Dog Training Basics – Potty Training

There are many different way to potty train a dog. For instance, you may remember when you were a kid your parents would rub its nose in the “poo” and then give it a little pat on the butt and say “no!” This method may work but not everyone may want to do it this way.

One school of thought regarding potty training involves four key aspects:

Confinement-Usually a young putty who is not aware of the “rights and wrongs” of knowing where to eliminate its bowels is put in a smaller space. Ideally, the puppy should be placed in a crate or cage temporarily. There should be enough room in this cage (or kennel rather) for the puppy to move around and lay down to sleep.

Some people might put newspapers or blankets in the puppy’s kennel but it is risky as the young dog is not trained yet. The reason for placing the puppy in such tight quarters for the time being is because a dog is not likely to want to eliminate feces where it sleeps.

Training-Often the best way to get a dog to go outside and go potty instead of doing it in the house is using repetitious words and phrases. For instance, over and over again you should say a phrase to your dog like, “Go outside? Go potty?” The key is to say this a few times.

Eventually every time your dog wants to go outside they will associate this or similar phrase. You are likely to see your dog wagging its tail if it wants to go out.

Timing-If you are using the confinement technique as described above, you can time the dog’s need to run free just right. For instance, if a dog successfully eliminates outside (either urine or feces) then you can reward your pet by allowing it to be out of the cage. The best time to allow a young puppy this freedom would be immediately after elimination. This would send a positive message to the puppy without (hopefully) having to punish the dog for doing wrong.

Praise-Of course you should make sure you tell your puppy “good job” and give it a hug or kiss. The praise given to a dog of course would be similar to that which you would give a young child. This form of verbal praise is best done while your dog is going potty and not just afterwards. It is helpful to encourage your dog after the fact too.

Additional Tips

As far as using the confinement technique, the amount of time confined in the cage relates to how old the puppy is. Usually the number of hours left in the cage without a potty break is equivalent to how many months old the puppy is. For instance, a two-month old putty would stay in the cage for two hours at a time and the four-month old putty would stay in the case for four hours at a time.

Construction Scaffolding

Cape Town, like many other major cities around the globe, is undergoing massive construction, renovation and restoration projects. People are taking notice of how striking the mixture of old and new buildings within a metropolis look, and how valuable and impressive a building’s heritage is, especially when it is centuries old.

 Scaffolding  enables workers, architects and construction engineers to perform their tasks safely and reliably, without danger. New makes of  scaffolding  allow for extra safety and allow workers to assemble and dismantle the equipment quickly without compromising safety.


With South Africa, and especially Cape Town, establishing itself as one of the world’s favourite holiday destinations and a favourite spot to buy property, a lot of restorations are being undertaken.

Cape Town is rich with history, but the CBD and many other areas were starting to look a little dilapidated, until now. Major restorations are occurring all over the city and old architecturally beautiful buildings are being restored to their previous state of glory and aesthetic beauty whilst retaining their historical identities.

Scaffolds are contracted to help with the restorations, helping the construction teams to perfect every inch of the structures. Sky high or medium rise,  scaffolding  reaches the necessary locations and allows the building and construction workers to reach all the areas necessary with the highest safety standards.  Scaffolding  systems allow safe and quick assembly to reach every part necessary without risk of injury. Therefore the job can be done quickly and efficiently.

Building and Construction

With the 2010 Football World Cup being hosted by South Africa, the race is on to build massive sports stadiums and increase the capacity of existing stadiums in every major city within the set time constraints of the event preparations. New roads are also being constructed to manage the increased traffic in the cities and hotels are being up-sized to cope with the influx of fans needing accommodation.

Construction teams are making use of modern and technologically advanced scaffold and formwork techniques to achieve brilliant results in less time. With these new developments, less labour is needed and projects can be completed is less time than normal. This cuts costs dramatically.

Access  Scaffolding 

Access  scaffolding  is  scaffolding  which is often erected at construction sites for the easy passage of workers and equipment. In most construction sites, the terrain is uneven and littered with obstacles which could prove harmful if a collision of some sort were to occur. For example, steel reinforcements for concrete could cause grievous harm to a person’s body if they overbalanced on an uneven surface and fell on the pins.

Equipment such as wheel barrows and heavy tool containers are allowed easier access to a construction site with the use of  scaffolding  and the safe passage it allows to the most hard-to-reach places of a project.

 Scaffolding  at a construction site is also a time saving tool. Without having to navigate the dangerous parts of the site and having a short, safe passage to the part of the project where they are working, workers cut a considerable amount of time out of their tasks.

At locations where construction is a potential injury hazard to passersby, access  scaffolding  can be constructed to provide a safe passage over the construction work. For example, if a building is being renovated and the pavement is inaccessible, a ramp can be built above the construction for people to pass over the top of the danger.  Scaffolding  can also be used as a protective cover above people in the danger zone, protecting them from any objects or dust which could fall from above them.

 Scaffolding  can be used in many ways to aid construction efforts.  Scaffolding  provides a way for builders to reach every spot on a building, as well as remain safe. Bystanders are also kept safe and work is completed more reliably and quickly as new  scaffolding  is easy to assemble. The many benefits of  scaffolding  keep it a well-used and popular construction aid.

Greece – The Athenian Cavalry

In addition to racing events as part of the games, the other principal use of the horse in antiquity was for warfare. As in other Greek and later armies, the Athenian cavalry was an elite corps within the army. For most of its history, it was quite aristocratic in composition and represented only a tiny fraction of the fighting forces of the city: Drawn from the upper classes, the hippeis were often under suspicion in democratic Athens, especially late in the 5th century when, with support from the knights, the city fell under oligarchic control. The cavalry at full strength in the 5th century numbered one thousand troops, whereas the infantry would have been ten or twenty times that number and the fleet-with two hundred crew members per ship-required tens of thousands of men. In the troubled times of the early 3rd century B.C., the number of cavalrymen seems to have dropped to as low as two hundred before recovering to around five hundred.

We have a number of Athenian treatises and other written sources on the cavalry and horsemanship in antiquity. One, by Simon and dating to the 5th century B.C., survives in part. Two works written by the general and historian Xenophon in the 4th century B. C., are fully preserved: On Horsemanship (Peri Hippikon) and The Cavalry Commander (Hipparchikos). Other information concerning the cavalry comes from Aristotle, the orators, and the comic poets. Many inscriptions found in the Agora are sources of further insight.

