I need information from someone who has passed on?

This is not always possible. You cannot expect too much from what you receive through the board and you cannot always trust the spirit you are talking to is the person who you are trying to contact.  Always bear in mind that any information you receive through the board may not be truthful.

How do I know if the spirit is telling the truth?

You must always be very careful and never take any information you receive as gospel. Write it all down, discuss it, and perhaps even investigate the information given to you later.

If a family member comes through to speak to me, is it really them?

If someone who claims to be a family member comes through on my board I ask certain questions that only myself and the spirit should know the answer to.  Even then I advise caution.

What do I do if I feel unsafe?

Most spirits can only linger for a couple of minutes as it is extremely exhausting for most.  Many also do not know how to use the board properly and by the time you have taught them how it works, they disappear.  If however, you receive a strong spirit through and you do not feel as though they have gone after saying goodbye, I advise burning white sage (available on eBay, for example, or any new age shop) and wafting the smoke in and around your house.  Please make sure you burn it in a fireproof dish and ensure it is properly extinguished when you have finished.

Will the spirits harm my animals?

Not to my knowledge.  Animals are sensitive to spirit and so I believe they can hold their own anyway.

Will I be judged for using a board when I die?

In a word, no… unless you hold incredible guilt for the rest of your life for using one then you will make your own judgement.

Where do I buy a Ouija Board from & how much are they?

You can buy them anywhere these days and prices vary.  You can also make one yourself or download one from the web which usually consists of two A4 sheets of paper.  All you need to do is print it out, tape the two halves together and bingo you have an instant Ouija board.  If you have a laminator you can laminate it too!  As a pointer you can use a coin, glass, flat crystal .. just about anything.

If I use a glass as a pointer should I break it afterwards?

Unfortunately the Media hype surrounding Ouija boards has to take the blame for this question.  No you don’t need to break anything. It won’t make any difference to whatever you are trying to achieve apart from make a mess and leave you one glass down in your cupboard!

What happens if the board says that I am going to die or something bad is going to happen?

Shut the board down and don’t ever dwell on this information as it is unlikely to be true.  This will most likely be one of your friends moving the pointer/planchette to scare everyone as a joke.

Will the board start moving on it’s own when I am not touching it?

No, it is not possible.  Spirits require your energy to move the planchette and even this is extremely tiring and exhausting for them.  It is virtually impossible for a spirit to move something from its own energy.  Poltergeists are a completely different entity and are not usually relevant for Ouija board experiences.

Will my spirit guides talk to me?

Actually, probably not.  They are your guides to guide your spirit and higher self.  It is rare for them to make themselves known to you on a physical level unless you are spiritually ready.

I am under 18, can I use a board?

For your own safety I would advise against using a board until you are mentally, emotionally and spiritually mature enough to hold control over the board and over yourself.  There is a reason why the age 18 was made the legal age for many things and I also believe that at around 18 (give or take a year) you are generally more experienced and probably have an entirely different outlook on life and death than a perhaps a 14 year old would, for example.

If anyone has any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.

Safety Note:

Do not use the board for longer than an hour and a half. This is exhausting for both yourself and the spirits, and can be harmful.

It is always advisable to “ground” yourself afterwards by eating and drinking something.

The more you use the board the more spirit activity it will create (similar to a magnet). The board can become addictive to some people and this is harmful, not only to your well being but this can also attract unwanted negative energies and bad spirits. It is advisable to not use the board more than twice a week.

Be safe, be successful – but most of all enjoy!

Six Benefits of Having a Screened Porch on Your Home

Are you considering adding a screened porch to your home or screening the porch that is already on your home, but are not sure if this is a good idea or not? Then you need to know the many benefits to having porch enclosures.

Knowing these benefits will help you make your final decision easier because you will be able to see why so many people are opting for a screened porch design over one that is open to the environment completely.

Here are the most important benefits you need to know about to help you make the smart decision for your home.

