Approaching Fail Safe Horse Fencing

Although there is no such thing as “fail-safe”  fencing , there are steps you that you can take to ensure that your horses stays safely inside its pasture  fencing . While this article focuses primarily on horse  fencing , the advice applies also to other livestock species.

Consider the visibility of the  fencing  from the perspective of your livestock. Your horse needs to see his  fencing . Otherwise injuries may occur if it tries to access the pasture or breeding opportunity on the other side of the fence. For example, wire fences are not so easily seen by a horse, but a white wood or PVC fence is easily recognized. Colorful streamer tape or ribbon attached to the fence every yard also makes the horse know where the fence perimeter is.

The height of your fence is also important. The  fencing  must be tall enough to prevent the horse from jumping over it. There must also be a horizontal bottom wire or board that is low enough to prevent livestock from going under . This is especially important for paddocks with baby horses. How high should horse  fencing  stand? It should be as tall as the nose on the tallest horse in the pasture plus two inches.

There are many types of horse  fencing  from which to choose for your farm installation. The more popular and successful types of horse  fencing  include white painted wood, electrified wire, and PVC fences.

Electric  Fencing 

One the most economical types of horse  fencing  is high-tensile electrified  fencing . Popular forms of electric horse  fencing  are galvanized wire, electric polytape. In addition to the wire, you will also need to install posts, insulators, hardware, and a charger. I strongly recommend that you choose a solar fence charger [] because it can operate in remote areas, where an electric outlet is unavailable. Plus you’re you’re using the free energy of the sun.

Wood  Fencing 

Wood  fencing , be it plain lumber board, slip board, or split rustic rail is another  fencing  option. Lumber prices vary among different regions, and wood is usually more expensive than wire  fencing . However a wood fence is very attractive, and it will add a nice extra value to your ranch or farm.

A wood fence requires some ongoing maintenance. You will need to paint or stain non-pressure treated wood on a regular basis, and you must replace broken and rotted boards. When installing a board fence, nail the horizontal boards to the inside of the posts. This deters the boards coming off when a horse presses or rubs against them. Hammer the screws or ail heads flush to the boards. Finally as an extra precaution, you may need to install an electrified wire on the inside of the top wooden rail.

PVC Vinyl  Fencing 

PVC vinyl  fencing  products are now manufactured especially for horse  fencing . PVC horse  fencing  is very attractive requires little, or no, maintenance and upkeep, because it never needs painting and will not rot, rust, break, or splinter. In addition, it looks like a white wood fence from afar, thus adding to the value of your property.

Regular Fence Inspections

It is important to check all your fences, especially after a big storm. Make sure that no rails or wires are down through which a horse might escape. Remove any tree limbs that have fallen on it, or shrubs and vines that have grown on it. Also check for protruding nails and splintered wood that could injure your horse. Replace all the damaged horizontal boards. Give each post a good tug to ensure that it is solidly in the ground. If a post is leaning out of true vertical, then straighten it back.

Benefits of Installing a Cedar Fence

Fencing in a yard or property involves choosing the best material for the project. Explore some of the benefits of installing a cedar fence. This natural wood can be surprisingly resilient, withstanding abuse from weather and insects for many years.

Insect Repellant

Constructing a barrier out of this type of material will provide natural resistance to insects. The oils present in cedar actually deter insects such as termites from infestation and damage. Homeowners do not need to do anything to maintain the natural resistance of this wood. Chemical treatments are not required to keep the wood resistant to termites.

Blocks Sounds

Surrounding a home with a cedar fence can eliminate many noises from penetrating into the yard. This building material acts as a natural sound barrier as long as the structure is made with solid planks. Experts estimate that the sound blocking effectiveness of this material is as high as 70 percent. Cement blocks provide the same sound blocking effectiveness; however, this material is a more visually appealing choice.

Strong and Durable

After installing a cedar fence, you can rest assured that the structure will remain strong and attractive for many years. This material resists damage that can occur from wind and moisture, because it will not rot or decay. This type of wood will not warp or shrink over time. When the time comes to replace this barrier, you can also enjoy its environmental friendliness, because it is completely biodegradable.

Controls Temperatures

Temperature control of the air around your home can be beneficial in both the winter and the summer. During the winter months, a cedar fence provides a barrier to prevent gusty winds from moving through your yard. These air pockets can be effective for moderating the icy-cold temperatures during the winter. In the summer, the same air pockets are effective for dissipating heat. Some fences absorb heat in the summer, actually raising the temperature around them with the heat that releases into the air. Cedar does not absorb heat, so it stays cool throughout the summer.

Low Maintenance

Staining, sealing, or painting a fence can be tedious and time-consuming work. Some materials require yearly maintenance to keep them strong and attractive. In contrast, this material requires little to no maintenance. This type of wood does not need stain, sealant, or paint to make it waterproof. Instead, the wood will withstand weather conditions, aging gradually and attractively over the years. As this wood weathers, it becomes naturally gray. Many homeowners find the weathered gray appearance attractive. People who object to weathered gray can prevent it by applying a wood cleaning product every two to three years.

Painting Tips

If you do opt to paint cedar, you will need to apply a stain-blocking primer first. The primer will prevent natural oils from bleeding through the paint layer. Applied correctly, primer and paint on this type of barrier could last for years.

After exploring the many benefits of a cedar fence, you may opt to install one in your yard.

Condos Can Provide Relaxing Scenes

There are condos all over the world, located in different places. There are some in the midst of the New York City lights. There are even some in suburban areas, just outside of major cities. Whatever the case, many people choose to live in these places for several different reasons. For some, they enjoy the wonderful amenities such as the swimming pools and walking tracks. On the other hand, there are those who enjoy not having to cut grass once a week. All of the aforementioned examples are just a few of the things that these living spaces can provide. However, there are intangibles that come along with some of these homes that many people also enjoy, such as the scenery.

Although some condos are in the midst of the city life, there are others that are located in areas that are considered more relaxing. The feeling of relaxation that they create is something that can benefit just about anyone, especially those who are on the more creative and artistic side.

For instance, some of these places are located right off of sandy beaches. Therefore, residents who are facing the shores, can look out of their window at any time and witness the waves lapping against the sand. They can also admire the families talking, playing and having fun. However, these are not the only things that this specific scene can do. It can also inspire those who love to paint. There are many paintings in art museums and stores that focus on ocean and beach scenes. So, instead of someone having to rely merely on their imagination, memory or another person’s work, they can just open their window and take a look outside. Then, they can start their artistic endeavor.

There are also condos located near mountains or on a mountainside. This is a great place for those who like to sing. That is because if they are skilled enough, they would be able to make their voice echo. This isn’t just for fun, however. It is a great way for them to hear themselves and see if they are singing in the right note or pitch. So, by living in this area, they would be provided with a creative and unique alternative to studio earphones.

