How to Build a Concrete Roof for a House

The cement concrete is mixture of cement, sand, pebbles or crushed rock and water, which, when placed in a skeleton of forms and allowed to cure, becomes hard like stone. The cement concrete has attained the status of a major building material in all branches of modern construction because of the following reasons:

  1. It can be readily moulded into durable structural items of various sizes and shapes at practically no considerable labour expenditure.
  2. It is possible to control the properties of concrete within a wide range by using appropriate ingredients and by applying special processing techniques – mechanical, chemical, and physical.
  3. It is possible to mechanise completely its preparation and placing process.
  4. It possesses adequate plasticity for the mechanical working.

Properties of cement concrete:

The cement concrete possesses the following important properties:

  • It has a high compressive strength.
  • It is free from corrosion and there is no appreciable effect of atmospheric agents on it.
  • It hardens with age and the process of hardening continues for a long time after the concrete has attained sufficient strength. It is this property of cement concrete which gives it a distinct place among the building material.
  • It is proved to be more economical than steel. This is due to the fact that sand and pebbles or crushed rock, forming the bulk of concrete, to the extent of about 80 to 90%, are usually available at moderate cost. The formwork, which is of steel or timber, can be used over and over again or for other purposes after it is removed.
  • It binds rapidly with steel and as it is weak in tension, the steel reinforcement is placed in cement concrete at suitable places to take up tensile stresses. This is termed as reinforcement cement concrete or simply R.C.C.
  • Under the following two conditions, it has a tendency to shrink:
  1. There is initial shrinkage of cement concrete which is mainly due to the loss of water through forms, absorption by surfaces of forms.
  2. The shrinkage of cement concrete occurs as it hardens. This tendency of cement concrete can be minimized by proper curing of concrete.
  • It has a tendency to be porous. This is due to the presence of voids which are formed during and after its placing. The two precautions necessary to avoid this tendency are as follows:
  1. There should be proper grading and consolidating of aggregates.
  2. The minimum water cement ratio should be adopted.
  • It forms a hard surface. Capable of resisting abrasion.
  • It should be remembered that apart from other materials, the concrete comes to the site in the form of raw material only. Its final strength and quality entirely depends on local conditions and persons handling it. however the materials of which concrete is composed may be subjected to rigid specifications.

Oil Filled Radiator Heaters For Warmth


As the temperature continues to drop for many of us, how we choose to stay warm during the winter becomes an important thing for us to consider. There are many different heating solutions available to us. This article will discuss the pros and cons of oil filled radiator heaters. These types of heating appliances are one of many electrical heating devices that we can use to warm areas of our house to give it a warmer more homely feeling. Particularly when it is cold outside it is great when we are able to remain warm and cozy inside as we listen to the wind howling outside. There are many different types of space heaters on the market today. These include things like gas or electrical convection heaters that heat air and then blow it round the room, electrical halogen style heaters that give off an intense glow that warms nearby areas and oil filled radiators that look like other typical types of radiator heaters that we are used to but this time being powered by electricity rather than steam or hot water as part of a central heating system.

How oil filled radiator heaters work

These types of electrical heating appliances take their power from electrical wall sockets. Even though the are called oil filled radiator heaters, a more appropriate name may be electrical oil filled radiators. You see they do not use the oil to actually power the heating units. The power comes from electricity that reaches the radiator via the electrical power cord that comes pre-attached to each oil filled heater device. Simply by un-winding this cable and connecting the plug to a nearby wall socket will allow the appliance to draw the power it needs to start warming your home. You may be wondering, why then is it called an oil filled radiator heater? This is a common question and one that has a straight forward explanation. As discussed, the power for these machines comes from the electricity supply. There is oil that is used by the radiator as part of its regular operation. Unlike a car, the oil is not required for lubrication or anything like that. Instead, the oil is used as a heat transferal fluid. The radiator draws electrical power through the cable into the heater. This power is used to warm up the heating coils within the oil filled radiator. The oil inside the heating appliance surrounds these elements and as they warm up, so does the oil. The fluid is a special kind of oil that is sealed within the radiator and should never have the opportunity to come into contact with the owner. If the oil did start to leak then the machine should be turned off immediately and returned to the point of purchase or a suitable service center to be repaired. As the oil’s temperature begins to rise, this heat is then transferred to the outer parts of the heater which then radiates out into the surrounding room. One of the many features of oil filled heaters is that the oil retains heat for long after the power has been cut off. This means that even after the device is switched off it will still have a warming effect upon the surrounding area.

Oil filled radiator heater pros

These heating devices have many positives. Firstly there are many different styles of oil filled radiators to choose from depending on your own specific circumstances. For example if you were looking for a central heating style of radiator by powered by electricity then the wall mounted oil filled radiators made by a company like Dimplex may be well worth investigating. The Dimplex OFX range are their premium brand of wall mounted oil filled radiator. They do come with an expensive price tag however also have a warranty and are made by a firm with a glowing reputation within the household heating industry. Other more common styles of oil filled heaters are the mobile type. Delonghi and Honeywell are two businesses that sell large numbers of these heating units. One of the most popular models at present is the TRD0715T which is a portable oil filled radiator heater manufactured by Delonghi. It retails for well under $100 and is also relatively cheap to run. The TRD0715T along with many other models in the Delonghi range is a portable heater that comes with wheels attached. This means that moving it from one room to another is very straight forward. Simply by disconnecting the power cord in one area, then wheeling the radiator to another part of the room or to a different room entirely before re-attaching the power cable, the heater can be used efficiently to warm only the specific area that you are working in. Oil filled radiators also have a range of safety features that mean that you can feel safe if you have to leave the unit un-attended. For example if someone accidentally knocks the heater over, the electrical power will automatically switch off. This is useful as it helps to reduce greatly the potential fire hazard that this may cause. Also if the radiator begins to over heat, again the power will automatically cut out. As the oil retains heat for long periods of time, even though the oil becomes very hot itself, it does not transfer all of this heat to the outside shell of the radiator at once so even though the radiator does become hot, it should not become so hot that accidentally touching the heater will cause a burn.

