ERP System For Group Housing Project

ERP systems are software solutions that are designed to enhance the performance and profitability of an organization. Constructions ERP are targeted particularly at the real estate and construction industry.

Constructions ERP can be used for all types of projects, like group housing, townships, apartments, malls, retail complexes, etc. That is, construction ERP software segregates data on the basis of projects, customers, brokers, and so on. In other words, a realty company building a group housing project shall use constructions ERP to store and process data related to a particular land, the project, its customers, brokers, sales, inventory, etc.

Normally, ERP vendors provide construction software that can accommodate any and all types of projects. Thanks to its flexibility, taking one suitable construction ERP is enough for taking care of all the needs of a real estate company. It is also important that the software be scalable, so that it can cater to the growing demands of a realty company. Scalability is the ability of the software to be upgraded or the ability of the software to accommodate a growing database.

Just as important as scalability are the other virtues, like adaptability, flexibility and security. Customizability and flexibility refer to the quality of the software, wherein, its features can be changed or adapted as per the needs of an organization. Security of data is yet another concern for any real estate organization. Thus, constructions ERP have features that allow only the approved users to access the system and modify its data.

Constructions ERP has the ability to comprehensively manage a project, in addition to document management, work scheduling, search functionalities, etc.

Its search functions enable the authorized user to find information at the single click of a button. Similarly, the document management function enables the proper management and processing of documents and their timely retrieval, as per the need. Likewise, work scheduling helps in reducing effort duplication, by the proper planning of work and creation of to-do-lists.

Thus, effective constructions ERP are web-based solutions with robust functionalities that optimize the growth and efficiency of a construction company, to make it more profitable and result-oriented.

How Should We Build in the Coastal South – What Can We Learn From Florida?

I saw the damage done when Hurricanes Wilma and Katrina hit Texas and Louisiana. It was beyond belief.

I lived through the damage caused to Miami by Hurricane Andrew in 1991. I was in the devastated areas the day after the hurricane. The area, which encompassed most of the southern portion of Miami-Dade County, looked like hundreds of bombs had been dropped from B-52’s flying overhead. There were houses without most of their second floors, sometimes 3 walls were gone and only one wall on the second floor was left standing. There were gaps in the roof sheathing. The windows and/or exterior doors were blown out. Sometimes there was damage from flooding, if the house was near the ocean. Some areas were just a pile of rubble. The former houses were unrecognizable!

But we in Florida learned many lessons from Andrew. A new code was developed, the Florida Building Code.

However, the rest of the coastal South has not learned anything from Hurricane Andrew or even from Tropical Storm Sandy.

Many years ago I lived in Georgia and went to college there. I even had my first job in architecture in Macon, Georgia, where I had gone to high school. So I worked on buildings and houses which were built with wood framing, sometimes finished in wood siding, but more often finished with brick. This is often referred as “stick construction”. Most of the US builds its residential housing and some commercial buildings in stick construction. So what’s wrong with this type of construction?

Well, wood is just not strong enough, in my opinion, to sustain hurricane winds. There are those who argue that wood can be built to sustain hurricane winds. Maybe. But I wouldn’t want to be in a wood frame house during a hurricane. Wood needs to be perfectly attached to either another wood piece or to a steel strap, joist hanger, or some other type of steel connector. Who can guarantee that each and every connection is perfect? Wood to wood connections with just nails are prohibited in South Florida. No toe-nailing allowed without metal strapping. Where wood trusses are connected to a concrete tie-beam, the wood trusses must be attached with steel straps. In turn, the straps are embedded in the concrete beam.

So what should be the preferred construction for coastal states? What can Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Mississippi, and Alabama, the southern states most prone to hurricanes, learn from Florida?

First, wood construction should be discarded in all of these states, especially those areas near the water. Wood construction should be replaced with concrete block and solid concrete construction. There is no reason FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) should allow this type of construction. In case of flooding from hurricane activity, the wood walls would likely have to be replaced. Why should FEMA pay for that? In addition, wood attracts termites which concrete block does not.

Instead of wood houses should be built out of concrete block. Why does concrete block and concrete work better than wood? Concrete is poured and reinforced with steel. This makes the construction very solid. Since concrete is a liquid when poured, it fills the voids in the block and becomes one with the block. Concrete block construction contains reinforced and grouted cells at all corners, or as an alternate, there are concrete tie-columns.

In South Florida at the top of all walls surrounding the perimeter of the house, there is a concrete tie-beam. This tie-beam is also reinforced with steel, poured in place, and attached to the vertical steel coming out at the corners. Note that this vertical steel comes all the way from the foundation to the tie-beam, making the walls very solid and hard to move.

The Florida Building Code requires in concrete block construction that at each side of a window, at the window jambs, there be steel-reinforced and grouted cells to which the window is attached. In addition, these windows must be tested in an approved laboratory to prove that, when properly attached with the recommended attachments by the manufacturer, the windows will stay in place during hurricane conditions. In almost all high-end residential construction, the windows will be installed with impact-resistant glass. This glass is so hard that it is hard to crack even with a hammer.

Second, I would recommend that the ground floor and second floors be solid, reinforced concrete. The floor acts as a diaphragm and resists lateral loads on the walls keeping them from caving in during a storm.

