Stainless Steel Barrel Nuts – What Are They and What Types Are Available?

A Stainless Steel Barrel Nut is an internally threaded bar shaped flange with a screw drive at one end. It has an internal machine thread in the barrel for machine screws or machine threaded bolts to be threaded into. Often these screws will have heads which match the nuts head to provide a complete matching unit.

For example if a Countersunk Socket Screw is screwed into a Countersunk Hex Socket Drive Nut – then the heads of both the male threaded bolt and female threaded nuts match.

There are a range of head styles and types of Barrel Nuts with differing dimensions, these include:

  • Countersunk Head Phillips
  • Countersunk Head Socket
  • Pan Head Socket
  • Raised Countersunk Head Slot
  • Truss Head Phillips
  • Joint Connector Bolt Head

Countersunk Head Phillips Drive

With a flat head finish these provide an ideal high quality result. The driver is phillips so easy for any home handy-man to later unscrew.

Countersunk Head Socket Drive

Like the Countersunk Head Phillips Nut these hex socket drive versions provide an ideal high quality result. The drive being hex socket (allen key) provides a higher quality look and is better used for a precision installation with an allen key.

Pan Head Socket Drive

Often used in stainless steel wire rope balustrade applications, the Pan Head Socket Drive Nut provides a good looking finish for Swage Studs and other Wire Rope Fittings used for terminations in Wire Rope Balustrades.

Raised Countersunk Head Slot

For a smooth (but not completely flat) head finish with an easy to use slot drive an option would be the Raised Countersunk Head Slotted Nut. Ideal for applications where the timeless look of a flat-head or slot drive is required.

Truss Head Phillips Drive

The Truss Head Nut gives the largest surface area of the Barrel Nuts so good for reducing the chance of ‘pull-out’ and any need for larger washers. The Truss Head Nuts are UNC/imperial threads as opposed to the metric threads the other nuts have.

Joint Connector Bolt Head

JCB Barrel Nuts are used often in furniture with their matching JCB Bolts.

Barrel Nuts are also known as Sex Bolts, Post and Screw or Chicago Screws, though the nut only makes one half of a Sex Bolt. The other been the male threaded screw.

Stainless Steel Barrel Nuts are made of either 304 Stainless Steel (18-8) or grade 316 Stainless Steel and are also available form some sources in carbon steel.

Conducting Successful Gate Meetings

Projects don’t arrive at their conclusion perfectly executed and delivering all the benefits promised in the Business Case, at the advertised cost. They must be measured along the way to ensure they are developing to plan. Our project management training (especially our PMP Exam preparation training) provides us with a variety of tools to measure project progress against schedule, budget, requirements, and quality goals. The most critical of these for demonstrating your project’s successful progress is the Gate Meeting. These meetings are variously called Phase Exit Reviews (by our PMP Exam preparation training), or Business Decision Points.

Whatever your organization calls your meetings, these are the points at which all the project stakeholders will determine whether your project is on track to meeting the organizations expectations for it. This article should provide you with some useful information, tips, and tricks to ensure that your meetings are successful.

Why Do I Need Gate Meetings?

Aside from the reasons stated above, there are 2 key reasons you should schedule gate meetings at key milestones throughout your project:

1. You not only need to ensure your project is on track, you need to demonstrate your success to your project stakeholders and have them acknowledge you are staying the course. Gate meetings are your opportunity to accomplish this.

2. Gate meetings also serve the purpose of validating the Business Case. As the project’s scope, budget, and schedule change throughout its life cycle, your Business Case will change. The Business Case may also be changed by circumstances outside the span of your control such as changes in the market place. The Gate Meeting is your opportunity to have the updated Business Case validated by your project’s executive sponsors. Your PMP Exam preparation training emphasizes the importance of an up to date Business Case and validation at these meetings.

When Do I Need to Hold a Gate Meeting?

Gate Meetings should be held at key milestones throughout the project. There is no hard and fast rule for how many Gate meetings a project should have, or when they should be held. We can say that each project should have at least two Gate Meetings: one between the Planning Phase and the Build Phase and one before the project Closeout. The first is critical because it has the ability to save the organization the bulk of project costs should it decide the Business Case doesn’t justify the expense, or the project doesn’t align with the organization’s strategic goals. The second is critical because this is the meeting where the customer will formally accept the products of the project. It should drive any formal sign offs and final payments that conclude the project.