The cavalry was under the command of two senior officers, the hipparchs, who were seconded by ten commanders known as phylarchs, one chosen from each tribe. Numerous honorary inscriptions survive, rendering thanks to these officers for the conscientious performance of their duties or for the generous provision of food and equipment. These decrees, honoring individual officers or the whole staff, were passed by the state, by a single tribe, by the cavalry corps itself, and even in one instance by foreign mercenaries serving with the Athenian cavalry.

Other monuments were set up to honor individual commanders. The base of one such dedication was found in z99o, some twenty-five meters north of the Panathenaic Way. On two sides it shows horse- men with helmet and sword astride rearing horses. Above the better preserved side is an inscription referring to the tribe, Antiochis, and the name of a man (Hierophanes, son of Polyaratos of Alopeke), presumably the officer depicted, either a hipparch or a phylarch.

The cavalry is closely associated with the Agora square, in particular the area around the northwest corner, where the main street of the city, the Panathenaic Way, entered the square between the Royal (basileios) and Painted (poikile) Stoas. This area was known in antiquity as “The Herms” (Hermai) according to Harpokration, quoting an earlier source: “From the Poikile and the Basileios stoas extend the so-called Herms.”

A herm was a stylized, primitive image of the god Hermes mounted on a square shaft which was decorated with a sculpted representation of the male genitalia. Herms were used to mark crossroads, doors, and entrances, and dozens of examples set up at the northwest entrance to the Agora have been found in the excavations. The association of the cavalry with the Herms is indicated by a fragment written by the comic poet Mnesimachos in the 4th century B. C: Go forth from the chambers roofed with cypress wood, Manes; go to the Agora, to the Herms, the place frequented by the phylarchs, and to their handsome pupils, whom Pheidon trains in mounting and dismounting.

Excavation of a well at the northwest corner of the Agora has produced an extraordinary correlation of literary and archaeological evidence. Twenty-six round clay tokens were found, stamped with the name Pheidon of Thria, the hipparch on Lemnos. Lemnos was an Athenian island possession staffed with Athenian military officers, and it seems certain that the comic fragment and the clay tokens found in the area of the Herms refer to the same individual. Xenophon also envisions the cavalry performing in the Agora, near the Herms:

As for the processions, I think they would be most pleasing to both the gods and the spectators if they included a gala ride in the Agora. The starting point would be the Herms; and the cavalry would ride around saluting the gods at their shrines and statues…. When the circuit is completed and the cavalcade is again near the Herms, the next thing to do, I think, is to gallop at top speed by tribes to the Eleusinion. (The Cavalry Commander)

In all probability, the cavalry trained on the wide, packed gravel surface of the Panathenaic Way itself where it ran through the Agora; the situation is reminiscent of Ells, where the agora was known as the hippodrome because the citizens trained and exercised their horses there. At several points along the Panathenaic Way stone troughs or basins appropriate for watering horses have been found, and an iron ring set into a marble block beside the roadway may have served as a hitching post. Regular training would have been necessary as the ancient Greek horseman, to judge from thousands of representations, had the benefit of neither saddle nor-more important-stirrups; maintaining one’s seat, particularly while wielding a weapon, must have taken great skill.

Two buildings closely associated with the cavalry also probably stood near the northwest corner of the Agora square. One was the hipparcheion, office of the cavalry commanders, and the other was the Stoa of the Herms. Neither building has been recognized or uncovered as yet, but archival material relating to the cavalry which was stored or displayed in these two buildings has been found clustered in the northwest area.

An archive of the cavalry dating to the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. was found in the same well which produced the Pheidon tokens. It consists of several dozen inscribed thin lead strips. Measuring about 0.02 by 0,10 m, each was inscribed with a man’s name, the color of his horse, a description of its brand (a symbol such as a centaur, ax, trident, or snake), and a price falling somewhere between 500 and 1,200 drachmas, the average being about 700 drachmas (two years’ wages). Analysis of these tablets suggests that they are the record of the annual evaluation of the cavalry. The information preserved on them would allow the state to properly compensate a cavalryman if his horse was lost in battle. The tablets became obsolete at the end of each year; normally they were erased and reused, but in several instances they were thrown into two wells, one in the Agora and another by the Dipylon Gate.

The same Agora Crossroads Well also produced nine small round lead disks (0.02 m in diameter), each stamped with the representation of a piece of armor (helmet, corselet, shield, greaves) on one side and with a letter on the other. Written sources are silent as to their use, but it seems likely that they were tokens to be exchanged for actual pieces of equipment distributed to the cavalrymen from the state arsenal.

The Pheidon tokens, lead strips, and armor tokens all come from the same well and suggest the nearby location of the hipparcheion; several inscribed stelai, honoring various cavalry officers and found in the immediate vicinity, were set up in the Stoa of the Herms. Together with the sculpted monuments celebrating victory in the equestrian games, they suggest that the northwest corner of the square was the focal point of activity for the Athenian cavalry within the city.

Clothing and Equipment for Riding Horses

Whether you’re new to riding or have been riding your whole life, chances are that when it comes to the clothing and other equipment you need for riding, you want to get what you need with no fuss so you can go back to what you love most: riding horses. Beginners may not quite know where to begin when purchasing their riding wear, but here are some tips to get started with.

Investing in a high quality riding helmet should be a top priority regardless of your age. Having a helmet professionally fitted is best to maximise protection. Any time a helmet suffers an impact, it should be replaced. You can choose from an enormous range of riding helmets for adults and children. For trail riding, many people prefer leather helmets that are very durable and stand up well to scratches. KEP and Charles Owen are two top brands of helmets.

Paddock boots are made to keep your foot from being caught in a stirrup if your horse throws you. The shape of the boots lets your foot easily slide out of the stirrup. They’re also designed to give ankles great support during training. Ariat is a highly-regarded brand of paddock boots.

Riding vests protect your torso should you fall or be thrown from your horse, and children are required to wear them at some equestrian centers. These protective vests are sometimes made with gel inserts for rider comfort as well as safety. Adjustable fastening systems allow a near-custom fit. Charles Owen is a brand that makes protective riding vests.

The Point 2 Air Jacket is a special type of riding vest that is designed to inflate should you become separated from your saddle. This type of accident can result in chest trauma and rib fractures. Though competitive riders wear the Point 2 Air Jacket, it is also made for the leisure rider.