Oil filled radiator heater cons

Even though there are advantages to the oil retaining the electrical heat for longer periods of time, there are also disadvantages associated with this as well. When the power is switched on on an oil filled radiator heater, there is a time lag between this point and when the unit actually starts to give off heat. So for people who are looking for a machine that will provide instant warmth exactly when they want it, this may not be the best option.

Fostering Improvement Through Innovation

Lewis Carroll, in his book, Through the Looking Glass, has Humpty Dumpty smugly intone, ‘Whenever I use a word it means exactly what I choose it to mean, nothing more and nothing less.’ Such seems to be the case whenever the topics of improvement and innovation are discussed.

Improvement means whatever the one who wants it to happen wants it to mean. It could mean doing what’s being done now to a greater degree of efficiency or speed or detail. In other words, ‘do what you’re doing now ‘only better.’ It could also mean that something else altogether needs to be done instead of or in addition to what’s being done now. In any case, improvement is closely associated with measurable outcomes that can be compared with previous outcomes to determine degrees of organizational and/or personal development or deterioration.

The means of accomplishing any outcome is called process. It is commonly thought that organizational outcomes are inextricably interwoven with the processes that produce them. Poor processes cause poor outcomes, powerful processes cause powerful outcomes, and so on. As the process goes, so goes the outcome. With this reasoning, all one would have to do to improve the outcome is to improve the process in some way. Although this approach can work, it often takes a long time and gives up as much as it gains in process efficiencies, workplace morale and worker commitment to fully implementing process changes.

This mechanistic view of improvement has been a long time in development. Culturally accepted notions about human nature and behavior have contributed strongly to the idea that improvement in life’s outcomes is causally effected by process ‘ more particularly, the right process. If an outcome is not what is wanted or expected it means that the right process has yet to be discovered. Through persistent and diligent effort, eventually the correct process will be found and the consequent outcomes achieved.

Many readers will be aware of the ‘hierarchy of needs’ (figure 1) developed by the psychologist, Abraham Maslow. In it, Maslow identified what he saw as the incremental needs-based structure of human existence and fulfillment. It began at the bottom with primal needs such as water, air and other survival requirements and moved up to the top which he called, ‘synergy,’ or the need to have things working well in all areas of life. Maslow’s model did not allow for skipping a step in the quest for experiencing deeper levels of humanness. For example, one couldn’t go to the third level without having the first two fulfilled and predictably secured, and so on up the ladder. For Maslow, there was a correct process through which an individual had to go in order to grow and experience greater dimensions of human fulfillment.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs

The upper needs (Esteem, Self-Actualization and Synergy) are more complex, less immediate and therefore ‘weaker’ in their demands on psychic and emotional energy.

The lower needs (Belongingness/Love, Safety and Survival) are less complex, more immediate and therefore ‘stronger’ in their demands on psychic and emotional energy.

Synergy: the need to have things working well in all areas of life

Self-Actualization: the need to develop one’s unique capacities

Esteem: the need to be highly regarded by self and others

Belongingness/Love: the need to be accepted, liked and loved

Safety: the need to be secure and protected

Survival: the need for air, food and water

Just as accomplishing desired organizational outcomes is seen as a matter of going through the correct process so, too, personal fulfillment is seen as a matter of following the right process. Personal and organizational improvement becomes associated with planning, strategizing and manipulating the process.

This is a linear view of cause and effect and doesn’t actively take into account the fact that processes don’t happen all by themselves. People perform processes. People possess power beyond any process that animates behavior toward creative and surprising outcomes. People are the wind, the spirit (in Greek, the same word, pneuma, is used for both wind and spirit) that blows invisibly within and among human organizations and cannot be predicted, channeled or contained.

People can bring the inanimate structures of process to life by breathing into them the spirit of their hopes, dreams and aspirations. Process is merely a skeleton that holds an organization together structurally; it is people who choose either to put flesh on the skeleton and imbue it with vitality, meaning and significance or to allow it to remain a lifeless, empty shell.

If people choose to permeate the organization with life, then poor processes would not necessarily be a hindrance to achieving improved outcomes. While it is true that an able and willing person who is trapped working in poor processes will find it difficult to improve her performance, and therefore organizational outcomes, it is not impossible to do so. Willing and able persons will not allow poor processes to become an excuse for not doing any better on the job. They will actively and creatively seek out ways to improve their performance and outcomes by changing, even if only slightly, the way they think about and do their work. In doing so, they move beyond the processes themselves enriching them with innovative (‘outside the process box’) approaches and applications.

We are now beginning to develop an understanding of innovation. If a change in the process is the only way people are allowed to change their job activities, the wind of the creative spirit will blow to effect changes beyond the process. While improvement has to do with measurable outcomes of a process, innovation has to do with freedom from the implicit and explicit constraints of a process. Process thinking tends to channel thoughts and action along predetermined psychic and behavioral pathways. Innovation occurs when connections are made between self-evident thoughts, ideas or entities and those that are not part of the mental landscape created by the existing process.

By way of example, Forbes magazine is mailing the September 2000 edition to its more than 800,000 subscribers with bar codes on every page where an advertiser’s web site appears. With the magazine they will be sending, free of charge, a scanning pen and computer software that will enable readers to access the specific web page identified by the bar code by sliding the electronic pen over it. This gives the advertiser the opportunity to provide detailed information about their products and services in a way that they could not in the magazine. This is an innovative way of making a connection between two different forms of media (physical and virtual) and merging them technologically into a complimentary system of information delivery. Up to this point, the two forms of media were thought to be in direct competition, mutually excluding each other from their respective goal of developing market share and consumer loyalty.

Innovation occurs most easily whenever people are engaged unselfconsciously in an experience that consumes their concentration by challenging their skills, knowledge, attitude, beliefs, values and/or self-image. Such an experience is enjoyable and fulfilling precisely because it places unusual demands on the faculties and skills of the individual. During such times, one is unaware of personal needs and whether or not they have been or are being met. There is no distraction; no diversion is possible ‘ the only thing that matters is the experience itself. Afterward, the individual becomes more fulfilled and complete with a sense of well being and wholeness. A common term for this optimal experience of life is flow.

