A Look at Victorian Architecture Styles

Ornate, charming, mysterious, elaborate. All of these words can be used to describe Victorian  architecture . But what makes a style Victorian? You might be surprised to find that, not one, but many different styles of  architecture  are considered Victorian. Just about any home built during or shortly after the reign of England’s Queen Victoria (1840-1900) can be considered Victorian.

With the Industrial Revolution (late 1700’s – early 1800’s) having brought about new machines allowing for mass production and the railroads having improved transportation nationwide, the average person was finally able to get the materials they needed for building fancier and more interesting homes. This availability led to the array of styles we refer to as Victorian. Some of the most notable styles that comprise “Victorian” style  architecture  are Queen Anne, Second Empire, Italianate, and Stick-Eastlake.

Queen Anne – One of the most widely recognized Victorian styles in the Southern and Western parts of the United States is Queen Anne. Characterized by wide wrap-around porches, multiple balconies and chimneys, round “tower-like” structures, and large bay windows, these homes are what most of us visualize when we think of Victorian  architecture . This “gingerbread” style of home is also noted for its unique floor plans consisting of two or more stories.

Second Empire – Named for its notable French elements as in the era of the Second French Empire, this architectural style is seen more in the Northeast and Midwest. Popular for public buildings and state institutions, characteristics of this style include a rectangular tower with a short and steep mansard roof. The crest of the mansard roof was frequently topped with iron trim and sometimes even a lightning rod. Examples include the Old Executive Building in Washington, D.C. and Philadelphia City Hall.

Italianate – In the mid to late 1800’s, the Italianate style began appearing in homes in the Midwest, the East Coast, and the San Francisco area. Inspired by Italian Renaissance characteristics, Italianate style homes have bay windows in front; tall, narrow windows and towers, and small chimneys in rather odd locations. The Garden District of New Orleans contains many fine examples of this style.

Stick-Eastlake – Found predominantly in the Northeast, Stick homes are decorative but not overly ornate. They generally include steeply pitched roofs with overhangs, wooden shingles covering the exterior walls and roof, and squared bay windows. Crown detailing can also be found along the roof peaks. More stylized and decorative versions of the Stick style are usually referred to as Eastlake.

While some architects today still borrow ideas from these styles to create a modern day Victorian home, most Victorian style  architecture  has become a relic of the past. In some communities you can find neighborhoods filled with beautifully restored historical Victorian homes. Many have become bed and breakfasts, places of business, or simply historical sites for the public to view.

There are several communities throughout the country known for beautifully restored or preserved Victorian  architecture . One example is Eureka Springs, Arkansas, where you’ll find the largest array of such  architecture  in the central United States. The entire town of Eureka Springs is listed on the National Registry of Historical Places, due largely in part to its preservation of its historical Victorian  architecture .

How to Choose Saddle Stirrups

With the many variations of saddle stirrups, how do you know which ones are right for you? There are numerous factors to consider starting with safety, type of activity, fit and comfort. This article provides guidelines to assist you in choosing the best riding stirrups for your needs.

Safety

If you’ve ever watched an old Western Movie, you’ve probably seen a cowboy with his foot caught in a saddle stirrup as his horse drags him off into the sunset. Luckily, with today’s technology, there are riding stirrups that are designed to prevent that from happening to you.

  • Some stirrups for saddles are designed to separate at the side
  • Others have a portion of the saddle stirrup that breaks away (breakaway stirrups) when the riders foot rotates too far forward or back
  • There are also riding stirrups that are designed with a curve that makes it easier for your foot to slide out if you fall from your horse
  • If you don’t choose one of the above saddle stirrup styles, there are other useful tips outlined below that will help ensure your safety.
  • Always wear a shoe or boot with a heal. This will help prevent your foot from sliding through the stirrup
  • Another way to prevent your foot from sliding through the riding stirrup is to include a tapadero (a hood type enclosure that fits on the front of stirrups). They’re often used in parades as they can be very decorative but they’re also great for protecting your feet from snow, cold and brush out on the trail.
  • Another consideration is to choose the proper stirrup width. If they’re too tight, your feet may stick in the stirrup. If the stirrups are too loose, your feet may slide. As a guideline, the appropriate stirrup width should be approximately 1″ wider than the bottom of your boot or shoe. You may need more than one set of saddle stirrups if you don’t always wear the same width footwear.
  • Stirrups with non-slip pads provide more safety and comfort than a riding stirrup without.
  • Stirrups that swivel reduce the strain on the rider’s knees for a more comfortable ride.