Another great place for condos is in the midst of trees. This would be a great scene for those who like to write. It may not be able to give them an inspiration per se; however it would provide a place where they would have little to no distractions. They would be able to focus more on their work.

Condos are great places to stay. They are even better when they are in the midst of inspiring and relaxing scenes.

Deducting Your Employer Business Expenses

If you are an employee, you may be able to deduct your un-reimbursed work-related expenses as an itemized deduction on Schedule A. Employee business expenses are subject to the 2% of AGI limitation (see below). You can deduct un-reimbursed employee business expenses incurred in the normal course of carrying out your responsibilities as an employee.

You can deduct un-reimbursed travel expenses that you incur as an employee if you temporarily travel away from your tax home for your job. These expenses include transportation, car expenses, lodging and meals (meals are only allowed if you are traveling overnight). You can also deduct your job-related education expenses. You claim your employee business expenses on line 21 of Schedule A.

Travel expenses

Although commuting costs (travel between home and work) are not deductible, some local transportation expenses are. Deductible local transportation expenses include the ordinary and necessary expenses of going from one workplace to another. If you have an office in your home that you use as your principal place of business for your employer, you may deduct the cost of traveling between your home office and work places associated with your employment.

You may deduct the cost of traveling between your residence and a temporary work location outside of the metropolitan area where you live and normally work. If you have one or more regular work locations away from your residence, you may also deduct the cost of going between your residence and a temporary work location within your metropolitan area.

Where is your tax home?

In determining the deductibility of travel expenses when you travel outside your general work area, the location of your tax home must first be established. Your tax home is your main place of business or work, regardless of where you maintain your family home. The following factors are used to determine your main place of business or work:

  • The total time ordinarily spent working in each area.
  • The level of business activity in each area.
  • Whether the income from each place is significant or insignificant.

You are considered away from your tax home if you are required to be away from the general area of your tax home for longer than an ordinary workday, and you need to get sleep or rest.

What expenses are deductible?

If you are on a temporary assignment or job away from your tax home, your job expenses may or may not be deductible. A temporary assignment is one that is expected to last for one year or less, and does in fact last for one year or less. The following factors are used to determine if traveling expenses to that temporary assignment or job are deductible or not:

  • If the assignment has a fixed ending date (one year or less), the expenses are deductible.
  • If the assignment or job lasts or is expected to last indefinitely, the expenses are not deductible.

Your employee business (job) expenses can be deductible as long as they were:

  • Paid or incurred during the tax year.
  • Incurred for carrying out your job as an employee.
  • Ordinary and necessary business expenses.

To figure your meal expenses when traveling away from your tax home, you can use either the actual expenses incurred, or a standard rate of $46 per day. The standard rate can be higher in some cities, and you can find this information on the IRS website. Whichever method you use, tax law allows you to deduct ONLY 50% of your un-reimbursed meal expenses.

You can deduct expenses of up to $2,000 per year for attending conventions, seminars, or similar meeting held on cruise ships.

Meal and entertainment expenses

If your job requires you to entertain customers, you can deduct ordinary and necessary meals and entertainment expenses, but only if they are directly related and associated with your business.

The directly related test is met if:

  • The meal or entertainment takes place in a clear business setting.
  • The main purpose of the meal and entertainment is for the conduct of business.
  • You did in fact engage in business.
  • You had more than a general expectation of getting income or some other business benefit.

The associated test is met if:

  • The meal or entertainment is associated with the active conduct or your trade or business.
  • The meal or entertainment directly precedes or follows a substantial business discussion.

In general, you can deduct only 50% of business related meal and entertainment expenses. Therefore if you receive one bill, which includes the costs of meals, lodging, transportation, etc., you must allocate the expenses between the cost of meals and entertainment, and the cost of the other services.

If you gave away tickets to an entertainment event, you can deduct only the face value of the tickets. If you gave a customer tickets and did not accompany the customer to the event, you can treat the cost of the tickets as either an entertainment or a gift expense, whichever is to your advantage.

Business gift expenses

If the nature of your job requires you to give gifts to customers, the cost of gifts given directly or indirectly to a customer is deductible up to a maximum limit. The following rules apply to gifts:

  • You cannot deduct a gift of more than $25 per person (incidental costs, such as engraving on jewelry, or packaging and mailing, are not included in determining the cost of the gift).
  • A gift to a customer’s family member is considered an indirect gift to that customer.
  • If both spouses give gifts, they are treated as one taxpayer with one $25 limit per customer.
  • Items costing less than $4, and used for promotional purposes, such as pens, key chains, mugs, etc., with the business name clearly imprinted, are not included in the $25 limit.

An item that could be categorized as either a gift or an entertainment expense is generally considered to be an entertainment expense, and hence subject to the 50% deduction rule.

Local transportation

You can deduct the ordinary and necessary costs of business-related transportation expenses incurred within the area of your tax home. Transportation expenses include the cost of transportation by air, rail, bus, taxi, etc., and the cost of driving and maintaining your car. This following transportation costs are deductible:

  • Traveling from one workplace to another.
  • Visiting clients.
  • Traveling to a business meeting away from your workplace.
  • Traveling from home to a temporary workplace, if you have more than one regular workplace.

Commuting expenses are never deductible, and include the following:

  • Traveling between your home and your regular place of business.
  • Parking fees incurred at your regular place of business.
  • Traveling from a union hall where you get your assignment, to your place of work.

Car expenses

If you use your own car, van, pickup, or panel truck, for the purposes of performing your duties on your job, you can claim a deduction for the use of your vehicle. You can claim EITHER the standard mileage rate OR the actual expenses for operating your vehicle on the job.

The standard mileage rate is a rate allowed per mile for every business mile traveled. You can claim mileage at a standard rate of 51 cents per mile for each business mile traveled for the period 1/1/2011 to 6/30/2011, and 55.5 cents per mile for the period 7/1/2011 to 12/31/2011.

You cannot claim the standard rate if:

  • You used the car for hire (for example, as a taxi).
  • You operate five or more cars at the same time.
  • You claimed depreciation, or claimed a Section 179 deduction (see chapter 12) in an earlier year.
  • You are a rural mail carrier who received a qualified reimbursement.

Your actual expenses that can be deductible include the following:

  • The cost of lease payments.
  • Tires, gas, oil.
  • Insurance, registration fees, and licenses.

If you opt to claim your actual expenses, you must first of all ascertain your total expenses, and then divide your total expenses between business use and personal use, based on the number of miles driven for each purpose.

You can claim your business related parking fees and tolls as an additional deduction, whichever method you use.

