Causes of Compressor Overheat

The most common causes of damage for reciprocating compressors is caused by high suction from bad valves. Carbon buildup, and warps in the compressor valve prevents them from sealing. A common cause is a high compression ration and therefor high head pressure. Any loss of refrigerant or oil can also cause damage to valves. If refrigerant migrates or floods parts that can cause corrosion. Undercharged refrigerant also places a drain on the system. Any Denver air conditioning parts company would love to help replace a compressor, but compressors are designed to work for years. Proper care and maintenance can keep you from compressor repairs.

Compressor overheat is the most serious field problem a HVAC technician will face because of the chance for fire. Compressor overheat is also very common as it is the main moving part in your air conditioner. Poor building design, closed vents and improperly protected parts are the main contributors to early air conditioning compressor failure.

High compression ratio comes from: a combination of high head pressure and low suction pressure. High ratios result in high discharge temperatures. The discharge temperature reflects the hottest part of the refrigeration system and is therefore useful in determining an upper boundary. Denver furnace repair techs will tell you that the AC compressor is often hotter than a heating element. Discharge temperature can be measured by a thermistor about 3-4 inches from the compressor.

Since the compressor’s discharge is superheated coolant, you will want a certified air conditioning repairman to install a special thermostat. There is no direct temperature pressure relationship, so a cold weather experienced HVAC tech is a must. The usual limit for heat in a compressor is 225 degrees F. Prolonged exposure to this type of temperature will lead to failure. Above this the system may start to fail from worn hoses, acid and oil breakdown.

Some things your ac repair company can look out for to minimize air conditioning compressor damage: Restricted liquid lines, undercharged ac lines, plugged filters, and uninsulated suction lines.

Basel Norms & Indian Banking System

Amidst globalisation Banking System in India has attained vital importance. Day by day there has been increasing banking complexities in banking transactions, capital requirements, liquidity, credit and risks associated with them.

The World Trade Organisation (WTO), of which India is a member nation, requires the countries like India to get their banking systems at par with the global standards in terms of financial health, safety and transparency, by implementing the Basel II Norms by 2009.


The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision provides a forum for regular cooperation on banking supervisory matters. Its objective is to enhance understanding of key supervisory issues and improve the quality of banking supervision worldwide. It seeks to do so by exchanging information on national supervisory issues, approaches and techniques, with a view to promoting common understanding. The Committee’s Secretariat is located at the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in Basel, Switzerland.


The first accord by the name .Basel Accord I. was established in 1988 and was implemented by 1992. It was the very first attempt to introduce the concept of minimum standards of capital adequacy. Then the second accord by the name Basel Accord II was established in 1999 with a final directive in 2003 for implementation by 2006 as Basel II Norms. Unfortunately, India could not fully implement this but, is now gearing up under the guidance from the Reserve Bank of India to implement it from 1 April, 2009.

Basel II Norms have been introduced to overcome the drawbacks of Basel I Accord. For Indian Banks, its the need of the hour to buckle-up and practice banking business at par with global standards and make the banking system in India more reliable, transparent and safe. These Norms are necessary since India is and will witness increased capital flows from foreign countries and there is increasing cross-border economic & financial transactions.


Basel II Norms are considered as the reformed & refined form of Basel I Accord. The Basel II Norms primarily stress on 3 factors, viz. Capital Adequacy, Supervisory Review and Market discipline. The Basel Committee calls these factors as the Three Pillars to manage risks.

Pillar I: Capital Adequacy Requirements:

Under the Basel II Norms, banks should maintain a minimum capital adequacy requirement of 8% of risk assets. For India, the Reserve Bank of India has mandated maintaining of 9% minimum capital adequacy requirement. This requirement is popularly called as Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) or Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio (CRAR).

Pillar II: Supervisory Review:

Banks majorly encounter with 3 Risks, viz. Credit, Operational & Market Risks.

Basel II Norms under this Pillar wants to ensure that not only banks have adequate capital to support all the risks, but also to encourage them to develop and use better risk management techniques in monitoring and managing their risks. The process has four key principles:

a) Banks should have a process for assessing their overall capital adequacy in relation to their risk profile and a strategy for monitoring their capital levels.

b) Supervisors should review and evaluate bank’s internal capital adequacy assessment and strategies, as well as their ability to monitor and ensure their compliance with regulatory capital ratios.

c) Supervisors should expect banks to operate above the minimum regulatory capital ratios and should have the ability to require banks to hold capital in excess of the minimum.

d) Supervisors should seek to intervene at an early stage to prevent capital from falling below minimum level and should require rapid remedial action if capital is not mentioned or restored.

Pillar III: Market Discipline:

Market discipline imposes banks to conduct their banking business in a safe, sound and effective manner. Mandatory disclosure requirements on capital, risk exposure (semiannually or more frequently, if appropriate) are required to be made so that market participants can assess a bank’s capital adequacy. Qualitative disclosures such as risk management objectives and policies, definitions etc. may be also published.