In a New York Times Book Review of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi’s The Psychology of Optimal Experience, (March, 1990), the unnamed author states:

‘As a theory of optimal experience, flow is a big improvement over Abraham Maslow’s notion of self-actualization. Maslow regarded optimal experiences as frosting on the cake of life, possible only after one had met material needs for safety and security. Maslow’s popular idea that basic needs must be met before people can pursue ‘higher order’ needs for self-fulfillment has never been validated by research. On the contrary, many people who endure poverty, tragedy, and abuse nonetheless manage to find contentment and fulfillment.’

Flow experiences result in innovation because they serve to reframe the ‘world as it is’ and recast the meaning and significance of the ‘way things are.’ Oliver Wendell Holmes’ observation was correct: ‘Once the mind has been stretched by a new idea it can never comfortably return to its original shape.’ Flow extends the range of what one sees as possible ‘ and reasonable ‘ to accomplish. It expands the percipient connections between prevailing reality and those things that at first appear to threaten that reality.

During and after a flow experience, a person will begin to see interrelationships between opposites. As an example, a painful memory that has always produced the emotion of hate can now also be seen as having provided an anchor experience for learning how love can overcome hate. Flow allows a perspective removed from the confines of the experience itself and helps the individual to both see and feel a bigger reality ‘ one in which all things have relationships not normally perceived.

Flow can be experienced by anyone at any time under any circumstances. All that is required is a challenging situation for the individual and a willingness to meet the challenge. Such are the only conditions for fostering an environment in which people can readily experience flow in their lives and thereby most easily be visited by innovative thoughts and ideas. The task is to nurture an environment that provides challenges to individuals at their respective levels of skill and competence without overwhelming or frightening them into inaction.

My cousin welds together the iron and steel skeletons of skyscrapers in Chicago. His work is hazardous, to say the least, as it takes him many hundreds of feet above the ground treading on windswept   girders  no wider than a sidewalk. Whenever I’m in a high-rise building, such as the Sears Tower observation deck, looking down on the ant-like world below, I get a tickling sensation all through my body even though I know I’m safe behind reinforced walls and windows. Just thinking about being that high without such security surrounding me fills me with fear and trembling.

I asked him one day how he could do such work without fear of falling. He nonchalantly replied, ‘When you walk on a sidewalk you don’t think about falling off, do you’ When I’m high in the air walking on a  girder , in my mind I’m walking on a sidewalk on level ground. It never even occurs to me that I might fall off.’ I had never thought about his work in such terms. It caused me to think still further about how any of us manage to do difficult things: we do difficult things by not dwelling on the difficulties we associate with actually doing them!

Challenges in the workplace can be exhilarating or they can be terrifying. What my cousin had done to meet the challenges of his job was to mentally ‘recontextualize’ the process of his job. The normal context of his job was high off the ground walking along slender beams of iron and steel. When he was in the process of doing his job, however, he chose to do it within a different mental context ‘ one that allowed him better control over his job tasks by eliminating his fear of failing (falling) on the job. This enabled him to experience a high degree of freedom from the inherent constraints of the processes of his job. In fact, he was able to devise a welding technique that reduced the amount of time it took to safely secure the steel joints of skyscrapers. Innovative consequences result when, in a challenging situation, there are no distractions and no fear of failing. And this can be achieved by mentally re-framing the context of a work process.

Coincidentally, a friend of mine also worked as an ironmonger in another large city. He told me that he and his friends would ‘dance on the I-beams’ while they were on the ground. Puzzled, I asked why they would do such a thing. He said that if they could dance on the I-beams on the ground without falling off, they would have confidence that they could easily walk on them without falling off when they were forty stories in the air.

This is another essential element in fostering an environment of innovative thinking and acting. It encourages and enables process practice and performance visualization. It empowers people to decide how they will act in certain situations before they actually occur.

The things you do that you don’t have to do will always determine who you are and what you’ll be able to do when it’s too late to do anything about it. My friend and his co-workers didn’t have to dance on the I-beams; they didn’t have to spend time preparing to do their jobs safely. But they did and the results were that there were no injuries and projects were completed on time and within budget for as long as he worked in that job.


An organization can foster an environment of continuous improvement by focusing on outcomes and the process changes that can best achieve them. But this approach can only go so far in accomplishing improvement in the organization’s ability to respond to the rapid changes in the marketplace and in customer requirements.

To foster quicker and longer lasting improvement through innovation an organization needs to focus on constantly creating individualized challenges for its people and then providing the resources necessary to meet those challenges. By doing this, it encourages an environment in which flow can be more easily experienced, distractions and diversions reduced and fear of failure mitigated. These are the ingredients that make it conducive for people to create mental landscapes that overflow the bounds of existing processes thereby allowing them to creatively respond to ‘the way things are’ with ‘the way things could be.’

This situation can occur best after the process content is thoroughly understood and deployed. Encourage people to practice the content of the process: when you know you know how to do something, your mind and body are freed to devise ways to do it better and/or differently. Encourage people to reframe the context of the process: when you know that what you know is applicable to other areas of life, you can make connections that others haven’t and pursue new approaches to work and life with anticipation of flowing into personal and professional fulfillment.

Guillotine Vs Swing Beam Shear

Guillotine Shear:

A guillotine shear is a machine that can shear or cut various materials with a guillotine design. The word “guillotine” is associated with a blade that drops along a vertical track. This type of machine was primarily used in familiar history as a method of execution, particularly in the French Revolution, but the modern guillotine shear cutter is a tool used to form and shape products for a market.

The principles of the guillotine shear were incorporated into the design of metal shears and have been the primary design for all of these years. Some of the shortcomings of a guillotine shear are that it must run in gibs and ways and therefore need a certain amount of clearance which has a direct effect on the thinnest sheet than can be cut.

Also, the ram moves down with about 1 degree of backward motion. This allows the cut sheet to clear the back gauge and drop, although sometimes even this is not enough and the cut part is wedged between the lower blade and the back gauge.