If you are an employee, you cannot deduct any interest paid on a car loan. This applies even if the car is used 100% for business. However, if you are self-employed you can deduct the part of the interest expense that represents the business use of the car.

The cost of traveling between home and regular job is considered commuting expenses and is not deductible. If you have two workplaces, you can deduct the cost of traveling from one workplace to the other.

Business use of your home deduction

You can claim a deduction for the business use of your home if you use part of your home for your employer’s business. There are some tests that you must meet to be eligible for this deduction:

  • To deduct expenses for business use of the home, part of your home must be used regularly and exclusively for your employer’s business.
  • You cannot deduct business expenses for any part of your home that you use for both personal and business purposes.
  • The use of your home must be for your employer’s convenience.
  • You must not rent any part of your home to your employer and use the rented portion to perform services as an employee for that employer.

Deductible expenses for business use of your home include the business portion of real estate taxes, deductible mortgage interest, rent, casualty losses, utilities, insurance, depreciation, maintenance and repairs. Generally, the amount of your deduction for whole-house related expenses, like utilities, is limited to the square footage of the area you’re using for business purposes. You may not deduct expenses for lawn care in general, or for painting a room not used for business.

You must use the worksheet in Publication 587,Business Use of Your Home, to figure your deduction. You claim this deduction on line 21 of Schedule A.

(Off-the-shelf tax software will effectively bring up and complete theBusiness Use of Your Home worksheet for you)

Job-related education expenses

You may be able to deduct job-related education expenses paid during the year, as an itemized deduction on Schedule A. These expenses are also subject to the 2% of AGI limitation (see below).

To be deductible, your expenses must be job-related, and must be for education that is:

  • Required by your employer or by law, to keep your present salary, status, or job.
  • Required to maintain or improve the skills needed in your present work.

Although the above requirements may be met, no deduction will be allowed on Schedule A, if the education is:

  • Needed to meet the minimum education requirements for your current job or trade.
  • Part of a program of study that can qualify you for a new job or trade, even if you have no plans to enter that job or trade.

If you are not allowed to deduct your job-related education expenses on Schedule A, you may however, be able to deduct them of Form 1040, as a tuition and fees adjustment, or as a lifetime learning credit.

Deductible job-related education expenses include the following costs:

  • Tuition, books, lab fees, supplies and similar items.
  • Certain transportation and travel costs, including driving from work to school.
  • Transportation from home to school if you are regularly employed and go to school on a temporary basis.
  • Other educational expenses, such as costs of research and typing a paper.
  • Travel, meals, and lodging for overnight travel, to obtain qualified education.

You must keep proper records to prove your education expenses; otherwise the IRS will disallow them in the case of an audit.

Employer reimbursement plans

If your employer does not reimburse you for your work-related expenses, any allowable expense in excess of 2% of your adjusted gross income is fully deductible on Schedule A.

If your employer does reimburse you, the deductibility of the expense depends on the type of reimbursement plan you have. There are two types of employer reimbursement plans – an accountable plan and a non-accountable plan.

An accountable plan

Under an accountable plan, your employer’s reimbursement or allowance arrangement must require you to: (a) adequately account your expenses to your employer, and (b) return any excess reimbursement or allowance.

The rules under an accountable are as follows:

  • Your employer reimburses you for all the work-related expenses that you incurred, upon you accounting to your employer for all your expenditure.
  • Reimbursements are not taxable, and your employer should not include them in wages on your Form W-2.
  • You cannot claim a deduction for any amount for which you have been reimbursed.

A non-accountable plan

Under a non-accountable plan:

  • You do not account to your employer for the work-related expenses that you incurred.
  • The entire reimbursement is included as wages in box 1 of your Form W-2, and is treated as taxable income.
  • You figure your eligible work-related expenses on Form 2106, Employee Business Expenses, and deduct them on Schedule A.

Completing Form 2106

You must complete Form 2106 to figure your deductible work-related expenses, which include:

  • All your travel, car, and other local transportation expenses incurred under a non-accountable plan, whether or not you are reimbursed for them.
  • All other expenses for which you are reimbursed under a non-accountable plan.
  • Any expenses for which you are not reimbursed under an accountable plan.

Your expenses from Form 2106 are claimed on line 21 of Schedule A. However, you can only deduct the amount that exceeds 2% of your adjusted gross income. For expenses for items such as safety equipment, uniforms, protective clothing and dues, for which you have not received reimbursement, these can be entered directly on line 21 of Schedule A (you do not have to use Form 2106).

Record keeping

It is imperative that you keep proper records to support all your employee business expenses, especially if you plan to deduct travel, entertainment, gift, local transportation, and car expenses. The records should be in written format, and you should retain your bills, receipts, and cancelled checks. If you are audited and cannot provide the records to support your deductions, it is quite likely that the IRS will disallow the deductions.

Documentary evidence ordinarily will be considered adequate if it shows the amount, date, place, and essential character of the expense. For example, a hotel receipt is enough to support expenses for business travel if it has all the following information: (a) the name and location of the hotel, (b) the dates you stayed there, (c) separate amounts for charges such as lodging, meals, and telephone calls. A restaurant receipt is enough to prove the expenses for a business meal if it has all of the following information: (a) the name of the restaurant, (b) the number of people served, and (c) the date and amount of the expense.

New Home Builders Institute Fresh Standards

Much has changed in the home building industry. Not that many years ago new home builders were erecting houses as fast as they could put them together. Housing sales were at an all time high and energy cost and efficiency was the last thing on a builders mind at that time. The economy was good and life was fat. This somewhat distorted view of the economic environment was primarily due to the fact that just about anyone who wanted a new home could walk into a mortgage company and qualify for a no money down low interest loan to buy their dream house. Nothing seemed to matter to the lenders back then and they were handing out loans like there was no tomorrow. Well they did get that part of it right.

In 2008 the economy along with the housing industry crashed and burned. The good times came to a halt and the resulting worldwide economic disaster quickly changed everything and everyone from new home builders to borrowers for good. Millions in America were thrown out of work and jobs dried up as many old American companies that had never seen a bad time laid off their employees and closed their doors for good. This disaster also fundamentally changed the public’s attitude about energy and material efficiency in housing. Because of the publics outcry for efficiency it became important again and businesses and construction companies frantically adapted to this new business environment.