Gate Meetings should be held at points in between when the project can benefit from them. For example, if you’re managing a software development project, you may want to hold a Gate Meeting between the requirements gathering and the start of software development and between the completion of software development and the start of QA testing. If you’re using RUP (Rational Unified Process), you’ll probably want to hold a Gate Meeting between each iteration. These are only a few examples of suitable points to hold your Gate Meetings. You should define a set of Gate Meetings customized to the needs of your project.

Here’s one final tip to help you define the correct set of Gate Meetings for your project: the points at which these meetings should be held should jump out at you when you look at your Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). If they don’t, it could be an indication that you haven’t broken the project work down correctly. Your PMP Exam preparation training will provide you with the process that will correctly break the work down. Don’t be afraid to hold too many Gate Meetings. Being selective when choosing invitees to these meetings will avoid Gate Meeting “burnout”. We’ll explore some tips and tricks for selecting Gate Meeting attendees later in this article.

What Gets Done at the Gate Meeting?

The key objective of your Gate Meeting is to reach a decision on whether to proceed to the next phase of the project, or cancel the project. Do not lose sight of this objective when you set the meetings agenda or conduct the meeting. Like every formal meeting you hold, you need to set an agenda for this one and your agenda should make this objective clear. It should also set the criteria for the decision and most importantly, identify the decision maker(s). We’ll expand on successful strategies for doing this when we discuss the meeting attendees.

The criteria that you should set for passing the Gate will be dependent on the specific Gate Meeting and your project. Generally speaking, there are 3 categories of criteria that will apply to most Gates:

1. The Business Case is still valid. This means the expected benefits in your up to date Business Case still outweigh the costs and the project still aligns with the organization’s strategic objectives.

2. The work of the finished phase is complete and meets quality standards established in your plan. This will generally be established by the completion of project deliverables.

3. The resources required for the start of the next phase have been acquired and are in place. Resources include the people to do the work and everything they need to do it such as tools, work stations, facilities, hardware, software, etc.

The agenda of your meeting should serve the purpose of verifying that all these criteria have been met. Once the criteria have been satisfied, the decision should follow.

Gate Meeting Attendees

Remember that the key objective of your Gate Meeting is a decision to go forward with the next project phase (or not); your meeting attendees must include the decision makers to ensure this happens.

One of your key decision makers will be the project’s sponsor. This is the person who is accountable to the organization for the project budget; sometimes known as business sponsor, executive sponsor, or just plain sponsor. You’re going to need this person at the Gate Meeting which marks the advance of your project from planning to execution. The sponsor should also be present at the Closeout Gate Meeting; they need to be satisfied that the project has delivered all the benefits promised in the Business Case. They may also want to attend intervening Gate Meetings depending on the level of their interest and the deliverables being discussed at the meeting. You should always make the sponsor welcome at any Gate and make sure they understand what deliverables are being discussed but leave the final decision on whether to attend or not to them.

Other categories of stakeholders will include: partners (partner tools or partner organizations), sub-contractors, vendors, and project team members. You won’t be able to have the whole team present at the meeting but should have a spokesperson for each deliverable being discussed. You may want to speak for the deliverables yourself if you’re well enough acquainted with them but should at least have a spokesperson in the meeting with a technical command of the deliverable. Your PMP Exam preparation training material contains a fairly comprehensive list and description of project stakeholders.

Meeting Logistics

You’ve carefully chosen the right project milestone for your meeting, chosen all the right attendees, and have a clear understanding of the meeting objective and how to achieve it. Here are some simple rules to follow in order to guarantee success.

Craft an agenda for the meeting that specifies the subject being addressed which includes the time allotted and the spokesperson. The agenda items should include each deliverable produced by the previous phase and each resource necessary for the next one. Don’t get too granular with the deliverables or resources; remember you don’t want to drag the meeting out, just satisfy the stakeholders all the criteria for success have been met. One trick to ensure the meeting doesn’t drag on is to bundle deliverables or resources into categories, for example instead of reviewing each module or feature in your software development project, lump them in categories such as Application Program Interface (API) software and “back end” software. Conclude the agenda with the decision. Identify the decision makers as spokespeople for the decision.