  1. Enjoy the outdoors without the insects and bugs – Being outdoors is an enjoyable experience until you start dealing with all of the insects and bugs that come out during the day and at night. Having a porch that is enclosed will allow you to enjoy the outdoors without having to deal with the bugs and insects.
  2. Spend quality family time – An enclosed porch allows you and your family to spend quality time together playing games or eating dinner together. There are a lot of different things your family can enjoy together on your enclosed porch.
  3. Entertain friends and family – Your friends and family members can use it for a place to get together and enjoy the outdoors. Have a small get together on your porch and you will be amazed at how much everyone enjoys it.
  4. Spend quiet time – If you like to read or nap outdoors, then the enclosed porch gives you a way to do that easily. You can spend as much quiet time as you can manage to get on your porch to help you relax and unwind. In fact, it can act as a sleeping porch for you.
  5. Safe place for kids to play – If you have kids, then letting them play on the porch is great for rainy days and inclement weather. Toddlers enjoy playing on the porch, too.
  6. Adds value and curb appeal – Most people do not realize that a porch that is enclosed adds value to their home and also adds wonderful curb appeal. Very helpful when your home goes on the market.

Now that you know the benefits of having a screened porch, you can see why they are popular with so many different people. You can now also make a smart decision for your own home on whether to add porch enclosures or not. Having an enclosed porch definitely provides you with many enjoyable benefits.

How to Choose the Right Roofing Contractor

A good roof is an essential part of any business or residential building. It not only needs to look good, but it also needs to keep the building safe, especially what is on the inside of the building. Here are some things to consider when choosing a roofing contractor.

One of the first things to look into is the company’s name and address. Since the advent of the internet, everyone gets their information online. When looking at roofing contractors, make sure they have an actual physical address. A PO box or temporary office may provide insight to the lack of financial stability the roofing contractor has. It also makes it much harder to locate the contractor should a problem arise.

Another important item to look into is how long the roofing contractor has been in the business. The longer a roofing contractor has been in business, the more stable the company. Roofing contractors in business for fewer than five years may be unstable and still learning how to do things the right way by making mistakes. A roofing company that has been around for awhile tends to have a good reputation for doing the job and getting it done right.

A professional roofing contractor will have all the necessary insurance to protect the contractor and all employees. This includes liability insurance and workers’ compensation. To verify their insurance, ask for a certificate of insurance and then call up the insurance company to guarantee the roofing contractor is current and has not lapsed on their insurance. Workers’ compensation is especially important because without it, if a worker gets injured on the job, the building owner can be held liable. This means paying for all medical bills and compensating for out of work paycheck losses.

Aside from insurance, a good roofing contractor needs to have a license to do the job. Most states declare it illegal to hire a contractor without a license. If a building owner hires an unlicensed contractor and they do a shoddy job that causes damage to the interior and/or exterior of the building, the owner will most likely not be able to recoup any costs.

Never choose a roofing contractor without first getting references and referrals. Always ask for photographs of completed work that is similar to what is being requested. Ask for a list of at least six of the most recent customers. While individuals do not have to call all of them, it provides an opportunity to pick randomly. Ask them questions such as if they were satisfied with the final job, if the contractor cleaned up afterwards and if the contractor did everything listed in the estimate. Finally, always ask if they would rehire that roofing contractor again.

One last thing to look at before choosing a roofing contractor is their record of solving any customer complaints. The Better Business Bureau offers insight of the number of complaints and how they were solved. It is always better to locate a roofing contractor that is a member of the BBB. Individuals can also call the state licensing board to see if there have been complaints against the license and/or if it has been suspended in the past.

Differences in Socket Sets

Socket sets are a tool used to tighten and loosen nuts and bolt. They attach things in a different way than screws and screwdrivers which we are all familiar with. Sockets are cups in polygonal shapes that have a place to attach to a driver of some sort. You place them over a polygon nut or bolt head and screw them on or screw them off depending on wither you’re assembling or dis-assembling. Some socket sets come with a ratchet wrench, other sets don’t have a ratchet wrench in the set. Socket sets come in a number of kits in various sizes, shapes and depths. They fall into categories in a number of ways. You can categories them by what kind of metal they are made of, wither they are deep welled or shallow sockets, wither they are in inches or millimeters, what size driver they need, what kind of nut and bolt they work on. They can come with a ratchet wrench; other sets don’t have a ratchet wrench in the set and all can be used with the right size power drivers. Here are the basics in differences in socket sets.

1. Chrome Plated Steel

The first set of sockets most people get is a 40 piece hex socket set. These are also known as the 6 point socket. There are 12 point socket also but they are still used on the six sided nut and bolt. These kits come with a ratchet wrench and 20 SAE (inches) sizes, and MM (millimeter) metric sizes. Both types fit over six sided nuts and bolts, the common ones found around the house. They usually are made of steel plated with chrome to keep them from rusting. They are very serviceable for things in a home, and may be all you may need if you’re not going to branch out to other types of work.