And lastly, in addition to block walls and concrete floors, if it were my house, I would consider doing a concrete roof, either flat or sloped. Since it is difficult to pour a concrete slab in a sloped condition, I have also poured a flat concrete slab as a roof and then put the trusses with the finished tile as a decorative element on top. This is not normal Florida construction. This is above and beyond what is normal South Florida construction. However, this slab serves a purposes – it makes a hurricane shelter out of any room below because the concrete slab is so strong that even if the trusses blow away, the room and the flat slab will not!

Why do I recommend this double roof? I saw too many roofs during Hurricane Andrew become completely inhabitable because the roof had been destroyed or the gaps were so large that it rained inside the houses. Plywood sheathing is not a very good material to act as an underlayment to a tile or shingle roof. Although roofs have to have the roofing paper attached in a very precise manner as described in the code, and the sheathing also has to be attached to the trusses in a very precise manner, plywood, again being a wood material, is not that strong. Should the roofing tiles or shingles be blown away during a storm, the plywood is the weak link in the system. So if I were considering building a house, I would strongly consider this suggestion. In addition, as an added incentive in Florida, there is a potential credit from homeowner’s insurance policies for concrete slab roofs. This credit can be substantial. So I definitely would consider this type of roof.

It sounds radical, but this is building for permanence. When everyone else’s house is in tatters, yours could be a sound, habitable dwelling. So next time you build, think about using the Florida construction techniques described above.

The Motorcycle And Its Use By The US Army – World War II

The Second World War that was fought on a global scale between the Allies and the Axis powers lasted six full years. The United States entered the war in 1941 after the surprise attack of the Japanese fleet on Pearl Harbor. During the war years, the American Armed forces made extensive use of the Motorcycle for a variety of duties that included patrolling, communications, dispatch rider duties, and reconnaissance duties. The mainstay of the US Army motorcycles was the Harley Davidson.

The Harley Davidson made its appearance nearly one hundred years back. A wooden shack at Milwaukee, Wis was its place of birth. When the bike rolled out little did the men who were present, expect this bike to be the cornerstone of the American Military in the years to come. But, that’s exactly what happened. But of course there were other machines like the Indian who also played a part in the enduring role of military transportation. The Harley scored because of its excellent timing and start up capability, as well its ruggedness.

In fact seeing the versatility of the machine the Army had started using motorcycles from 1913 itself. The famous pursuit of Poncho Villa in 1916 by General John Pershing was on motorcycles with Harley Davidson getting pride of place. At the start of hostilities during world war II Harley Davidson was already catering to the needs of the Army with a military- capable motorcycle called the WLA which was derived from its model 45″ WL Line.

America’s entry into the Second World War and the need to combat General Rommel in the deserts of North Africa necessitated the need for a machine which could negotiate the dunes and sandy tracts. Harley Davidson answered the call of the American Army and went about manufacturing a motorcycle that could operate in the African deserts. In addition other companies also complied with this request and Indian built the 841. Indian produced nearly 1,000 models of 841 motorcycles for the United States Army. The German motorcycle BMW R 71 was the inspiration behind the 841. Harley Davidson also copied the German design for their motorcycle XA. Harley Davidson XA was 100% copy of the German BMW R 71 with a few minor changes. But the Indian was not a copy of the German BMW. It had some significant differences in design. Indians 841 tubular frame, plunger rear suspension, and shaft drive were identical to that of the BMW. However the similarity ended there and the 841 with a 90-degree longitudinal-crankshaft V-twin engine and girder fork gave it a different look.

However the trials and tests took time and in the meantime Rommel had been decisively defeated in North Africa. At this time, the motorcycle was slowly replaced by the Jeep.

The United States Army however did not use the motorcycle for a specific military role. This was done by the German Army with telling effect. The German Army also adapted the motorcycle with a side car and mounted a machine gun on it. They used these machines for tactical assault. Though the US Army did not use the motorcycle for this role the other roles of the motorcycle made the machine indispensable for the Army.

A significant use of the motorcycle during the war was by the military police. Patrolling and policing was an important duty. The Harley Davidson was the mainstay of the mobile force of the US Army. Nearly 90,000 military motorcycles were built by Harley Davidson during the War. In addition 30000 bikes were sent to Russia under lend lease during World War II. These figures show the resilience of the motorbike and its extensive use by the army. Harley Davidson had an average price of $ 380 at that time. The motorcycle had a top speed of 65 MPH and weighed 540 lbs. Harley-Davidson received two Army-Navy awards for excellence in production, in 1943 and again 1945.

In addition during the war The Army used the motorcycles for secret missions of reconnaissance and carrying dispatches to the front lines. The Army also has used motorcycles to move small amounts of medical supplies to the front lines to the soldiers fighting in Europe, when heavier vehicles were not available to do the job. A major role during the war was with the United States Military Police. The use of the motorcycle was much greater by the US Army in the western theater of the war ,while its use against the Japanese in the eastern theatre was limited.This was because the operations were on islands and vast ocean tracts. Thus the war brought out the versatility of the motorcycle and its extensive use by the US Army

PVD: Sputtering Vs E-Beam Evaporation

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is – theoretically – a complicated topic. It is the process by which a number of layers of molecules from vapor is deposited onto a solid substrate in a vacuum chamber.

