Floor Tiling Tools of the Trade

Have an itch to try floor tiling? You’re definitely not alone. There are thousands of people just like you that want to try their hand at what many call “decorative flooring”. Depending on what you want the finished product to look like, this may or may not be true for you. Some people just like the simple tile look, while others love “the fancier the better!”

Before starting out on this task however, first you need to know what tile and sub-floor you will be putting down, once you’ve figured that out, you then need to consider what kind of tools you will need. There are some basic, important tools that anyone needs to start their floor tiling project. As there are tools that are nice to have, but not necessary, let’s talk about the important ones first.

First off, you may have some of the tools necessary already. Do you have a large bucket? A Long straight trowel? Framing Square? Chalk Line? Hammer? Cheese Cloth (drying dishes towel)? Safety Gear, including knee pads, eye wear, and earmuffs? How about a Caulking Gun? Do you have Straight Pliers? Tape Measure and a Pencil are also very important tools that most people will have on hand. The good news is that you probably already do have most, or all of these tools, which means you’re already on your way to completing your floor tiling tool collection.

Other tools you will need to purchase include a notched trowel (1/4″ x 3/8″ normally recommended), tile breaker (if you’re laying ceramic tile), tile saw (whether wet tile saw or angle grinder fitted with a diamond blade), tile spacers, 6 in 1 tool, grout applicator, and grout sponge.

Now, depending on what type of subfloor you plan on putting down, this will determine what other tools you may need. For instance, if you’re putting down a ¾” construction grade plywood subfloor or, you’ll need a drill, drill bit, and skill saw. If installing concrete board, you’ll need a drill, drill bit and a carbide cutter to score the board. If you’re using the Schluter DITRA system, then all you need is a knife to cut it and a ¼” v-notch trowel to lay a coat of mortar underneath. For steel or plastic mesh, you will need a pair of snips. The best and easiest subfloor of course, would be a concrete floor, no work required, unless of course the floor isn’t flat or it has cracks in it, you’ll need a hammer, cold chisel, and/or an angle grinder.

That’s about all there is to it. Once you’ve figured out what you have, what you need for your situation, and you’ve gone out and got the appropriate tools, well, then you’re ready to go! Have fun tiling.

Do-It-Yourself Foundation Repair

Calling contractors to have your house repaired means footing huge bills — not to mention the inconvenience of having workmen in your house for days on end. And then there are time overruns, delay in supply of material and other conditions.

People with a little artistic leaning may just take the chisel and the   trowel  in their own hands and repair minor cracks (and in some cases, even major cracks) in their house foundations themselves. There are a surfeit of TV programs and books on the subject – and don’t even lets get started on the number of websites pertaining to house repair. However, before attempting to repair the house yourself, you must judge a few things.

Of primary importance is the availability of time and patience. For first timers, repairing foundations doesn’t come easy. The mortar might just not hold in the crack the first several dozen times. It requires tremendous patience, and like everything else, one proceeds to perfect this task with experience. You have to work out whether you can devote so many days from your calendar to complete the job. Be realistic in evaluating your skills; ascertain yourself whether you’ll be capable to finish the job. It does not work if you have to leave your mission midway and scan through the yellow pages for a professional to come and repair the mess you have done. For starters, that would only increase the cost manifold. You should also check whether all the required tools are available, whether you have no social occasions to celebrate in your house on those days and other such tiny factors.

At a minimum, repairing the house yourself will require arming yourself with cement, sand, mortar and tools like a  trowel  (both pointing and plastering), hammer and chisel, screwdriver, drills, wire-brush and such other sundry tools. For a small foundation crack, first chisel away part of the mortar. Use a wire-brush to wipe away the dust and dried mortar pieces. Prepare the mortar mixture using two parts of builder’s sand with one part of cement. Use builder’s grade cement for better adhesion. Prepare the mixture with minimal amount of water, taking care that there is perfect blending of the cement and the sand.