2. Higher Grade Chrome Vanadium Steel Alloy

One step up from this set (#1) would be the hex socket set described above, but is made from a hard chrome vanadium steel alloy. This is much tougher metal and is more resistant to rusting and is stronger. They are usually polished to a mirror finish. This type of kit will last you a lifetime.

3. Non- Hex sockets

If you get into things outside of your home you will find you run into nuts that are not six sided. Automobiles for example usually are five sided nuts and bolts. You need a different series of socket for this type of work. Most non-hex sockets are used industrially.

4. Impact Socket Sets

These kits are made to be used on an impact power driver. They are usually made from chrome molybdenum steel, but you also find them in chrome vanadium steel. Whichever alloy they are made from the metal is softer and can mold to the sides of the nut or bolt. These sockets are made for heavy duty jobs and are more brittle harder than the previously discussed sets, which can be dangerous in power driven situations. The harder ones can shatter if the nut you’re trying to get off is stronger than you are. The impact sockets will simple break into two pieces and are safer in these situations. The impact sockets look different and are not plated in chrome or polished to a mirror finish, but are usually black or a metallic gray.

Rough Openings

In the construction of any home, there are a number of openings that are framed or cut into the walls, floors and ceilings of the building in order to make a room for certain things such as windows, doors, stairways and even medicine cabinets and toilet paper holders. In construction, these areas in the framing are known as rough openings, and placement and size are very important.

Door Rough Opening

In order for something to fit into the wall and fit securely, the opening for it needs to be the right size. Too small, and it won’t fit into it; too large, and you either won’t be able to fasten the item into place, or you’ll have large gaps around it that will make it difficult to trim it out.

The size of the rough opening depends on what is going in it. Some standards and practices go into some of the openings, and some need to have a little more attention when framing.

When framing a pre-hung door, the standard is to make the rough opening two inches wider and two inches higher than the size of the door. So if you were framing for a 36-inch door, the rough opening would be 38 inches wide. Most residential doors are six feet eight inches high, which is 80 inches, so the standard rough opening height is 82 inches.

The same would apply to bi-fold doors that have a wood frame around the inside of the opening. A four-foot wide (48-inch) set of bi-fold doors with a wood frame would require an opening that was 4’2” in width (50 inches), and the height would again be 82 inches. For bi-fold doors that will be going into a drywall opening, the rough opening width should be equal to the width of the door. Now the standard for framing the height of the door is by adding ¾ to the overall height.

Bypass doors (doors that slide past one another on a track) with a wood frame, the rough opening is the overall width of the doors plus one inch, and the height would be 82 inches. If the bypass doors are going to be installed on drywall opening, you need make the rough opening one inch less than the width of the doors. This allows for the drywall and creates an overlap for the doors where they meet. The track may vary somewhat so the height of the opening typically 80 ¾ inches to 81 ¾ inches.

Pocket doors recess into a frame inside the wall. When framing a rough opening for a pocket door, the standard is to frame the door twice its size so you can fit the door and the recess into the opening. So, for a two-foot eight-inch (32-inch) pocket door and frame, the rough opening should be five-foot six-inches (66 inches). To allow enough room for the track portion of the door, you typically want to frame the door at 84 inches

Sizing a Rough Opening for a Window

As with doors, making sure that the windows rough opening is the correct size is very important. Imagine standing on a ladder with a window, setting the window in the rough opening and finding out that the opening is too small. Then you have to take the windows out, walk it down the ladder, it’s a pain. Determining the size of the rough opening depends on the window itself. Usually when building a new house, plans for the windows area already in place. You can get the window plans form the windows manufacture and build them correspondingly.

Usually wood windows, which consist of the window sash inside of a wooden frame, similar to the construction of a door, will require a rough opening that is two inches wider and taller than the size of the window.

For vinyl and aluminum windows, most manufacturers instruct that the rough opening should be the same size as the window. The manufacturer undersizes all these windows slightly to make sure that the windows fit.

These are just some general guidelines to help you in the process. Make sure to check with the manufacture to guarantee a proper installation and fit.