Basel II Norms offers a variety of options in addition to the standard approach to measuring risk. Paves the way for financial institutions to proactively control risk in their own interest and keep capital requirement low.

But . . .

Requires strategizing risk management for the entire enterprise, building huge data warehouses, crunching numbers and performing complex calculations and poses great challenges of compliance for banks and financial institutions.

Increasingly, banks and securities firms world over are getting their act together.

Face the Future With Confidence

Have you ever found yourself lacking the confidence needed to do your job successfully? You’re not alone! How can you develop more confidence not only in your career but in your life as well?

First off, find out what makes you a star. Gather a notebook and get to work! Make two   columns . One  column  will be all of your best qualities. Don’t hold back, patronize yourself! You’re obviously smart; you’re reading a great article aren’t you? Yes, go ahead and include your eighth grade spelling bee win. This list isn’t just about qualities; it is also about your accomplishments. You may ask friends close to you what habits they appreciate about you and include these comments as well.

Please take a few moments to meditate on what you have written – these are all the reasons why you are a valuable employee.

Now, in the second  column , honestly record some of the items you know that you could do better in. There is no shame in admitting these, we all have weaknesses. Some are worse than others. Admitting them is the first step toward fixing them.

At this point, meditate only on your  column  of good habits. This list is your personal cheerleader. When you feel that a task is too difficult to perform, feel free to pull out your list and reexamine why you are a valuable employee and a good person.

So you have a whole page of great qualities, but you still feel that you’re just not good at your job. What can make it better?

Fear is the unknown. Anytime we are in a situation that is uncommon, we are going to have a degree of fear. What is the best way to conquer such fear? Stare it straight in the eyes. How? The more we know about what to expect, the less fear we will have.

Research the goal or task troubling you. Find out how it can be accomplished, just as if you were preparing for battle. What qualities do those who have faced this task successfully had that you are lacking? Many times you will find that those less equipped than you have done a good job at the assignment in question. This fact will give you more confidence. Tackle your task with both guns blazing, and don’t look back.

With each accomplishment, take a moment to recognize what you have achieved. Even write them down in your notebook for future consideration.

We all have what it takes to be great, no matter what our background or lifestyle has been in the past. But in order to take advantage of our true abilities, we must let go of the culture of failure that is holding us back. Such culture can come from our upbringing, our co-workers, our friends, or simply through challenging circumstances that have faced us all.

Do not be content to follow the leader. Instead, use your mind to contemplate how and why rules work. Doing so will instill in you principles that you can carry with you through different jobs the rest of your life.

Finding your inner strength is the key to happiness and success. Now that you have your notebook of success, and a list of what you need keep working on, you can face the world with confidence that you are a proven winner!

Advantages and Disadvantages of a Natural Yoga Mat

What is the most recommended yoga mat and what are the advantages of using one? Well this article will endeavor which is best suited for you and why it is so. The natural mat is the best one so far. It is getting many of good reviews ever since its first appearance in the market. The materials used in this are pure rubber extracts.

Thus, it has no harmful chemicals that can cause irritations in your skin unlike most of the mats of today that contain Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). Prolonged contact with PVC contents can have various effects on the health of the user. A natural mat is therefore good for the body since it does not cause any negative side effects.

If you are going to make a research about the natural rubber yoga mat, you will find out that they are actually the one recommended by yoga professionals. The composition is solely 100% rubber and free from any synthetic materials. A drawback of using a natural rubber one is its rubber smell. However, if you can tolerate a slight odor of rubber while you are doing yoga, then this will suit you best.

Another drawback of the rubber yoga mat is its quite heavy compared to other mats. For this reason, it is not suitable for travelling yoga practitioners. Unlike the travelling version, the natural rubber mat cannot be folded or rolled thus it cannot fit in small bags. In addition, carrying it around for transport is a little exhausting.

Some of the advantages of using the all-natural yoga mat is it can allow the user to be more daring in practicing yoga positions. Being 100% pure rubber, has a high traction giving the yoga practitioner a better grip of the supporting surface. This is actually necessary because if the mat is slippery chances are the practitioner will sustain an injury due to accidental slips.

Another great thing with the natural rubber yoga mat is its thick enough to give support and comfort to the user. This is good for practitioners who want to remain in the lotus position and meditate for several hours. The comfort is for lessening the amount of stress the body of the practitioner is going through. This would allow him or her to practice yoga for as long as the yogi likes it.

There are many places that you can buy a natural rubber mat. Most sport stores keep a stock of mats for yoga however, not all of them have the natural rubber version available. Thus, if you are looking for an all-natural one, you may want to try to look through the Internet.

To sum it all, a natural rubber yoga mat has many benefits to the user. With the current pace of advancement in technology, soon, all the drawbacks of the natural version will also be gone. Thus, if you want to start practicing yoga, take into consideration the mat that you are going to use.