With a pointing  trowel , embed the mixture into the crack. Slowly and gradually, work your way along the crack, taking all precaution that there are no loose air gaps left in the crack. Use a wooden flat surface to flatten out the mortar before it dries up. Once the filling is done, leave the filled crack for drying. This will need two or three sprinklings with water so that the mixture can expand and fill the crack well. When it is completely dry (after about 2 days), paint on the surface.

However, if it is a crack in a tile, then the entire tile needs to be replaced. The procedure is entirely different if it is a leakage crack. In that case, the tiles have to be replaced and a drain tile has to be fitted with a sump-pump attachment to draw out the water.

Before attempting a do-it-yourself repair job, it is prudent to estimate the cost with a professional. The seriousness of the crack is another issue. There are also other things to be considered, such as electric wiring (if they pass through that area) and plumbing.

How to Make a Faux Stone Wall Appearance

After you have prepped the wall, or walls; meaning – they are clean and the floor has been dropped off, the receptacle (electrical outlets and switches covers) plates have been removed and covered with painters tape.

The first thing you want to do with your joint compound (mud) is thin it out. You want to think “mayonnaise” when you are doing this process. Open your pail of mud and add water to it while mixing with a mud paddle until the consistency resembles that of mayo. I’m not kidding!

When you have achieved the desired consistency, the rest is only described as “little kid – mud pie” fun! For the first step you’ll need a trowel. Using the trowel, add approximately 1/4 inch layer of mud to the wall in 4’X4′ sections. You want to work in small, manageable sections to avoid excessive drying. And don’t worry about attaining a smooth surface at this point… really, it won’t matter.

When the mud has had a chance to rest for about 20 minutes, you want to take your CLEAN trowel and press into the mud and pull away abruptly to create peaks. Then, immediately after that take your trowel and pull out the peaks creating high and low spots by dragging it over the surface, but make sure you’re doing this in different directions; not just up and down, left or right… looks cool huh?

When your mudding and texturing is done, you’re ready for best part! THE FINISH… By now you have figured out your color scheme, so we won’t go into that… right now you’ll need to apply your base coat, which will be an eggshell finish (whatever color you desire).

Now for the Pièce de résistance… Mix together the color of your top coat (which should be darker than your base coat) 50/50 with a glazing medium. Sponge on or paint on… it’s a personal preference. Next, and time is crucial, take a clean rag and wipe of the excess top coat. When you do this, make sure you’re not wiping all in one direction; the more you mix this up the better the outcome. Interior painting specialists, such as myself – and customers – never get tired of this spectacular outcome.

Paint manufacturers will say that the “curing” time can be up to 30 days. Don’t be alarmed by this, as soon as it is dry to the touch you can put your room back together.

Growing Root Crops

Root vegetables, which include crops such as carrots, parsnips and turnips, are reasonably easy to grow provided your soil is deep and not too stony. Root crops are biennial, which means that during their first year they build up reserves in a storage root to enable them to flower well the following year. Most root crops prefer an open, sunny site. The soil should be light, and should not have been recently matured. Root crops prefer a moist soil, so you may have to water them in dry weather. They are usually hardy, and the vegetables can be left in the ground over winter, to be harvested as needed.

In very stony ground, root crops such as parsnips and carrots may fork and produce rather stunted growth. To avoid this, use a crowbar to make deep holes at the correct planting distance and fill them with potting compost soil mix so that the seeds can be sown in this. As the leeks grow earth hill them up by pulling the soil up around the stems to blanch them. This will give the leeks a better flavor. Once the shoots of container grown shallots are about 4 inches high, plant out in the garden, spacing them about 6 inches apart, in rows that are 9 inches apart.

Pinching out the tops of broad fava beans is good practice because ti discourages aphids. The tops can then be boiled and eaten. Taller varieties of broad beans will need supporting with string tied to canes, which should be set at intervals along the rows. Wire netting can be used to support shorter varieties of peas. Loosen the soil with a fork or trowel. It is best to lift each plantlet individually with a trowel, but if they have not been thinned sufficiently this may be difficult.