Adam Lambert – Down the Rabbit Hole Indeed

If you have never heard of Adam Lambert, call a crane-operator to lift that rock you’ve been living under and check out the American Idol phenom’s ‘Glam Nation Live’ CD/DVD…Stat! This live performance set is a phenomenal combination of rock theater, pop grandeur and glam-bam-thank-Adam vocal art. Visually going from something like ‘Blade Runner’ to Elvis just seems like all in a day’s work for Lambert, but the vocals have a very different lineage.

There are a handful of singers who could match the late Freddie Mercury’s super-powered vocals, and Lambert has to be among them. His note-perfect, sky-high performances on AI a few years ago were brought to my attention and after seeing them on YouTube, I immediately became a fan. Apparently Queen did too, because they tapped Lambert for some truly memorable guest spots. Somewhere between rock god and Broadway powerhouse, Lambert’s style seamlessly blends bravado and beauty in a way that’s almost hard to hear at first listen. It’s just too perfect sometimes, but the soul is there, and that’s the thing that puts Lambert’s vocals and style over-the-top.

But this album is great because it shows how smokin’, dead-on, super-human Lambert is as a vocalist and performer. Check out the monster ‘Down the Rabbit Hole’ or the soaring ‘Whattaya Want From Me’ for a sampling of Adam’s phenomenal singing. For a guy who performs with so much sci-fi vaudville swagger and bravado, Lambert comes off as incredibly warm, personable and fun…he’s just having fun at a level most of us never imagined. The multiple angles offered by the DVD are a fun glimpse into the onstage world Lambert creates, but at times, they can almost be a little distracting and overwhelming.

Clearly taking Freddie Mercury’s theatrics into the stratosphere and creating something all his own, Lambert backs it all up with some killer songwriting and vocals most of us still can’t wrap our minds around. Frankly, if this kind of technically advanced singing was all that Adam Lambert had going, he would be boring. Just too perfect. But there’s a real soul and substance to what this gifted ‘Glambert’ puts out there on stage. He truly connects with both the material and the audience all at once, and that is what makes every singer truly successful, whether they can actually sing or not (and while there are a bunch who can’t, this is actually their scecret). Adam Lambert’s ‘Glam Nation Live’ is an absolute must-own!

Great Adventures with Camping Flashlights

Camping being one of the great American leisure and sport has constantly changed and evolved throughout the years as technology has also found its way into the high peaks and shrouded forests. Camping is correlated with sports like hunting, tracking, trailing, fishing and it has also been used centuries ago by warring troops and tribes. As night falls and darkness covers the surroundings, a good bright fire is the most important thing for warmth and guidance. Then suddenly it pours that even the thickest leaves from atop becomes permeable killing the fire instantly. Hence the invention and development of camping flashlights

Camping flashlights today are no longer secondary to bonfires as it has been drastically modified to provide the same functions with lesser risks. These devices offer the same benefits of heat, wide range of illumination and reliability but do not include common risks a campfire could cause. Campfires can burnout from rain, needs wood every now and then to maintain, the heat cannot be adjusted and it can even cause accidents by burning linens or tents.

A camping flashlight proves to be incredibly bright. It has focused and well adjusted illumination from a much lesser light source compared to a big bonfire.

It is hassle-free. You do not have to keep working to keep it on like a bonfire. Its size is relatively small and does not take up space at all. In that sense you can keep your camp closer together around it.

Camping flashlights are dependable and reliable. Depending on the kind, its light source and power never fail. It can easily be stored and other models do not need to be recharged at all.

It provides safety and security. Some camping flashlight models use incandescent or strong xenon lamps that can be adjusted in brightness at the same time adjusting the heat it generates. Most reports say that by simply putting a sleeping bag beside these flashlights, the coldness of the night is very tolerable. Other special add-ons even include a speaker emitting a constant whirring sound that can drive away stray animals and other wildlife for added protection at night. Finally, some are designed so that mosquitoes and other insects are instantly repelled instead of being attracted to the light source.

Here are some excellent camping flashlights.

The Brunton Lamplight Extendible LED Flashlight is small-sized but doubles as a camping LED lantern by raising the flashlight housing. It has a long operational life of 200 hours needing only three batteries. It also has a lifetime guarantee. Another called the Brunton Firelight has a bright white LED located in the base of a windproof camping lighter.