Be sure that the invitees are free at the meeting time. If you’re lucky enough to have access to Microsoft Outlook, you have the means to do this from your computer; otherwise you’ll have to do this person to person. You may want to speak with your sponsor face to face even if you have access to their calendars on-line to avoid any misunderstandings or last minute changes.

Choose a room large enough to hold all attendees. If you have a geographically dispersed team you also want to ensure that you’ve chosen a time that is suitable to all remote attendees. If this can’t be done because of time zone differences, make sure you spread the pain by considering the convenience of each remote attendee in turn. Be sure to book any audio/video equipment well in advance of the meeting such as conference bridges, Polycoms, projectors, etc. Be sure your bridge provides enough lines for all remote attendees.

Communicate the meeting invitation at least a week in advance of the meeting. Make sure that your invitation includes all the key information: purpose of the meeting, time, location, duration, and bridge numbers. You need to include the meeting agenda with your invitation. A day or two in advance of the meeting, send a meeting reminder including all the pertinent information plus the agenda.

A presentation for the meeting is optional but a simple PowerPoint presentation will tend to focus attendees on the business at hand. If you decide you should focus the meeting with a presentation, the presentation should itemize the deliverables and resources that comprise the criteria for passing the gate. A tip for making your presentation more effective at drawing a line under the discussion around a deliverable: make the presentation animated (this is a PowerPoint feature) and follow each deliverable/resource with a check mark.

You’ll make your meeting much more palatable if you can provide refreshments. These aren’t essential but will serve to make attendance more attractive to the invitees. If you do decide to provide refreshments, don’t let them disrupt the meeting. Make sure they’re either in place before the meeting starts or have them delivered during a short break in the meeting.

Running the Meeting

Running the Gate Meeting isn’t vastly different than running any other meeting effectively. If you’re unfamiliar with running meetings, you should take a course on the subject, or use a book or magazine article on the subject to upgrade your education. The knowledge we provide here is meant to augment your meeting generalship.

Rule #1: You are in charge of the meeting. This means a successful conclusion is your responsibility and your sponsor will expect you to keep the meeting and the attendees on track and focused. If the attendees take the meeting down a “rat hole”, it’s your responsibility to bring them back on track.

The first tip I’ll offer you on running an effective Gate Meeting is to appoint a timekeeper. Be sure the room understands the role of the time keeper. Their role is simply to inform the meeting of the time remaining for discussing a criteria or decision, or to announce that time is up. This person will keep the meeting on schedule and avoid having time run out without a decision being reached. This person may take some heat for interrupting an attendee giving a speech that runs over their limit, especially if the speaker is someone senior. It’s up to you to deflect the heat – remind the room that the time keeper is only doing the job you gave them. The more senior that person is, the more effective they will be in keeping the meeting on schedule. If you can solicit the timekeeping services of a respected project manager for your meeting you’ll have a head start keeping your meeting on schedule. One way of rewarding your timekeeper is to offer your timekeeping services in their meetings.

Take the lead on discussions on the ability of a deliverable or resource to meet gating criteria. You’re the subject matter expert on the criteria and are either speaking for the deliverable, or directing the owner to speak to it. You are ultimately responsible for the deliverables and resources of the project and it’s up to you to decide whether they meet gating criteria. You can have a team member who is directly responsible for the deliverable or resource describe it in terms of the gating criteria but it’s ultimately your responsibility to convince the room of its ability to meet gating criteria. Tip: don’t go into the meeting room without being thoroughly familiar with the status of each deliverable and resource itemized in your agenda.

Don’t expect discussion of your gating criteria to adhere to your schedule like a well rehearsed play. You can only expect your timekeeper to remind your stakeholders of the time limit on the topic of discussion; at best, they may be able to halt a stakeholder holding forth on topic that is tangent to one of your gating criteria and if you don’t have a strong personality in that role, you’ll have to step in yourself to preserve your schedule. If there is a lively debate on a deliverable, resource, or issue around either, help your timekeeper out by capturing an item in your project’s action register to follow up on the discussion. The follow up can happen at the conclusion of the meeting (leave a sufficient amount of time for these “parking lot” items in your agenda), or the item may require an action. If an action is required, you can either identify a team member in the room to accept responsibility for the item, or you can assume responsibility for it yourself. Never assign an action item to someone not present and ensure that items you assign to team members present in the room are accepted with a forecast completion date.