One of the changes that occurred in the housing market was a much keener interest and focus on “Green Housing” by consumers. Green housing primarily focuses on using materials and methods to build houses that are more energy and material efficient. Going green has had an important impact on business. In 2012 green housing will constitute 37% of all new construction. As a consequence, changes were also instituted in standard housing construction practices of new home builders to try and deal with these new consumer demands. As the economy has improved and loan restrictions by banks were loosened, new home builders have taken this new awareness of efficiency to heart. There is much more of a focus now on the insulation values of materials used to increase energy efficiency in a house and to minimize energy loss. Along with this, there is a new emphasis on the types of appliances that are put into new construction. Central air and heating units are much more efficient in their use of electricity and gas and the same is true of stoves and ovens. In fact most of these new appliances are rated for efficiency. A new kind of water heating system is also being used in many homes now. This type is the tank less water heater. Older style water heaters constantly heated water and then stored it in a large tank. When the hot tap was turned on heated water from the tank flowed to the appropriate faucet. This type of heater used a lot of energy. The new energy efficient systems are tank less and only heat water on demand. When hot water is needed the water flows through a coil that only heats the water in the coil. The heat to the coil stops when the hot tap is turned off. New home builders are also using appliances and central air and heating systems that are Energy Star rated for efficiency.

Famous Skyscrapers

Architectural design has advanced to a phenomenal stage where every modern city would like to boast having one of the tallest buildings. While criteria defining the tallest buildings or skyscrapers differ widely, listed below are the ten most popular architectural marvels of our time.

Empire State Building

A world famous New York City landmark and sky scaper, it rises above the island of Manhattan, about a quarter of a mile into the sky. The observatory is located on the 86th floor, 1050 feet above the ground and offers the most breathtaking and panoramic view of Manhattan and beyond from within a glass enclosed pavilion. Besides the observatory there are several tourist attractions, including, restaurants, shops and banks. It also has a New York SKYRIDE an independently owned and operated simulated helicopter ride and virtual-reality movie theatre. William Lamb, an architect at Shreve, Lamb and Harmon was chosen to design the Empire State Building in 1930

Petronas Towers

Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lampur lay claim to being the tallest twin towers of the 20th century, standing at a height of 1483 feet. They were designed by architect Cesar Pelli and completed in 1998. The 88-floor towers are constructed largely of   reinforced   concrete , with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, a reflection of Malaysia’s Muslim religion. The towers feature a sky-bridge between the towers on the 41st and 42nd floors which is 170m high and 58m long.

Sears Tower

Architect Bruce Graham designed the Sears Tower of Chicago in 1974. At 1450 feet, and 110 stories, it is the tallest building in the United States of America. The construction system consists of steel fram with bronze tinted glass curtain wall. The Sears Tower Skydeck observation deck and tourist attraction is on the 103rd floor, 1353 feet above the ground.

Bank of China Tower

Located in Honk Kong, in addition to being one of the famous skyscrapers in the world, it is one of the most outstanding achievements of modern architecture. The construction was started in 1985 and completed in five years by the architects I. M. Pei & Partners and Sherman Kung & Associates. The building standing at 1205 feet, is a grouping of four triangular glass and aluminium towers of different heights, all emerging from a single granite podium. The changes rising from a square base to a single spire results in a magnificent façade of angles and profiles that reflect the light and seem almost crystalline in composition. On the 42nd floor is a sky-deck providing a panoramic view of the northwest Hong Kong.

Chrysler Building

Rising at 1046 feet, it was considered to be an engineering marvel and the tallest building in 1931. However, it still remains the tallest brick building in the world. The tower is a beautifully tapered stainless steel crown supporting the famous spire at its peak. A quintessence of skyscraper design, the Chrysler Building is a perfect example of Art Deco and has a lobby clad in different marble, onyx and amber.

Taipei 101

At a height of 1671 feet, this high-rise building has surpassed all to become the tallest skyscraper today. Taipei 101 holds the world record in three of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat’s height categories: tallest to the structural top, tallest to the roof, and highest occupied floor. The 89th floor has an indoor observation area while the 91st floor has an outdoor observation deck, known as the highest in the world. The pagoda shaped design of this building is inspired by traditional Chinese architecture. The sectioned tower is also symbolic of the bamboo plant characterizing strength, resilience and elegance. The tower’s design specifications are based on the number 8, considered lucky in the Chinese culture.

Jin Mao Building

This building in Shanghai symbolizes the progress and advancement made by the Chinese. It boasts of being the first tallest sky scrape in the country and the third tallest in the world. A great blend of East-West architecture it denotes aptly the emergence of Shanghai as a modern global city. It follows the versatility model by offering retail at it base, offices above and the Grand Hyatt’s World’s highest Hotel occupying the upper 38 floors. The magnificently designed building combines the elements of traditional Chinese architecture and a vastly Gothic influence.

Burj Al Arab

The Burj Al Arab rises to a level of 1053 feet, and is known as one of the world’s tallest structure with a membrane façade, 24-meter wide helipad. This is the tallest operating hotel building in the world and the design is influenced by the profile of an Arabian sailing ship. The Al Muntaha restaurant is located 200 meters above the Persian Gulf offering a panoramic view of Dubai while the atrium is situated at a height of 180 meters.

CN Tower

At a height of 1815 feet, the CN Tower in Toronto is the tallest building and freestanding structure in the world. It is considered to be the signature icon of the city and hosts almost two million visitors a year. The view from the exterior glass floored observation deck located 342 meters above ground is breathtaking as it is exciting. It also has the Space Deck at 447 meters, the world’s tallest observation deck with a 160 km view and the revolving 360 Degree Restaurant.

Hancock Place

A reflective obelisk sky scrape at Boston is an architectural marvel. It is regarded as ‘icily magnificent’ wherein the surface changes as the day changes, each side reflecting the color of the sky it faces. Moreover, this dramatic effect is highlighted by the parallelogram shape of the prism, which provides uniquely differing reflections on adjoining surfaces.

The architectural buildings mentioned above are famous creations and literally considered architectural works of art today.

About A Board Sign Stands

As suggested by the name, A Board sign stands are used to display and hold signs. A Boards are manufactured in such a way that they take the shape of the Alphabet “A.” A Boards are being used since many years. Earlier A Boards were made of wood which used to be heavy. The message or signs on those wooden A Boards were either imposed on it using some sharp tool, or they were written with the oil paints. Whenever they wanted to change the message or signs, they used to wash it away.