Riding breeches make riding much more comfortable. They range from thinner, lightly padded breeches to full seat breeches, which have more padding and help you “stick” to your horse. Good riding breeches are made to save your lower leg from irritation and bruising from contact with the stirrup straps. Kingsland Equestrian, originally a Scandinavian brand, is a respected maker of high quality riding breeches.

Of course, you don’t want your horse to feel left out, and a nice turnout rug keeps your horse dry and clean in the field, and warm during winter. Amigo Rugs are fantastic because they don’t leak and don’t make horses sweat. Also, they’re cut to fit your horse comfortably. You can choose from lightweight, summer rugs as well as thicker winter rugs that have special filling to keep your horse warm and comfortable.

Properly outfitting yourself for riding helps keep you safe as well as comfortable. Riding experts know from experience what works and what doesn’t, particularly for those who are new to riding. Horse riding is a wonderful sport, and making sure that you are kitted out properly allows you to enjoy it without worrying about whether your clothing will hold up or cause safety problems with your riding.

Folding Coffee Table

If a folding coffee  table  is one of the items you would like for your living room or family room you will find this  table  comes in a variety of styles and finishes. The contemporary look to the modern design the coffee  table  can be square, rectangular, round or oval. From cherry finish to light oak, the right one can be found to fit your room décor.

Available at one of the major retailers is a folding cocktail  table  in light walnut. This  table  has easy slide legs that automatically lock when the  table  is opened. This  table  is 28 inches long, 18 inches wide and 18 inches high. The  table  also comes in mahogany and a natural hardwood. When not in use, it folds to a handy size that has built-in handles for carrying. Pick it up and take it along wherever you need a  table  in a hurry.

Another coffee  table  that folds has a tray which sits on top of folding legs. The tray has Chinese characters and coins on the tray and the legs are a light wood that will enhance any room of your home. This  table  can be used for an accent piece or coffee  table  because it is handsome looking enough to fit in anywhere.

Also available at one of the major retailers is the handy folding coffee  table  made of wood composite. The finish is black and the base can flip either vertically or horizontally. This  table  would be a great cocktail  table , accent  table  or pedestal  table . Adding to the beauty of any room, the  table  is 36.5 inches wide, 22 inches deep and 18 inches high.

Do you have a family room or a sunroom that you need to furnish? The perfect coffee  table  for this room would be the Three Birds Cambridge coffee  table . It is 40 inches around and has a quick fold feature to allow you to move it with ease. Made from, teak this is an extremely good looking  table  for that not-so-formal room of your home. At 29 inches high this  table  is the perfect height and teak is a very versatile wood that will add to the great look of any room.

If a folding coffee  table  is needed for any room in your home, you will find a wide selection from which to choose just by going online. There are several stores that have this item. Many were found at major retailers of variety items, although some furniture stores carry them as well.

Porch Collapses

 Porches , decks, and balconies are often viewed as desirable features on the outsides of homes and apartments. They offer both aesthetic and practical value to buildings. Many people use  porches  as scenic areas to enjoy a nice evening, view the sunrise, or read a book outside and away from the general public.

Sometimes, however, these structures give way and collapse. This event is known as “ porch  collapse.”  Porch  collapse, though not a common phenomenon, does occasionally happen and can be extremely harmful to anyone on or underneath the fallen structure. Many notorious  porch  collapses have resulted in serious injuries and fatalities.

Causes of Collapse

There are many reasons why  porches  may buckle and cave in. Often, balconies on older buildings have not been built to meet today’s safety standards, and therefore are inherently less stable and secure than newer ones. Older  porches  also are more likely to have deteriorated over time, as well, making them more likely to fall down when slightly overloaded.

Other causes of collapse include the following:

·         Overloading – with people, furniture, or other heavy items

·         Snow overloading

·         Poor construction material choices

·         Rotted wood

·         Rusted fasteners

·         Failure to adhere to codes and regulations

If you have been injured in a  porch  collapse that resulted from poor construction or negligent maintenance, then you may be able to collect compensation. By speaking with an experienced personal injury lawyer about your situation, you can assess your situation correctly and make a strong and effective claim.

The Chicago Balcony Collapse of 2003

In 2003, a very notorious balcony collapse occurred in the city of Chicago. A third-floor balcony filled with party-goers gave way around midnight, dropping its occupants through the two balconies underneath and all the way into the basement. In total, the incident claimed the lives of 13 hapless victims and injured 57 others.

Following this collapse, the city mandated the required inspection of thousands of balconies across Chicago. Hundreds were cited for having structural issues, and were then sent to the Law Department for further action to be taken.

Contact Us

If you have been injured in a  porch  collapse, or if you have lost someone you love in one of these tragic accidents, then you may have the right to claim damages from the responsible party. The Las Vegas personal injury lawyers of Palmer & Associates, P.C. can help you assess your situation and pursue your legal rights. To learn more, please visit today.

How to Find the Perfect Contractor!

Tips For Finding and Hiring the Perfect Contractor.

Finding and hiring a contractor that you trust can be a daunting task, here are a few tips to help ease the process.

With the advancement of the web in the last 10 years and such social media applications such as Face book, Twitter and You tube. We have almost an unlimited access to information. With that said, it’s becoming much easier to find the services we’re searching for and eliminate the good from the bad.Here’s a list of sources to help find quality contractors, remember not all of them are professionals but we’ll go over the screening process in a moment.

1) The Internet.

Google, Yahoo, or any other popular search engine will work. If you type the specific type of contractor you’re looking for, followed by your region you will find a list of contractors who provide that service. I.e. “Siding Contractors Halifax Nova Scotia.” Try to be direct and use short, to the point words or phrases for best results.

Online classified ad sites, such as Craigslist or Kijiji. These sites are often gold mines, you must use your better judgment here and sift through the ads a little more carefully, as these sites are usually free and don’t require any special qualifications to place an ad. The upside is that often you’ll find a company who is new in business who will offer great, sometimes better service then most and for a cheaper price. Make sure you background check thoroughly when looking on free classified ad sites.

Your local phone directories will most likely have an online site you can search as well, Yellow pages and Canada 411 for most of us in Canada.

2) Phone Directory

Yes, underneath that inch of dust is a book. Yes, they still exist. That book is most likely the Yellow Pages and it is chock full of ads for local businesses. Quite a few pages are dedicated to local contractors, there’s an abundance of us, but that’s an entire different story.The Yellow Pages have gone through a few changes and one of those changes is that they now present you with the largest ads first, instead of alphabetically. There are many different opinions on this method of advertisement and how to choose a company from the Yellow Pages. Don’t always assume companies with larger ads will charge more or companies with smaller ads are not as good. Some companies with large ads will go into debt paying massive fees for those large ads and may be on the brink of a financial crisis, whereas a company with smaller or less advertisement has funds freed up to support other areas of their business, customer service for example. Again, it boils down to doing your homework carefully and selecting a contractor who’s qualified, can fit your needs and has a good reputation.