When manufacturing an item, PVD is used quite often. In particular, PVD is used in the manufacturing of aluminized PET film for balloons and snack bags, semiconductor devices, and coated cutting tools for use in metalworking. Outside of PVD tools used for fabrication, smaller tools have also been developed (they are used for scientific purposes). They serve the purpose of being an extreme thin film, like atomic layers, and are used mostly for smaller substrates. Prime examples are mini E-Beam Evaporators which can deposit monolayers of virtually all materials with the use of a high melting point of up to 3500 °C.

A lot of experts say that PVD coatings are harder and more corrosion resistant than coatings applied by the process of electroplating. Because PVD coatings have high impact strength, a high temperature threshold, excellent abrasion resistance and are so durable that protective topcoats are almost never necessary. Common coatings applied by PVD include zirconium nitride, titanium, aluminum nitride, titanium nitride, and chromium nitride.

Two very common types of PVD processes used are Sputtering and Electron   Beam  Evaporation. Below is a brief explanation of each.

The sputtering process involves simply ejecting material from a “target” onto a source that is a “substrate” – something like a silicon wafer — in a vacuum chamber. The target is bombarded by ionized gas which is often an inert gas, like argon. In the semiconductor industry, sputtering is used to deposit a very thin film on a number of materials in the processing of integrated circuits. Sputtering is key in anti-reflection coatings on glass for optical application.

Sputtering – which uses low substrate temperatures — is a great method to deposit metals for thin-film transistors. One of the most familiar products of sputtering are low-emissivity coatings on glass, which are used in making double-pane windows. An advantage of sputtering is that ever materials with high melting points are easily sputtered while evaporation of the same material in a resistance evaporator is difficult and causes problems.

Electron  Beam  Evaporation, or E-beam Evaporation, is the process in which a target material is bombarded with an electron  beam  given off by device with a tungsten filament in a high – intensity vacuum. The electron  beam  causes atoms from the source material to evaporate into the gaseous phase. The atoms then form into a solid, coating all that is inside the vacuum chamber with a thin layer of the material.

The biggest advantage of E-Beam Evaporation is it permits direct transfer of energy to a source during heating and is very efficient in depositing pure evaporated material to a substrate. Furthermore, deposition rate in this process can be as low as 1 mm per 60 seconds to as high as few micrometers per 60 seconds – these are very solid statistics. Compared to other methods and processes, the material utilization efficiency is remarkably high. Because of the high deposition rate, the industry chooses this process for thermal barrier coatings aerospace machines, hard coatings for cutting tools, and electronic and optical films for semiconductors.

When it comes to choosing between Sputtering and E-Beam Evaporation, it depends what industry PVD is being utilized in. Each have very specific roles, and are important for the future of PVD.

Why Gel Nails Are A Good Choice For Your Fake Nails

With today’s modern lifestyle, a good beauty regimen is one of the things that every woman needs to achieve confidence. An individual who is well-groomed is pleasant to look at and becomes the subject of envy and admiration among many. When it comes to your hands and feet, gel nails are definitely one of the best options available for the maintenance of attractive nails.

Gel nails have become a popular option for modern women when it comes to nail enhancement, especially among those who are fashion-conscious. The main reason for this is that gel nails perfectly give the natural, healthy and shiny appeal, factors which are lacking with acrylic extensions. This being said, they suit the everyday chic and well-groomed appearance women want to achieve.

Nail Gel is comprised of pre-mixed, odourless and cured compounds with gel-like texture. They can be directly applied and then cured under a UV light for about of 2-3 minutes.

Advantages of Using Gel Nails

  • Compared to fiber and acrylics, gel nails are a lot more superior because they are odourless and low maintenance. They are preferred by most women because of their flexibility and more natural look. Acrylics tend to break and chip, which also call for visits to the salon every 2-3 weeks. With gels, you will be able to save on time, money and maintenance.
  • Gel nails are shinier, thinner and fix on the nails better compared to acrylics. They also don’t turn yellowish over time. Since they are non-absorbent, you can be rest assured that your nails will be protected from mold and fungal infections, which is the common problem with other types of enhancements and even au natural.
  • They are designed to be versatile. They can be easily sculpted to any nail forms, applied with fiber and acrylic for extra strength or used as an alternative for nail repair.
  • They are the perfect option for anyone who wants a hassle-free and permanent nail solution.
  • Compared to other types of nail enhancement methods, gels definitely stay longer. This being said, you will be able to save a lot of energy and time to keep your nails beautiful.
  • Gels don’t involve glue for the application. They also efficiently maintain and protect nails from the occurrence of any type of damage caused by cracking and lifting.
  • They are a lot similar to natural nails when it comes to handling. They can be cut and filed according to your preference without worrying about getting them shattered or broken.
  • Gels are easily removed which only calls for filing off, unlike the removal process involved with acrylics which require dangerous acetone. Acetone can be hazardous to the nail beds, which is something you don’t need to worry about with gels.

The advantages of using Gel Nails are endless. Considering all the benefits that you can gain with them, they are obviously the better option when it comes to attractive nail enhancements.

Gel Nails provide a broad range of options when it comes to color, type and designs.

Business Architecture & Management – Information Systems

 Architecture  is (normally) about buildings, cities and infrastructure (and the like). You can see it around you and everybody has an opinion about it. You either like the style of that building or you don’t and all the nuances in between.

Between the Style of an organization and the goal it pursues (although not everybody shares this approach of goal-oriented organizations) unfolds the area of systems.