Petzl’s Duobelt LED headlamps provide powerful long range lighting as well as different kinds of close range lighting. This camping flashlight also has a halogen bulb for long distance lighting of up to one hundred meters and uses LED or light emitting diodes for a close range lighting of up to twenty meters. For short range lighting the LED camping lantern provides diffused white light. LEDs of this type provide an intense bright white light and never burn out. A battery pack powers this gadget which can easily be stowed in a pouch, clothing or belt.

The Jonta Camping Flashlight is a state-of-the-art model boasting no battery usage and its very own microprocessor. The most advanced of its kind, it has a 1W LED illumination, an on-board power generator and microprocessor-controlled circuitry and power generator. The on-board generator transforms your own energy into illumination. By cranking it for thirty minutes, the bulb can light up for over ten minutes. It features an AC/DC power that allows up to 24 hours per charge. It also has a brightness and flashing setting for emergency use.

The Super Sabrelite is a waterproof and shockproof camping flashlight engineered to withstand the toughest conditions. Made from unbreakable ABS plastic, it is virtually indestructible and submersible to 500 feet. It uses xenon light 32 times brighter than other xenon brands.

Finally is the Life-Light Camping Flashlight which uses the same technology as the Faraday flashlight by using magnetic induction to generate the LED. By shaking it for ten seconds a blue light runs for five minutes and it requires no batteries so you can have unlimited light source. It is also tightly sealed with O-rings making it waterproof and is designed to float on water.

However you may choose to enjoy the adventure or thrill of nature’s beauty, be sure that you’ll also be ready for it by keeping a camping flashlight at all times.

Aircraft Interior Lighting

Aircraft Interior lighting

A great many types of aircraft lighting are determined by regulations for example, NVIS-friendly lights in military aircraft. It is the passenger cabin that allows the most scope for designer lighting.

Aircraft passenger cabin lighting

Some Passenger Information Signs are obligatory in FAA regulations, for example, fasten seat belt signs or no smoking signs. Interior Utility Lights illuminate cargo or freighter interiors. There is also, of course, Emergency Egress Lighting like floor track emergency lighting or emergency seat-mounted marker lights.

Aircraft Sidewall lights

Interior sidewall panelling systems for passenger aircraft increasingly incorporate large windows for passenger visibility, forward-facing indirect sidewall lighting wall wash lights, enhanced foot area lighting, cabin decompression ventilation, and a flexible, laterally overlapping panel connecting design. Sidewall panel designs have tended in the past to use direct lighting that radiates from above the sidewall and washes down along the panel, and also typically incorporate oval shaped windows. Since the overhead light washes down the panels in the conventional design, when the passengers look up, they are looking directly at the light source.

When the passengers’ windows are oval shaped and relatively small in area, they make it difficult for some passengers, e.g., those not situated immediately adjacent to a window, to see out of the aircraft easily without having to ctrane their necks.

The design challenge has been to produce aircraft interior panels that create a feeling of enhanced space and emphasise interior features by the use of lighting.

Lighting can now include a light source, such as an array of LEDs, whose light colour and intensity can be selected remotely, as well as a light bezel and a light lens. The bezel blocks the direct radiation of light into passenger’s eyes, and instead, directs it forward through the lens, so that the light washes forward.

Kick panels at floor level can also now provide location and mounting for one or more indirect lighting sources that are arranged to radiate light onto the cabin floor at the feet of the passengers, so they can see where to place their feet and easily find items stowed on the floor of the cabin beneath the seats.

LED Lighting solutions

Traditionally Fluorescent Lighting is energy efficient and much used. Also traditionally, Aircraft Passenger Reading Lights have been an integral part of passenger service units alongside the even distribution air “gaspers”. LED lighting is increasingly used for aircraft cabin lighting and has future prospects.

Passenger service units in an aircraft are equipped with a passenger interface and supply adapter. Each adapter includes an individual processor which is programmable independently of the aircraft central control.

LEDs for Aircraft Passenger Reading Lights are an adaptation of the Light-Emitting diodes (LEDs) that have been used in niche aircraft lighting applications, such as “No smoking” and “Fasten seatbelt” signs, for some time. Recent advances in white LED technology have prompted aircraft manufacturers to consider LEDs for more general cabin lighting applications, which could reduce onboard energy consumption.

Traditionally halogen, passenger reading lights have nonsymmetrical beam patterns, meaning that certain parts of the beam are brighter than others, rather than there being an even spread of light. LED systems tend to create a white beam surrounded by a blue ring. LED fixtures do however use half as much energy as the halogen fixture, offering lower replacement costs due to longer life.