They are being used by all kinds of businesses and households in large numbers these days. Here is why they are so successful-

  • They are best to put up any message, sign, or pictures because of the convenience and durability they provide.
  • Scientifically, the shape “A” gives the board extra power to support the sign board. That is why it becomes little difficult to get damaged because of small accidents. As the two different faces of A Boards are connected from the middle, they absorb the external shock easily. This makes it strong enough to be used for years.
  • The angel of A Boards is specifically designed to provide the best view from maximum angles. It does not matter which side you are coming from, the message will be clearly visible to you when you are reading it.
  • They are available in all shapes and sizes. This is one of the best features of A Boards as different customers might need to display different sizes of messages or signs. A person with limited amount of food items might need a small A Board, but a person owning a big restaurant might need something which is big enough to include all the items in the menu. The person may fully customize the A Board according to the need.
  • The shape “A” helps the board fights against the winds. It becomes little difficult to keep the sign boards at their place in windy locations. But A Boards gives wind a strong fight to keep itself at its place. The shape “A” helps wind pass through the space in between keeping the board at its original place.
  • Smaller A Boards can be easily moved from one place to the other based on the use by the person owning it. Taking an example of a Traffic police man, he might need to change a one-way moving traffic to both-ways every evening because of the traffic. He might easily move the A Boards with that warning daily.
  • Same A Board can be used at different places. The portability of A Boards provides this feature. There are some event companies who have some A Boards prepared for their use. Every time they organize any event at any place in any city, all they need to do it to carry the A Boards to that place in their vehicle.
  • A Boards are not too expensive. Anyone planning to have A Boards can easily have it with much investment. Even if the person is not able to spend the required amount, he can always rent it from those who give A Boards on rent to the customers. This will serve your purpose with the least possible amount.
  • A Boards are reusable. The person using it might need to change the message or sign after some days. He can easily do that without any second thought. This gives an advantage to the customers to invest once and use for many years. The messages can be changed for any number of times whenever required.
  • A Boards are easily available in the market. Those who want to buy it online can buy it too because of the large number of sellers available. You are just a thought away from buying your own A Boards. Just decide to buy it and it will be available immediately. When you go with buying your A Board on internet, you get extra advantage of finding out the best possible price for it. As there are number of sellers online, you get to compare different A Boards before actually you buy one of those.
  • There are few A Board customers who are very specific about the looks of their A Boards. They will not go back home with sad faces. A Board manufacturers have started manufacturing designer A Boards which are available in the market too. Just select your favorite design and bring your A Board home.
  • A Boards are available in different types of materials. The person with a low budget might go with paper A Boards. The person with love towards wood might buy wooden A Boards. The person with specific requirement of light weight may buy Aluminum A Boards. There are many other materials available in the market.
  • It does not matter what business are you in, A Boards are the best stop for you to communicate with your customers.
  • A Boards have two faces which gives its customers the freedom to use any of the sides. If the customer wants to display his message or signs on both the sides, he can easily do so. It is of best use because people coming from both the sides of the road can easily view the message. Imagine the same traffic police man wanting to display two different messages or signs to both sides of the road traffic. He would definitely not find any difficulty using the A Board.
  • A Boards of normal size can be used internally. Best example would be the chalk boards which can be used inside the classroom or room.

When A Boards were manufactured for the first time, people never expected that this will become common some day. It can be found anywhere we go be it a Restaurant, or a Classroom, or even the busy markets. A Boards has become a necessity for business these days.

Porch Swing Plans

Professionally produced  porch  swing plans are at your fingertips. Several sites exist are offering just that and every conceivable type of garden furniture and outdoor buildings imaginable. They include free and complete woodworking courses too. There is nothing more conducive to relaxation than gliding back and forth in a cooling breeze.

Interestingly, it Marco Polo who fist mentioned  porch  swings during his various and diverse peregrinations across the globe. He was fascinated by the concept and the luxuriant feel of seeming weightlessness. Samuel Pepys also annotated the soporific and calming effects of verandah swings in his diaries. Anyway, enough of history; let’s get up to the date of the present day.

You will have your own reasons for wanting to find out how to make a  porch  swing that looks good and stands the test of time, wear and tare. They may be that you want a present for your wife or kids or just to create a better ambient feel on your  porch . The ineluctable fact is that most of us need a well formulated blueprint for the success of our creation.

Professional instructions will include precise specifications and detailed materials lists along with technical know-how and the  porch  swing plans themselves. There is very little point in wasting time on sketchily concocted free plans which offer more than they deliver. That is the opinion of a building contractor with more than 40 years of experience in the garden landscaping industry.

As an amateur before entering landscape design and woodwork furniture companies as a qualified expert, I thought it could all be done on the cheap and off the top of my head. I was wrong.

Commercial Contractor Versus Residential Contractor

General contractors, whether they work on commercial or residential properties, are responsible for managing construction projects from start to finish. These may include new construction or renovation projects, but either way your contractor will take care of all construction requirements from initial planning stages to the final details of the project. Generally speaking, there are two types of general contractor: commercial and residential. In the simplest terms possible, the main difference between these types of contractors is that they work on commercial or residential projects respectively. Still when comparing commercial contractors and residential contractors, there are some more specific differences between these professionals. Let’s take some time now to review the finer distinctions between commercial and residential contractors.

Commercial Contractors

While working on commercial construction projects such as schools, roads, office buildings or shopping centres, these contractors are responsible for planning, scheduling, hiring specialised sub-contractors, and managing a project from beginning to end. This task requires specific skills, construction methods, and materials so your commercial contractor needs to have specific experience and knowledge. In general, commercial contractors will liaise with their clients, trades people, developers, and municipalities to get the job done on time and on budget. The size and scope of commercial projects also contribute to the differences between commercial and residential contractors. While both types of contractors will manage a staff of carpenters, electricians, excavators, painters and other professionals, the scope of commercial projects can make them more challenging.

Residential Contractors

As you may expect, residential contractors are responsible for managing home remodelling or new construction projects. They are a kind of home improvement pro with experience managing all aspects of a home build including architecture, design, planning, and completion. Like a commercial contractor, residential contractors must liaise with various professionals including framers, electricians, plumbers, drywallers and more. One of the special challenges faced by residential contractors is the ever changing expectations of the homeowner. Unlike commercial contractors, whose job is more strictly defined from the beginning of a project, homeowners often have an elusive vision of their future home. As the project evolves, homeowners can request changes to their original plan, so residential contractors have to be ready to address changing requirements throughout the lifespan of a project. Since residential projects tend to be on a smaller scale than commercial projects, they often need to be more attentive to detail.

Ultimately, residential and commercial contractors provide very similar services. Some of the differences between commercial and residential buildings are obvious. Residential projects tend to be limited to homes, apartments, condos, or townhomes making the scope of work more focused. Commercial contractors can provide expertise for a wide range of large projects from schools and government institutions to restaurants and shopping malls. While a commercial contracting job is not necessarily more complicated, each type of contractor brings special skills to your building project.

Chess Openings

Since given names of chess  openings  are not very systematic other methods of classification has to be adapted for study and analysis purposes. The most common methods of such systematic classification class the  openings  according to the actual  opening  moves made.

From the  opening  position White can make twenty moves. However, only a few of these moves are popular since only they are conducive to implementing the general principles of  opening  which advocate control of center and rapid development of pieces. Most popular moves are 1.e4, 1.d4, 1.Nf3, and 1.c4.