Systems are a response to functional needs. A library provides the function to exhibit the public word. Accessibility is therefore an additional non-functional requirement.

Once you or your organization is aware of the functional requirements it can start building Systems providing the appropriate Construction.

This Function-and-Construction matching exists of three pairs, like the three pairs of wings of a building:

  • The organization (human resources and organizational structure) that responds to the business process.
  • The information and functions that are accommodated with systems.
  • And the non-functional requirements that are solved with infrastructure.

The metaphor of a building is not exactly appropriate, because between the different wings and each floor there are many connections…

In that way, the systems that companies use are accommodated on the middle floor and play a central role in the organization. The structure of the systems exhibits much of the style and the business priorities.

This is a list of the systems of which one or more could be present in your organization:

  • ERP – Enterprise Resource Planning. Systems that manage the internal operation.
  • SCM – Supply Chain Management. Dedicated to the management of information with third parties.
  • DMS – Document Management System. Controlling the flow of documents.
  • CMS – Content Management System. Organize content that is to be shared by everyone.
  • HRM – Human Resource Management. Systems that are to manage the human resources.
  • CMS – Contact Management System (e-mail responders for example).
  • DWH – A Warehouse of corporate client and product data.
  • TCS – Telecom Systems. A wide area of systems that manage telephone traffic.
  • …etc.

If you think that this list represents the left or right wing on the second floor, you can imagine that many powers influence this area. Every company, with whatever size, struggles with area. First because it is prominent and eye-catching; everybody is dealing with it. Managing information systems is like managing politics; everybody has an opinion about how it should be. The challenge is about managing new business and taking these systems with you…on your way…

© 2006 Hans Bool

XY Table

The XY table is a form of a table that is needed in the construction of a structure or frame such as the gantry, a structure made of steel bars and raised on side supports to be able to bridge over or around items. The XY table is able to display signs located on railways above a number of tracks and may be able to hold a traveling crane as well as perform many other functions. There are other kinds of this table that are standard laser tables having a range of 51 inches by 100 inches to 15 inches to i5 inches regarding the size of the table. This XY table is associated with a rotary table that is a device that is utilized in metalworking.

The rotary table can be able to cut or drill work at intervals that are exact on a fixed axis, commonly vertical and horizontal. The rotary table and the XY table may be used together in some form of construction work. There are diverse companies that create the XY table to be able to give configuration changes that are different in ranges to aid the customers obtain the preferred table to help them in the specific type of application or work being undertaken. The table size is a vital consideration and depends on the use of the table, reliability and affordability.

Concerning the required type of construction, the simplest form that is suitable is the dual or two linear degrees of the system positioning freedom in which the base of the top axis is twisted to the carriage that is found at the lower axis. The normal XY tables are built and designed from steel that is heavy duty as well as the inclusion of stainless steel which is supposed to make the metal become durable and last for a very long time with only a little maintenance. The purchase of the XY table is certainly not cheap because of the need to have a long lasting and durable table.

There are a lot of table working tops that are created with the idea of making them withstand conditions that are designed to be tough in relieved, stressed as well as rigidity for a minute environmental effect. A number of companies have tried to alter a lot of XY table precision ground in trying to improve it. There is the use of rail blocks and precision bearings to offer the customers results in operation that are accurate and can be repeated.

The XY table has a large number of vital tables that are quite precise but they are prearranged from a lot of companies. There is a vibration control inside that minimizes the vibration due to the delicate nature of the project being handled. If someone needs to find the perfect XY table, it is advisable that they speak to the retailer who can help the buyers realize the kind of table that will suit their needs. These kinds of tables can also be referred to as laser tables.

A Proper Disclosure for Home Loan Modification Plans Is Needed

People all around the Tampa area and surrounding cities can get into Tampa loan modification plans. These plans can be used all over the area and can be beneficial. However, there are always some risks that can be associated with one of these plans. A proper disclosure must be made between a specialist and a borrower who is getting into the plan.

The specialist is going to need to work with offering details on all of the terms that are going to be associated in the Tampa home loan modification. This includes information on every single feature that is going to be associated with a plan. Information on all of the specifics in the modification and the risks that can be associated with the plan should be reviewed. This is needed to help with ensuring that the client understands what that person is getting into.

All of the information that a specialist is going to provide should be completely clear. The disclosure should not be too difficult to handle and should be in clear English. A specialist should be on hand to help with answering any concerns that might be associated to what a person is not able to understand in the contract.

Information on all of the costs that could be associated with the Tampa home loan modification should also be listed. These costs can relate to interest charges and how they might be altered over the course of the modification.

Another part to see in the plan involves all of the risks that can come about. These include risks that relate to what can happen if a person fails to make proper payments on the mortgage loan over the course of its plan.

All of this information should be listed as soon as possible to the borrower. The specialist is going to need to provide this detail before getting a negotiation handled with a borrower. This is used to allow a person to understand what one can expect to get into when trying to get a modification prepared. It may be used to determine if a plan like this is right for a homeowner’s needs or if something else is needed for getting a mortgage taken care of.

The specialist should also provide assistance with this in mind when the final proposal is brought in for the modification. This is used to help with clearing up any confusion that a client might have over the agreement. It can be helpful because of how there are so many different difficult pieces of information that can be found in this part of the deal.