When a guillotine shearhas a throat it must be heavily re-enforced to avoid the deflection that would normally result from a deep throat. The apron of the upper ram is heavily gusseted to keep the blades parallel to the bottom blades. This system has worked well for hundreds of years however times change and new engineering becomes available.

A guillotine type shear can have several different applications in the manufacturing industry. They can be used for either wholesale or retail product design i.e. a sheet metal wholesaler can use a large guillotine shear model to cut simple pieces of raw material for tier pallet shipping; a retail shop can use a different model of guillotine shear to shape metal pieces for specific designs for any kind of retail item.

Swing Beam Shear:

On a swing beam shear the ram moves on bearings so there is no play what so ever. This allows the swing beam shear to be able to cut paper as long as the blades are sharp. The ram moves from a fulcrum point in the rear of the side frames giving the shear a massive amount of plate between it and the cutting point. This means almost no detectable deflection.

The back gauge is attached to the bottom of the cutting column and moves up as the blade goes down. This means there will never be a possibility for the material to become stuck between the blade and the back gauge.

Rather than gussets on the apron a swing beam shear wraps the entire ram as one solid gusset making it stronger than a similarly gusseted ram. It can have a deep throat with no possibility of deflection and can cut even the thickest piece of metal with a very low rake angle.

In my opinion the swing beam shear reviewed the short comings of the guillotine shear and fixed them; however,it is important to remember that before deciding on purchasing any shearing machine factors such as the type of shear, required capacity, productivity options, and safety should be carefully evaluated.

One important consideration used in deciding what shear is the right one for any job is the capacity required to do the job. Most of the shears on the market today list capacities for mild steel and stainless steel. It is advised to compare a fabricator’s requirements to those of the actual machine.

Some shear capacities are rated on mild steel, which may have 60,000 pounds per square inch (PSI) tensile strength, while others are rated for A-36 steel or 80,000 PSI tensile strength. Capacities for stainless steel are almost always less than those for mild or A-36 steel. Surprisingly enough certain grades of aluminum require as much power to shear steel does. As always, when planning a purchace of any kind of metalworking machinery, it is important to work with a reputable and knowledgeable company that can answer all the questions about the performance and capacity for the machine.

From the desk of Cary Marshall

C Marshall Fabrication Machinery, Inc.

Adhesive Removal

Understanding how to remove or break down an adhesive bond is important, whether to clean up a spill, to disassemble a unit for repair, or simply to know what will cause the bond to fail to avoid bond failure.

There are three basic methods of de-bonding:

o Dissolving

o Thermal

o Physical Stress

Often these methods are combined to remove the adhesive. For example to remove cyanoacrylate from a nonporous work surface one might soak the area in acetone and then scrape the adhesive off.

To remove silicone caulk, a bit of heat with a hot air gun softens the material so it is easily peeled up.

Even the strongest adhesive bonds can be removed by heating beyond the adhesives thermal capability. A blow torch can be used to heat permanent, high strength, threadlockers enough to chemically change them (to burn the adhesive off).

Refer to the technical product data sheet for information on thermal resistance, solubility and clean up. Familiarize yourself with any precautions regarding clean up. For most products simply wiping the uncured product up with paper towels is recommended, however, with cyanoacrylates (instant adhesives), wiping up large spills with paper towels can cause smoke and strong irritating vapors. Spilled cyanoacrylate should be flooded with water which will cause the liquid to cure. The cured material can then be scraped from the surface or dissolved with acetone.

If solvents and thermal removal are undesirable, consider means of physical bond deformation through adhesive or cohesive failure. Adhesive failure causes the adhesive bond to the substrate to fail. Some adhesives are very strong in tensile but have poor peel resistance. Forcing the bond into peel mode may provide you the desired failure. Very soft adhesives are often desired for their shock absorbing properties but these may be torn down the middle. Thus leaving the adhesive on both surfaces but separating the two components all the same.

Information About Naval Architecture

Naval architecture is the field of engineering which deals with the design, construction and repair of ships, boats, and other marine vehicles. Ship and vessel design relies on many of the same technologies and engineering expertise found on shore, but achieving safe and effective operations at sea is the focus of a unique discipline.

Naval architecture is the familiar term for what is formally called marine engineering involving basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation and calculations throughout the entire lifespan of a vessel. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, construction, trials, operation and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the responsibilities of the engineer.

The basis of the discipline can be found in Archimedes’ principle, which states that the weight of a static floating body must equal the weight of the volume of water displaced by the object. This law determines not just the draft at which a vessel will float but also the angles that will be formed when equilibrium with the water has been achieved. Basic stages of ship design are focused on predicting the size of the ship that the sum of all possible weights will mandate. To make these predictions, a naval makes use of experience-based formulas that help calculate the approximate values necessary. The engineer can refine these figures to accurately predict the depth of water needed to float the vessel.

Naval architects are also tasked with calculating the static and dynamic stability of a given vessel, as well as the damage buoyancy and stability. Ship design calculations are also required before undertaking ship modifications, including conversion, rebuilding, modernization, and repair. Naval architecture participates in the formulation of safety regulations and damage control rules. Marine engineers are also involved in the approval and certification of ship designs in order to fulfil statutory and non-statutory requirements.

Gilbert founded John W. Gilbert Associates, Inc., in 1964, which has a long and successful business in ship design, overseeing the construction of over 400 vessels ranging from fishing, research, passenger vessels and vehicle ferries, excursion ships, tugboats, fireboats, river towboats, to other commercial vessels. He pioneered original research from his model tests, developed computer programs and simulations for his design and stability of vessels. Additionally, Gilbert received numerous awards and has given lectures worldwide on topics of naval architecture and marine engineering, fishing industry and diversification, vessel regulations, and ferry transportation to name a few. Gilbert designed many of the New Bedford and Gloucester fishing vessels, and a number of local ferries, such as the Nantucket ferries, the Eagle and Great Point, the Provincetown ferries.