Accept that some gating criteria may not be met to every stakeholder’s satisfaction. Each stakeholder comes to your meeting with their own set of agenda and will only speak to their own agendas so a deliverable may satisfy every stakeholder but one and that one stakeholder may have a fairly minor complaint about the deliverable. If that’s the case, capture the complaint in the form of an action item in your action register and move on. The inability of the deliverable to satisfy your lone stakeholder won’t necessarily cause your gate to fail.

The Decision

The objective of the meeting is to reach a decision on whether to proceed to the next project phase or not. In fact there is a third acceptable option: proceed to the next project phase contingent on some actions being taken or issues being closed. This decision is sometimes referred to as a “conditional pass”. The point is you have to define the process for reaching the decision, ensure the decision makers are provided with the information they need to reach the decision, and extract the decision from the decision makers.

Choosing the decision makers is critical to arriving at the decision. Make the stature of the decision makers commensurate with the significance of the Gate. At critical gates, your executive sponsor(s) will want to have ultimate say in the decision. At less critical points in your project you may want to delegate decision making responsibility, or make the decision yourself. In either case, make sure your sponsor is comfortable with the process and decision makers.

Review your decision maker selection and decision method with your project’s executive sponsor in advance of the meeting to ensure they’re comfortable, whether you identify them as the decision maker(s) or not. If you expect them to articulate the decision, make sure they know what you expect before the meeting. Your executive sponsor may need the project stakeholders to acknowledge that all the gating criteria have been met, but don’t mistake concurrence with veto power.

Decision Makers

Executive Sponsor(s)

This is the simplest model, either the sponsor agrees that gating criteria have been met and the gate is passed, the criteria have not been met and the identified action items must be closed before the gate can be passed, or the business case no longer justifies continuing the project. Your project’s executive sponsor(s) will be the only stakeholders empowered to determine the project Business Case no longer justifies continuing the project.

Project Manager

Another simple model. You take on the role of the executive sponsor in this case and your authority (with the exception of deciding on the Business Case) is identical to that described above.

Project Stakeholders

These stakeholders may include partners, either internal or external, sub-contractors, vendors, the executive sponsor(s), clients, customers, and of course, yourself (as project manager). The sponsor and/or you will have the same level of authority as the rest of the stakeholders or decision makers in this case.

Decision Process

The decision making process where one person (either the executive sponsor or yourself) has authority over the decision is straightforward; just get the person to articulate the decision. When all or a subset of the project stakeholders must make the decision, you’ll need to employ one of these processes.

Majority A majority of the decision makers must agree on the decision. If there is an even number of decision makers, you’ll have to identify a tie breaker. This is probably the least useful and least used of the methods. The drawback to this method is the risk of a stakeholder disagreeing with a majority decision and either overtly or covertly sabotaging it.

Consensus This is a type of majority decision: the majority of decision makers agree on the decision and the rest can “live with” it. This means they don’t agree with the majority but can see the value to the project of their decision and are prepared to support it.

In my experience, no matter how diligent the project manager and team are in dotting the i’s and crossing the t’s on their project deliverables and resources, Gate Meetings seldom end in a clear cut decision to pass the gate. The pass is usually contingent on some issue being addressed or action being completed.


You must communicate the results of your Gate Meeting to the entire project team. If your project includes a “general” mailing list, use that as your “To:” list for the communication. You need to communicate the meeting’s decision. If the decision was a straightforward “proceed” or “stop”, communicate that and the reasons behind the decision. If the decision was to proceed contingent on some actions being completed or issues resolved, identify the actions or issues, their owners, and due dates.

You may capture actions or issues identified during the meeting in your project’s Action Register or Issue Log. If so you will need to identify these with the Gate so they can be uniquely identified. When the issues are closed or actions completed, communicate the closure/completion to the same “To:” list as the original communication.