These are helpful things to see when getting a Tampa home loan modification prepared. The modification should be prepared to where a person is going to get a good plan handled without too many problems involved. Be sure to take a look at this feature in order to make it so a loan or the terms that are used are not going to be too problematic.

Affordable Family Housing – The Costing Structure of Houses

Don’t be afraid to take a big step if one is indicated; you can’t cross a chasm in two small jumps ~ David Lloyd George.

In this section a breakdown is made of different houses in order to determine a perceptual analysis of typical costing elements the cost of completed dwellings. Obviously the costs will vary depending on circumstances. Therefore the cost per square meters is irrelevant and will not be used. The dates of the building contracts vary, going as far back as 2006; there is no limit to the number of building site locations, etc. The variance in the different contracts should however have no or little effect on the perceptual values of the elements in the individual houses.

Traditionally bills of quantities for building contracts, also those for houses, are divided into the following trades, where applicable, for tendering purposes:

  • Preliminary and General
  • Alterations
  • Excavator
  • Shuttering and Shoring
  • Piling
  • Concrete Formwork and Reinforcement
  • Precast Concrete
  • Bricklayer
  • Rubble Walling
  • Masonry (Stone. Marble and Slate)
  • Waterproofing
  • Roofing
  • Carpenter and Joiner
  • Floor Covering
  • Plastic Lining, etc
  • Ironmongery
  • Metalwork
  • Plasterer and Paver
  • Tiler
  • Plumber and Drain Layer
  • Electrician
  • Glazier
  • Painter
  • Road Works
  • Fencing

There is no point in discussing the traditional arrangement in further detail for the purpose of house building.

For the purpose of determining the element costs, the priced bill of quantities of twelve completed houses were kindly loaned to us for analyzing. Due to the confidentiality of these documents, which in fact, form part of the contract documents of the different contractors. Also, due to the fact that the documents studied comprised approximately 2600 pages, copies are not included in this study. The background of these contracts is shortly mentioned here:

In most of the houses in the different contracts have the same type of out buildings and the site works measured as a unit. These items were then divided by the number of houses in order to determine a price for an individual house.

The Preliminary and General items in the Bill of Quantities is proportionally added to the different elements. In some contracts for example separate provision was made for the Foreman’s salary, Insurance Policies, Site storage sheds, etc.

Lean Production

To start off with, what is lean production? One definition of lean production is; a manufacturing performance improvement approach and philosophy that emphasizes the minimization of the amount of all the resources (including time). It involves identifying and removing non-value-adding activities in design, production, supply chain management, and dealing with the customers. Put simply it’s a way to cut costs by taking away/minimizing time consuming activities. Note that implementing lean production is difficult.

The lean manufacturing history is thought to stem from the research Ford carried out in 1986 on Toyota, the business strategies implemented reduced production times, giving lower costs per unit, but it also gave an increase to quality. The lean manufacturing success of Toyota sparked the beginning of a new production method.

A common mistake among students is to identify lean production with Just in Time (JIT), although it is a part of it, it is not the basis of the production method. When/if a business decides to become a lean producer there and 4 principles they must apply for the lean strategy to work:

Lean quality

Lean design

Lean people management

Lean component supply

Lean Design

The first of the lean techniques involves assessing and improving upon product development, or product modifications, so that the firm can quickly and efficiently adapt to the changing business environment. Computer aided design (cad software) is one of the most flexible and quickest method for firms to design new products quickly, and transfer new product ideas from the conception stage to the market, this can lead to first mover advantage. First mover advantages include such things as; A high, if not 100% market share in the product, brand loyal customers (since they can see you as the first, therefore the best) and allows the business to establish a foot-in-the-door effect, which is needed to focus customers on their specific product when the copy firms move in.

When lean companies look for speedy product development and launch, time-based management plays a crucial role. Time-based management is, essentially, minimizing the time between product design and product launch. It looks for the areas in the business where simultaneous engineering can take place (decision trees are a good example of this) which cuts costs by saving time and money.

Lean quality

Quality is an expensive area for business organisations, but there are greater costs when ignoring quality. Bad quality can lead to bad publicity, a poor brand image and a great loss of customer loyalty. On the human resource side of things, one of the best ways to increase quality is by training the employees in all aspects of the production, making them multi skilled and making them feel more empowered giving greater motivation. The importance of quality will also be reflected throughout a firm’s culture. Quality techniques include quality circles and kaizen groups: using both of these would be the best way to bring in ideas from employees, this brings greater employee motivation and productivity.

Lean people management

What is people management? People management is simply as it says, a way in which people involved in and outside the business are treated and used. Lean producers will aim to fully utilize all the skills and ideas of their workers. They will attempt to ensure that all their workers are fully trained and multi skilled in the businesses production methods. Empowerment and delegation are key to lean people management and they therefore create participation schemes to enable staff to contribute their ideas and experiences. This not only makes them feel valued, but also benefits the firm by getting ideas from experienced workers. This delegation of decision-making power makes workers feel more involved and, therefore, more committed to the business objectives of the firm. Motivation is key to productivity and therefore lower costs.