Can My Carpet Be Saved?

We are continually asked this question! Do my carpets need to be replaced? Is the carpet pad bad? Can a cleaning help, last time all of my stains came back? Our offices get these calls everyday and there are simple answers to help you determine what to do without wasting your time and money!

  • Can My Stains be Removed Permanently?

Stains “wicking” back can happen depending on the type & age of the stain. Also, it depends on the method of carpet cleaning. The only method to effectively remove stains, dust & allergens from carpet is steam truck mount extraction per EPA & Shaw Industries (largest carpet manufacturer in the world).

Our company uses the best equipment so our temps get over 240+ degrees with a high pressured truck mount system which gives the best cleaning results possible.

Also, each of our technicians are individually certified to guarantee that the tech’s know what proper cleaning agents to use for the best results. If cleaning, fails to resolve the stains and the rest of the carpet is in good condition than a carpet patch can be done with either remnant carpet or carpet from the closet to replace the permanently stained carpet.

  • Does my Carpet Just Need to be Replaced?

Does that nap in the walk ways move back & forth when you move your hand over the carpet? If not, than the nap is worn down and probably the carpet needs to be replaced. Sometimes we are able to pull the nap pile back up in cleaning with the steam extraction, results depend on how bad the nap is worn.

  • I have Newer Carpet but Could My Carpet Pad be Bad?

Unfortunately, sometimes carpet installers cut costs by installing carpet by using old pad, old carpet or cheap pad. If this occurs than no matter how great a quality of carpet you buy it will wear down fast. If the pad is broken down you will notice an unevenness to the floor when you walk on it, especially on ground levels with concrete foundations.

You can pull the carpet back to look at the pad pretty easily. We would recommend finding a place like the closet or bedroom and pulling from the corner. The primary thing holding the carpet down is tack strips, so just don’t pull back on the carpet too hard or too far, no more than a few inches, and you wont risk causing your carpet seams to pull or come un-stretched. This will allow you to see what type of pad you have and see it’s condition.

Send us a picture! We would be happy to review with our professional technicians….a picture is truly worth a 1,000 words and can help us to guide you to the right decision! If you decide to replace your carpet and would like some guidance on the best selection of carpet & pad we would be glad to help!

Fireplace Rugs Provide Protection to Your Floor

Winter is fast approaching and before you know it, the days will be getting shorter and one of our favourite pass times is sitting by a nice warm fire. Fireplace  rugs  are not only decorative accessories to add to your room they also provide protection to your floor or carpet from spark or glowing embers that can find their way out of the fireplace. All it takes is one little ember to cause a significant amount of damage to your floors. These  rugs  offer protection especially if you have just renovated and have new flooring. A little investment made in these  rugs  will save you lots of money down the road from any damage that may occur from your fireplace.

Fireplace  rugs  come in all shapes, sizes, colours and patterns so you will not have trouble finding right look to match to the décor in your home. Depending on the quality, you can find a nice  rug  for your fireplace costing anywhere from $30 to $200. You should however take into consideration the thousands of dollars that you will be saving in floor repair when thinking about quality and price. Therefore, a higher quality  rug  is well worth the investment. These  rugs  are usually made from 100% wool as this natural material offers the best in durability and style. Some are also manufactured of man made materials; the choice is yours depending on what your needs are. If you have a large area to cover and cannot find the appropriate size needed, not to worry many fireplace stores or accessory businesses can make customized  rugs  to suit your specific purpose.

These  rugs  are specifically designed to be fire resistant and are placed on the floor in front of your fireplace or woodstove. Fireplace  rugs  not only provide safety and protection from flying embers and sparks they also add charm to any room. A regular throw  rug  is not suitable and should not be used; you should always look for a  rug  that is specifically designed to be used in front of a fireplace. As always it is wise to be mindful that a burning fire should always be monitored and not left alone.

Fireplace  rugs  can be purchased at local fireplace or home improvement stores. You can also check online to see what is available and to find more information about these  rugs . Consider the value of this small investment to your home in not only what they offer visually but also the safety provided by the use of these  rugs . At the risk of repeating, please be mindful that a burning fire should always be attended to.

Chain Link Fence

There are many types of fences out there that can look really stunning on or in any type of landscaping theme. However, these may not be as long lasting as you need them to be. Sometimes, you need something that works, that lasts, but not something that seems to be a decorative item. Homes sometimes need fences, and some small businesses need them as well. When you want something that is going to work well over the long haul, go ahead see what you can find in chain link fence. This may be what you should invest in when you need something strong and permanent.

Chain link fence is not always a favorite choice for residential installation. This is because most people who worry about fencing either do it for looks, or because they are having privacy issue with neighbors. However, if it is not about privacy, but more about keeping people off of your lawn and dogs and other animals from straying in, a chain link fence will last a long time and will keep most animals and kids out. You may have to retrieve a ball for kids once in a while, but otherwise, it works well.