3) Friends/Family/Neighbors

“Hey Joe, hey Sue, know where I can get my roof serviced?” “Yeah, call (Company name). They did ours and we’re very pleased”

Word of mouth referrals is where most of our business comes from, and what better way to find a contractor then through a referral from someone you trust?. I advise you still go through the screening process because what works for some may not work for others.

There are many options when it comes to finding us but those are the top 3.

“Okay, so now I have a list of potential people I would consider hiring, what next?”

Examples of qualities to look for in a company.

a) A well balanced company will have a list of satisfied customers who may provide you with reviews and answers to any questions you may have about the company. Believe it or not, a well established company will also have a list of people who haven’t been so happy with the services. Hey we can’t please everyone all of the time. That’s fine, it’s important that the company recognized the complaint and the issue was resolved in a timely, professional manner.

b) Do they have liability insurance?. We take every precaution necessary to ensure the safety of you, your property and our workers but sometimes accidents happen. It’s a rare occurrence and most of the time damage can be easily repaired by the company. If it’s major damage, you may be held accountable for the loss. A company that is serious about what they do will have adequate insurance coverage.

c) Do they have Workers Compensation? If an employee is injured on your property you can be held accountable for medical expenses, lawyer fees etc. There was a story I read the other day about a man who was running from the police. He ran on someone’s property, tripped, broke his leg, sued the homeowners and won. It’s a fine line homeowners walk…It’s ridiculous but it’s the law so make sure you and your contractor are covered.

d) How are the prices?. Make sure you get at least 4 bids. The lowest price isn’t always the best. It can often mean lack of experience in the industry and lack of overhead, maybe they don’t pay taxes, or don’t have proper insurance/equipment. A reputable company will charge adequately to cover their overhead expenses and even though the lowest price seems tempting, it usually leads to poor service and trouble down the road. You want a company who is going to be in business if a problem should ever arise. At the other end of the scales, higher doesn’t mean the best either. It could just mean that they have one of those over priced ads that they need to compensate for. Look for the company who falls in the middle of the price range.

e)We use our work vehicles everyday and it’s next to impossible to keep them clean and organized 100% of the time, BUT, If a company shows up and burger wrappers spew out of the doors when they open, generally have a “sloppy” image, chances are it’s a reflection of their work.

f) Pay attention to the tools they use, professionals will spend money on high quality equipment. Not saying cheap is bad because we can’t always afford the best of the best and trust me, there’s tools I would love to have, but just can’t justify spending the money on. For the most part though a serious company will have the proper tools to complete the job.

g) Are they friendly? Do they respect your property, your beliefs, your ethnicity or your gender? Do they mingle with your children, your family and your pets? Do they listen intuitively to your request, concerns, or questions? Do they provide you with adequate information about products, materials, warranties, schedules, delays, things to expect during the process? Etc. Do they make you feel at ease?

We will try our best to cover everything with you and usually we nail it, but we’re not perfect. We have our off days too, so here are a few more tips from us on things you can do to make our job easier and the entire process run a bit smoother.

1) Grass and leaves. It’s important to have grass cut short and leaves cleaned up in areas where we will be working. It’s easier for us to clean up our mess and make sure our magnets can pick up all metal objects such as, nails, screws, staples etc. These are dangerous for obvious reasons, nails in the foot are never fun for us and our fury friends.

2) While we’re on the topic of fury friends, pets can find it very stressful during renovation time. It’s best to remove them from the premise during work hours. If that’s not possible, placing pets in a carrier in the basement with a blanket over top will help ease the stress.

3) While working on your home we have equipment which draws electricity. Most times we plug into your outside electrical box. Sometimes we blow a fuse or trip a breaker, in the instance this happens it’s best to leave us access to your electrical panel so we may carry on. If that’s an issue for you we can usually have back up generators handy. If we use your power for any extended period of time, nine times out of ten we are more than happy to reimburse you. Sometimes we’re so busy with other things that we can over look the fact that we’ve added to your power bill. Please remind us if this happens! Just show us the difference and we’ll gladly pay it.

4) Before meeting with us, do as much homework on the subject as you can and prepare a list of your own questions, in case we miss something.

I hope this article has helped to enlighten you! Please feel free to comment, add your own advice or pass it along to friends and family.


David J Chernecki.

A Black Hole Missing Link

Intermediate-mass black holes are hypothetical objects, with masses in the range of 100 to one million times that of our Sun. If these objects really do haunt the Cosmos, they would have masses significantly greater than black holes of stellar mass–but much less than enormous supermassive black holes that weigh-in at millions to billions of times more than our Sun. Most large galaxies, including our own Milky Way, host supermassive gravitational beasts within their hearts of darkness–lurking there in sinister, greedy, voracious secret, waiting for their next meal–an unfortunate gas cloud, perhaps, or a doomed star that has wandered too close to where it lies in wait. In January 2016, a team of astronomers led by Dr. Tomoharu Oka, a professor at Kelo University in Japan, announced that they have detected signs of an invisible black hole, with a mass of about 100,000 times that of our Sun, lurking at the center of our Milky Way. The astronomers assume that this potential intermediate mass object provides a valuable key to our scientific understanding of how the supermassive beasts haunting the centers of galaxies are born.

To make their discovery, the astronomers used the Nobeyama 45-m Radio Telescope to detect an enigmatic gas cloud, dubbed CO-0.40-0.22. This mysterious cloud of gas is only 200 light-years away from the center of our Galaxy, and what makes it weird is its amazingly wide velocity dispersion–the cloud harbors gas with a very wide range of speeds. The team found this unusual feature with a duo of radio telescopes: the Nobeyama 45-m Telescope in Japan and the ASTE Telescope in Chile, both operated by the National Astronomical Observatory in Japan. The team of astronomers performed supercomputer simulations and concluded that a model with an intermediate mass hole of about 100,000 solar-masses would be the best explanation for the observed velocity distribution.