Lean Component supply

Just-in-time (JIT) is a system of stock management that involves only requesting a new supply of materials once there is a definite need. This is the moment students say ‘Good, JIT, I know all about that.’ But, in addition to understanding the benefits of JIT such as: saving money on space and insurance and removing the risk of holding stocks that may become damaged or obsolete (as with food), the opportunity costs also need to be considered. The firm will no longer be able to benefit from bulk-buying discounts (economies of scale) or be able to respond immediately to a customer order. The conditions necessary for JIT to work also have to be recognised. The firm must have reliable suppliers who are able to supply on demand with a short delivery time. Proximity is always good and accessibility is also important for a quick supply and delivery.


To summarize, the key aspects of lean production students should know that: Lean production is expensive, there are high start up costs and it cannot be applied to every business, most economies of scale advantages are lost and it can take a long time for the workforce to adapt to a such a change and some employees may reject the changes.

Hyper-Turbo Knockout Tournaments on Full Tilt Poker

If you already play poker on Full Tilt Poker (or even if you don’t) you should consider trying the hyper-turbo knockouts that Full Tilt offers. Taking place throughout the day and for various buy in amounts, these tournaments are a way to make some quick money and are a lot of fun besides.

The hyper-turbo is a very fast structure. You start with only 300 chips and the blinds go up quickly, usually every 3-5 minutes at most. This means you have to get your money in quickly and try to double and triple up as soon as you possibly can. At that point, you just look for small stacks to pick on and add to your “knockout” bonuses.

For example, last night I played a $14+$1 PL Omaha game where $3 went to each knockout. By the time the tournament was over I had 12 knockouts and finished at the final table as well to collect a nice little payday for less than an hours worth of poker. There were only about 300 enteries in this tournament, but depending upon the time of day it is being played, you will find several thousands at times. This really gives you a chance for a lot of knockouts.

As far as I know,Full Tilt is the only site to offer these tournaments, so you won’t find them anywhere else. There is a ton of action because of the structure so the game moves very fast. Sometimes you are forced to get in with less than perfect hands, but that just adds to the super fast pace of the game. There is money to be made because of the knockout bounties and many of the players do not understand how aggressive you truly have to be under this kind of tournament structure.

You will find these games in PL Omaha as well as NL Hold’em and up to $55+$4 or even $100+$9 buy ins, so there is something there for any level player. Try a hyper-turbo sometime on Full Tilt; they are fun and just might add to your poker bankroll in pretty short order.

How to Use Your Pavement Signs

Pavement signs are being used since years. The first pavement sign boards were made of wood, and used to be extremely heavy. As the world made progress, so does the pavement boards manufacturers. Today, pavements are one of the most common tools used for advertising. They are best to be used by the small and medium levels of the business. It can be used for different purpose but one of the most important purposes is to increase the profits by higher sales.

There are different types of pavements which are easily available in the market. People have been using more than one of these boards to get better results, but the story never revolves around the types of pavements and the number which we are using. Let us discuss some great ideas which should be taken care of before actually using a pavement board or a sign.

  • It will not be wrong to say that creating maximum effect is the sole purpose of using these boards. The first thing which you need to think about is the purpose of using a pavement sign board. Ask yourself if your purpose is to promote new products, displaying discounts offers, or any other purpose. There are many cases when the purpose of having it is not clear, and people spend their money unnecessarily ending up not using what they bought. Once you are clear that you definitely need pavement board, go ahead.
  • As there are different types of pavement signs which are available in the market, you should access your budget. Based on your budget, you should decide which pavement sign board you want to go with.
  • The message or the sign to be displayed on these boards should be clear and short. It is very obvious that the passer bys will not stop at your pavement sign to read the essay you have written on it. Remember one thing that they just need the information in the quickest possible way. The font of the message should also be big enough to be seen with naked eyes. Do not expect people to come to you and ask you their doubts. Separate your message carefully, and it is always advisable to include your shop name or website in the header or the footer of the pavement sign board.
  • Do you think that the place where you have positioned your boards is the best place to keep it? If yes, then please reconsider it. There are many cases when the pavement boards kept on road, are not visible at all. Or maybe, your steel pavement is against the sun which is not letting anyone to read the message because of the reflection. Place your pavement signs at the best possible place. Do not keep it at a place where only vehicle traffic is more. Do not expect those vehicles to slow down to read your message. It is the pedestrians who will be reading your message. Put your pavement sign boards at a place where visitors can sight it easily, and can read your message. There should not be any problem with the design of the board because there might be few blind spots visible to the pedestrians, which makes them unable to read it.
  • You never get much time to communicate your message to the people. It can never be more than few seconds. It is very important for you to catch the attention of the people. You can always experiment with this. When you have something weird, it catches people’s attention. But it should always be taken care that the weird thing should somehow relate to your business. There is no point doing something just to get attention because this will never help you.
  • The graphics which you are using in your pavement sign boards should be effective enough. Just think for a while of a pavement sign board where only design is visible, not the message. This can seriously affect your business.
  • There are some businesses which get more attention during the night hours. Just take an example of a pub; people rarely go to pubs in the day time. The pavement sign boards which you will be using there can never be left the way they are. The pavement signs need some electric light on it so as to make the message visible even in the night time. Another reason why this is recommended is this that when people see extra light somewhere, it catches their attention.
  • Design your message and graphics in a way which suits your target audience. A simple design with the dull message will never look attractive to the youth. At the same time, the message designed for youth may not attract the elder people. There are many cases where the target audience includes youth as well as the elder people. In these cases, it is very important to create a creative blend of both.
  • Never try to use something which is not clearly visible. The images or posters which you use on your pavement sign boards should not be blurred or of low quality. This will never help you.
  • There are many experts who are being paid just to give you better suggestions for using your pavement sign boards. You can always contact them in all your doubts. If you fail to get success today, it really means something is wrong. Always try to find where you went wrong.