Plant with a trowel and firm the soil well. A convenient way to firm soil around the roots is to insert the blade of the trowel about 2 inches away from the plant and press it firmly towards the roots. Brassicas need to be planted firmly. Test this by tugging a leaf after planting. Always water in thoroughly after transplanting. Cabbages and cauliflowers are often raised in modules so that the seedlings receive less of a shock when they are transplanted. Many modules are designed so that you can remove the plant by gently squeezing the base while gently supporting the plant at the top.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Vinyl Plank Flooring

For a number of different reasons, wood flooring is probably the most popular type of flooring amongst homeowners today. While it can be quite expensive, hardwood flooring adds a certain level of comfort and warmth to practically any room. Some of the negative aspects of hardwood flooring include its vulnerability to damage including stains, scratches, and more. Overall, it can be a pain to maintain and clean on a regular basis.

Vinyl plank flooring is a newer type of flooring that offers many of the advantages of hardwood floors, but at significantly reduced prices. There are also some other key advantages that vinyl plank floors have over hardwood floors that make it an attractive option for anyone who wants that classic wood floor look without the hassles and high price tags.

You can find vinyl plank flooring in a wide variety of wood grain sizes. This gives you the ability to pick out a grain size that closely matches your preferred choice of wood. In addition, it is available in an array of shades resembling cherry, oak, mahogany, maple, or any other wood of your fancy. In fact, it does such a good job mimicking these natural woods that oftentimes you would not be able to see the difference between vinyl and wood flooring.

Probably the biggest advantage of vinyl flooring is how cheap it is. The cost for this type of flooring will generally fall within the range of 1 to 4 US dollars per square foot. Another great advantage of these floors is that it is extremely durable and water resistant. Its ability to effectively repel water allows you to use it in your home’s kitchen or bathrooms. It is also resistant to the cracking and scratching that you will often find with natural hardwood floors.

There are a few disadvantages to vinyl flooring that you should consider as well. Since your average vinyl plank is not nearly as thick as natural wood planks, oftentimes you will need to install an additional sub-flooring before installation. You also have to be quite careful when it comes to cleaning vinyl plank flooring. Certain types of solvents and cleaners can actually damage these floors so you need to find cleaners that are specifically designed to clean vinyl floors without damaging them.

Flooring is one of the most noticeable and important aspects of any home. Therefore, choosing the right flooring is a very big decision that you want to get right. Before you decide to install vinyl plank flooring, you will want to learn about its advantages and disadvantages so you can make the right purchasing choice.

Is Vinyl Wood Plank Flooring Durable?

Anytime one has to choose a product or make a decision, it is important that we ask questions to get all the answers and facts, for a good judgment can be made only when all of the data and information about a product along with other alternatives is available with us. While choosing flooring for your home floor, you would need to understand first of all the various kinds of flooring available. The market is filled with various options like tiles, vinyl flooring, wooden planks, carpets etc. Each one of these products has been developed in response to the various needs of people from different parts of the countries suiting specific environmental conditions etc.

When it comes to flooring selection whether for home use purpose or industrial purpose, one normally considers two main types of flooring. One is the wooden flooring and the second vinyl flooring. There are many other types of flooring like marble, granite and carpet etc. Carpets are normally used by luxury hotels and many homes too mainly to retain the warmth in winter. Maintaining and cleaning carpets is becoming increasingly difficult and besides they are not durable enough. Hence other flooring is increasingly being favored by all.

Vinyl flooring originated and is an improvement on Linoleum. Linoleum was made from recyclable materials such as solidified and compressed linseed oil, cork dust which is ground, wooden flour or dust in combination with minerals such as calcium carbonate and fixed upon canvas or burlap base.

Vinyl flooring developed further by replacing linoleum with polyvinyl chloride where in the properties are similar to that of linoleum and it gives greater brightness, flexibility, durability and is less inflammable. The fact that Vinyl flooring is fire retardant and non allergenic in its characteristics, it is widely used in hospitals, labs and healthcare facilities.

Vinyl flooring comes in very many designs and few designs match very closely with wooden flooring. They can be installed easily and few varieties come with self adhesive properties too. Vinyl flooring can be easily maintained by wet mopping and vacuum cleaning also. They have a soft rubbery feel and help maintain the coolness in the room.