Black holes of intermediate mass are too massive to be formed as the result of the collapse of a single star–which is what happens when a stellar mass hole forms. The environments of intermediate mass holes lack the extreme conditions–that is, the high density and velocities observed at the centers of galaxies–which seemingly would result in the formation of gigantic supermassive beasts. Currently, there are three popular formation scenarios explaining the possible origins of black holes of intermediate mass. The first is the merging of stellar mass black holes and other compact objects as the result of accretion. The second theory postulates the runaway collision of massive stars, inhabiting dense stellar clusters, and the collapse of the object formed by this wreck into an intermediate mass black hole. The third scenario suggests that these intermediate mass objects are primordial black holes that were born in the Big Bang birth of the Universe almost 14 billion years ago.

How Bizarre!

The best evidence for the existence of intermediate mass holes is derived from a few low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). Because of their activity, these galaxies are almost certain to host accreting black holes, and in some cases the black hole masses can be estimated using a technique termed reverberation mapping. For example, the spiral galaxy named NGC 4395 appears to harbor a black hole in its center that sports a mass of approximately 3.6 X 10 to the fifth power solar-masses.

There are also some ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in nearby galaxies that are potential intermediate mass holes. These objects are about a hundred to a thousand solar masses. The ULXs are seen inhabiting star-birthing regions–such as the starburst galaxy M82–and are thought to be associated with youthful stellar clusters that have also been seen in these regions. The problem is that only a dynamical mass measurement from a study of the optical spectrum of the companion star can uncover the presence of an intermediate mass black hole, thus demonstrating it to be the compact accretor of the ULX.

There are a few globular clusters that may host candidate intermediate objects. These observations are based on measurements of the velocities of stars near their centers.

In November 2004, a team of astronomers reported their discovery of an intermediate-mass black hole in our Galaxy. The object, named GCIRS 13E, orbits only three light years from Sagittarius A*(Sgr A*, for short, pronounced Saj-A-Star), which is our Galaxy’s resident supermassive black hole. Sgr A* is relatively light– as far as supermassive beasts go–weighing-in at millions, as opposed to billions, of times more than our Sun. GCIRS 13E is approximately 1,300 solar-masses, and is tucked within a cluster of seven stars. These stars are possibly the remains of a massive stellar cluster that has been stripped down as a result of its voyage near the Galactic Center. This observation may add support to the theory that supermassive black holes grow by accreting nearby smaller black holes and stars. However, in 2005, a team of German astrophysicists proposed that the presence of an intermediate mass black hole near the Galactic center is unlikely, based on a dynamical study of the stellar cluster in which GCIRS 13E dwells. Such an object near the Galactic center could also be spotted by the way it disrupts stars in orbit around Sgr A*.

In January 2006, a team of astronomers led by Dr. Philip Kaaret of the University of Iowa in Iowa City, announced their discovery of a quasi-periodic oscillation possibly caused by an intermediate-mass-hole candidate that they detected using NASA’s Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. This candidate intermediate object, dubbed M82 X-1, is circled by a red giant star that is in the process of shedding its atmosphere into the jaws of the waiting, hungry black hole. However, neither the existence of the oscillation nor its interpretation as the orbital period of the system are fully accepted by the rest of the astronomical community. Red giant stars are the bloated, dying remains of a Sun-like star that has managed to have depleted its necessary supply of hydrogen fuel–and has become an enormous, swollen, red, and angry looking star. When our Sun goes red giant, it will puff itself up to become a cannibalistic stellar monstrosity–devouring two of its planetary-children, Mercury and Venus–before it goes on to possibly roast our own Earth in its fiery, outer gaseous layers.

In 2009, a team of astronomers led by Dr. Sean Farrell discovered HLX-1, a candidate intermediate-mass black hole with a smaller stellar cluster surrounding it, located in the galaxy ESO 243-49. This observation indicated that the unfortunate ESO 243-49 had experienced a galactic smash-up with HLX-1’s galaxy and adopted–as its own–most of the badly battered smaller galaxy’s material.

On July 9, 2012, a team of astronomers at the CSIRO radio telescope in Australia announced that they had detected an intermediate-mass black hole.

Finally, in January 2016, the team of astronomers at Keio University in Japan announced the important discovery of CO-0.40-0.22, with its mysteriously wide velocity dispersion. In order to study the detailed structure of this object, the team observed it with the Nobeyama 45-m Telescope a second time to obtain 21 emission lines from 18 molecules. The team’s findings reveal that the enigmatic cloud sports an elliptical shape and is composed of a duo of components: a dense component reaching out 10 light-years with a narrow velocity dispersion, and a compact, but low density, component sporting an extremely wide velocity dispersion of 100 kilometers per second.

What makes this velocity dispersion so wide? That is the question. There are no holes within the cloud. Furthermore, X-ray and infrared observations did not detect any compact objects. These attributes suggest that the velocity dispersion is not likely to be caused by a local energy input, such as supernova blasts.

The “Missing Link”!

The team of astronomers from Keio University performed a simple supercomputer simulation of gas clouds that have been hurled out by a powerful source of gravity. In the simulation, the gas clouds are, at first, attracted by the source of gravity–which makes them speed up as they approach it, attaining maximum speed at the nearest point to the object. However, after the clouds have floated past the object, their speed decreases.

The team discovered that a model using a gravity source with 100,000 times solar-mass, within an area with a radius of 0.3 light-years, best explained the observed data. “Considering the fact that no compact objects are seen in X-ray or infrared observations, as far as we know, the best candidate for the compact massive object is a black hole,” Dr. Oka, the lead author, explained in a January 15, 2016 National Observatory of Japan Press Release. The paper describing this research appeared in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

If that is shown to be the case, this discovery represents the very first confirmed detection of an intermediate mass black hole. Astronomers already know that black holes come in two sizes: stellar mass and supermassive. Intermediate-size black holes would be the “missing link” between the two.

Although a number of supermassive black holes have been discovered, no one knows how these enormous objects formed in the first place. One theory is that they were born as the result of mergers of a large number of intermediate-mass holes. However, this raises a problem because so far there has been no robust observational evidence for the existence of these intermediate mass objects. If the mysterious cloud CO-0.40-0.22, located a mere 200 light-years from Sgr A*, hosts an intermediate mass black hole, it could strengthen the intermediate mass black hole merger scenario that explains the formation of the supermassive variety.

This study provides a new way for astronomers to hunt for black holes with radio telescopes. Recent observations have shown that there are many wide-velocity compact clouds floating around that are similar to CO-0.40-0.22. The astronomers suggest that some of those clouds might host black holes.