Pre-Gate Meetings

Gate Meetings run the risk of having “dirty laundry” aired. The most critical gates or larger, more complex projects are more prone to this risk than ones where the project manager is thoroughly acquainted with all the deliverables and resources. Going into the Gate Meeting without a complete knowledge of the status of each deliverable and resource, or outstanding issue, is a guarantee of an ambush. Remember, the stakeholders are there to speak on behalf of their interests, not on behalf of yours or the projects. Don’t expose yourself to the risk of an ambush in front of your executive sponsor if you can avoid it.

A good way of avoiding an ambush is to conduct a pre-Gate Meeting a week or two before the actual Gate. The meeting should be conducted in exactly the same fashion as the actual Gate with the exception of the invitee list. Your executive sponsor, client, or customer, should not be present at these meetings. Your pre-Gate is similar to a rehearsal for a play. If there is any dirty laundry to air, such as a deliverable not completed to the satisfaction of a stakeholder, the pre-Gate Meeting ought to uncover it. Holding the pre-Gate a week or two before the actual Gate Meeting provides you with the time to address the objection before the actual Gate Meeting.

Don’t forget to “Cc:” your executive sponsor on the invite to the pre-Gate. In case you have any political enemies in the ranks of your stakeholders, the knowledge that your executive sponsor is aware of the meeting and its purpose should guarantee that the stakeholders won’t hold anything back during the pre-Gate that they later air in front of the sponsor at a Gate Meeting.

Gutter Guard Reviews – A Leaffilter Review

It is worth looking at all your options when you want to buy a home improvement product. The gutter guards are more than necessary in homes with many trees around. They are quite functional in preventing clogging and allowing rainwater to drain properly from the roof. This Leaffilter gutter guard review aims to asses this particular gutter protective system extensively.

The Leaffilter has a standard waterfall structure. It has high steps and low steps. The latter form canals with slots for the water to drain through. The waterfall panel is covered by a porous filter. The main structure in made from stainless steel while the filter is made from nylon. The gutter guard is installed in a standard fashion for such models. The top runner is slipped under the roof shingles while the bottom cap is secured to the gutter lip with the use of screws.

The waterfall design and the porous filter cover of the Leaffilter make it very efficient in collecting debris. Leaves and twigs as well as tiny particles such as, pine needles, pollen mites, seeds and sand grains, are effectively prevented from entering the gutter. This protective system has a very high score for clogging prevention. The slanting position allows the debris to slide down, so the cleaning becomes natural.

The large holes in the drain channels allow for high water flow rate. This is yet another advantage of this gutter guard system. However, the porous filter is not perfectly smooth. The angle formed by the panels is not very sharp either. This means that it is perfectly possible for the filter to get clogged. Additionally, small particles can stick inside. This will reduce the water flow rate dramatically. This is a serious drawback that should be taken into account.

The Leaffilter is made from stainless steel. This makes the structure durable and water resistant. However, the porous filter is not perfectly weatherproof. It is made from nylon which can be easily damaged by the sun’s UV rays. On the other hand, the filter has a large surface which makes it possible for the structure to withstand strong pressure from heavy weights. The installation allows for the good stability of the guard.

Overall, the Leaffilter gutter guard is effective for gutter clogging prevention, but it might require more regular cleaning. Its main structure is durable, but this is not applicable to its filter. The gutter guard is relatively stable, even though strong winds might be able to remove it.

Constipation – What Works and Why

Constipation is a normal occurrence that everyone will experience at one time or another within their lifetime. The older we get, the higher the tendency to become constipated. The age of forty seems to be a benchmark. People in this age bracket usually have a robust schedule, and there is usually less time for them to eat well, and exercise. Making eating disorders or bad eating habits a common cause of constipation.

Constipation is simply the inability to discharge digested food from the colon. The intestines are designed to remove nutrients from the food we eat. In the final stages, moisture is removed to allow well formed stools to pass out of the body easily. When the organs supporting the colon are not functioning properly, they either remove too much moisture and cause constipation or too little, and cause diarrhea.

Constipation can be a very painful condition, accompanied by stomach cramps, bloating, and pain sitting or standing. At its worst, fecal impaction or a blocked colon could result.

As the waste remains in the colon, some of the toxic waste from the stool might be reabsorbed into the bloodstream, causing fevers in some individuals.