Type of Activity

Other factors to consider when choosing saddle stirrups are the types of activity you will be doing when riding. Listed below are some of those activities:

  • If you’re going to compete in barrel racing, you’ll need a very strong stirrup and may prefer a slightly tighter fit
  • Cutting riders generally prefer a tighter fitting riding stirrup with a narrower platform such as the Oxbow stirrup design provides
  • Roper riders prefer slightly more room in their stirrups
  • Endurance riders may also want more space for their boot than the additional 1″ width described above
  • Dressage riders calls for a longer stirrup to increase their control over the horse
  • Jockeys require very short stirrups for saddles
  • If you frequently stand in the saddle or ride for long periods of time, a 2″ or 3″ Bell stirrup offers a comfortable platform

Stirrup Construction

  • Steel stirrups are durable and heavy
  • Aluminum stirrups are strong and lightweight
  • Some steel, wood or plastic stirrups are covered with rawhide or leather
  • Rawhide covering is more durable than leather covering
  • Leather coverings can be dyed or stamped with designs for the riders who need a more decorative saddle stirrup

Fitting the stirrups to your saddle

It’s also necessary to ensure the stirrups fit your saddle. For example, if your saddle has a 3″ stirrup strap, ensure the top of the stirrups you choose will accommodate a 3″ strap.

Whichever saddle stirrups you select, check them for wear and proper positioning prior to leaving the stable. Enjoy a safe and comfortable ride.

Table Tents – The Best Displays For Marketing Food and Drink Specials

Today’s table tent market has expanded and now includes several variations of the classic table tent. A key element to having a successful advertising strategy in your restaurant or food service establishment is knowing what types of table tents are best to buy for your particular needs and budget. One way to effectively make the best possible impact in your place of business is with an eye-catching table tent complete with bright, colorful graphics. Table tents create awareness and bring about interest in your restaurant by advertising what you have to offer as customers wait for their meal. An astounding 17% of all customers read what is displayed inside table tents. By educating yourself on the new and exciting table tent products that are available, you can be sure you are ultimately making the right purchases to guarantee your food service establishment stays ahead of the competition.

Classic Table Tent : A standard table tent looks exactly like it sounds! A classic table tent is a double-sided easel display, resembling a tent and is generally placed on a dining table for advertising purposes. Table tents are sign holders that present drink or dinner specials to guests as they wait for service. Classic table tents are perfect for busy service areas and are often seen in chain restaurants or on fast food counter tops. Most are fabricated from either acrylic, or molded plastic and are customarily inexpensive. Other inexpensive acrylic table tents include one-sided angled displays, double-sided top loading frames, and T-style holders where back to back menus can be inserted through the bottom of the frame.

Multi Fold Table Tents : A sign holder with several panels is perfect to use when you want to relay a great deal of information in a limited amount of space. Table Tents with multiple panels are available in as little as two and as many as eight sides to choose from. Some of these multi panel sign holders even spin on rotating turntables. Multi fold table tents maximize your promotional impact by informing your patrons of many specials at the same time.

Magnetic, Curved Displays : These aluminum sign holders feature a contemporary design that adds an upscale appearance to your displayed menu graphics. These table tents are offered in either a concave or convex presentation and include a “lift up” design. The metal menu displays feature a magnetic border to keep your menus or specials in place. This designer table tent is designed for quick and easy graphic changes in a fast-paced dining facility. Simply lift the magnetic lens up and place a menu beneath.

Flip Chart Menu Rolls : Ideal for restaurants and coffee shops, these menu holders display many specials simultaneously. Flip charts give you the ability to display advertisements, wine lists, or menu items in an unobtrusive yet eye-catching way. These displays feature a flip chart design, making it simple and fun for guests to browse through a selection of menus at their leisure. Most are provided with clear vinyl sleeves to insert menu cards and advertisements into.

Keeping up with the latest trends in food service displays can be very beneficial, as well as profitable, for your dining establishment. Today’s table displays vary in size, material and price, but all function in the same informative way. With table tents, you can easily advertise new and exciting specials, without saying a word. Some are explanatory, some are even decorative, and all are quick and easy to use and change as frequently as you’d like. There are many ways to promote your offerings! Over the years, the table tent has proven to be an inexpensive, yet highly effective method in doing so.

Bad Habits Harm Teeth

You use your mouth for many different things. You eat with them, you show emotion with them, and you also do some bad things with them. Dr. Howard   Glazer , the president of the Academy of General Dentistry explains that bad habits such as biting non-food objects can cause breaking and chipping of teeth. Over time this could lead to lost teeth or expensive tooth repair. Other habits that can cause problems include excessive digestion of juices and fruits that contain citric acid. An old wife’s tale suggests sucking on lemons to prevent colds, or to drink a lot of juice to stay healthy during the flu season. While the benefits of vitamin c is not disputed, the effect of long term exposure of acid on the teeth do cause damage. Over time, the teeth’s outer covering, the enamel, dissolves from the acid and appears caulky and can lead to not only excessively worn or chipped teeth , but also sensitive teeth. It makes sense that without the outer protective layer of enamel, teeth are more sensitive to hot, cold, and sweets. The teeth will also be more prone to cavities. Drinking excess soda can also do this since soda contains acid. If you are drinking juices or soda, limit to a few seconds the time you hold the drink in your mouth and make sure to rinse your mouth afterwards. You can also drink through a straw which will help avoid excess exposure of the teeth to the acid in the drink.