Don’t think that you have to give up beauty if you get a chain link fence to go around your property. There are things you can do to it later if you want to make it more for privacy than anything else. You can do things that are far less expensive than getting a whole new type of fencing. You can find some slats that you can weave through the fencing for privacy. This takes a while to install, but it will cost you far less than replacing everything. You can also plant ivy and other growing plants so that they can grow through the links, and eventually these offer a lot of privacy and some greenery as well.

Those that have a small business and are in need of fencing for any reason will find that chain link fence is by far the best choice. It is stronger than other fence, is visible, but does not block out view if someone is trying to pull out of your business parking lot. If someone backs into one of these, it may sustain some damage, but it will be far less damage than you would get with other fence types. It is also very easy to add to and install as long as you know how to do it, or have a trusted dealer or contractor that you want to pay to do it for you.

When choosing chain link fence, don’t forget to have the gates installed with it, and remember to leave an opening or option if you have a driveway that you must include in the fenced area, or around the fencing. These are small details, but could add to the cost of your link fence or alter the amount you need to order. It is better to get a bit more than you need than to scramble around to get more just when you thought your fencing troubles were all set to be over.

Furnished Accommodations in Toronto for Business or Vacation

Many corporations maintain branches in Toronto the Good – also nicknamed “Hogtown” or “The Big Smoke” (a nickname originally used for London England). It’s one of the few Canadian cities that can match the big U.S, cities in terms of population and financial activity. The people are polite but unsmiling as they struggle every day to get to work and back home again on crowded transit buses and subway lines. Many of them come from small towns in order to get jobs that might have a promising future.

When corporate managers and other key executives are dispatched to another city for several months at a time they may want to take a spouse or other family members along. This means that hotel rooms wouldn’t be practical in terms of expense and cramped quarters. Luckily there are certified housing professionals to turn to for a choice of condos and houses that will make them feel at home in cities like Toronto.

New condo buildings are constructed constantly so there is no lack of luxury housing for corporate suites providers to mine for rental opportunities. A landlord or single unit owner can turn over the apartment space for rental purposes for all or part of the year to capitalize on his investment.

The selection of location depends on the temperament and lifestyle of the executive traveler. He may want to stay in a part of town which is very quiet and scenic like the Beaches east of downtown, or be right where the action is in Yorkville or the entertainment district. Museums, live theatre, nightclubs, and fine dining are all within walking distance within the downtown core.

Guests who elect to use furnished suites instead of hotels are able to cook their own food since kitchens are available, along with all condo amenities like laundry, high-definition television, stereo sound systems, parking, balconies, gyms, and saunas. Toronto furnished apartments come in all sizes and choices of d├ęcor. The cost is approximately half of what a four or five star hotel would charge for much less elbow room.

It would be safe to assume that anyone on a company expense account would like to keep the prices down while still letting their company officers reside in executive suites that would be in line with their normal living quarters. The suites are serviced so there is no time wasted scrubbing the bathroom or other unpleasant distractions. Stress can be kept at low tide all during the stay so that the businessman can concentrate on work and have plenty of time to explore the city and enjoy all it has to offer.

People who enjoy urban vacations will find Toronto a good destination and if they are fortunate enough to have several months to enjoy themselves they will discover that Toronto is very close to outdoor activities such as skiing, camping, and hiking. There are major league sports events to attend; teams like the NHL’s Maple Leafs, NBA Raptors, the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League, and baseball’s Toronto Jays (formerly called the Blue Jays).

Whether on business, sabbatical, or vacation, the city of Toronto has everything for the upscale traveler. Staying in the city for part of the year can be a refreshing experience when the  accommodations  are enjoyable, yet Toronto is placid enough to get some serious work done.

Four Ways to Free/Low Cost Travel

1. Free lodging!

Find a pen friend. Maybe you haven’t thought of this. It’s the best solution to your budget problems, but you can’t have it overnight! Greek people are hospitable and so are other countries’ people if you become friends with. It’s the simplest thing to do if you like writing letters or just exchanging cards and souvenirs. I’ve done it and a lot of other people have, why not you? Your friend will probably be happy to put you up for a couple of nights and show you around as well. The other alternative is to exchange your house/flat with somebody else’s abroad. There is a site online that will help you find a place . Try, they advertise ‘exchange homes free of charge’. Try also for offers and discounts.

2. Low cost travel

Stay at campsites. The cheapest alternative to free lodging, at least in Greece. You save money and have fun . Find a campsite at

3. Invest on a bike.

If you like cycling, then you can do it. In Greece you can cycle to most places and see areas that are worth visiting. You can easily rent a bike , and if you are in Corfu you can try []

4. Rent a room in a village or at the port

There are families who rent rooms in their own house ; cheaper than hotel rooms but you have to follow the rules. Where can you find them?