LED lighting is clear, but arguably, too bright and too blue or green, creating unnatural skin tone colors.

Aircraft cockpit lighting

What could be more straightforward than aircraft cockpit illumination? Simple white light bulbs for map reading and other flightdeck chores. For years halogen lights have predominated in the cockpit. But now the older technology is beginning to give way to longer-lasting solid state LEDs.

Map and chart lights, table lights, utility, stowage and aisle lights, glareshield lights to floodlight the instrument panel, dome lights, floor lights, emergency lights and oxygen mask lights have all benefitted from more recent developments.

Cockpit mood lighting is rare at this time but studies have shown that tinted lighting in the cockpit by programming it to redden at dawn and dusk, simulating sunrise and sunset, can reduce pilot fatigue during long-haul flights. Cabin mood lighting has been so far been used in the passenger cabin.

Light-Emitting Diodes

New aircraft and retrofits use LEDs in the cockpit to increase reliability and reduce life-cycle cost. These solid state parts consume less power and have no coiled filaments, which can weaken from vibration and temperature extremes. Obsolescence is their Achilles heal. LEDs are solid state, semiconductor devices like a computer chip. Some suppliers offer only LED products, through-hole LEDs, or surface-mount LEDs.

Incandescent Lighting

Incandescent lighting is still about 90 percent of the cockpit lighting market. Incandescent lights, however, don’t last that long. Halogen lamps, using a similar incandescent technology, are replacing conventional bulbs. Of course a light’s life span depends on its circumstances and characteristics. Halogen is favoured for flight crew reading lights. Fluorescent lights last longer than incandescents.

NVIS-friendly lights for military applications

When the C-130 had a lighting retrofit a few years ago, by using the newest and brightest LEDs, several new dual-mode units met or exceeded the requirements of existing visible-only lights. The innovation these new units demonstrated were NVIS Friendly requirements and MIL-STD-3009, the latest lighting standard.

Using Boral Tiles for Your Roofing Needs

Here are some convincing reasons to get this Australian company supply your roofing needs.

1. The durability factor: Boral roofing tiles are made as per the best standards of the industry. These tiles can withstand and bear all kinds of harsh climatic conditions. Whether it’s the monsoon or rough marine climate, these tiles can handle everything with ease. Designed to be salt-safe and resistant to frost, these tiles can be in any region.

2. The style and design factor: No matter what kind of architectural specifications, and designing needs you have your roofing, roof tiles from Boral can fit aptly. The company has designed the roofing tiles in a flexible manner, so that customers can design a roof design of their choice.

3. The sound resistant performance: Are you worried about the noises that disturb your peace, especially because your house is close to the airport or highway? If yes, you need roofing tiles from Boral because these tiles help to eliminate sound from various external sounds such as aircraft and vehicle noises.

4. Insulation properties: Whether it’s the heat of the summers or the chilly winters, these tiles help to maintain your home environment with insulation properties. The tiles manage heat transmission to a large extent.

5. Resistance to fire: Like most home owners, you might be worried protecting your house from accidental fires. The concrete and terracotta roof tiles from Boral are made from quality materials that are noncombustible in nature. You can offer super protection to your home with these tiles.

6. Protection from wind: High wind areas can call upon your roofing, and you need tiles that can withstand wind. Boral roofing solutions can handle all kinds of weather, including windy climate.

7. Low maintenance cost: Tiles from this Australian company is extremely low on maintenance. In case, a particular section of your roof is damaged, you can replace the same at a cost that’s much lesser than other roofing systems. Also, maintenance is easy, and you don’t need to pay any monthly upkeep fees.

8. Long life of the tiles: Boral produces tiles that can last for decades without replacement. You can be assured about the life of your roof as the customer feedback from most corners of the world has been positive about Boral.

With so many benefits, Boral Tiles are worth investing your money. Locate a few dealers in your country who can offer your Boral roofing at best prices. It is advisable that you check the experience of the dealer in the market along with the authenticity of products sold by them. The right roofing solution from this Australian company will be an investment that you can be proud of.

Decorating Your Home Office for Success

Spring is coming and as we all know the traditional spring cleaning comes right along with the season. I am not going to assume you are a messy person, however you should still take into consideration the fact you can still organize a bit more. I don’t think it will be hard to admit that we all have our own bit of cleaning to do.