When I was a child, my mother gave me a hard tooth brush and told me to brush my teeth thoroughly. I began to brush my teeth as hard as I could thinking that by doing this I would make my teeth extra clean. Over the years, I began to see the gums recede and teeth wear. When I entered dental school, I learned that hard brushing and the use of a hard or even medium toothbrush can harm the teeth and gums and eventually cause damaged gums and exposed nerves. Proper brushing is more gentle almost massage-like involving circular strokes with a soft toothbrush. Start below the gumline keeping the brush at a angle and move the brush in a circular pattern while rolling your wrist. Studies have shown that brushing with a soft toothbrush works as well as a harder toothbrush, but with less damage to the tooth. The down side is that you need to replace soft toothbrushes more often, usually once a month. Do you suffer from pain and soreness in your facial muscles or joints in the mourning? If so , you may be clenching or grinding your teeth while you sleep. Leaning on your jaw while you are watching T.V., excessive gum chewing, or opening your mouth too wide when you eat can also result in undo pain and strain.

These habits can lead to problems with your TMJ (temperomandibular joint). You may be surprised to learn that the following habits can also lead to joint, gum, or orthodontic problems: Nail Biting- Localized gum infections can occur when slivers of fingernail get stuck between your teeth or lodged under your gum. Tooth-pick use- Be cautious with toothpicks; they can damage the gum tissue between your teeth by splintering or cause dental problems if you chew on them for long periods of time. Tongue thrusting- Many children develop the habit of thrusting their teeth against their teeth when they swallow or of sucking a thumb or finger. Not only can the teeth be pushed out of alignment, but normal development of the jawbone can be disturbed. Will power on your part and a few suggestion from us may help you exchange harmful habits for good dental exhibits.

House Window Spring Repair

It is that time of the year again for a house window spring repair. Winter is almost over and I am excited about the prospects of summer. After months of cold hard weather and the season has taken its toll on the house you do need to take a few days to fix and repair.

Well today I want to share some few tips on repairing your house windows in time for the summer time.

First you need to make sure that you have the right tools for the house window project. I always tell my readers never to start a job without all the necessary tools in place. So you need to make sure that the following is available:

Glass of Proper Size that you will use to replace the old one with, a glass cutter for sizing the windows, putty knife or alternatively you can use a glazer or scraper, paint, pliers, paintbrush, chisel, razorblade scraper, linseed oil, heat gun or make that a soldering tool, window scraper,   glazier’s  points and a hand cleaner. You also need to organize some work glover to protect your hands from the broken glass and all the debris.

Once you have all these then you are ready for your house window spring repair. Now let me provide some key tips about the actual repair process;

o You may have to remove the windows and replace screens on clean windows if you are dealing with interior storm windows.

o You must make sure that weather stripping provides a good seal. Examine that caulk lines carefully around the exterior windows before you begin.

o You can use a screw driver to probe the trim that is made of wood. This is found around the windows.

o You need to move faster with the house window spring repair process to beat the early rains that many damage your wood if exposed to the rain. 

Elements of Green Building – "Steel Framing"

What is Steel Framing? –

Imagine the wood framing of a traditionally built home, but where there are 2x4s, 2x6s, etc., there are steel studs. The studs themselves start out as large steel sheets. These sheets are passed through a series or rollers, none of which use heat, to bend the steel to make more useful shapes for buildings, like the flanges, web, and lips of a stud or C-shape. Steel studs come in various shapes and sizes, much like those that builders are accustomed to seeing in dimensional lumber, including 2×4, 2×6, 2×8, 2×10, etc. The lengths are custom cut in the steel plant. And, since there is no heat used to shape the steel, no integrity or strength is lost. The shape makes the studs stronger than the original steel sheet. The steel studs can either be sold as is or placed into configurations to be sold as wall panels.

Applications –

Since steel is so strong, durable, versatile, and affordable, it can be used as framing for a great variety of situations, from superstructures like skyscrapers, bridges, and high-rises to lower-scale building projects like commercial shopping centers and residential homes. Since steel’s strength-to-weight ratio is so high, it is ideal for situations that require long spans. For example, steel opens up possibilities for wide, open living spaces in residences.

Advantages –

* Steel framing’s higher strength-to-weight ratio gives designers and engineers more options to use less framing material, allowing longer spans and wider on-center spacing schedules. In other words, fewer studs need to be used in the erection of a house or building, and larger open spaces are available in a home or building.

* Steel studs and joists are strong, light-weight, and made from uniform-quality material.

* Galvanized steel is   noncombustible , unsusceptible to rot, and resistant to corrosion. It does not shrink, warp, twist, crack, split, or swell. This means your walls are straight and square for the life of the house, which will be a long life at that. Steel framing contributes to better drywall and exterior appearance, as well as the fit of doors and windows.