Another study proposed that there are 100 million black holes in our Galaxy, but X-ray observations have only spotted dozens so far. This may be because most of the objects are “dark” and are extremely hard to detect directly at any wavelength. “Investigations of gas motion with radio telescopes may provide a complementary way to search for dark black holes. The on-going wide area survey observations of the Milky Way with the Nobeyama 45-m Telescope and high-resolution observations of nearby galaxies using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have the potential to increase the number of black hole candidates dramatically,” Dr. Oka explained in the January 15, 2016 National Observatory of Japan Press Release.

The research results were published as Oka et al. Signature of an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Central Molecular Zone of Our Galaxy in the January 1, 2016 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Track Lighting – A Brief Introduction

Lighting is an essential feature of any household and indeed business setting. There are several options available to apply when seeking a suitable solution to your own home or business décor, one of these is track   illumination .

Track lighting is a unique and contemporary solution where several lights are attached to a continuous track device. The track device may be attached to a wall or mounted on the ceiling, or even in some case placed strategically on the floor to provide directed light and accentuate a particular item or decorative piece. If you have a high ceiling there are attractive options which allow you to hang the track bright down from the ceiling to a reasonable level.

Track light is also ideal in the home situation to provide directed and bright lighting in areas where bright is must have, for instance on the kitchen counter or in a long corridor, where it can also be used to show off wall hangings in a good light.

Track lights are ideal when remodeling. They come in handy especially when a room already has an existing light fixture, but you want to cast additional light to specific areas of the room or towards a particular object. A good example is where you want additional light shed over your favorite arm chair for ease of going through work you carried home or reading a good book in the evening without necessarily throwing your whole living room into science lab.

Take time to consider whether or not you need to use track lighting. This is because not all situations warrant their use. Rooms with low ceilings are not ideal for tracking lights, as are rooms which have been given an earthy or rustic décor theme. This is because these  illuminations  will probably get in the way in the former case and stick out like a sore thumb in the latter due to their contemporary look.

If you feel that the situation fits the use of tracking lights, consider the purpose the bright is supposed to serve. It is rare that these  illuminations  will be used to provide general lighting but they can serve the purpose if needed. Most times they shall be used to give directed lighting for accentuating or wall wash functions. They can also be used for task related lighting, which is where they are used to light up a particular area where a large amount of activity takes place.

There are several track lighting kits available for installation depending on the nature of your requirements. Most common shapes are “L” and “T”. If you are good with your hands you will find that these are relatively easy to install. However, depending on the nature of the task, for instance if you need to install a junction box, you may need to have it done by a professional.

You can also tinker around with your track  illuminations  by adding certain features which lend it a more personal feel. For instance, add a dimmer switch so that you can regulate the amount of bright cast, or use a connector to join two or more track  illuminations  using one power source, this can be used to create your own unique designs.

Designer Lighting Basics

A light bulb is just a light bulb to many people. In addition, light source placement, style, and design take a back seat to the basic functionality: light. How many really take care when planning and installing  lighting  sources within their home?

Consider the styling of a  lighting  fixture compared to the styling of its surrounding environment. Different light source types should be used depending on the setting. Larger rooms may require more  lighting  sources, or brighter sources, or something that reflects the theme of the room.

How much  lighting  power is needed when considering the proper  lighting  level? A basic rule of thumb would be to measure the room area in square meters and then multiply by 25 for tungsten  lighting , 15 for halogen  lighting , and 19 for compact fluorescent  lighting . This method can help to determine total wattage required by your light sources for proper  lighting .

Attention should be given to style when selecting a  lighting  source for a particular setting. Designer  lighting  fixtures add a touch of elegance and style to any room.

Within its own sphere, designer  lighting  embraces the elements of artistic expression. Whatever the style, designers have crafted a wide range of  lighting  selections that cater to every taste and may be displayed as art.

Any form of  lighting  will often do for many of us. Find a light source, place it in a room and things are set until the light burns out. However, the correct  lighting  setup can add so much more to a room.

Whatever the occasion or setting, modern designer  lighting  will provide a good  lighting  solutions in a room and bring a satisfying look and feel.  Lighting  options are available from ceiling and wall lights, to floor and table lamps. Also,  lighting  fixtures can be used for outdoor  lighting  needs.

Metal Roofing – A Solid Roofing Option For Your Home

Metal roofing is getting to be a really popular option for a lot of homeowners. There are several reasons for this. Metal roofing is made up of incombustible material and withstands all fires. There are a number of kinds of metal readily available on the marketplace in new shapes, colors as well as textures that are long-lasting and also provide durability and safety for your own home. You can also get classy and smart looking roofing if you choose metal materials. Metal roofing can certainly reflect off the rays of the sun, hold up against high winds, snow or rain and it doesn’t develop moss. Moreover, these roofs can last for half a century and are regarded as a smart investment. Metal roofs are generally recommended by insurance agencies. This is due to a house using a roof made from metal is much more likely to resist many different kinds of severe weather conditions. Metal materials can be found in standing-seam as well as metal shingles profiles.

Both of those systems are long lasting and very energy efficient. Metal roofs are regarded as green simply because they decrease the temperatures of the building with reflecting solar radiant heat out of the roofing that will help keep interior spaces cooler, and also minimizes the urban heat island impact. Metal roofing materials vary in texture, style and color more than various other roofing materials. They could be made to appear like standard shingles, wood shakes, or even tile without worrying about additional weight. Many types of metal materials are available in sheets that are easily and also quickly installed. Recycled roofing may also be purchased as being an environmentally friendly choice for your own house. Metal materials are extremely light in weight, weighing nearly half as much as asphalt shingles, and around a quarter as much as tile roofs.

If appropriately set up, a metal roof usually will last as long as your home stands. Even though metal roofs could be walked on, proper care needs to be applied while walking on the roof with tile and deep shake profiles in order to avoid damages at the contour of the ridges. Metal materials are fully recyclable materials that make it an environmentally friendly option to asphalt composition shingle roofing. Other benefit of metal materials is they can be easily integrated along with solar roofing panels. From the financial point of view, roofs made out of metal cost nearly double the expense of an asphalt roof, however their higher initial expense is well warranted due to the fact metal-built roofs can certainly last 3 times longer than asphalt. Consideration in the energy cost saving also makes roofing materials the outstanding option for sloped roofs. Metal is definitely the best option for homeowners wanting to form a long term, financially responsible investment. Not only is metal an inexpensive material, it is also available in a huge selection of products. The many different products offered make it easy for homeowners to create a customized look even on a tight budget.