The environment we live in also contributes to the tendency to be irregular. Stress and worry are key triggers which upset the normal body functions. As we stress out over the numerous interruptions in our lives, certain key organs fail to produce the enzymes and gastric juices which regulate the bowels for healthy passage of the waste from the body.

Similarly, our bodies react to the drugs we take into our system. Often after surgery, the patient will not have normal bowel movements until the drugs used wear off. The body seems to go into shock, and many vital functions either stop or slow down. Recreational and Prescribed drugs will send our systems into shock. Unfortunately, coffee drinkers have a high incidence of constipation, because it is a stimulant which alters the body’s normal chemistry.

Another contributing factor is the bad habit of holding back when we feel the need to “go”. Many people think because they are too busy, it can always come later. By then, moisture is reabsorbed leaving the stools hard and dry. The victims may end up passing a stool, but there is always a tendency that some of the now toxic waste will remain in the colon.

Unfortunately, most of us reach for the laxative before we really know what the cause of the problem is. Until the actual cause of the condition is treated, no solution will be permanent. The constipation will return time after time until the individual’s health is in jeopardy. If the causes are environmental; stress, drugs, or prolonging trips to the rest room, eliminating that cause will be the only way to insure complete relief.


Relief can come in several ways. There are the mechanical, drug induced, and natural methods of obtaining relief.

A. Diet –

1. Eat Right

To stem the continuous occurrence of constipation in the daily life of an individual, the best thing is to change your eating habits. This can safely be said to drastically reduce the incidence of constipation as most of the constipation people get is from eating low fiber foods and excess fatty foods. Foods that are rich in fiber such as wheat, bran, psyllium husks work wonders in the relieving constipation and its frequent occurrence.

2. Drink Lots of Water

The lack of sufficient fluids, particularly water ,is also an important contributor to constipation. Because we are always in a rush, we often forget to drink at least eight glasses of water everyday.

3. Exercise

Individuals who do a lot more exercise are often better physically that those who live a sedentary life. They look younger, brighter, their eyes sparkle, they have boundless energy and are generally healthier. They have a limitless zest for life and as a result of all these can fight diseases because they have a vibrant, healthy immune system. Recent stats have proved that people who lead sedentary lives are more prone to constipation that those who are active. So, just getting up and walking around the block in the morning is good enough to get your bowels moving.

B. Mechanical Relief –

1. Colonics

Mechanical methods include enemas and colonics. Some naturopathic physicians suggest you have a colonic at least once a year to remove any waste that has failed to pass through the system. Colonics are performed by a doctor in his treatment center. The patient is injected with as much warm water as possible while reclining on a bed. The solution is held in the bowel for a period of time and then the gates are opened and the re-moistened waste is discharged. The results are so drastic, that this is not appropriate to do at home. Since the only reason it is stuck in your colon is it is too dry to come out, the added moisture is very effective.

2. Enemas

Enemas are very similar, except on a much smaller scale. Usually using a water bottle held above the body while sitting on a toilet, or reclining in a bathtub or other receptacle, water flows into the rectum, and adds moisture to the colon. At some point the water is discharged, along with some of the waste. Often a second or third treatment is required to unplug the colon. Hospitals used to use this method frequently, and most nurses are trained in administering this treatment. However, the latest research on enemas and colonics seems to indicate that these methods cause as much harm as the good they do.

People who use A homemade colon cleanse enema tend to apply more water quantity than the commercially available ones; for instance, a homemade colon cleanse enema contains ¾ of water, peppermint, frankincense or fennel. Sometimes they combine one or more of these together or even all at the same time. It is important to note the role these oils play in getting an individual to have bowel movements. They act as stimulators of the colon muscles which in turn contract to expel the stool in the colon. Please note that in case you settle for this option, you need to add nothing more than 1-3 drops of the oils to the water you’ll be using as an enema.