In addition some of the other moves while they break the  opening  principles can give the player certain advantages. For instance 1 Nc3 or Dunst  Opening  places the Knight in a good position but prevents the c pawn from advancing. 1 f4 or Bird’s  Opening  while increasing the pressure on center weaken the King side. The 1.b4 or Sokolsky  Opening  and 1.b3 and 1.g3 or the Queen’s and King’s fianchetto  Openings , aims to develop the Bishops through fianchetto but does not directly dispute the control of center using pawns.

Each move has to be analyzed to learn its strengths and weakness. After such analysis twelve of the possible  opening  moves are judged to result in weak positions for White and are very infrequently used in major tournaments.

In reply to White’s  opening  move Black too can make twenty moves. Most popular  Opening  moves for Black are exact counterparts of the White’s  Opening  moves. However since Black is responding to White, Black can use other  opening  moves advantageously as well without breaking  opening  principles. For instance 1…c6 and 1…e6, can be coupled with 2… d5 for good effect, or 1…d6 coupled with a fianchetto of King side Bishop.


One of the most widespread and accepted methods of classification of  openings  used by professional players is the classification by Encyclopedia of Chess  Openings  (ECO) codes. ECO uses a unique coding system to classify the  opening  according the  opening  moves. The codes are classed into five main categories, and with hundred sub categories under each of them, according to the moves. For instance,  openings  beginning with 1.e4 comes under categories B and C with 1.e4 e6 (known as the French Defense) under sub categories C00-C19, 1.e4 e5 (Double King Pawn) under C20-C99, 1.e4 without 1…c5, 1…e6, 1…e5 under B00-B19, and 1.e4 c5 (Sicilian Defense) under B20-B99. All the possible  openings  are categorized in this way.

While ECO classification is useful to serious chess players, it can be too confusing and too technical for beginners and middle level players getting to grips with chess  openings . It also separate related  openings  with similar features under different categories. For instance, Indian Systems can be found under both A and E categories.

Simpler Classification

So for educational purposes and better understanding of the theory, a simpler  opening  move based classification is used. This divides the  openings  to three categories; King’s Pawn  Openings  (those that start with 1.e4), Queen’s Pawn  Openings  (1.d4), and Others.

However since this categorization is too broad it is further sub-divided. King’s Pawn  Openings  are divided into Open or Double King Pawn Games ( opening  moves 1.e4 e5) and Semi-Open or Single King Pawn Games (1.e4 without 1…e5). Queen’s Pawn  Openings  are divided into Closed or Double Queen Pawn Games (1.d4 d5), and Semi-Closed or Single Queen Pawn Games (1.d4 without d5).  Openings  with moves b3, b4, c4, Nf3, f4, and g3 are termed Flank  openings , while the rest of the  openings  are classed under “Unusual  openings “. Sometimes Indian Systems, which begins with the moves 1.d4 Nf6, which should come under Semi-Closed Games are classed separately since their breadth and importance require such study.

How to Survive a Black Hole

The answer to that question is… if you stray into the gravitational suction power of a black hole, there will be no survivors!

You probably already know that the earth is a part of the Milky Way galaxy. Within the Milky Way there are black holes.

Imploding stars create big-time gravity pull. Gravity so severe even light cannot escape its tremendous gravitational force.

When a star implodes its mass is squeezed into a tiny hole in space that it creates. A black hole is created and it lives there in space waiting for something to stray too close and when it happens, good-bye to the unfortunate. No one or no telescope, except telescopes with special tools, can figure out where they are in space. It’s like walking into a mine field. You don’t know they’re there until you step into one. And once that happens its good-bye Grandma.

There are different sizes… some so very tiny, about the size of an atom. An atom cannot be seen without a microscope. An atom is tiny but has the mass of a big mountain, say Mount McKinley. And there are black holes that are a little bit bigger and are called stellar black holes that have the same mass as 20 suns! And then there are the giant killers called, “super massive”. Their mass would equal 4 million of our suns.

So what causes a star to implode? When a star gets so massive it begins to die and then it turns into a supernova explosion. It’s like if you gorged yourself at Thanksgiving dinner, your stomach would swell so big and then explode… it wouldn’t be pretty. However, it would be different compared to a star imploding… but, the same principle. Your stomach explodes, the star implodes.

The Milky Way, where our earth resides, has about 400 billion stars. It’s been reported that our galaxy has about 100 million large stellar black holes. Consider this fact: The nearest one is some 1,600 light years from Earth. In the region of the Universe visible from Earth, there are perhaps 100 billion galaxies. Each one has about 100 million stellar-mass black holes. And, somewhere out there in the wild black yonder, a new stellar-mass black hole is born in a supernova every second.

We, as earthlings, don’t have to lose any sleep about stepping into one of these dastardly things, because it will never happen. They are too far away and like I said, our sun is not large enough to become one. Considering the closest black hole to us is 1600 light years away. And, remember, if you could travel at the speed of light, which is a little over 186,000 miles per second, it would still take you 1600 years to get there. I think that’s a little out of our reach.

So, what happens to all the stuff that gets sucked into these black voids? Is there an opening at the other end where all that stuff is spewed out into another world? That’s another topic to think about. Have a good day.

A Coating Manufacturer Can Supply Photoluminescent Conversion Film

Coating manufacturers that supply photoluminescent safety technology provide an important alternative to safety technologies that use electricity for safety-critical illumination. In addition to buying standard photoluminescent safety products such as signs and markings, companies can also convert non-luminescent surfaces into luminescent ones by purchasing photoluminescent film and applying it on top of an existing surface. Examples of surfaces where the film is applied for safety reasons are:

Sign Surfaces

Large buildings contain hundreds of signs, many of which are non-luminescent. When a power outage occurs and backup lighting fails, these signs become all but invisible, even if they contain reflective surfacing. Most building signs are now available in photoluminescent form, but replacing hundreds of non-luminescent signs with luminescent ones can be expensive. A more cost-effective option is equipping the signs to glow in the dark by outfitting them with photoluminescent film.

Surfaces in Egress Areas

A coating manufacturer can also supply luminescent egress stripes. In many municipalities, outlining egress paths with luminous egress stripes is mandatory. If backup lighting fails during an evacuation, the stripes serve as a form of illumination, outlining stairs, handrails, door areas, and other egress elements to help guide evacuees to safety.

Luminescent stripes are available as non slip materials, with rough surfacing to help prevent slips and falls during evacuations.

Vehicle Surfaces

Applying photoluminescent film to the surfaces of boats, planes, trains, and other vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for increasing their visibility at night, especially when fog is present. This strategy is especially effective for large vehicles such as trains, jet liners, and cargo ships, whose large dimensions can be difficult to illuminate with onboard lighting.