* Steel is insect and termite resistant. It is also mold resistant.

* Steel performs well in high wind and seismic areas.

* Steel provides a more reliable supply of framing materials for the building industry. It isn’t affected by the shortages and sharp price increases of the lumber industry.

* Remodeling and additions are no issue with steel framing since, just like wood framing, non-load-bearing walls can be removed.

* It is at least partly made of recycled materials and is 100 percent recyclable after use.

* Since steel is fire retardant, withstands high winds, and is more durable in hurricanes and earthquakes, homeowners may enjoy lower insurance premiums.

Disadvantages –

“Thermal bridging” occurs when hot or cold air is drawn to a stud, resulting in heat loss or gain. In cold climates, thermal bridging could result in increased heating costs and in hot climates, heat gain could result in moisture damage. When we build with steel, we use thermal barrier insulating materials to provide exceptional heat and cooling loss protection to steel-built homes.

What makes it “green”?

* Steel is completely recyclable. In fact, steel is North America’s most recycled material. More than 65 million tons of steel scrap is recycled each year. More steel is recycled than paper, aluminum, glass, and plastic combined. As an end result, recycling steel scrap also saves landfill space and natural resources. When the steel framing of a home has outlived its useful life, it can be recycled into new steel.

* An average 2,000 square foot steel framed house can generate as little as a cubic yard of recyclable scrap, diverting material for local landfills. This is partly because steel studs are cut to exact lengths from steel stud machines so there are no wastes at the construction site. The wastes in the steel plant are recycled to make more steel.

* Steel framing contains at least 28 percent recycled steel and is completely recyclable. Using recycled steel takes the pressure off renewable resources. For example, a typical 2,000-square-foot home requires about 40 to 50 trees, about an acre’s worth. With steel, only the equivalent of about six scrapped automobiles is needed.

* When used with thermal barrier materials, there is minimal heating and cooling loss. Steel framing also results in less loss around windows and doors as well as foundation and roofing connections because the steel will not warp and move, ridding concern of gaps and accompanies energy loss created over the life of the house.

* Steel framing means less need for lumber. Today, more than 90 percent of North America’s old-growth forests are already being harvested. This eases the strain on these dwindling forests, saving the wildlife that lives in those forests, as well.

* Steel is non-toxic and allergy free, which means healthier living for occupants.

The Beauty of a Black Ceiling

The black ceiling is quite common in movie halls, theatres, the office presentation room or the commercial kitchen. Movie halls and theatres require light concentration from projectors only on the screen or from spotlights only on the stage. The rest of the hall must remain in pitch-black darkness, thus black ceilings are quite common in these places. Office presentation rooms too do not desire light to reflect from the walls on to the projection screen or wall thus, here too, the back ceiling comes in handy. Commercial kitchens like the restaurants or hotels must have black color ceilings so that soot from charcoal ovens on grills that is deposited on the roof mainly does not alter the look and feel of the kitchen. A lighter colored roof for a kitchen can be disastrous since maintaining and cleaning can be a big issue. Blackened ceilings help solve this issue

Using the Black Ceiling

That pe of ceilings are easily attainable by either paneling them with black material or by using black wallpaper or paint. Black ceiling tiles are also a good option for attaining a ceiling. Nightclubs and bars use black ceiling tiles since they bring about a shine and glaze to them. Auditoriums and theatre halls have special acoustic ceiling black tiles, which not only helps in solving the light reflection issue but also the noise issue. The tiles in such places have special sound proofing features and have a blunt finish so that they do not have a shiny surface for the light to bounce off them. Modern homes with home theatre rooms or a special TV room also can implement the ceiling with a simple coat of black paint. This can prove to be an arduous job but the result is marvelous in terms of TV viewing. Commercial kitchens too can implement the this ceiling by using black paint, thus maintenance of these kitchen ceilings is possible in a very inexpensive way.

Black Ceiling Tiles

Ceiling tiles are making great style statements in the industry of ceiling decoration and innovation. Nightclubs and some modern homes are opting for glazed and designer ceiling tiles. They produce a vibrant and beautiful contemporary look to the modern ceiling. Using the proper lighting conditions with the black ceiling can prove to be quite amazing. Many vendors are there in the market of ceiling tiles, which has made shopping for these tiles an easy task. Services provided with installation and special styling facilities by different service providers make every installation a unique one. Special acoustic ceiling tiles are there in the market too, which solves the problem for commercial installation of black ceilings in theatres, offices and auditoriums.

The black ceilings incorporated by black color of ceiling tiles are gaining importance in the market very rapidly making a new modern style statement.

5 Advantages of Bamboo Flooring

Bamboo flooring is starting to see a significant increase in popularity compared to some of the traditional flooring. Bamboo is the earth-friendly material since it is easy to replenish and in plentiful supply. Here are five strong reasons to consider installing the bamboo flooring:

Eco-friendly

One of the most attractive reasons to invest in bamboo is the eco-friendly nature. The growth of bamboo trees is much quicker than the traditional timbers needed for laying a floor. Bamboo is the easiest tree to replace. It is a fast option to repeatedly source timber or wood for a range of applications.