It is better to take care of all these things before taking the final decision of buying your pavement signs. Having pavement sign boards require some investment, and when people always invest to get some returns. Using the pavement sign boards effectively can help you and your business a lot. If you are planning to get one of these pavements, you can always buy it from the market or from internet. These sign boards are available easily in the market at the best possible price.

Bridges in Berlin

From Anhalter Steg to Wilhelm-Spendler-Brücke, Berlin prides itself in having a large number of beautiful bridges, some old some new. And considering the abundant amount of rivers, lakes and waterways spread out throughout this huge city, this really should not be all that surprising. In fact, Berliners like to claim that they have more bridges than Venice, some 969 in all.

In the years immediately following the fall of the Berlin Wall, some 190 new bridges have been completed and many of the bridges that had been neglected have now been repaired. This was in part being necessary because many links between the Cold War east and west border area had either been destroyed or were dilapidated. Special design was emphasized by city planners in the process of building many of these new post-Wall bridges while maintaining and renovating the remaining bridges was given a top priority.

Whether over the Spree, the Landwehrkanal, the Havel or the highway, these bridges are not only important landmarks in the building history of the German capital, they are brilliant Ingenieurkunst (engineering art) beautiful to behold. I can’t claim to have seen them all, of course, but here are my personal top ten Berlin bridge favorites.

Anhalter Steg

Completed in 2001, this footbridge crosses the Landwehrkanal and the bordering streets of Hallesches Ufer and Tempelhofer Ufer in Berlin-Kreuzberg. Linking to Berlin’s Museum of Technology, Anhalter Steg actually offers pedestrians two bridges in one. The trains on the framework superstructure of the U2 line bridge pass by diagonally and loudly overhead. Four traffic routes at three different levels come together at this busy crossing, built upon the bombed-out foundations of the railway bridge that had once led south from nearby Anhalter Bahnhof, itself in ruins as well.


Connecting Berlin’s Wedding and Prenzlauer Berg districts, the Bösebrücke was famous as one of the border bridges connecting East and West during the Cold War Berlin era and easily recognizable for Cold War spy film fans. Built in 1916 and nearly 140 meters in length, it is Berlin’s first nickel steel bridge and has been placed on the preservation list for sites of great historic interest. In 1989 the Bösebrücke was the first DDR (Communist East Germany) border opening to open up to the thousands of East German citizens who were demanding their way to West Berlin.


The Gustav-Heinemann-Brücke is a footbridge that crosses the Spree at the Spreebogen (bend of the Spree river) in Berlin-Mitte and was completed in 2005. In the heart of new Berlin, it connects the government district and Spreebogenpark with the forecourt of Hauptbahnhof (Berlin’s Central Station) and is for many visitors arriving in Berlin the first bridge they will cross when entering the city. It is covered with an oak-board path which hides it’s heavy load-bearing steel structure underneath, this material having been chosen to represent and correspond to the transition from the open landscape space of Spreebogenpark to the bustling urban feel and steel of the Hauptbahnhof.

Glienicker Brücke

Spanning the Havel River on the south-western edge of Berlin, the Glienicke Bridge connects Berlin with Potsdam and is probably best known as being the location where Cold War spies were exchanged between the Soviet Union and the United States. Lying isolated between the American Sector of West Berlin and Soviet-occupied Potsdam, this was one of the few places where the two countries’ could make deals directly without having to consult their allies. The current bridge was constructed in 1907, although major reconstruction work was necessary after the Second World War.


Completed by Dutch workmen in 1798, the Jungfernbrücke is Berlin’s oldest wooden bridge still in its original form and was even in use as a drawbridge up until 1919. Spanning the smaller side arm of the Spree on the south side of the Spreeinsel (Spree Island) in Berlin-Mitte, it is something of a museum piece, having miraculously stood the test of time and the bombings of World War II. Some claim that the bridge’s name (Maiden or Virgin Bridge) stems from an old tradition said to have been practiced here. A future bride was expected to walk across the bridge before her marriage. If the planks would creak then her virginity might be placed in doubt.


Crossing the Spree in Treptow-Köpenick between Bahnhof Schöneweide and an older industrial area once established by AEG, the Kaisersteg is a popular pedestrian and bicycle bridge that now once again connects the Ober- and Niederschöneweide neighborhoods of Berlin. The original bridge was destroyed by the SS during the final days of World War II and no replacement was built until after German unification, over 60 years later. The Kaisersteg’s impressive A form pylon towers a full 32 meters tall over the 140 meter long construction, the 5 meter wide bike path now making life and mobility for the residents on both side of the river a whole lot easier.


The reconstruction of the Kronprinzenbrücke was the first East-West link after the fall of the Berlin Wall and it has come to represent how the city has grown together after the end of the Cold War. Crossing the Spree between the government district and Spreebogenpark in Tiergarten and Berlin-Mitte when thinking of how the city was divided before, the Kronprinzenbrücke’s “bridge-building” effect is undeniable. Beautifully well-lit (despite some recent vandalism issues), the four high and ten low lighting pylons, together with 40 ground lamps, provide lighting for the many lanes and walkways along the Spree. Completed in 1996, it was named like the the original before it after the German Crown Prince and later Kaiser Friedrich III.