Stationary Machine Surfaces

Many building owners outline egress paths with photoluminescent markings in preparation for power outages, but they rarely apply luminescent markings in areas separated from egress paths, such as equipment stations. If a machinist operates an industrial machine when an outage occurs, navigating away from the machine in the darkness could be treacherous.

Applying luminescent film to the surfaces of machines can help machinists gain their bearings when a power outage occurs, especially if backup lighting fails due to generator failure.

Surfaces on Building Exteriors

Applying photoluminescent film to building surfaces helps buildings remain visible during blackouts. Of particular interest is making hospitals and health clinics visible. The film can also be applied to high towers and roof areas to help prevent airplane and crane collisions.


Photoluminescent film operates in the same manner as other photoluminescent products by absorbing photons from ambient light, and then reemitting them, creating a distinct glowing effect. Although simple in mechanism, photoluminescent film can make a major difference in the safety of the areas where it is applied. Best of all, it offers an economical alternative to achieving safety illumination via powerful lights or complex lighting systems.

Photoluminescent film is frequently used to convert the non-luminous surfaces of signs, vehicles, buildings, and interior building areas to luminous surfaces. For more information on photoluminescent film and non slip materials, contact a coating manufacturer who supplies luminescent safety solutions.

The Importance Of Lighting In Interior Design

How you light your house is an important part of redecorating. A change in the lighting can change how the room is viewed. Lighting interior design contributes greatly to the look and feel of a room. There are many types of lighting which can be used in various rooms. We are no longer restricted to a few lamps around the room.

Ambient lighting is a hidden light source that washes the room with a glow. This creates very few shadows and tends to flatten a room. Japanese paper lanterns and wall sconces both produce ambient lighting. For temporary ambient effects, use a dimmer with your ordinary lighting.

Accent lighting provides interest to a room. This method of lighting interior design highlights and object or architectural feature. To use accent lighting, you only need a bulb and a shield to direct the light to the desired focus. Halogen spotlights and opaquely shaded table lamps both provide accent lighting.

Another kind of lighting used in interior design is task lighting. This is a more practical lighting strategy, highlighting an area for daily activities such as reading, cooking, and sewing. Effective task lighting prevents eyes strain and helps with the performance of vital activities. The kitchen is a particularly good place to incorporate task lighting in your interior design. Task lighting sources should be unobtrusive and shielded to prevent glare. Task lighting can be effectively combined with accent lighting to produce lovely effects.

Some lighting can be a work of art in and of itself. Aesthetic lighting is purely decorative, such as a neon sculpture or a spotlight illuminating a statue or painting. This type of lighting must not be used alone, but accompanied by other lighting strategies in your interior design.

Of course, no survey of lighting interior design would be complete without a mention of natural light. Rooms can be arranged to take advantage of the position of the sun at different times of day. This type of lighting is also called kinetic lighting because the light from outside moves. It is one of the less reliable types, as it is affected by the seasons and the weather, but natural lighting can produce an effect unequaled by any artificial light source when used properly.

Lighting is an important tool in your design collection. The way you do your lighting interior design affects the perception of any room. Lighting is also versatile. Using several strategies at once in a room allows you to turn any of them off, changing the look and feel with the flick of a switch. This can be effective for creating different moods in different rooms at night.

Health and Safety Rules

Health and safety Gas safety

It is estimated that, due to defective or incorrectly installed gas appliances and flues, almost 30 people die every year from carbon monoxide poisoning as per the Health and Safety Executive. A large number of people also suffer various ailments due to improper maintenance of these gas fittings and flues. It is for this reason that it is suggested that all the gas appliances and flues are serviced by CORGI-registered gas filters and are properly installed and maintained. The specific duties of the landlords regarding the maintenance and use of gas appliances, fittings and flues and their installation in rental properties are very clearly set out in The Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations 1998. It is under the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999, that the landlords are liable to have more general responsibilities towards their tenants.

Responsibilities of the landlord

Landlords with leases under 7 years have certain responsibilities, under the laws and regulations of domestic rental properties:

– Making sure that each gas appliance and flue undergoes an annual safety check.

– Keeping at least a two year record of all the safety checks.

– Making sure that maintenance of all gas fittings and flues is done in a safe condition.

– Issuing to the tenants, a copy of the latest safety check, to any new tenants before they move in, or to presently residing tenants within 28 days of the check having taken place.

– Making sure of the fact that all installation, maintenance and safety checks are done by a CORGI-registered gas installer.

– Making sure that before any of the equipment is used again; all defects to any gas fitting and flues are brought to notice and immediately rectified.


The landlord however, under these laws and regulations, is not responsible for certain things such as:

– Any flues that are connected to personally owned gas appliances.

– All gas appliances that are personally owned by the tenant.

More information CORGI can be contacted to find a CORGI-registered gas fitter at: Tel: 0800 915 0480 Mon-Thu 9:00am-5.30pm, Friday 9.00am-5.00pm

Electrical safety

It is the responsibility of the landlord to make sure that the total electrical systems as well as all the electrical appliances supplied by them are completely safe to use. These could include appliances like toasters, heaters, kettles cookers etc.

New safety rules

As on the 1st of January 2005, the new rules for electrical safety in houses came into effect in England and Wales. It is hereby mandatory to follow the new rules in the Building Regulations for people carrying out electrical work in any part of the house or adding new electrical circuits to any part of the property, from this date on. However there is a Competent Persons Scheme which can be followed, under which one can get their work carried out by a qualified electrician, as this works as an alternative.

Competent Person Scheme Using the members of this scheme has many benefits attached to it such as:

– Having people who are qualified to carry out electrical work.

– You shall get a certificate confirming that their work follows all new rules and regulations.

– Building Control charges will not have to be paid by you.

– All the new safety rules will be dealt for by them.

– There shall be an insurance backed guarantee for the complete work done by them and you shall have the freedom to take it.

– Under the circumstances that you are not satisfied with the work then you will have full access to a formal complaints procedure.

Fire Safety

For Houses in Multiple Occupation (HMOs), there are higher levels of fire safety regulations as compared to other residential properties, along with the landlords being required to observe certain safety measures for furniture and furnishings. Fire Regulations for HMOs (House in Multiple Occupations) Adequate fire precautions should be provided by the landlord of an HMO and it is required of him to make sure that they are maintained well.

These should be suitably present in accordance with the size of the property and number of residents, and should include some of the following:

– Suitable fire fighting equipment such as fire blankets and fire extinguishers. There should be present at least 1 fire extinguisher provided on every floor and should also be checked regularly. Also the presence of a minimum of 1 fire blanket in every shared kitchen is required.

– The presence of fire alarms, heat/smoke detectors and other fire warning systems is required. These are required to be placed all through the entire building, especially in high risk areas such as kitchens and in escape routes.