Cakewalk was designed by Tim Heywood Designs with Naval Architecture by Azure Naval Architecture. Interior design was by Dalton Designs, Inc. Literally dozens of subcontractors from engineering firms to security specialists participated in the project. “We certainly could not have done it without them” commented Gavin Higgins, VP of Business Development at Derecktor. “Some of the world’s most experienced and skilled specialists put their expertise into this job. You cannot successfully build a yacht of this size and complexity with having that sort of talent available.”

High-Quality Table Tennis Rackets

Find the Best Ping-Pong Rackets to Improve Your Performance

You can easily browse the internet market and check out the list of Table Tennis racquets. However, in selecting the best table tennis racket, you need to consider its features. A good Ping Pong racket should have a firm rubberized cover to ensure that the racket will have a long lasting blade. It is very important to learn more about the blades’ good quality so that it will help you improve your techniques.

For advanced Ping-Pong players, they usually choose the best racquet using those qualities that are mentioned below as their basis. The pros generally consider what sort of rubber the racket is made of, the firmness of blades and which includes the racket’s weight and Head Size, stiffness and speed, and Handlebar Classification.

Features of a Good Rackets

Weight and Head Size: The larger the head sized of a racket the more rubber it needs. With that it would increase the weight of the racket. The actual load of the racket is surely an indispensable element of a good racket. Heavy racket will certainly produce an appropriate momentum for a strong stable strike because it will provide you more weight. In contrast, much lighter racket will provide a faster strike. But the most important thing is to look for the precise weight which would not sacrifice the speed of your strike.

Stiffness and Speed: You might also need to observe yourself whether or not you are at ease with a firm blade or the flexible paddles. Stiffer paddles can furnish a faster strike than a flexible blade. In addition to this, a flexible blade may offer you a better topspin strike.

Speed is a very important element. When you check the details of any specific racket in the market you need to know how much the speed the racket offers.

Moreover, you must know your style in playing table tennis so that you will be able to select the appropriate bats. Stiffness and speed quality of your racket needs to match with your style. Offense gamer will need faster paddles while the defensive player will choose slower racquet. An offense athlete will likely to prefer a very rapid strike with a lower amount of spin when compared to a defensive gamer who favor to let the ball spin more.

Handlebar:One final essential feature of the racquet is the Handlebar’s classification. There are types of handlebar which needs to match with the hand stroke style of every player. Certainly, each athlete has a different hand strokes style. An athlete can perform a forehand stroke, backhand stroke or he can be a defender with a combination of strokes and would prefer a straightaway handles.

Table Tennis Racquet in the Market

High quality racket offers you a better chance to improve your table tennis skills. Let me present to you the racket that I found in the internet market:

Butterfly Table Tennis Rackets

Butterfly Racket is a known racket brand in the market. It offers a wide variety of rackets that you can choose. Let me provide you some of their best rackets sold in the market. First is the Butterfly Tenergy 05, it is a vintage kind of bat. This is excellent for players who prefer a Topspin Attacking Technique. Tenergy 05 is crafted from a high-quality rubberize cover. It is useful for offense strike, providing the player more control and a reliable spin out for each serving and defensive approach, whether strike is more on looping or counter looping. This kind of paddles has the speed of 13.0, Spin of 11.5 and a competent sponge rate. Butterfly Tenergy 05 has a couple more versions, the Tenergy 25 and Tenergy 64.

Second to the list is Butterfly 1500 Paul Drinkhall Ping Pong racquet which has been indorsed by Paul Drinkhall, a top British player.

Another kind of this Butterfly brand racquet is the Butterfly Sriver. This was a choice by most of the first class athletes from 70’s to 80’s. This racquet offers you a speedier pace and a pretty good spin. This Butterfly Sriver racket is pretty much the option of both newbie and skilled athletes. Timo Boll, a German professional who’s no. 1 in German Table Tennis National League chose this type of racket.

Stiga Mendo MP Ping Pong

Stiga Mendo Ping Pong Rackets are created from STIGA’s Innova Ultra Light Synergy Tech rubber. This racquet guarantees more speeds with great spin and maintains exceptional controls. This is also good for attacking athletes who wish to keep speed and maintain spin.

Yasaka Table Tennis Blades

Ma Lin, certainly one of the world best Chinese Ping Pong athletes, chooses Yasaka Ma Lin Carbon Shakehand rackets. This kind of bats was specially crafted for Ma Lin. It gives a faster attack nonetheless preserves blocking and backhanded top spin. This racquet offers Speed of 18+ with Control rate of 15. The Structure is 5 wood + 2 carbon weighing 88g.

Another variety of Yasaka Ping Pong bat is Yasaka Mark V. It offers a spinner strike and unique in looping and serving.

Killerspin Fortissimo Ping Pong Bats

The Killerspin Fortissimo is the choice of Finalist Mark Hazinski. This bat was formulated from a “hybrid top-sheet made from an elastic compound” and fuse with Japanese-made sponge and German tension Technology. It provides a more reliable spin which is an advantage for topspin athletes.

Joola Express One Table Tennis Rackets

Joola Express One Ping Pong paddle offers an increased speed and a good spin. Joola Express One was improved by manufacurer’s “Green Power and Tensor technologies”. This paddle was an option of Tanja Hain-Hofmann, who ranked no. 116 in World ranking last May 2010 and obtained a spot in German Federal League. Joola Express One Ping Pong is most excellent for attacking style. And, Express One is good for forehand stroke technique. For forehand gamers, this will provide beneficial control while maintaining speed and spin.

You can discover plenty of Table Tennis paddles if you check the internet market. Those that I mentioned above are my personal preferences. Any individual can have a preference for their own racket. Nevertheless, you should consider your strength and your techniques which will concur with your right options of paddles to even achieve a more perfect style.