Versatility

An aesthetic quality of the bamboo material is the wide-ranging choices in relation to grains and shades. Because there is such a varied selection of color choices, it shouldn’t be different to select a shade of bamboo to complement the decor. Also, since there is such a variety of shades and grains, it is possible to use the flooring in several different rooms throughout the home without having the same look.

Also, since bamboo floor isn’t sensitive to changes in the temperature, it can be installed in any room without needing to be concerned about the climate or issues with humidity.

Strong & Durable

Bamboo flooring is extremely resilient to everyday wear and tear. This floor surface is perfect of any room in the home. There is no need to be concerned about spilt drinks. This is easily clean without leaving any mark on the floor surface. Because of the long-lasting durability of the bamboo material, this type of flooring can come with a guarantee lasting in the region of 20 to 25 years.

Cost Effective

Bamboo is a cost-effective option compared to some of the solid hardwood options. This type of flooring can vary in price and ranges from the high-end to lower end bamboo. Even though it doesn’t look cheap, it is certainly possible to install a bamboo floor for those on a budget.

Easy to Install

Extra savings are possible by taking on the installation of the bamboo floor as a do-it-yourself project. Having a floor surface installed professionally can be quite expensive. For this reason it may help to spend one or two days installing the flooring yourself. This flooring is easy to install in any room and doesn’t need any specific type of underlay in place. Unlike tile or stone, it is acceptable to have the this flooring laid on top of any type of surface.

Homemade Penis Pump – Warnings on Using a Homemade Penis Pump

It is a reality that all men want to have bigger penises, which results to the creation of homemade penis pumps. For a fact, not all men have the guts to go to a sex store and buy a gadget to enlarge their sex organs. This results in either purchasing the sex item online or researching details on how to make your own pumping gadget.

How to Make a Homemade Penis Pump

Learning how to make your own pump will save you money and let you experience the feeling of pumping your penis before you decide to actually purchase the real thing. Follow the steps below to make your own penis enlarger pump:

1. Look for an aquarium gravel cleaner with around 2 inches cylinder size. One with a flat end should be used. You can also buy this item at any pet store in your area.

2. Use an electrical tape to wrap the bottom of the cylinder until you have an around 1/8-inch ring. Let the tape extend a bit beyond the edge of the tube. This will later serve as the comfort ring of your home-made penis pump.

3. Cut several 1-inch long electrical tapes and place this around the ring you have created, placing one tip on the outside and the other tip on the inside. Overlap each tape above the previous one. This serves as a comfort ring so you don’t get injured when you use your pump.

4. Place a vacuum on the other end of the tube to suck out air from the home-made penis enlarger pump.

Now you have your very own pump which you can use to get a feel of how a pump works!

Take note that there are several disadvantages when you choose to use the pump that you have created:

Disadvantages of a Home-Made Penis Pump

1. Because the pump does not have a pressure reader, you might be applying the wrong pressure.

2. Excessive pressure may cause blood vessels to burst.

3. Lack of pressure or loose edges will not let you get the desired effect.

4. Because aquarium tubes are very fragile, severe injury may result if the glass breaks.

If you do not have enough money to buy a real pump, consider natural penis exercises which are safer and cost-effective. Making a home-made penis pump is actually fun. But if you apply the wrong pressure, use the wrong equipment or break the material used, then you’ll know that penis pumping is no fun at all.

5’s – Lean Manufacturing Foundation

The 5S system is widely used today in a very large percentage of manufacturing businesses. Many non-manufacturing companies also employ the discipline.

The 5S system is one of the most common lean manufacturing principles, and generally the first one applied during implementation.

The 5S system is a workplace organization and housekeeping system. When applied correctly, the benefits are enormous in terms of productivity, quality, and morale.

The 5S’s are:

Sort

Set In Place

Shine

Standardize

Sustain

There are variations to some of the 5S’s as they were derived from 5 Japanese words beginning with “s”.

Most organizations apply the 5S system in one area at a time rather than across and entire facility at once.

The first “S” is Sort. It is the process of removing all unnecessary items from the workplace area. This first step is crucial to gaining efficiency through workplace design. A common method called the “red tag method” is often utilized, where all items are tagged which aren’t necessary for the specific area. These unnecessary items tagged are then moved to a “hold” area for review and disposition.

The second “S” is Set in Place. This is the process of moving the necessary items into the correct position for use. It is the process of organizing the work area to be perfectly laid out for maximum efficiency through minimizing movement. All materials and items that will be used at the job site are to be positioned and kept closes to the point of use. For example, if a tool is only to be used at the end of a machine, it should be kept there.

A common method used is called “shadow boards”, where the exact dimension of the tool is painted onto the board depicting the spot in which to hang the tool. It becomes obvious where the tool belongs.