Why Metal Roofing is a Very Popular Choice For Homeowners

Metal roofing is becoming a very popular choice for many homeowners. There are several reasons for this. Metal roofing is a noncombustible material and can resist all fires up to class A. Class A can be the ones that insurance companies give discounts due to the less probability of catching fire and having more time to extinguish them before things gets worse. Metal roofing is tough, more cost effective and lasts longer than any other roofing solution yet they are pretty simple and ordinary looking. Curved Metal Roofing adds both the toughness of the metal roof with the sleek and classic look of the curved roofing.

Metal roofing is generally more expensive than asphalt roofing, but cheaper than tile or slate roofing. It has a long life and can even lower heating and cooling costs because it reflects heat from the sun. The Metal roofing panels standing seam FSS18 is designed for both new and retrofit projects. The FSS 18 is especially useful where strength over open purlins is required or where there are long runs with limited openings. Metal roofing is also much lighter than other kinds of tiles, which puts less stress on your rafters and walls. Metal is naturally extremely fire resistant, so those living in wildfire areas feel safer with a fireproof surface.

Metal roofing provides many benefits for homeowners who choose it for their roof. These advantages are becoming increasingly apparent, as the dramatic rise in the popularity of metal roofs tells us. Metal roofing is pricey. It may cost as much as–or more than–other premium materials: from about $1.80 to $8.00 per square foot, plus labor. Metal roofing offers a wide variety of panel profiles to choose from. Nearly any design appearance can be achieved when using metal if you are willing to pay the added cost.

Metal roofing materials are 100% recyclable in the event that they are ever removed. Metal roofing reflects the sun, thereby allowing a home to stay cooler. It also cools off very quickly at the end of the day. Metal roofing is easily scratched, and these scratches are often easily seen from the ground. The present device is designed to protect the metal roof from damage by preventing ladders used for support from touching the metal surface.

Steel roofs have the greatest strength per pound of any roofing material. Strong but lightweight, they are well designed to handle heavy snow and ice loads, and actually improve structural strength – important in earthquake and high-wind areas. Steel cladding panels have made the evolution from traditional post and frame construction to satisfying the requirements of today’s architects in creating “sustainable green buildings”. Due to the high percentage of recycled materials in modern steel products LEED recognizes this reduced impact creates an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional materials.

Metal roofing is fairly complex and very involved process that takes a lot of time, system specific know-how (not all metal roofing systems are made the same), patience, precision and care. Metal roofs take much longer to install, their initial price is very significant, but the rewards of a properly installed metal roof go far beyond its looks. Metal roofing that retains its good looks, whether it is shake, tile or vertical seam panels, outlasts both of these products. Metal roofing systems were used in the 1700s for housing because it was cheap. You would find various zinc, lead and copper roofed houses in various cities. There are numerous metal roof products. Metal roofing is both cost effective compared to many other roofing materials and lasts for many years.

As always just be sure to do your homework when trying to find the best contractor for the job. The lowest price is not always the best way to go and if you choose to make your final decision on just that fact, be prepared to be disappointed most of the time.

Hanging Fireplaces Make a Big Hit

The hanging fireplace is making a big hit these days. I’m not sure when they first came out, but people want them more than ever now. The thing is that it is quite expensive to buy one or hire a contractor to build one.

When it comes to contemporary fireplace design, there are so many safe and inexpensive ways to keep up with the Jones’s. Plus if you’ve been following me for years, you know by now that I’m going to want you to do it yourself. So if a hanging fireplace sounds like something you would want in your living room or bedroom, let’s take a look at how you might build one for yourself.

Of course, we should first begin by talking about the structural issues that arise with a hanging fireplace. A hanging fireplace can be a great looking contemporary feature in your home. But, it can also be a hazard if it is not secure. Anyone with any logic would understand that a fire hanging in the middle of the room would have to be somewhat dangerous if the structure isn’t solid.

There are several suggestions I would make so that the fireplace is secure enough that it will never become a fire hazard in your home. The simplest form that I would suggest would be to suspend it with cables from the ceiling. But, you have to make sure that the cables are securely attached to the ceiling. This is one of those critical areas you can’t cheat.

Have you ever heard the one about the guy who had a 10,000 pound hitch ball, so he thought he could pull a trailer that weighed a few hundred pounds less than maximum capacity? When he pulled away to start pulling the trailer, his car left out of the parking lot just fine. But, he left the trailer behind along with his bumper and the hitch ball.

That’s the kind of mistake you don’t want to make when it comes to suspending your fireplace in mid-air. So, make sure you have industrial strength materials. A plant holder and a piece of string aren’t going to work. If you look in any hardware store, you’ll find strong hangers and cables that you can use.

Screw the hangers into ceiling beams that support the structure of your ceiling. Hang a shelf with the cables. Simply drill a hole in each of the corners so that you can run your cable through. The best way I have found to do this is to create an eyelet on one end of the cable by forming a loop at the end and then crimping it with a fastener. Hook that end to your hanger. Then run the cable through one corner of the shelf and through the adjacent corner as well. Form another eyelet on the other end of your cable and run that to the ceiling. Perform those same steps for the other two adjacent corners and you have yourself a sturdy shelf that will safely hold your fireplace.

Of course, there are a few extra steps you are going to have to take. First of all, when you are sure that your shelf is perfectly level both front to back and side to side, you are going to want to secure the cable at each of the corners. Otherwise, your fireplace could take a chance on being tipped over onto the floor. You can place fasteners on the bottom of the shelf at each corner that will hold the cable in place. Or you can fasten the cables together where they meet in the middle. Either way works perfectly fine.

Now, all you need are your fireplace inserts, ceramic logs and Sunjel fuel to enjoy a fireplace that is suspended in mid-air. The hanging fireplace is a unique idea that has many solutions if you use your imagination. So, have some fun with it and make sure you keep your home safe at all times.

How to Lay Wood Flooring

In this article we look at how to lay wood flooring in six steps that you can follow yourself. If you’ve followed my other article on how to lay laminate flooring, then many of the steps are very similar, but there are a few differences when it comes to laying a hardwood floor. If you’re nervous about how to lay wood flooring and about your level of DIY skills in general, don’t be afraid to ask a more experienced friend if they can help out. Technological advancements with in hardwood flooring have meant that the products are both higher quality, and easier to fit as well.