Vinyl flooring is cheaper than wooden floor. Their product characteristics made them a good alternative to other flooring and ideal for daily usage. If maintained neatly and clean, they can last up to a good five to six years depending upon the usage. So the next time you ask the question’ is vinyl wood plank flooring durable?’ You know the answer yourself.

Pros and Cons of Plank Vinyl Flooring

A person who decides to change their flooring may be looking into several options. There are many kinds of flooring available, including tile, hardwood flooring, and plank vinyl flooring. When it comes time to make a decision, a person should have information about each one so a wise, educated decision can be made. Is plank vinyl flooring the best kind to choose from? What are the pros and cons of this kind of flooring? Here is more information on whether plank vinyl flooring will fulfill all the needs of someone who is changing the floors in their home.

The biggest reason to considering buying plank vinyl is the fact that it is pretty inexpensive. Not everyone can afford to pay a huge amount of money just to get their flooring done, so being able to afford to get a new floor at a reasonable price is always a plus. Wood floors are beautiful, and with plank vinyl flooring, a homeowner can get the look of wood without the huge cost that comes with a wooden floor. Everyone will admire the beauty of the wood floor, and the fact it is vinyl will be a secret only the homeowner can tell.

A con with the vinyl is that because it is designed to resemble wood, the options for the colors may be limited. Something like tile comes in thousands of colors and styles, but there really is a limit to what the plank vinyl comes in, but the floor is still beautiful despite limited options for color and design.

Another pro to plank flooring is that it is very easy to install. Hiring a professional to put a floor in can cost a lot of money, but with this type of flooring, a homeowner can easily do the job on their own. However, one drawback to self-installing is that a mistake can be made. Unless the person putting down the flooring is an expert at it, it would be possible to do something wrong. The decision to use a professional or not is a difficult one to make, and a person may not be able to afford it.

The decision to get a new floor can be a big one that the homeowner has to consider very carefully. Weighing the pros and cons of plank vinyl can make it much easier to decide whether or not to redo the floor. Though no matter if it is with plank vinyl or another kind, a new floor will really breathe new life into a home.

Beginners Guide to Ab Planks

Have you ever considered using planks within your strength training routine? If not, then you are seriously missing out. That is, missing out on a great opportunity to strengthen your core, but most importantly, build strong and powerful abdominal muscles.

Planks are one of the most effective core exercises because it targets several muscle groups at a single time. With planks, you will target the recutus abdominis (front abs), the transverse abdominis (sides of abs), the lower back, the hips, the glutes, the hamstrings, and the deltoids.

Planks can be considered a compound exercises because of many different muscles it targets. If your 100s of crunches aren’t cutting it, then you need to consider using planks. While the difficulty level is much higher, planks will provide with much greater short and long-term results.

I’m going to explain how to perform front and side planks, so that you can start using this great exercise as soon as possible.

Front Planks

The front plank is the most commonly used plank. If you’re using planks for the first time then I highly recommend you start out with this variation. Use it for an extended amount of time to build up a solid foundation for more challenging variations in the future. Once you can hold the front plank for one-minute straight with perfect form, then you will be ready to advanced onto the next level.

The plank is a very simple exercise. Start with your elbows and forearms on the ground with your feet and legs straight out behind you. Your elbows should be directly below your shoulders.

The key to keep your body and back as straight as possible. You must avoid lifting your glutes up into the air, and avoid letting your lower back sag. The optimal plank position will be with your core tight and flexed, and with your back as straight as a piece of wood.

Side planks

The side plank will directly target the transverse abdominis muscles. The difficulty level is much higher with this variation because you are holding all of your weight with a single arm. To start out, try holding the side plank for about 30-45 seconds.

One elbow will be on the ground positioned below the shoulder, your core will be elevated off the ground, and will be balancing the sides of your feet. You can put your feet together, or place them next to each other.

These are only the most basic variations of the plank, but are a great place for beginners to start. Master these, and then you will be able to move onto more advanced planks.