Watch the port area if you come by ship. There are people who approach you and tell you about their own rooms around the area, at low prices. Sometimes you can even bargain to get a better price.

Well, if all these don’t suit you and you may own a caravan , you don’t have to worry about lodgings. You can stay at campsites at low cost, at the side of the road or even in a field for free. You can also hire a caravan and share the expenses, if you travel with friends.

Don’t know where to find one? In Greece you can try []

Greece is ideal for traveling at low cost. But you must be inventive and explore all the sources available. Visit

This is a search engine that will help you find all the info you want. Just type the word Greece and click on Search.


Why Did the Housing Market Crash and Will It Happen Again?

The real estate industry has rocked the foundation of America’s economy. The real estate markets nationwide are suffering because of lack of lending and unregulated mortgage lending over the last few years. I know that everyone is saying that it will get better and we are coming out of this whole thing but lets look at the facts.

The U.S. banks are overrun with foreclosures. The government has stepped in and helped out the banks but the banks took the money and did not place it into the economy. Now the banks are doing okay but even with that help there is still all this property just sitting around waiting for someone to live in it. Even if someone wants the property, the same bank that owns the property is not giving out loans to most families. On top of that, the job market is struggling. So there isn’t even a strong demand for housing because people are concerned with what they have right now, not so much with what they want.

More families are looking at how to make their current home work rather than trying to go out and buy a new place. Even new families are weighing the difference between renting and buying. In many cases renting is winning. At least with renting you know that you can get out of the place when you want without owing some huge back-end loan like most home sellers do right now. So have you ever heard the old saying “Learn from your mistakes or you will be forced to repeat them”? Well that has many people wondering, once we get out of this mess how can we avoid this happening again?

To figure out if this can happen again, we must look at how it started. The first part that caused this market collapse is greed. Greed from people in general, from the bankers and investors on wall street to the mom and pop homeowners that used their house as a piggy bank. Banks violated the first rule of investing which is to check the facts when giving someone money. They didn’t care who wanted the money or whether or not they could pay the money back because before the ink was dry the bank had sold the debt to someone else and it wasn’t their problem. This kind of financing creates a snowball effect and when it finally hits the ground there is our crash.

The second part that caused this crash in my opinion is marketing. Marketing has turned everyone crazy. We are constantly bombarded with images of what a good life is and why we need so many things. Marketing even knows how to make you feel bad if you can’t afford certain things. It all gives way to a desire for instant gratification. People stopped waiting for things and saving for things. Instead people had to have things now and when they get them, they still felt inadequate which forces them to go out and get more things. Our need for instant gratification coupled with many Americans lack of savings created a recipe for disaster.

Now to get out of this situation I feel that we need to do something that we as Americans haven’t done in quite some time. We need to tell the truth. We need to be truthful with ourselves and truthful with those around us. Gone are the days of trying to impress your neighbors with that new toy. Gone are the days of overspending on credit just to keep up with the Joneses. Once we start being truthful about what we can afford and what we are spending then we can begin to stop making excuses to others or trying to keep up a facade or a certain image. As lending institutions go, banks can go back to loaning money but they need to be honest about what someone can actually afford. Tell a family of 4 making 60k a year that they can’t afford a 300k house.

The easiest way to do this would be for the government to put tighter restrictions on what loans can be bundled and sold to the general public. Once a bank is forced to hold on to a loan they will be much more careful about who they loan to. In addition, the government should require that the lending institution that sells the loan is still liable for a portion of the bundled loans no matter who ends up with them. This would force banks to police themselves and the loans that they put out to the public.

As a final step, the government could make it so that bundled loans could not be insured from losses. Or at least losses over what the originating lender is liable for. This would force the original lenders to look long and hard at what paper they put into the market and at the same time it would make the market feel much more comfortable about accepting bank paper. In other words, we need to stop lenders from selling mortgages unless they are willing to offer some sort of guarantee on the quality of those mortgages. I know these ideas are a little technical but all in all they are just common sense ways to protect families, and more importantly families money from taking on huge unnecessary risk.

Until next week good luck and God bless.

Finding A Qualified Mason

Masonry work is an art and consists of constructing, adding, repairing concrete, stone, or brickwork. When we think of a Mason, so many times we think of patio, driveway, reinforced walls, additions to our homes, and then of course the surrounding areas of our pools. When searching for a legitimate mason to contract with, there are many considerations one should be aware of. After all, it’s not only your money at stake, but also your family’s safety and quite possible future legal battles, and then there is the overall well being of the state of your home and its landscaping. When someone begins to talk to me about doing some masonry work and I recommend someone without a doubt or invariably the first question out of their lips is “Are they cheapest? If this is the way you would like to pick a mason not really sure I can help.