– There should be the presence of an escape route that is resistant to fire, smoke and fumes for long enough so that everybody can leave. These may be specially treated fire resistant internal stairs and corridors or could also be an external fire escape route. There should be fire resistant doors as well which lead to the escape routes and should preferably close automatically. All furniture and furnishings provided by the landlords should also be ensured as fire resistant.

Fire Regulations for other tenanted residential properties

In relation with other tenanted properties, the only specific fire regulations are those concerning furniture and furnishings. It is however the ‘common law’ duty of all the landlords to make sure that their entire properties are kept free from all health hazards and the safety of the tenants is made sure of.

Fire Regulations in all rented properties for furniture and furnishings

It is required in a rented property that all the provided upholstered furnishings are fire resistant. Upholstered furniture basically includes the following types:

– Beds, headboards and mattresses

– Cushions and seat pads

– Futons and sofa beds

– Armchairs and sofas

– Indoor used garden furniture

– Seat pads and cushions

– Nursery and children furniture

– Stretch and loose covers for all the furniture

There is a symbol on all fir resistant furniture that confirms the fact that it is fire resistant.

Smoking in rented properties

It is completely on the discretion of the landlords as to allow smoking in their properties or not. There would be a clause in the tenancy agreement stating this in case smoking is not allowed. This clause would be applicable to tenants and their guests alike. Sufficient smoke alarms however must be provided in all areas where smoking would be allowed if smoking is permitted by the landlord. There are additional regulations that are applied in HMOs: in all shared areas of HMOs, such as communal rooms, corridors and stairs, smoking is strictly not allowed as per the newly introduced smoke-free laws. It is required to display No Smoking signs in such areas.


Asbestos, a banned material, used for building purposes from the 1950s to the 1980s, is a potentially harmful substance. Asbestos may be a part of any building that was built before the year 2000. Asbestos is considered to be safe, as long as it is maintained in a good condition, as per the HSE (Health and Safety Executive). Asbestos can produce tiny dust particles if damaged and these if inhaled can have serious repercussions like being the causing factor for asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. The Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS) have classified asbestos as a hazard.

Where could asbestos be present?

The asbestos may be found at any of the following places in the property:

– Sheds and garage roofs

– Fire blankets

– Rainwater fall pipes, eaves and gutters

– Bath panels

– Floor tiles

– Between floors and in partition walls where asbestos may be loosely packed.

– Central heating flues

– Storage heaters having insulation panels

– Linings for walls, doors and ceilings

The local authorities may be requested to test for the presence of asbestos, if the tenants or landlords suspect its presence. The testing will help find out the condition of the asbestos, if at all it is present. Duties of a landlord regarding asbestos In case there is any asbestos present in the property, then it is the legal responsibility of the landlord of the tenanted property, to manage any risk associated with its presence.

Immediate actions should be taken regarding asbestos, depending upon its condition:

– Labelling the asbestos

-Sealing the asbestos

– Removing the asbestos

While working around asbestos, it is advised to take great care. If at all there is work needed to be done on the asbestos for more than 2hrs then it should be done by someone licensed by the HSE (Health and Safety Executive) Further advice and information For more information on asbestos safety, one can visit the HSE’s website:

The Housing Health and Safety Rating System (HHSRS) The HHSRS, or the Housing Health and Safety Rating System, is an official set of procedures for acquiring information about safety and health risks in all residential properties. It was the ‘fitness for human habitation’ set of rules of the Housing Act 1985,that were replaced when these procedures were introduced by the Housing Act 2004 and were brought into force in 2006. What is a hazard? A total of 29 potential hazards that are identified by the HHSRS are associated with or arise from: Asbestos, Water supply, Ergonomics Fire, Explosions, Food safety Radiation, Biocides, Falls Noise, Hygiene, Hot surfaces Lighting, Excess heat/cold, Damp/mould growth Lead, Carbon monoxide, Structural issues Electricity, Entrapment, Volatile organic compounds Crowding & space Intruders, Incombustible fuel gas.

What happens when a hazard is discovered?

There are two tests to be applied when a hazard is discovered in a property:

– The chances of the occurrence of a dangerous event as a result of the hazard?

– The most likely outcome in case of the dangerous event?

A ‘hazard score’ is formed on the basis of the likelihood and severity of the outcome predicted. This hazard score is then divided into 10 bands i.e. from band A to band J, with seriousness of condition increasing as we move from band J to band A. Category 1 consists of bands A-C and bands D-J consist of category 2 hazards. If a category 2 hazard has been discovered in a property, then it is on the discretion of the authority to take suitable action if they consider it appropriate. However it is a mandatory duty to take immediate and most appropriate action under the circumstances if a category 1 hazard has been discovered by a Local Authority.

In case of a disagreement, the assessment may be appealed against by discussion with the inspector and challenging it at the Residential Property Tribunal, if necessary.

Sheet Metal Roofing – Simple Facts

In a common way of thinking, metal roofs are considered to be traditional. But along with the times, they are again getting used often due to their distinct features. They are arguably durable, lighter compared to other roofing types, lesser maintenance, and energy efficient and fire retardant.

Metal roofing can be seen on numerous homes. Due to its versatility, it can be installed anywhere and will require lesser time and effort, withstanding the worst weather conditions and would be easy to replace.

The aluminum and steel type of this metal roofing are currently the most widely used. Both can offer great lengths of durability and being lightweight as a bonus. Aluminum and steel are usually have a tile appearance. Even without support from rafters, they can be installed easily. However, the most expensive type can be of copper material as they can provide the best appearance of the three.

Aluminum types can mimic tiles, slate and cedar shakes. They don’t rust. As a good benefit of using them, they actually lessen the sound of rain, to this fact remains the best turnaround choice for most metal roofing adopters.

For aluminum, they weigh about half a pound per square foot and 1.5 pounds for steel. This is the advantage of metal roofing as they can be installed over multiple sheets of shingles. With this kind of material, it would be optional to add roof rafters to get an added load.

Aside from the fact that it is easy to install, sheet metal roofing can be of shingles. It makes installation better and would cost lower. The quickness of installation can be advantageous when the weather can be unpredictable to lessen the time to where rain can be disastrous to an open-roofed house.

Furthermore, they are also a good fire retardant. Metal roofing is a noncombustible material and can resist fire up to class A. Class A can be the ones that insurance companies give discounts due to the less probability of catching fire and having more time to extinguish them before things gets worse.

Some of the newer types of roofing have insulation foam on the bottom of the sheets to reduce radiant heat. The metal roofing pitch can be relatively low; usually it ranges from 3 to 12 inches. You can check the metal roofing’s data sheet to make sure they can be installed on your home.