How to Get Quick Abs – The Plank

Want to know how to get quick abs? Forget the crunches, sit-ups and start using workouts that will challenge your core muscles.

One such exercise is the plank.

This is a simple exercise but deceptively effective in building a strong core – which you need for strong abs.. For certain – the plank helps to develop strength in the core, shoulders, arms and glutes.

Below are 4 variations of the plank:

1. To do this, get into a push-up position with your arms in a ‘L’ shape position. Your body should be in a straight line from your head to your feet.

Then attempt to hold for as long as possible. Your goal should be to hold it for 2 minutes.

2. Another variation to the plank is to lift 1 leg up – now this will add more challenge to your core.

Try holding it for 30 seconds and longer.

3. Now if you want to step it up – why not try lifting 1 left leg up and 1 right arm up – and hold for as long as you can.

This will give your core a great workout!

4. Lastly, try the swiss ball variation – in a push up position but with your forearms on the ball, try to balance yourself without letting your body rolling out under you. Again hold for as long as possible!

Start now and get those abs you’ve always wanted – but remember – to always get your nutrition in order to reduce your body fat.

Now this is how to get quick abs!

The Best Computer For Graphic Design

Since Desktop Publishing (DTP) came out in the eighties, graphic designers have been utilizing computer technology. This has pushed all graphic designers to become competent with computer hardware at the very least.

What is Desktop Publishing (DTP)? In the 1980s, it was a common term applied to digital publishing systems. These systems were developed to replace large, pre-press, specialist design and compositing systems.

Graphic designers rely heavily on computers whether these are Windows PCs or Apple Macs. Whichever computer a graphic designer chooses to use, he/she will opt for the best computer that he/she can purchase. Graphic designers will rarely choose cheap computer hardware.

Back in the eighties, Macs were the only choice for designing and printing. Almost all design layout and graphics software was developed for Macs only or even if the software could be used in Microsoft Windows PC, it was much more reliable on a Mac. Additionally, at that time, Macs were associated with the different technologies used in the prepress and Windows PC was just not a practical choice. Today, modern versions of Mac OS X and Windows allow graphics designers to use design software either in a Mac or PC – they are no longer forced to choose one over the other.

Many graphic designers are not IT experts and making a decision on which computer to buy can be quite daunting. Of course, if money is not a problem, the decision would simply be to buy the most expensive Apple Mac or Windows PC. But most designers cannot afford to do that. In fact, some creative professionals have budgets for second hand equipment only. What really matters to these graphic designers are issues that regular computer users do not even have to think about. These are printer color accuracy, monitor calibration, hard disk speed and external storage devices for gigabytes of data.

Recent studies show that the top 5 computers for graphic design are a mix of Macs and PCs and both laptop and desktop computers fall in this category. But just like any product that a consumer buys, it really is the personal preference of the designer whether he/she will use a desktop computer or a laptop. The important thing is that the user/graphic designer has the appropriate software for the type of computer that he/she wants to purchase.

The Top 5 computers for graphic design are:

Mac Pro Desktop

The Mac line of computers is still widely preferred by most graphic designers. According to Apple, the latest Mac Pro features the all new quad-core Intel Xeon “Nehalen” processor which makes the job of a graphic designer much easier. Apple states further that the new Mac Pro is up to 1.9 times faster than its predecessor. Each processor has an integrated memory controller that allows the processors to have faster access to stored data in the computer’s memory, with memory latency decreased by up to 40 percent. This feature will save a lot of time for designers when they do their work.

MacBook Pro Laptop

The MacBook Pro Laptop comes in 13, 15 and 17 inch sizes. It has high-performance NVDIA graphics and LED backlit display which makes editing graphics easier and clearer. This latest model has battery power that lasts up to 8 hours (on 17-inch version). It is powered by the Intel Core 2 Duo processor.

Dell Studio XPS Desktop

The Dell Studio XPS Desktop features the Intel Core i5 and i7 processors. If you plan on working with intensive video or 3D editing, you can have an upgrade to the 16GB Dual Channel DDR3 SDRAM. But its base 3GB memory will enable you to edit photos, create vector or raster designs with ease. Its high-definition ATI graphics card creates clear, precise and flawless graphics – just what a graphic designer needs.