Getting Low Cost Double Glazing

The words ‘cheap double glazing’ often conjure up horrible images of poorly fitting windows and doors but you’ll be happy to know that these features can all be prevented. It’s now more accessible than it ever has been but there are still ways of getting even better deals and an even better service from your provider. This guide will help you get the cheapest glazing possible:

There are a number of ways you could find businesses that sells cheap double glazing, but the way I most recommend is word of mouth. Double glazing is a product that should last up to 30 years, so it’s important you deal with a supplier that you can trust. Ask your friends and family if they have heard of any good local

tradesman who they are happy to recommend. Granted a good recommendation doesn’t guarantee that you’ll get the best glazed windows in town for the lowest prices, but it should help you avoid complete cowboys.

If no one will recommend you a double glazer then I suggest you look through local advertising material. Ignore large companies that operate all round the country as these will worry less about their reputation and could do a bad job. Concentrate on small, family run local business as these will offer a great service, and more importantly, a great price on your double glazing.

Before you’ve selected a number of double glazers to quote on the job, ensure you see examples of their previous work. If possible go and visit the houses that they have worked on before but if this is not possible then you should at least be provided with a portfolio of previous work. Ensure they have experience in your style of double glazing, i.e. if you’re installing double glazed sash units ensure they have fitted them before.

Make sure you supply all companies you’d like to quote with exactly the same information as this will ensure the quotes that are returned are easily comparable. Make sure things like guarantee’s and materials used are the same throughout all the quotes otherwise it’s difficult to determine which is actually the best.

Once you’ve decided on the company you want to install your double glazing, haggle with them on price. Inform them that you’ve got a number of other quotes and they are cheaper than theirs, but also tell them that you are impressed with their high quality workmanship (the more positive you can be the better!). Everyone likes to be complimented and this is a well known way of getting somewhere to do something for you.

If you follow these instructions you will have no problems getting very cheap double glazing that keeps you warm throughout the winter but with substantially lower heating bills.

Construction Trade Jobs

There are many choices when it comes to working in construction. People that have specific talents and education can find a wide array of career opportunities like construction helpers, trades workers, truck drivers, accountants, and engineers.

For the most part, those that work in construction buildup are construction trades workers, which include construction laborers, apprentice craft workers, master, and journey. The majority of construction trades workers are known as either structural, finishing, or mechanical workers, and some of these people do more than one type of job. Structural workers construct the chief internal and external structure framework and can include construction equipment laborers, carpenters, block masons, brick masons, cement masons, concrete finishers and metalworkers. The ones that are responsible for the things that give the structure its overall appearance are finishing workers, like drywall installers, finishers, ceiling tile installers, stucco masons and plasterers, terrazzo workers, segmental pavers, paperhangers and painters, roofers, glaziers, insulation workers, and tile, floor, and carpet installers. Mechanical workers are responsible for installing material and equipment for building needs and may include people like pipe layers, pipefitters, plumbers, electricians, steamfitters, air and heating installers, and refrigeration mechanics and installers as well.

Construction buildup trades workers work in a wide variety of jobs that are involved in each part of the construction industry. Boilermakers are responsible for creating, repairing, and installing boilers and other huge vessels like vats to hold hot gases and liquids. Block masons, brick masons, and stonemasons repair and construct walls, partitions, chimneys, fireplaces, floors, and any other structure that has pre cast masonry panels, brick, stone, concrete blocks, or other such materials.

Carpenters are responsible for erecting, constructing, or repairing structures that are comprised of wood, like partitions, wall frames, windows and door installation, stair building, kitchen cabinet hanging, and laying down hardwood floors.

Tile, carpet, and floor installers do things like lay floor coverings, sand and finish wood floors, and apply marble and tile. Terrazzo workers, cement masons, concrete finishers, and segmental pavers are responsible for finishing and smoothing concrete areas and working with concrete to make sidewalks, roadways, curbs, and various other surfaces. Construction equipment operators use large machinery that transports earth, construction items, and heavy materials, and puts concrete and asphalt to structures like roads. Ceiling installers, tapers, and drywall installers apply drywall to the inside of houses and other structures to get them ready for painting by finishing imperfections and joints, and by taping.

Electricians are responsible for the connection, installation, and testing of electrical systems, which can be things like climate control, lighting, communications, and security. Glaziers do things with glass, like cut it, install it, remove it, and replace it. Insulation workers cover and line structures using material for insulation.

Construction buildup jobs are many, so there are plenty of options if one chooses to work in the construction industry.

Acoustic Suspended Ceilings

Many people are confused by the term “acoustic ceilings” and it’s hardly surprising due to the fact all suspended ceiling manufacturers claim their ceiling tiles have acoustic properties.

Obviously manufacturers make these claims because they know it’ll sell more tiles, and technically they are all correct in claiming their tiles are acoustic, but the truth is there are two types of acoustics they are referring to, and they are at complete opposite ends of the spectrum.

The two types of ceiling tile acoustics are sound absorbers and sound reflectors, and both these types are useful in different applications.

Sound Absorbers

As the title suggests these help absorb the sound which are very useful at preventing echo (reverberation) in rooms, especially corridors or large halls. Some tiles are better than others and the better they are at absorbing sound the higher the NRC (Noise Reduction Coefficient) value will be (NRC value of 1.0 being high and a NRC value of 0.1 being low).

Sound Reflectors

Obviously these reflect sound and are very useful in certain circumstances. For example if you had a room with a noisy machine inside and you wanted to stop some of the noise penetrating out of that room and disturbing others, you could install tiles which are good at reflecting sound. This would help keep the noise contained within the room.

Decibel Rating (dB)

Tiles which are good absorbers tend to have a low dB (decibel) rating, hence most manufacturers do not state the dB rating of these tiles, and stick to offering you their NRC rating. Likewise the opposite is true for low NRC rated ceiling tiles, the manufacturers will show their dB rating instead.

The problem is most people have heard of dB (decibels), and know this has something to do with sound and then immediately jump to the conclusion that a higher dB rated ceiling tile is what they require, and yet in the majority of cases they would have been better off with a high sound absorbing ceiling tile.

Some of the best sound absorbing ceiling tiles are made from glass fibre or rock fibre. Sound reflecting ceiling tiles tend to be made from harder materials like calcium silicate, gyproc or some types of mineral fibre.

If you require further information regarding ceiling acoustics then we would suggest contacting a ceiling contractor who has experience with acoustics.