This distinctive red sandstone bridge, completed in 1891, is the counterpart to the Kronprinzenbrücke, crossing the Spree between the government district near the Chancellery and Berlin-Mitte, only this time on the west side of the Spreebogen. Named after the Prussian Chief of Staff from 1857 to1888, Helmuth von Molkte, this beautiful, low-lying bridge has also been placed on the preservation list for sites of great historic interest. Adorned with sculpture by some of the most noted artists of the Wilhelminen era, the Moltkebrücke offers an interesting contrast to its modern cousins just upriver.


Located on the northern tip of Berlin’s famous Museum Island in Berlin-Mitte, the Monbijoubrücke spans both arms of the Spree river. After years of reconstruction and stopgap measures, the northern section of this double bridge was completed in 2006. The original double bridge was constructed in 1902 and 1904 and received its name from the nearby Montbijou Schloss, still standing at that time. And the French name is certainly appropriate in this case as the look and feel at the island’s northern tip definitely has a certain Parisian touch. This beautiful sandstone structure is also protected as an historic monument and serves as a popular throughway for one of the cities most lively neighborhoods (Hackescher Markt and vicinity).


Originally a wooden bridge constructed in 1724, the Oberbaum Bridge is now a double-deck bridge considered to be one of Berlin’s top landmarks. Its two towers, seven vaults and North German brick Gothic design give it a very distinctive appearance and have contributed to making it one of the city’s most well-loved bridges. Connecting the lively Friedrichshain and Kreuzberg neighborhoods of what is now administratively the Friedrishein-Kreuzberg district of Berlin, These two neighborhoods were once divided by the Berlin Wall during the Cold War, this oddly turning the bridge (or what was left of it after the war) into a symbol of division. But the Oberbaum Bridge came back to life along with German unification and has since become an important symbol of the city’s unity. The roadway and the lower side walkway were reopened in 1994, the elevated train section on the upper level opened when the connection to the Warschauer Straße subway station was completed in 1995.

Free Work at Home Assembly Jobs – Get Paid to Put Stuff Together!

Do you need some extra money? Are you sick and tired of those long commutes to work, or being away from your family hours and hours each day? Are you burned out by your nine to five job? If so, you may already be looking for a way to work from home while still bringing in a steady stream of income. One great way to achieve this is by assembling products at home.

Like many people, you may be a little leery of this type of job. That is because in the past, many people signed up to work for these companies, they did their work but they didn’t receive proper pay. Some didn’t receive anything at all. Luckily, those types of scams are basically a thing of the past. If you begin your search with a level head and some basic guidelines, you are sure to succeed. While there may be a few companies out there to be avoided, there are literally hundreds of thousands of companies that are reputable, and will pay you good money to assemble their products.

There is little to no startup cost to you, as the company will send you all of the materials, tools, and instructions to do the job properly. You merely put the products together and send them back out to the company. A great thing about work at home assembly is that you never have to worry about making a sale or sending the product to the customer, and you never have to provide any kind of customer service.

Credit Cards and Mounting Debt

Are you one of the many people who have gotten in over their heads with credit card debt? This article will teach you a few things that will help you to deal with this credit card debt.

First, remember that it is very common nowadays to have credit card debt. In this world where everyone wants everything immediately, many are turning to credit cards to make this happen.

The problems start when the bills start to come in and the realization of how much money is owed to the credit card companies sinks in. Credit is a great tool, until you don’t have the money to pay your monthly payments. Then credit becomes bad credit, which could haunt you for the rest of your life.

No one intends to ruin their credit or end up in bankruptcy court. Getting out of debt and repairing your credit takes time and patience. Even a credit repair company will take time to straighten out your credit rating. The key is to not get discouraged and do not incur more debt during the time that you are working to clear your current debt. There will be many companies pursuing you and offering you loans and credit cards as your credit improves. You must have some will power and be able to resist these temptations.

You need to learn about credit and budgeting. Learning how to manage your finances and creating a budget will allow you to start tracking your spending each month to see where you are wasting money and where you can start to save money.

Sticking to your budget will allow you to control your money flow and will help you to avoid getting further into debt, debt that you really cannot afford.

If you are reading this article chances are you have accumulated too much debt that you are now finding hard to pay each month. Get rid of every single credit card that you own. If you cannot do that, at least get rid of the ones with the highest interest rates. Consider switching to a debit card that only allows you to spend the amount that you actually have in the bank.

Another option may be to consolidate all of your credit card debt into a debt consolidation loan. Loans for bad debt are a good choice for people with a lot of different credit cards because they allow them to take the total owed on all of the credit cards and turn them into one loan that gets paid once a month. Chances are that the monthly payment on the consolidation loan will be significantly less than the total of the monthly payments on all of the credit cards.

Another advantage to this is that you will pay the credit cards in full. If you were to pay each of the credit cards, chances are you would only be able to pay the minimum on each, which would keep the interest accruing and you would be paying for years without really making any progress on the initial balance. Just be sure that, as you pay off each card, you cut it up so that you are not tempted to run the balance back up.

If all of this is really overwhelming to you, you can consider a credit repair agency. They will intervene on your behalf with your creditors and set up monthly payments that are affordable for you, often stopping the interest from accruing.