Toshiba Qosmio Laptop

The Toshiba Qosimo is an affordable solution to your graphic design needs. It is powered by either the Intel Core i7 or i5 processor making it easier to create flawless graphics. It has a high-end NVIDIA GeForce graphics card, which ensures that you can clearly see every pixel and frame that you edit. It has a 6GB DDR3 1066MHz memory and a 1GB GDDR5 discrete graphics memory.

HP Pavilion Elite Desktop

The HP Pavilion Elite Desktop is an affordable computer. It is powered by either an AMD Athlon or an Intel Core processor that ranges from an X4 630 quad-core (Athlon) to an i7-980X six-core Extreme Edition (Intel). All HP Pavilion Elite Desktop computers come with genuine 64-bit Windows 7 for the latest technology. Memory ranges from 4GB up to 9GB which guarantees smooth and effortless run of the high-end graphics that you use.

Why a New Swimming Pool is a Really Good Investment

Do you think a new swimming pool can enhance your home’s value? Often those of us with the space to install one might ask this question. And the answer might not always be what you think.

In today’s tough residential real estate market, it’s now just so much more difficult to sell a home than it ever used to be. That’s why you need to do everything possible to enhance the value of your home. That leads to the question: Does having a swimming pool make your home more attractive to potential buyers?

The obvious answer would be yes, but sometimes it’s a difficult question to answer. There are some buyers who will be impressed to see a nicely maintained in-ground or above-ground swim pool in your backyard. But other buyers will be turned off the by a swimming pool. They might be worried about the maintenance or safety issues if they have smaller children.

It all comes down to the individual preferences of buyers. Some see any sort of pool as a great bonus and the chance for a lot of fun and enjoyment. They also could see the opportunity to get heart-healthy exercise by swimming laps, or maybe just a great way to entertain their children and friends.

Others, though, view swimming pools as just one more thing to take care of. It must be said that many of us just want an easy life. Swimming pools, after all, do require significant upkeep. Other potential buyers may look at a swimming pool as a potential danger, especially if they have young children.

If you do have a swimming pool at your home, you can either fill it in or dismantle it when you put your home on the market, or you can make sure it is perfectly maintained and cleaned and hope it helps you sell your home faster. It really is just luck sometimes. But if you are in a neighborhood where everyone has a pool then you should keep it nice and well maintained, as without it your house won’t seem right to local buyers.

Keeping a pool, whether it is an in-ground variety or a standard above-ground model, in top condition is key. Buyers want to see that you’ve taken good care of your home. If they see a dirty pool, or one that’s filled with leaves, they may think you’ve been as sloppy with the rest of your home and that could easily put them off buying your property..

Having a swimming pool won’t please every potential buyer of your home. But it will certainly be seen as a positive by some of them. Just make sure that pool always looks clean and presentable. By doing this, you’ll present not just your pool but your home in its best light possible. And that is always a good thing, especially when selling a home not so easy anymore.

Priming the Repair Area – Why Prime and What Types of Primer to Use

It’s All About Cleanliness

If I can stress one thing throughout my training, that would be proper cleaning the surface be painted. The surface should be washed with dish soap and water before repairs begin. Then wipe the surface down with wax and grease remover. During repairs, use compressed air to keep the surface clean. Blow thoroughly before applying body filler or glaze putty. Then blow the repair area and wipe with wax and grease remover before masking. After masked wipe down with wax and grease remover once again to remove all finger prints. This sounds repetitive and it is. However, this will ensure proper adhesion and eliminate many problems during the painting process.

What Is Primer?