Alternatively Ecophon are probably one of the best manufacturers to speak to regarding acoustic ceiling tiles.

Flooring Installations – Things to Ensure For Achieving Fabulous Flooring

Flooring installations such as laminate wood flooring provide the look of real wood and are far more convenient, low-maintenance and cost-effective than hardwood. Laminate wood flooring is comparatively more durable, comes in numerous patterns and colors, and is much less expensive than hardwood. Laminate flooring provides the best look of natural hardwood and can easily pass for the real thing.

However, getting the floor installed requires specialized experience and knowledge. Remember, every hardwood installer may not have the same level of expertise and professional skill. Therefore, you need to know for yourself some of the things that are vital for achieving great looking flooring installations.

Below are some of the key points that you need to know in order to get a fabulous floor.

Sub Floor Preparation

Although laminate flooring can be installed over almost any floor type such as concrete, vinyl, tile and natural stone, there is one area that needs to be taken care of. With floating floor types, there may not be need for a great deal of preparation; however, you need to make sure that is absolutely level and flat.

Ask your hardwood flooring installer to remove all the old lumps of glue and carpet nails that are higher than ¼ inches. Make sure that all the holes larger than three inches are properly filled in and that the sub floor is fully cleaned of any dirt, debris, and dust before the installer starts the actual flooring.

Using the Right Type of Underlay

While installing flooring installations, it is quite imperative to use the underlay and that too, of the right kind. An underlay is a 1/8 inch thick cushioned plastic that is laid under the laminate. This functions as a sound and moisture barrier and is extremely vital if you want to have durable and long lasting laminate flooring. Make sure your installer uses the best quality of underlay that is suitable for your particular type of flooring.

You also need to ensure that the installer rolls out the underlay in the direction where the flooring would be laid. Ask your hardwood installer how he plans to trap the moisture between the sub floor and the laminate wood. Asphalt and rosin paper are some of the ideal choices for this purpose.

If you take the time to consult with your installer and ask the right questions and ensure every precaution is taken for flooring installations, you can be the proud owner of a fabulous looking floor that adds value to your property. Now you are ready to move your belongings back and invite your friends over to receive many compliments for your new floor.

Best Sump Pump – How I Found It

I needed to find the best sump pump because having a flood in our finished basement would be too costly, would take too much time to clean up, would cause too much frustration and could cause mold growth. So I proceeded to follow what my high school teacher used to say, ‘ If you want to find the best of something, take the time to look for it’. So in a very methodical manner I began to look for the best pump. I identified my water pumping situation, documented my prior experience with sump pumps, defined what I wanted in a sump pump, reviewed manufacturer specifications, read customer reviews, and talked with plumbers. By taking the time to look for the best sump pump, I found it’.

What is my water pumping situation?

I live in a flood plain so my house is situated in a low-lying area. My home is lower than the homes around me. My basement is deep into the ground to accommodate a nine foot ceiling. The water table is high. The ground around the foundation cannot be sloped so the water flows away from the house. There are too many houses in the area so there is no where for the water to go when those heavy rains come. I live in an area of the country that gets significant rainfall and frequent lightning and thunderstorms. The run off from the homes very steep roof, two-story, one-hundred sixty foot perimeter home provides additional challenges. To sum it up, I do have water pumping challenges.

What is my prior experience with sump pumps?

I owned a thermoplastic housed sump pump with thermoplastic volute and impeller; however it didn’t last long and there were no replacement parts. The tether switch on another sump pump I owned seemed to get hung up and caused the pump to stop working all too frequently. The vertical float switch on another pump I owned got stuck in the ‘on’ position and the motor burned out plus the factory preset ‘on’ ‘off’ position caused the pump to run at least twice a minute even on days with no rain. The power cord on that same pump was not a ‘piggy-back’ so I couldn’t even run the pump when the switch failed.

What did I want in a sump pump?

I wanted a sump pump that is built to last with cast iron pump housing, volute and impeller. To provide enough room for a battery backup sump pump, I wanted a primary submersible pump that had a width of around ten inches and a height of twelve inches. I decided I wanted an adjustable float so I could set the ‘turn on’ height higher and set it ‘lower when I knew heavy rains would come. Since I am a handyman, I wanted replacement parts readily available, especially a float switch that was not hard-wired to the pump. To handle the volume of water coming in the pit during heavy rain storms, the pumping capacity needed to be at least seventy gallons per minute at a ten foot lift. The float switch needed to be piggy-back so I could run the motor manually in the event of a float switch failure. I did not want a built-in check valve. Having a manufacturer who would provide technical support was also very important in case I had questions. Since I knew my pumping needs and pit limitations, I was able to define what I wanted in my next pump.

What did manufacturer specifications reveal?

During my search for a cast iron housing, vortex and impeller manufactured pump, I found only two manufacturers. Many manufacturers used thermoplastic throughout or cast iron/stainless steel housing but thermoplastic vortex and impeller. I was pleasantly surprised to find a number of pumps that met my dimension requirements. I found very few pumps with an independent, adjustable float switch. However, I learned that if a piggyback switch was used, I could add an independent float switch. Not many independent adjustable float switches were available. I discovered I could replace float switches that came hard-wired to a pump if it came with a piggy-back switch. Fortunately most pumps do not come with a built-in check valve. As for gallons per hour, I found some one-half horse power sump pumps have a greater or near equal gallons per hour pumping capability than some three-quarter horse power pumps due to motor efficiency. Reviewing the manufacturer specifications helped me narrow the number of pumps from which to select the ‘best’ pump..

What did I read in customer reviews?

I checked thirteen manufacture brands and the customer reviews associated with them. One brand had more customer reviews than any other brand by more than one hundred percent. The same brand that had the most customer reviews consistently had the most favorable reviews. In fact out of 230 reviews, ninety percent rated the brand excellent. The ratings from the customer reviews provided sufficient evidence there was one brand that was ‘best’.

What did plumbers say?

Various plumbing stores and plumbers rated the same brand the customers did as ‘best’. I was surprised how consistently the plumbers rated the one brand. I walked away with great confidence I found the ‘best’ pump for my pumping needs.