For your desk try freeing up space by putting papers onto a wall shelf. If you need your papers, try installing a small shelf next to your desk so you can easily access it. By removing clutter in front of you, you create more free space to better think up new ways to improve your business and work more efficiently.

Inspiration is something we all need to be driven to succeed. One way to inspire yourself is to rearrange your current furniture settings. This method is free and can change your outlook on your daily entrance into your office space giving you new motivation for the day. Try having your desk face a window so you can enjoy the view of some spring time plants ,flowers, and some sunshine.

If you cannot get your desk to a good window view try grabbing a few household plants and setting them into your office environment. The key to most of this article is to make yourself feel clear and happy. You need to have a positive environment to produce positive results.

Many of us get into the mode that we must not enjoy work especially if it is at home. Many may feel guilty due to the fact they get to stay home and feel they should be punished for the luxury. You must break free of this cycle and there is no better way than to make your office bright, clean, and cheerful.

I am not saying to turn your office into an entire vacation space here. You need to maintain some professionalism, but make sure you don’t suffer at the hand of complete sterile office environments. Creativity needs to flow and you need to make sure you utilize that creativity to the max as the one person team.

Colors are another aspect you want to consider when redecorating your home office. Maybe you could use a more inspirational color for your walls, something that invigorates your senses and gets you pumped up. Brighter colors are known to stimulate the senses and build energy while muted toned down colors are less distracting and may help you focus better on work.

Finding the right color for your personality is important. You don’t want to pick the wrong color and end up in a cluttered state of mind, so choose wisely which color you want to paint your office if you decide to do so. Remind yourself that this is going to be your place of business, so don’t get lost in romanticizing the colors you would want for a Caribbean vacation, you might end up daydreaming instead of working proactively towards your goals.

If you are having troubles coming up with ideas, there is software that lets you design new layouts for your office space. One popular program is by Better Homes and Gardens called Better Homes and Gardens Interior Designer. This software can better help you design a dream office solution that works best for you.

By changing your office space and outlook you will transfer the great feelings you have inside towards your business goals while feeling healthier and more clear minded. So get ready to get your hands dirty and start changing that office around!

Information About Merbau Wood Flooring

Merbau is one of the rare wooden flooring options when compared to the other types of options like maple and oak. Generally, Merbau wooden floors are used and preferred by those who want their homes to stand out from the rest. It is considered to be an exotic wood and can be a great addition to any room and space. The best thing about Merbau wood floors is that they are durable, beautiful as well as affordable and they add character to any room as soon as they are fitted in the room. The wood has a very rich and dark honey color which makes it a very popular choice for homeowners.

As soon as it has been installed, the Merbau wood warms up the space and the room. Some of the manufacturers also offer plenty of other shades which range from light to dark.

Appearance and Properties of Merbau Wood

The Merbau wood grows in the Indo-Malayan region and in Australia, Indonesia, Philippines as well as quite a lot of Pacific Islands. When the wood is cut fresh, the heart of the wood is orange brown to yellowish color. However, when the wood darkens it turns to a red brown or brown color. The grain of the wood varies from wavy or interlocked to straight. The unique feature of Merbau wood is that the surface of the wood has a yellow flecking and when it is finished it appears as if it is flecked with gold. Merbau is sturdy and as hard as teak. It has a lower density then hickory and has great stability. Another benefit of Merbau is that it is resistant to termites.

Durability and Hardness

Merbau is known to be one of the most durable and hard woods when it comes to flooring. It stands on the Janka scale and is 5% harder than wenge wood, 18% than hard maple and therefore it is considered to be one of the most long lasting woods. Merbau also has a good ability for holding and even if it develops scratches or any type of damages with use over the time, it can be easily refinished with sanding. However, good care must be taken of the Merbau wood flooring since it can get stained when it comes it contact with ferrous metals, iron or moisture.

Merbau is used not just in wooden flooring but can also be seen used in musical instruments, cabinets, decorative wooden items, paneling, joinery and all types of furniture. If you do have any furniture made from Merbau in your home then Merbau wooden floors would go quite well with it. Merbau is suitable for homes with high traffic and kids. Even if you have pets and kids in your family, with just a little care and maintenance it is possible to ensure that your Merbau wooden floors remain as good as new for years. With years the floors gain their own character and continue to evolve over the time, looking more beautiful than ever.