Before we get started with our how to lay wood flooring guide, you’ll need to ensure your wood flooring has been left in the room you plan to install it in for at least 48 hours before you start the process of laying. This is an important step since the boards themselves are composed from a natural material, they must be allowed to acclimatise to the new room temperature and moisture levels they will be exposed to. As the boards adjust to the new environment, they will expand or contract accordingly. You also need to make sure that you clean your sub-floor thoroughly to remove any dirt and small particles that may cause problem when you come to lay the wood flooring.

Let’s make a start and begin our guide to how to lay wood flooring:

Step 1 – tools for the job

  • a panel saw or electric saw (e.g. circular saw)
  • tile spacers
  • safety glasses
  • a hammer
  • a pencil
  • set square
  • knee pads
  • masking tape
  • a sharp craft knife
  • tapping block
  • a pulling bar
  • self-adhesive underlay

Step 2 – how to measure for your wood floor

To calculate the amount of wood flooring you’ll need for your project, you will have to measure you space to calculate the total area squared that needs to be covered. Wood flooring comes in various pack sizes depending on the variety you buy, and these packs tell you both the board dimensions, and the overall coverage achievable per pack. In order to calculate how many packs of wood flooring necessary for your project, first measure the width of your room and the length. Multiply these numbers by each other to give you your total area size. Awkward rooms can sometimes be difficult to measure, but the best way to try and overcome this it to try and divide up your area into smaller spaces that you can be square off, and then add the individual area sizes of these squares together. To calculate how many packs of wood flooring you’ll need, take your total area size (this needs to be in the same units as the ones used on the wood flooring packaging), and divide this number by the total area covered on one packet of wood boards.

It’s highly advisable to acquire at least ten percent extra boards than what you calculated you will need for your project. This is to avoid running out of boards in the middle of your projects in case of mistakes or bad measurements.

Step 3 – marking out your wood floor

Unlike when you lay a tiled floor, there is no need to mark out the position of each wood board that you lay. However, it is recommended that you lay a trial row before you begin installing the self-adhesive underlay. This is to help to determine the direction and position you will begin laying the flooring, and also to help calculate how much of the end-of-row boards you will need to cut when you come to it. A good tip is to start laying your wood flooring in the lightest part of the room. You should try to avoid a layout that will result in you having to cut more than 50% away from the depth of your end-of-row boards, or less than 400mm off from the width of your boards.

Step 4 – laying self-adhesive underlay

We will be installing a ‘floating floor’ through the methods used in this tutorial. This means that technically the new wood flooring is not directly fixed to the old sub-floor. This is a very common, efficient, and perfectly effective way to install wood flooring. With this in mind, begin laying your underlay with the shiny-side up. This is because the shiny side is the one that features adhesive. Ensure you have your spacers in place, and you are laying the rolls at a 90 degree angle to the way you will lay your laminate boards; this is to prevent the seams between the pieces of underlay ever corresponding to the joins between the piece of wood flooring. As you lay the underlay, make sure there is no gap or overlap between the sections as either of these might cause the wood boards to sink or stand proud. The goal here is a nice consistent surface. Tape down the joins between the sections with a bit of masking tape to hold them in place.

Step 5 – laying wood flooring

Using the layout you established previously, start by removing a section of the protective film on the underlay by about the half the width of a wood board. Then gently lay your first board in place (making sure your spacers are still in place). If you’re happy with the position of the first board, peel back more of the protective film to expose the board to the adhesive completely. In the same way you can continue throughout the room, gradually peeling the adhesive film back as you go.

Most wood flooring features a tongue and groove fitting profile. These boards should fit together easily and, and can be joined together by introducing the new board at a 45 degree angle to the previous one, then slotting it in place as you lower it. You can use your beating block or pulling bar to further encourage the boards in place if necessary.

End-of-row boards can be cut using the saw you have available, and by marking the board where the cut needs to be made. Take care to cut the board the right way up as different saws may cause damage to either the top side or underside of the wood. Remember to use your safety glasses as you do this.

Step 6 – applying the finishing touches

It’s recommended that you wait at least 48 hours before applying any finishing touches to your flooring such as trims or scotias. This will allow the floor to settle in further.

Use a mitre box to help with cutting your trims and scotias at an angle. Transition bars can also be used where your new floor meets with a doorway or a different floor surface.

Congratulations! You now know how to lay wood flooring!

Medela Pump in Style Advanced Tips and Tricks

We all know the benefits of breast milk, but who knows best but doctors and nurses who are constantly involved in child care. These experts handle and used different types of breast pumping and knows which is the best of the bunch. A recent survey among them revealed the truth. Medela is the only brand you can trust when it comes to breast pumping.

One, Two… Pump!

The Medela Pump in Style Advanced is the easiest and most convenient pumping system in the market today. It is available in electric and manual hand pump for easy carry. The unique two phase expression technology features advanced breast pumping technique that involves a stimulation phase and an expression phase. The stimulation phase stimulates and encourages the milk glands surrounding the nipple for better milk flow. This phase is characterized by strong and fast pumping to initiate the flow, once the flow is sustained, the pump enters into the second phase that settles into a slow, deliberate pattern for more comfortable pumping.

Medela Pump in style advanced is hospital-grade breast pump solution that is durable and is built to last. It can be used daily without fear of breaking it. Besides, parts are readily available through online, so you don’t have to worry about throwing it away due to no parts available.

Tips, Tips and more Tips

1. When buying a breast pump, it is important to consider how many different flange size are available. The right flange size can maximize your milk production as too small a flange can spill the milk.

2. Breast pumping can be tedious especially when you have to hold the pumping device for a long period of time. A specialized bra that enables its users the ability to put the pump in place leaving your hands free for other work.

3. Read the instruction manual. A lot of people just throw the manual without even reading it.

4. After reading tip no. 3, be sure to leave the pump running to force the air into the tubing clearing its path of contamination and condensation.

5. After putting in the milk at the storage bag, be sure to take all air out of the bag to prevent freezer burn.

What’s in the bag

The Medela Pump in Style Advanced is the perfect pump for the mom who is on-the-go. Medela has made breast pumping super easy while out and about; they offer either the Medela Pump in Style Shoulder Bag or the Medela Pump in Style Backpack. While the Medela Pump in Style Backpack is slightly more popular, both contain the same features and are equally easy to work with.

The Pump in Style Advanced comes with an A/C adapter and a battery pack so that even if you aren’t near a power outlet, you can still use your pump. An optional car adapter can be purchased separately so that, when necessary, you can breast pump in your car.