Lean Six Sigma Objectives

Lean Six Sigma is a new control management system that is winning over every company; this is a combination of the already famous Six Sigma method and Lean manufacturing. Lean production concept is well known for quite some time, while on the other hand Six Sigma training methodology is a rather new concept. Lean Six Sigma uses the best of both worlds to solve problems of a company by identifying the issues in production or services, thinking of an efficient way of solving them and increase the speed and quality of the production/service.

The DMAIC method used when attempting to solve a problem has been proved as a very efficient method that not only identifies the issue but solve it on a whole new level. Lean Six Sigma statistical methodology is used to improve the ongoing process, by implementing small changes that remove the defects from the production or service to improve the overall quality and speed. The overall result of the Lean Six Sigma method brings about a change to the overall quality of performance and success of the company.

While some may say that Lean Six Sigma is only for large corporations this is wrong, in fact it is much better suited for smaller companies as it brings about a change much faster. While Six Sigma tries to do a makeover of the company by bringing about a total change, lean Six Sigma makes small changes to an ongoing process and improves it to its maximum. So the changes can be seen quicker than with Six Sigma methods, and the overall process is much more cost effective.

There are two choices when you decide to go for Lean Six Sigma training, on-site courses and training and online Lean Six Sigma training. Online courses are good for people that are better of doing things on their own pace, but they will still have a time period in which they must finish the course. On-site training courses are classroom based courses that also have their benefits but are a bit more expensive.

The ultimate goal of Lean Six Sigma statistical Methodology and training is the focus on the customers. The company needs to know what the customer in their service or products, as well as the cost of the service and or product and the function. Lean Six Sigma is a great method to keep everything under control, to improve speed of the production and the overall quality as well as to keep the investment and capital requirements at the lowest possible point thus achieving greatest profit.

How to Adjust an Office Chair

A properly adjusted office chair can increase productivity and potentially assist in avoiding injuries. To improve seating ergonomics, an office chair should be adjusted using the below guidelines:

• Seat height should be set so that feet are flat with thighs parallel to the floor. Knees should be bent at a 90 degree angle.

• Armrests should be adjusted so that wrists are straight when extended to use a keyboard or mouse. Armrests should also support the arms to reduce strain on the neck and shoulders.

• The seating surface should not create pressure on the back of the knees. Knees should extend two to four inches beyond the edge of the chair. The seating surface should be relatively level or tilted slightly forward when using a keyboard.

• The backrest should be adjusted to support the back. Many chairs have backs with height adjustment to properly support the lower back and set a supportive angle between 90 and 120 degrees.

There are many office seating products available in the marketplace with a variety of features and adjustments. The key is to adjust your selected chair to an optimal position within the parameters of that particular model. Some key features are:

• Pneumatic cylinder/gas lift. This feature allows height adjustment actuated by a control on the side of the chair.

• Arms. Typically executive and conference chairs have arms that are not adjustable. Task and computer chair arm adjustments can include height, width, and angle adjustments

• Backs. Features include ratchet systems that allow the entire back to be moved up and down. Adjustable lumbar supports. Contoured shapes and infinitely adjustable back angles that can be adjusted independently of the seat.

• Tilt lock. Allows the adjustment of the seat angle and allows the seat to be locked in a particular position.

• Seat depth. Chairs equipped with a seat slider allow for custom depth settings.

There are several common mechanisms available:

· Swivel Tilt. This is a basic mechanism that allows the chair to swivel 360 degrees, tilt, height adjust, and lock seat angle

· A synchro-tilt mechanism has the same features as the swivel tilt but has the added feature of variable adjusting back. For every inch the seat in tilted, the back moves two inches. This movement also makes it easier to keep feet flat on the floor

· Knee tilt. This mechanism pivots closer to the knee joint making it much easier to keep feet flat on the ground.

· Multifunction. This is the most adjustable mechanism and offers a variety of adjustments including independent back angle, infinite tilt, seat depth and angle.

Broken Or Slick Pavement – The Greatest Reason For Increase In Road Accident Claims

A road accident, car accident, motor vehicle accident, cycle accident or a motorcycle accident includes a broad range of accidents that may occur when one automobile collides with the other vehicle, pedestrian, animal, tree, broken pavements, pothole, utility pole or any other movable or fixed object that may or may not unexpectedly appear on the road. As a result of such incidents, a person can suffer an injury in the form of face, chest, whiplash, leg, knee, or any other damages that can occasionally lead to disability or death depending upon its severity. During the accident, a person can also suffer the damages in terms of property or a vehicle. These days, it has been noticed that the road traffic accidents are increasing at the horrific rate. Both the developing as well as the developed countries are also encountering these calamities. The authorities and management are presently taking important steps to reduce those fatalities.

How Broken Or Slick Pavements Can Increase Road Accidents

It has been observed that the broken or slick pavement is of the biggest reason of road accidents. It is the responsibility of the Government to make the roads, highways, footpaths and pathways clearer and safer for the motorists so that the drivers or the local people do not feel any hazard(s). In case if the person gets an injury due to the following reasons, he/she can also make public liability claims. Following types of broken or slick pavements can increase road accidents:

  • Water was standing on the road when the car slipped due to its speed and sudden brakes.
  • Asymmetry or defective concrete slab on the road or pathway due to which the car or a person suddenly hits.
  • Invisible ice due to which the person or the car gets slipped on the road.
  • Pothole or depression at the surface of the road or pavement due to which the car hit or the person slipped, tripped or fall.

Injuries Caused By Broken Or Slick Pavements

Usually, the broken or slick pavements only create minor injuries rather than the severe damages. However, there are certain injuries that can lead to the disability or death depending upon its severity. Among the most infrequent injuries that people can face due to the broken or slick pavements as well as slipping, tripping or falling are the broken bones, sprains, deep scratches or cuts, concussion and many more. The minor injuries mostly include the whiplash injury, leg and knee injury in the form of fracture, stretching of leg muscles or dislocation of the joints.