The third “S” is Shine. This is the method of deep cleaning a machine or area to put it back into the condition it was when it was purchased. The idea is that quality and efficiency will not suffer if the machine is not allowed to deteriorate over time. Machines that are kept in new condition have less downtime and produce the same quality level as a new machine.

The fourth “S” is Standardize. This is the process of standardizing the entire system, which is often the most difficult. Most companies have conducted the first three S’s many times, only to watch the condition deteriorate over time. This cycle of cleaning up followed by gradual deterioration has been repeated over and over for years. The “Standardize” portion of the system corrects this problem.

The best way to standardize the system is to determine exactly what needs done to maintain the system. It is the “who, what, when, where” of 5S. For example, if a specific portion of a machine needs cleaned daily, there should be a checklist and written instructions detailing who will do it, when it will be done, and methods and materials necessary.

The last “S” is Sustain. Sustaining the system is thought to be one of the most difficult, primarily because experience proved years of cleaning and organization were not maintained. However, if the system is standardized in the fourth S, then sustaining it is much easier.

The best method of sustaining the system is to conduct audits. Care must be exercised so the audit system is not punitive. The 5S system relies on employee involvement and commitment at all levels, and a punitive audit system can destroy the system.

One good way of auditing the system is with a rotating audit crew of peers. This might be the plant workers auditing the system of their co-workers. The results are provided to the employees in the audited area and time given to correct deficiencies.

A good 5S implementation has many benefits. The assets of the company are kept in top condition which keeps the value high. Quality is kept at the level when the asset or machine was first installed. Maintenance costs are reduced as deterioration is immediately apparent. Setup times go down from better organization and reduced movement.

The best benefit is the morale improvement from an improved environment and culture.

Some managers think employees will not sustain a perfectly clean manufacturing environment. Like most systems, management is the reason the system succeeds or fails. Given the chance, employees will implement and sustain the 5S system. Most employees will choose an organized and clean workplace with a continuous improvement culture over a dirty disorganized facility.

Hitting The G-Spot

If you want to give your women some of the most satisfying orgasm they have every had. You best learn how to hit her g Spot during sex. Whether you want to give your partner more pleasure or build your reputation as a sexual super stud learning to hit her g spot is the answer. Our research has unearthed the best sexual positions to hit her G spot.

G-spot sex position 1

A great position for stimulating her g spot and giving her satisfying orgasms is an exiting modification of the rear entry position. Have your women position herself for rear entry sex but in this variation have her lower her head to the pillow so her bottom is tilted upwards.

This upwards tilt of her buttock will let you penetrate at an angle that gives deeply satisfying stimulation to the g-spot In order to hit the exact angle for that perfect g-spot orgasm the woman and raise and lower her torso.

A 2nd Position to Give Her G-Spot Orgasms

When done correctly this position will result in deep penetration that really hits that g spot. Have her sit on a table, kitchen counter or even the washing machine any thing as long as it level with your pelvis when you are standing.

Have her spread her legs widely and standing between them penetrate her as deeply as possible, she should wrap her legs around you as you begin to thrust in and out deeply stimulating her g spot with every thrust. This should bring you both to climax in short order.

3. G-spot orgasms with here on top Using the girl on top position you can learn to hit the g spot every time you have sex. Get her to position herself with her legs on the outside of yours. You should try and tilt your pelvis as far forward as possible. This can be quite strenuous and in may be a good idea to used a pillow or 2 under your buttocks to maintain the desire position.

As she sits on your erect penis she will be able to change her position as she desires to find her g-spot.

She will be in control of both speed, depth and angle of penetration and can manipulate the variables to give her maximum g spot stimulation- and pleasure.

4. An Unsual position for g-spot sex This position can be strenuous but allows for good stimulation of the g-spot in you have the stamina

Get her to lie on her back and as you kneel in front of her have her place her legs over your shoulders.

Lift her buttock so you can penetrate her.

This can be a strenuous position and if you find it to taxing simply have her spread her legs and change to the missionary position to finish off.

These 4 positions will allow you give her more satisfaction from sex as you will with a little practice and experimenting be hitting her g-spot every time

Choosing the Right Caravan Awning

Awnings for caravan use have also been available on the market ever since caravans themselves first appeared. However, choosing the correct caravan awning for your own recreational vehicle, is a whole new different story. There are several main aspects to be considered when making the right choice regarding caravan awnings, and this is the perfect reading material if you are one person that is focused on upgrading the features of their home away from home.

Before undertaking the process of choosing the right caravan awnings you must first do a bit of measuring to be sure that you are on the right track. The measurements will directly affect the proper usage of caravan awnings and will make the difference between useful and useless. The measuring process is done by laying a string in the front lower side of the caravan, then lifting it along side the upper edge of the caravan, going back down to the lower back side. After this measuring process has been completed the string will be put side by side with a measuring ruler to find out the exact size of the caravan awnings you are going to later on own. For the most accurate measurements you could repeat the process once more and compare results.