The reason that question is not one to consider it could in reality mean they are out of work with no referral business. Stop and think about that for a moment. Stay with me here, if the masonry company is good, isn’t safe to assume would they would probably be backed up with work from other referrals, which means it would take a bit of time to get on their list? Here is another hidden but quite juicy screening process, remember when you Google Masonry, Deck Patio or maybe Landscaping masonry, it would be very beneficial for you to take a closer look at their Google places page. In other words, find out where they are openly documented, as a mason. Do they have and reviews and if so how many reviews do they have? Next, would be to find out if their Google page is even VERIFIED! Verification within Google really only means they care enough about their business to actually take the time and claim their business from Google. This is really not a time consuming or difficult process but to be in business it’s a very good thing to do.

When your searching Google places just look at the top right, it should say “owner verified.” Here is another good question “How come some masonry companies have a video and some don’t”? Many times you may find there’s a few tasteless reviews, but don’t worry. Look how many people bashed the American presidents since forever, and let’s be real here if they are the president they are only like by a little over 50% of the people the other 50% didn’t vote for them. So, just make sure when your looking at the reviews there are more positives ones as opposed to negative.

It would behoove you to make sure your contractor is proficient in using many if not all kinds of brick, stone pavers, reinforced walls, patio decks, roofing and siding, because you want masonry contractors who have been there, done that. I would personally shy away from guy with only a few journeymen helpers or none at all. To me…sometimes that is just another red flag.

Here is something very important when choosing masonry concrete pool pavers you had best have a written step by step of each process as to what is being used, and what is expected…in other words “YES” each thing you expect, at job completion. Don’t be embarrassed. These people are not your friends, although not sure that’s a good standard to follow because I’ve gotten shafted pretty well by friends. So think about it and no more of the masons down the street who are doing masonry at your neighbors, because you probably don’t know your neighbor well enough to talk with them and find out they are not getting quite what they had planned on…bottom line get a thorough contract.

Call me crazy, but take it from me if I was going to pay money out for masonry or pavers concrete reinforce men, I’d make sure to call his CELL PHONE and see how easily I could speak with him or his office. Then, I’d ask to see a list of his last eight masonry concrete brick walls and deck patio work. But that’s just me. I can’t tell you how many times I repaired masonry work that the people who did the work are no longer around…so in the long run what does that really tell you….check them out FIRST.

Getting That Toyota Radiator Fix

Toyota is one of today’s top quality car manufacturers in the world. What first started out as a spin-off of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, one of the world’s leading manufacturers of weaving machinery in the 1930s, Toyota Motor Corporation Ltd. now produces more than 5.5 million vehicles per year or the equivalent of one vehicle to every six seconds – making it Japan’s largest car builder and the world’s third largest manufacturer of automobiles in unit sales and in net sales.

After six decades in the car manufacturing business, Toyota continues to be one of the most admired, most popular and most dependable car makers in the world. Providing a complete line of powerful, innovatively designed vehicle models ranging from mini-vehicles to small cars all the way up to the large and heavy-duty trucks, it compliments these excellent vehicles with top of the line car parts, including what is considered the heart of the vehicle cooling system, the  radiator .

The car  radiator  is a technology that has been around almost since automobiles were first invented. Its primary purpose is heat dissipation – to keep our vehicles running smoothly by maintaining the engine’s ideal temperature thus, preventing overheating.

Like any other car  radiator , the Toyota  Radiator  works as a heat exchanger used to cool an engine once it reaches operating temperatures. It does this through convection, a process through which heat is transferred during the automatic circulation of fluid. Without an efficient cooling system, your Toyota car is bound to overheat and to perform poorly. The engine should be kept in tip-top shape and the car running smoothly by always properly checking and maintaining your Toyota  radiator .

While originally  radiators  were made of round copper or brass tubes that were significantly heavy yet were corrosion and heat-resistant, today’s car  radiators  are lighter and aluminum-made. This often makes  radiators  prone to leaks, especially when not properly taken cared of. Damage to the cooling core of the car  radiator , split or broken  radiator  hose, cracked or broken  radiator  housing, and/or a small leak running your car’s  radiator  dry are the most common causes for  radiator  failure.

Usually, your Toyota  Radiator  problem can be easily solved with just a phone call, a click of the mouse, or a short walk or run to the nearby repair shop. But what do you do when get caught in the middle of nowhere with steam billowing from the open hood of your car and no help in sight?

Here are some simple survival tips:

1. If it’s a damaged core, improvise repair by removing the  radiator  first, and then by finding the broken section. A pair of pliers will come in handy to crimp or fold the sections of the core surrounding the damage. If you have quick-set epoxy or muffler cement, patch the leaks after allowing the damaged section to dry thoroughly. If you stem the leak enough without disabling your Toyota  radiator , you can get yourself to a service station.

2. If a coolant hose is simply split, repair it with whatever heat resistant, waterproof material you have in your car. Duct tape will work if wrapped tight enough (electrical tape will not work). No duct tape? Resourceful drivers have used a glue stick, a potato chip bag, even a necktie, to patch things up.