According to Wikipedia “primer is a preparatory coating put on materials before painting. Priming ensures better adhesion of paint to the surface, increases paint durability, and provides additional protection for the material being painted. The term primer comes from the Latin primus meaning first because it precedes the other coatings”

Adhesion Is Key, But There is More

Adhesion is a key reason to use primer. However, in automotive primers, it also provides corrosion protection too. Therefore, a primer that provide both good adhesion and corrosion protection is needed. I recommend to use an epoxy primer to provide these needs. Most epoxies can be applied on most types of substrates and is compatible with most top coats. Some technicians prefer etch primer to apply on bare metal to provide good adhesion. Etch primer has a high acid content that bites into the metal, but does not have the corrosion protection like epoxy does.

Mixing Epoxy – It’s Like The First Day Of Class

We use PPG products, but other brands may have similar directions. Be sure to read the manufacture procedure page to determine what they recommend. However, many epoxies have an induction time. This is a amount of time the two chemicals need to be mixed together before using. It’s like going to a new town or your first day of class. You’re quiet and nervous until you get to know the people around you. Once you get to know everyone, you feel much more comfortable. After mixing the catalyst with the epoxy primer, the chemical needs a little time to accept each other as well. It may only be 15 to 20 minutes, but be sure to read the procedure page to know for sure

Spraying The Primer

According to the new 6H rule, all primer needs to be sprayed inside an approve spray area. If you’re priming a small area, you may consider lowering the fluid, narrowing the fan pattern and turn the air pressure down. This will allow you to spray a smaller area with less over spray. Be certain to cover all areas that were sanded with 220 grit or courser. Apply two medium wet coats to the repair area. Remember not to spray primer all the way to your masking paper. Keeping the primer area as small as possible will provide the easiest repair.

Flash Time – Don’t Even Think About Passing Go

Flash time is the amount of time that is needed between coats. Rushing the flash time throughout the car paint jobs process is something I see often, which results in many different problems. Each coat must have time to flash to allow all of the solvents to evaporate. If you apply another coat before the primer has flashed off will trap the solvent and cause a number of problems. Loss of adhesion and solvent popping are a few of the most common problems. You must also realize that the time given in the procedure page are probably around 70 degrees. If it is 50 degrees in the shop at the time you spray the primer, then flash time must be extended. One coat at a time. No double coats or rushing the flash times. You’ve spent a lot of time on the repair, don’t blow it now.

Next, we’ll discuss primer surfacer.

How to Make Dry Wall Construction With Gypsum Boards

Dry wall construction is a system of erecting materials without using the conventional method of wet works like mortar and bricks to form partitions diving different rooms or spaces. This kind of works involve assembling gypsum boards onto aluminum frames or structures to make the wall. This are light weight and easy to erect on floors. They are used to set up offices, divide lounges and dinning rooms in hotel and also for a domestic house internal walls.

The system of dry wall construction with gypsum boards involves first marking out the area to be partitioned. Have the aluminum structure prefabricated and its only a matter of erecting on site. Screw the ends of the structure to the abutting external walls. Drill and screw the bottom framework into the floor slab and repeat the same for the top frame onto the ceiling.Assemble the transoms and mullions to make it firm. Mark out the door and fix the frame.

For the dry wall to be complete use gypsum board screw it using the screws provided a few millimeters into the board so as to ensure a smooth finish once painted. Screw all the boards on both side of the aluminum frame work to get a wall of the intended thickness.Once the boards are fixed, pick the joint strip provided and paste it with gypsum adhesive to cover the joint between the boards and smoothen the ends such that it appears as one big board.

To paint the dry wall of gypsum boards, start with under coat and then apply filla and rubbed down. Fix the door on the frame, after which do two to three coats of paint on the boards to give a good finish. Paint the door with gloss paint or varnish if its timbre. After the decorative works are finished the floor is now divided into different rooms. When erecting this walls take proper measurements of the heights and lengths to get the correct fitting wall.

The Different Types of Welding

When it comes to projects in the industrial industry, welding is an integral part. Did you know that there are many different types of welding? Three of which are most commonly used throughout the industry.