Penis Enlargement Pumps – What You Must Know

Penis enlargement pumps are used by many men to increase the length and girth of their penises. Penis pumps work by creating a vacuum in a glass or plastic cylinder in which the penis is placed. As the air pressure is lowered in the cylinder, the penis expands correspondingly. Subject to this outside force, cells in the penis will multiply in reaction, effectively making itself bigger. This this way, by allowing the penis to remain in this state for prolonged periods of time, the penis can be permanently enlarged.

How to Select a Penis Pump

When choosing a penis enlargement pump, be sure to select one with a cylinder that is neither too big nor too small. If the cylinder is too big, your scrotum will be sucked in during pumping, and if the cylinder is too small it will not allow for any expansion of the penis, thus restricting girth gains. Neither is ideal.

Also, choose a penis pump that comes with a pressure gauge and a pressure relieve valve so that you have better control on the pressure exerted on your penis. The pressure gauge will allow you to monitor the pressure so that you won’t overpressurize, and the pressure relieve valve will allow you to quickly depressurize the pump with the flick of a finger. This kind of setup is a must if you want to minimize the risks that come with the use of a penis pump.

After taking your new pump home (or receiving it in the mail), be sure to wash the cylinder thoroughly using hot water and a small amount of either liquid hand soap or dish washing liquid.

Before and During Each Pumping Session

Before engaging in pumping, you should shave the area on your skin that will come into contact with the pump cylinder, in order to achieve a good seal. Secondly, unless you have been performing other penis exercises (such as jelqing) immediately before pumping, you must perform warm-up to get blood circulation going in your penis to minimize chances of damage during pumping later. A simple warm-up exercise can be done by soaking a towel in hot but not scalding water, wringing out the towel, and wrapping it around your penis for 2 minutes, and then repeating for at least 3 more times. While you’re doing the hot towel wrap, give the cylinder a quick rinse with hot water as well.

After warming up, stroke your penis to semi-erection or full-erection. Apply some vaseline to the area of contact with the pump cylinder for better seal. Then, set-up the cylinder over your penis and gradually pressurize it until you feel slightly uncomfortable, but not to the point of pain. Never pressurize the pump to the point of pain unless you want to risk permanent damage of your penis.

Keep the pump pressurized for ten minutes, during which you are free to do anything that does not involve large movements, such as watching tv or surfing the net. After the ten minutes, depressurize the cylinder, remove it from your penis, and massage your penis for at least three minutes to resume blood circulation. Then, you can wear the pump for another ten minutes, then take the pump off and massage your penis for three minutes, and repeat until your penis becomes flaccid (i.e. soft).

After a Pumping Session

After each penis pumping session, perform the hot towel wrap again as described above to get the circulation in your penis going again.

Every time after using the penis pump, you should wash the cylinder with hot water and a small amount of dish detergent or liquid hand soap.

Risks Associated With Use of Penis Pumps

The penis enlargement pump is a very risky piece of apparatus that can do a lot of damage to your penis even with all the precautions mentioned above. Over-pressurizing of the penis pump can lead to the bruising or clotting (also called “thrombosis”) of a vein or a lymph vessel, or other forms of (worse) damage that cannot be reversed. By buying only pumps that come with a pressure gauge and pressure relief valve, performing the warm-up exercise before pumping, avoiding over-pressurizing when pumping, and taking frequent breaks while pumping, you can minimize the potential for injury. Therefore take all precautions and be extremely careful.

During a pumping session, if you feel pain at any point, immediately depressurize and remove the pump, and stay off pumping for at least two days before pumping again. If the pain persists, you are advised to see your doctor without delay and explain the situation honestly so that s/he can help you.

If you see a donut-shaped ring or blisters on your skin, stay away from pumping until they have completely healed. Similarly, if you do experience a thrombosis, stay off pumping for a few weeks until it has completely healed. Do not attempt to squeeze the clot, as doing so will keep it from healing.

You are also advised to take a minimum of two days’ break per a maximum of every five days of pumping. Your penis needs time to heal before permanent gains can be achieved. If you skip these breaks, you will be increasing the chances of damaging your penis, as well as slow down the gains that can be achieved.

Better Alternatives to Penis Pumping

Although many people can vouch for the effectiveness of penis pumping, there are safer penis enlargement methods that are just as effective, if not more so. You are encouraged to explore other ways of enlarging your penis. Manual penis exercises such as jelqing, in combination with the use of a good penis extender, can yield amazing results.