A broken hose will cost you more trouble though. You will have to find something that can bridge the break and that fits snugly inside the hose. A film can is usually just about the right size, and if you’re lucky to have one stashed in your bag or in your glove compartment, you can insert the improvised tube, push the hose back together, fasten it together as firmly as you can and head to the nearest service shop you can find.

3. One  radiator  problem you might not want to experience is a crack or break in the car  radiator’s  housing. This is a major problem and often there is no way to repair it. The emergency fix is pretty much the same as for a split hose: try to wrap anything waterproof around it that can withstand some pressure. You may find yourself bending or displacing some cores, but that’s okay as long as they do not split.

4. An empty tank is one of the easiest  radiator  problems to fix. A slow leak means that you just have to keep topping up the fluid level until you can get the car  radiator  repaired. Water will do the trick if you don’t have any coolant.

However, as often as it’s been said, prevention is still better than cure. To reduce your chances of getting  radiator  problems, proper maintenance and care of your Toyota  radiator  is a must. Regularly clean and clear the blockages to make sure that your Toyota  radiator  is free from leaks. This is the most efficient way for your Toyota  radiator  to last you a longer period of time, and to save you the trouble of spending your hard-earned money in what could have been unnecessary repairs and replacements.

Best Way to See the Eiffel Tower

When you get to Paris, you will want to see many of the famous sites. First stop for many people is the Eiffel Tower. This is such an iconic symbol of Paris that it is important that your first sighting of it will be a memory that will stick with you for the rest of your life.

So here is the best way to see the Eiffel Tower for the first time.

First, wherever you are staying, take the Metro to Iena station or to Trocadero station.

If you go to Iena station, then when you come out, you will be close to a fork in the road – the left hand fork will be Avenue d’Iena, and the right hand fork will be Avenue du President Wilson. Walk along Avenue du President Wilson, going towards Place du Trocadero et du 11 Novembre. As you’re walking along here, you want to keep the road on your right. After a short walk you will come to the Musee National des Monuments.

If you go to Trocadero station, take the exit that goes out to the Musee National des Monuments. Make sure that this is the exit you take otherwise you’ll find yourself on the wrong side of a roundabout.

Keeping the Musee on your left, walk straight past it and turn left. You’ll find yourself in a plaza area called Le Palais de Chaillot (Chaillot Palace), but you won’t notice that because right smack bang in front of you will be the Eiffel Tower. This is the classic Eiffel Tower view, and this view can’t be beaten for your first sight of it.

Next, you’ll walk through the plaza towards the tower and go down a wide set of steps through a water garden. At the end of the garden, you’ll cross the road and find yourself on a bridge crossing the River Seine. The bridge is called Pont d’Iena (remember Iena station and Avenue d’Iena?). On the other side of the bridge, you’ll find yourself looking up through the hundreds of girders that make up the tower.

Beamed Energy Propulsion and Commencement of Micronautics

I just typed this title and my spell-checker highlighted the word “Micronautics”. Yes, it is not in the dictionary, however, I feel that it will be there eventually. How soon? It depends on our technological progress, but we surely need it as soon as possible.

The subject of micronautics was explored in sci-fi for a while. I remember one short story about a guy who carried a friendly nano-robot inside his body. The robot was scouting his blood vessels and cleaning them from all possible contaminants. Sometimes it entertained the fellow with insightful talks, until one day the host almost choked on a clam and good robot pushed the thing out of his airways. Sadly, the robot was too small, so it was lost in a spit.

“Being lost in a spit” is a pretty graphic descriptor of dimensions for a nano-vehicle. Comparing to our cars (trailer trucks for safer assumption) measured in meters, nano-vehicle would have similar dimensions in microns. Million times smaller in length than a car: what else could be worth an effort of such a fine contrivance if not a micro-space of a human body? When micronautics, i.e. capacity to navigate and operate in microspace will be developed as much, as modern aeronautics, our benefits from it will be immense. It will be a revolution of medicine: our bodies can be guarded from the threats of deceases from atherosclerosis to everything caused by bacteria and viruses, including AIDS and if necessary operated from within.

You just have to “swallow your doctor”, as Richard Feynman, great American physicist, once put it. Feynman was using the original idea of his graduate student, Albert Hibbs (see R. Feynman, There’s Plenty of Room on the Bottom, 1959). Of course, there is a plenty of room: not just blood-janitors, one day these things will be able to communicate with our brains and … in this case I just wonder if a freedom of free will is granted us by constitution: we may need another amendment. Just think about the possibilities: “swallow your math teacher”, “swallow your tax accountant”, “swallow your parole officer” … there will be no limits. Fortunately, we would hardly deal with this issue in the first half of this century: there is a plenty of technical problems to be solved first.