After you are sure of the measurements, all you have to do is find a location where to buy the awnings. You can search within your local town, looking for special stores, mainly focused on caravans and caravan accessories, and, if you do not have any luck using this method, then you can find several websites that will offer information regarding awnings. The only problem regarding these websites, is that you need to find a store that is near your location, otherwise you are sure to pay costly shipping fees.

After you have located the store where you are going to purchase the awning, the last aspect that has to be taken into consideration, is the overall condition of the awning. You must make sure that there are no defects in the structure of the awning, and that it is not deteriorated in any manner that could affect the overall life span or efficiency of the product. The main role of your caravan awnings is simply to offer protection and shade, so make sure the awnings will have the chance to fulfill its duties. In the offhand chance that you do not have enough money, then you can opt for used caravan awnings.

Comprehending Sandstone Paving

Back in school, we have heard a lot about sedimentary rocks. Over the years, sediments deposited on the surface of the earth harden and give rise to various kinds of natural rocks. Sandstone is one such material. With the aid of appropriate machineries, professionals cut these rocks to form slabs before putting them to use. Ever since the prehistoric eras, men seem to have realized the true vantages of utilizing sandstone for pavements. Until this day, the routine has been followed religiously – countless flooring experts would prefer these slabs instead of expensive options like granite or quartz tiling.

1) Affordable Prices – Pavements or walkways experience heavy foot traffic. Imagine the costs that will have to be incurred if you plan to pave the entire passageway with expensive marble slabs. The intelligent will always look at the approximate costs – it must be reasonable.

2) Sturdiness – Even if you tend to forget the costs, you will need to have a notion about the longevity of the pavement. You cannot allocate funds every two years for maintaining the pavement in a good condition. Sometimes it pays to stay simple – opt for sandstone paving if you require a safe and sturdy solution without making a hole on your purse.

3) Weatherproof – Did I forget to mention that these stones are inherently weatherproof? As I had mentioned earlier, sandstone is basically sedimentary rocks. Millions of years of the sedimentation process gave rise to these rocks. This is the prime reason why municipalities opt for sandstone pavements for adorning public walkways. Pave the area and forget about maintaining it for a very long time!

Before you venture out to the nearest sandstone vendor, it is important to have a few factors in mind. You must have a correct notion about the area where the paving is required. Secondly, you must have some ideas about the budget that you are willing to expend.

Gone are those days when commoners required normal looking sandstone paving. These days, consumers give high importance to the cosmetic looks too. For instance, sandstone slabs that incorporate intricate designs and patterns are available now. Naturally, they are slightly expensive in comparison to their siblings. Opting for designer sandstone paving for a heavy foot-traffic area might not be a wise decision. Within months, the design would wear out. Sandstone slabs are available in the form of geometrical shapes. Pavements made from these patterns look pleasant.

Ensure that the slabs are locked tightly during the paving process. Else, cracks might originate on the surface – this might mar the appearance of the pavement.

The Battle Of Stamford Bridge

In 1066 the battle of Hastings wasn’t the only battle that King Harold Godwinsson fought. Less than twenty days prior to that famous battle, he had no choice but to fight another battle in the north of England against an enemy that was as strong and equally as determined to wrest the throne of England from his grasp. That enemy was Haraldur (Hard Ruler) Sigurosson the king of Norway who claimed he had a right to the throne via a treaty between his nephew Magnus and King Knutur, the son of King Canute who had a claim on the throne of England.

Haraldur gathered a fleet of two hundred ships and sailed for the north of England, where he met up with the Earls of Orkney and Scotland. In addition Harold Godwinssons own brother, Tostig the deposed Earl Of Northumbria, who was after having his Earldom reinstated, joined him. This brought the fleet up to three hundred ships, carrying nine thousand men. The fleet swept down the northeast coast harrying

the Yorkshire towns of Cleaveland, Scarborough and Holderness, before turning into the Humber and sailing up the Ouse, to land at Riccall.

Warned of Haraldur’s coming the Earl of Northumbria, Morcar and the Earl of Mercia, Edwin, had joined forces and waited for him at Gate Fulford. It was the 20th of September when the two sides met and with a mighty crash the shield walls came together. Both sides fought long and hard and lost many men, but as evening neared the Norwegians broke through the English wall and the survivors fled the field.

York capitulated in an effort to prevent the city being sacked and Haraldur believing that King Harold would be unable to move north while being under threat of invasion in the south, took hostages and negotiated for supplies to be delivered. The City readily agreed his terms. (There were many in York who supported his cause, after all, up until only twenty-four years prior a Danish King had ruled the city.) Leaving one third of his force under the command of Eystein Orre at Riccall, to guard the ships, Haraldur and Tostig marched with the rest to the cross roads at Stamford  Bridge . The  bridge  was the designated meeting place, where hostages and supplies would be exchanged.