The three different types of welding that are the most common are:

  • Gas Tungsten Arc Welding: this is also known as TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding. It relies on a non-consumable tungsten electrode in order to produce the weld. In this type of welding, a shielding gas is used to protect the weld area. This is to protect from any atmospheric contamination.
  • Gas Metal Arc Welding: this is also known as MIG (metal inert gas) welding. The process is slightly different to that of the TIG. A special gun is used to administer a wire electrode, as well as the shielding gas, at the same time to the arc.
  • Stick welding: this has become a common way in which to weld and can be done at home for small DIY projects. It is also known as SMAW (shielded metal arc) welding. The stick welding will require a stronger electric current to help produce the arc during the process. This welding is rather effective due to the steel rods that are used. These rods are coated in a flux material that vaporizes into CO2 gas which creates a protective barrier around the weld pool.

There are other forms of welding that are starting to become popular, like laser welding, but this innovation is still in its early stages. Welding is necessary to help create many engineering projects. In most cases, it needs to be done by the professionals in order to avoid any injuries from happening. If, however, you are quite astute when it comes to DIY, you can perform small projects that require welding at home. Just remember to equip yourself with all of the necessary safety equipment before taking on any jobs.

Welders are in high demand and are responsible for assisting in many important fields to create projects. This includes not only the mechanical engineering industries, but also the automotive industries. Without welders and the skills of welding, we probably would not have access to many everyday items. Due to welding being an interchangeable job, welders can easily move around in the welding industry and enjoy working in different job sectors. Welders are reliant on their equipment, which is why it is important for them to have access to the best.

Equipment that is non-essential for engineering projects

If you are looking for essential equipment for your engineering projects, you need to get the finest. Having reliable equipment that is safe is necessary in the engineering industry. Some of the machines are still run by hand and, subsequently, can be dangerous if they are not maintained properly.

Linear Actuators 2

Linear actuators are described as devices used to convert or transform motion from any supply of energy in a linear-like form and not necessarily rotationally such as electric motors. When linear actuators are applied as force, they become a mechanical apparatus that obtains energy usually constructed by the air, electricity or liquid and transforms it to a particular form of motion. This kind of motion can transmit to anything from blocking, clamping to ejecting. Actuators are usually used in the manufacturing industry or industrial applications and may also be used in various objects like switches, motors, pumps and valves.

From all types of linear actuators available in stores, the major common type is the one that is powdered by air. These types of linear actuators are also known as the pneumatic cylinder or the air cylinder. These pneumatic or air cylinders are usually made air tight, normally made of metal. They normally make use of the energy of compressed air for them to shift a piston. Additionally, pneumatic cylinders are typically used in the manufacturing and assembly processes. Nevertheless, grippers utilized in robotics, make use of linear actuators powered by the compressed air for them to work akin to human touch.

Hydraulics or Electricity’s are the main sources of power for linear actuators. However, just like the air cylinders, there is also availability of hydraulic cylinders and electric cylinders. This is whereby the cylinders transform hydraulic or electricity into motion and electricity and hydraulic cylinders are regularly used in various automobiles. Various linear actuators that are accessible have a variety of sources of power. For instance, solenoid valves have the capability of being powered by air and electricity. Electricity usually powers solenoid and when air is used to power solenoid it activates the valve.

Some linear actuators consist of digital readout positions and encoders. There is the resemblance of micrometer knobs for adjustment though they are usually utilized for position adjustment instead of position measurement. Other actuators like hydraulic cylinder or hydraulic actuators naturally have hollow cylinder that has a piston inserted in it. The two sides of piston are pressurized or de-pressurized alternately to attain a precise and controlled linear displacement for piston as well as entity connection for piston. Physically, the piston linear displacement is within piston axis or cylinder and design is usually based on hydraulic principles.

There is a way in which linear actuators work. They have motors that normally rotate the drive screw by use of synchronous timing belt. There are other linear actuators that use direct drive or worm gear drive. Both of them can turn the screw hence it pushes a nut drive to the screw. This in turn shoves the rod and rotating of screw in all directions retracts the rod. Actuators have a cover tube that protects screw nut from contamination and environmental elements hence enabling use of machine constantly without it getting stack. Radial thrust allows the screw to rotate liberally beneath the conditions that are loaded and provides strength to the actuators.