It took 100 years to conquer aerospace, how long it will take us to get used to operate in microspace? Probably it will take substantially less, considering the pace of technological progress. But how one can design an engine for micronautics, considering that the whole nano-vehicle must be from microns to few tens of microns in size? It is impossible to scale down any mechanical engine to such minuscule dimensions: change in physical and material properties will require quite different “mechanics”. In particular, a nano-vehicle should be driven with an engine made of very few moving parts. How that can be done?

Beamed-energy propulsion (BEP) is an answer. Most of currently developing applications of BEP are designed for space. BEP principle is this: energy is beamed to the vehicle from a separate (often remote) source. The vehicle collects the beam and converts its energy into mechanical motion. In space applications the most typical scenario would be powerful laser, which remotely drives a spacecraft with collecting optics (mirrors) and solid propellant. Mirrors will focus collected light on propellant, which will be explosively evaporated, acting like a burning rocket fuel only with much higher energy density. This process is called ablative laser propulsion: the engine of a spacecraft has no moving parts, but it produces energetic exhaust, and spacecraft is flying using rocket principle. It will work well in space, but what about a micro-space of a human body? Who needs a rocket inside blood vessels?

There will be no rockets, at nano-scales we can use other, less violent ways of propulsion. Aside from blood cells, which occupy 55% of blood volume, the medium for motion in blood is a liquid, 90% of which is water. The fastest means of motion in our blood employed by many bacteria is so-called flagellum, a helical appendage, which acts as a propeller. A similar element can be used in micro-robots. Magnetic field can penetrate human body without substantial losses. The simplest beam-powered nano-engine will be composed of a nano-circuit, in form of a solenoid or loop, which can rotate or wiggle under external magnetic field. With flagellum attached to the circuit, nano-robot can move in direction set by orientation of the field.

In 1959 Richard Feynman predicted that nano-doctors will be moving by means of electric motors, driven by external EM fields. Today, 50 years later, we have a choice of several approaches to the problem. For example, in 2002 at First International Symposium on Beamed Energy Propulsion (ISBEP) professors from Tokyo Tech University, Shiho and Yabe, have presented a possibility to drive nano-robots with x-ray lasers. The next, Sixth ISBEP will be held in November 2009 in Scottsdale, Arizona. As expected, the discussion on micronautics will be continued there.

Harmful Chemicals Found in Cigarettes

As smokers, little attention is paid to the harmful chemicals found in cigarettes or chose to ignore them. Smokers usually think about the other minor benefits that we can overcome in other ways. Benefits like how it can help them cope with stress, calm them down, relax after a long hard day, a comforter.

Do you know or have you ever wonder, that cigarettes are one of few products which can be sold legally which can harm and even kill you over time!

Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 chemicals with at least 400 poisonous and more than 50, cancer-causing ones.

Three of the most widely known chemicals are nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide.


Nicotine is a strong poisonous and addictive drug. It acts as a stimulant causing heart rate and blood pressure to climb. Not only does it increase the stickiness of blood in you, it also decreases your blood vessels diameter thus increasing the risk of heart attacks and stroke.

It is the main ingredient in insecticides.


Tar is a black and sticky residue used to cover road surfaces. It clogs up the lungs and causes lung cancer.

Carbon Monoxide

Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas. This is the same gas found in car exhaust smoke. Carbon monoxide interferes with our respiratory (breathing) and circulatory (heart, arteries, and veins) systems.

It robs your body of oxygen making your heart work harder. Overtime, you get swollen airways thus letting lesser air into your lungs.

That is why smokers suffer from shortness of breath and lack of stamina.

Other harmful chemicals found in cigarettes smoke:


Used in nail polish remover and paint stripper.


Deadly poison found in rat poison.


Used in dry cleaning industry, also used to boost the impact of nicotine in cigarettes.


Benzene can be found in pesticides and gasoline. It is present in high levels in cigarette smoke. Can cause drowsiness, dizziness, rapid heart rate, headaches, unconsciousness. It is a known carcinogen and is associated with leukemia.


Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal that is used in car batteries. Smokers typically have twice as much cadmium in their bodies as nonsmokers.


A pesticide used to kill insects.


Chemical used in preserving dead bodies. Known to cause cancer, gastrointestinal, respiratory and skin problems.

Hydrogen Cyanide

Hydrogen cyanide was used to kill people in the gas chambers in Nazi Germany during World War II.

The list goes on and on and it will be too long to list out all the harmful chemicals found in cigarette smoke here.

The harmful chemicals found in cigarettes can cause or lead to but not necessary restricted to asthma, blindness, cancer, respiratory diseases, headache, nausea, dizziness, affect the reproductive system.

Of course smoking is a personal choice and it is OK if you suffer but don’t bring it onto others. Spare a thought for the non-smokers, your loved ones.

You may argue the fact that there are some who suffer the same diseases even though they are non-smokers and not subjected to all the harmful chemicals found in cigarette smoke. However, have you ever thought that you may be one of the contributing factors?