When King Harold heard of the defeat at Gate Fulford, he gathered his army and together with his brother Gyrth, set off on a forced march towards the north. As the army raced northwards, men from Mercia and Yorkshire joined them and in four days they were in Tadcaster, an amazing feat.

The 25th of September was a sunny day and by late morning believing there was no danger Haraldur’s men removed their helmets and chain mail and lay relaxing on the banks of the Derwent. They were expecting a delegation with supplies from the direction of York, instead Harold and his army appeared. Surprised and outnumbered Haraldur sent for reinforcement and after setting up a rearguard to hold the  bridge , moved hurriedly to the higher ground.

Harold offered to reinstate his brother as Earl of Northumbria, but when Tostig asked what lands he would grant Haraldur, King Harold replied that since the Norwegian was an exceptionally tall man he would grant him seven feet of ground. Tostig turned down the offer and remained with Haraldur.

Before the main battle could begin the rearguard had to be dealt with. The rearguard fought bravely, but was soon overwhelmed, all bar one man, a great axe wielding Norseman who held the centre of the narrow  bridge . Dozens of men went against him and all were cut down, until eventually a warrior crept beneath the  bridge  and stabbing upwards through the gaps in the decking speared him in the groin. An ignoble end to a brave warrior, but his sacrifice gave Norwegians time to prepare their shield wall.

With the axe man taken care of the English streamed across the  bridge , formed into line, moved uphill and shield wall to shield wall the battle proper began. All afternoon the battle raged with neither side gaining the upper hand, until Haraldur, filled with blood lust surged forward in front of his men and hacking left, right and centre, forged his way into the English line almost causing a rout. Unfortunately at this point his luck ran out and he was struck in the throat by an arrow.

King Harold seized on this and offered his brother the chance to surrender, Tostig refused and using Haraldur’s battle flag, ‘Land Waster’ as a rallying point, urged the Norsemen to fight on; which they did for a while. But by the time the exhausted reinforcements arrived from Riccall, Tostig was dead, the army beaten and all they could do was make a hard pressed fighting retreat. In the end Harold granted those that were left, including Olaf, Haraldur’s son, quarter and they were allowed to leave. Of the three hundred ships that arrived to do battle, only twenty-four ships filled with men returned to Norway. A resounding victory for King Harold and his army, but within a few days they would be on their way south to fight another battle and this time they wouldn’t be so lucky.

Copyright Fred Watson 2008

Assembly Hierarchies and Erection Sequences

Assembly hierarchies are a necessary order of operation in component assembly. Erection sequences are a sequential construction processes. How the components are designed and how the construction sequence operates can be planned to maximize efficiency and to minimize waste before the assembly components get off the designer’s CAD drafting software screen.

Assembly hierarchies, principles and practice

The assembly hierarchy is one of the most important parts of construction design. This is literally the “How To” manual for construction, and creates the construction processes required for most efficient assembly of construction elements. The assembly process must be fully integrated. This creates reliable working schedules, and coordinates logistics on site.

Assembly hierarchies have become progressively more efficient with 3D CAD. New Building Information Modelling (BIM) using assembly hierarchies can even quantify individual welds and reinforcements, create specifications, and assign places for these roles in assembly schedules. This ensures correct assembly procedures, and greatly improves project management oversight capabilities at this important stage.

Erection sequences and design

Erection sequences are another part of Building Information Modelling systems. They’re basically programs for building. This is similar to the assembly process, but covers the construction as a whole. Erection sequences are created to ensure the most efficient sequence of construction procedures. They can create a seamless construction continuum, from site preparation up to electrical installations.

Erection sequences are staged in a series of logical steps. The type of building materials, components, assembly and design issues create a series of issues which must be placed in a working sequence for efficient construction scheduling. Building Information Management systems use erection sequences to manage these processes and coordinate construction at the planning stage.

The Building Information Modelling systems also provide a good working management system for ensuring completion schedules are being met, and that all elements of the erection sequence are being properly carried out and integrated. The BIMs also allow management to oversee contract compliance.

Better methods are better business

Assembly hierarchies and erection sequences are the basis of efficient construction project management. Building Information Modelling systems have drastically improved the entire process of construction. Time and cost savings can be built directly in to construction at both the assembly hierarchy design and erection sequence Modelling stages.

Business Information Modelling construction software systems have evolved greatly in recent times due to demand from the construction industry, designers and architects. These systems per For designers and construction firms alike, the new management possibilities offered by comprehensive project management software have been a huge advantage.

Engineering drawing, architectural drafting software, detailing software and BIM systems have been progressively improving all aspects of building construction management. Assembly hierarchies and erection sequences effectively perform two roles. They provide both practical procedural management, and project management functions which apply to onsite work, audit functions and contractual management.

It’s fair to state that the new Building Information Management systems really represent a new level of business performance in the construction industry. They’ve effectively created the professional standards and levels of expectation in modern design