While you may be satisfied with this, it is better that you know that applying it is pretty difficult. It entails having to lie down comfortably, being close to the toilet, the temperature of the water being between ninety eight and one hundred and three (98-103) degrees Fahrenheit, bag containing the enema hanging at least 2 ft above the body

C. Laxatives

There are numerous drug related laxatives on the market. Again these are only temporary solutions until the real cause can be found and treated. Like all drugs, they cause an organ to interrupt its normal function, and adjust to provide more moisture in the colon. As the largest organ in the body, the intestines use the gall bladder, liver, pancreas, and stomach to increase or decrease digestive enzymes, bacteria, and digestive acids as needed to accomplish its function. Anytime you change the way an organ functions, you risk an unfavorable reaction. Often laxatives over do their correction and the patient develops diarrhea, the opposite condition. The very last thing we want is to be subject to a mere chemical. Many people who have become very familiar with laxatives can even swear to its ability to make an individual dependent on it for bowel movement. Feelers that we are getting from health boards all over the world are that we avoid laxatives as much as possible.

1. Hyperosmolar Laxatives

These are compounds that can’t be digested or absorbed into the intestine. As a result they remain in the colon to retain the water that is in the colon. Hence, there is a softening of the stool as a result of the presence of moisture. Examples of this are sorbitol, lactulose and polyethylene glycol. These laxatives are only available by prescription. They have side effects -hence the restriction in access to it- and are used for the long term treatment of constipation. Part of the side effects it has on the body is abdominal bloating and flatulence. This occurs as a result of the laxative being digested by bacteria and its subsequent turning into gas. If this continues, a reduction in the dosage usually reduces the incidence of bloating and flatulence. In some cases however, the gas may reduce in volume by itself.

2. Saline Laxatives

These are laxatives that are made up of ions that can’t be absorbed by the colon. Examples of such ions are phosphate, citrate which can be found in the following combination’s: sodium phosphate, and magnesium hydroxide. They function by drawing water into the colon which in return softens that stool. This treatment has its disadvantages. People with weak kidneys may find it hard to expel resulting in the formation of kidney stones. This happens if it is used over a long period of time. Thus, short term usage in perfect order. It may also cause diarrhea which may lead to dehydration if the amount of fluid lost by the body is not replaced immediately. Saline laxatives are found in solutions such as Milk of magnesia or Epsom Salt.

3. Stimulant Laxatives

These incite the small intestine and colon muscles to push their substance faster. This they do by increasing the water content in the small intestine or inhibiting the amount of water absorbed by the colon. These laxatives can be found in Castor oil, Senna and Aloe Vera oils. They are quite useful in alleviating and curing constipation but also has its disadvantages. Because of its potency, it can instigate diarrhea which would result in dehydration if the individual does not take liquids. They can also cause intestinal cramping and long term intensive use can result in colon damage and worse constipation. Finally, not all of the constipation help methods are applicable. You can either consult your physician or get a quick, fast relief from constipation.


Before the advent of patent medicines, before there were doctors, people developed constipation. How did they handle it? Ancient Americans, the Aztecs, Mayas, and even the American Indian found that plants growing naturally had the desired effects on the body. And because they were all natural, they had no side effects. Many of our modern drugs are synthesized in factories to mimic the results of these naturally occurring herbs. One might ask, “Why manufacture something like a natural occurring substance. Unfortunately, it is expensive to grow and harvest the volume of the drug needed to satisfy the need. Or in otherwise “Greed.”

1. Boysenberry. The juice of this fruit is capable of functioning as a gentle laxative. It is to be used in the case of mild constipation not chronic ones.

2. Cantaloupe fruit is a very great fruit and is adequate for helping to relieve constipation. Its high fiber content is what actually makes it very useful to those who have constipation. It is also a rich source of both Vitamins A and C and lots of minerals.

3. Flaxseed Oil has been proven time and again to be an effective constipation remedy. All you need for maximum results is to take 1-2 tablespoonfuls with lots of water immediately after lunch or dinner.

4. Elder flower Tea is also very effective. Use as many times as it is needed daily.

5. Epsom Salts is also another good remedy. To use it as a constipation remedy, mix one teaspoonful in half glass of water just before bed. Please note that it is bitter, so the taste does not hit you unawares.

6. Adding roasted black gram powder to chapatti made of wheat including the husks too can enhance constipation relief.

7. Molasses which have high calorie content are also very good. Beware though as it has a strong taste and you’ll want to add fruit juice or milk to it when taking it. All you really need is two tablespoonfuls of black strap molasses just before sleeping at night.

8. Take half a cup of cabbage juice twice a day. This is very effective in treating and curing constipation.

9. If you have got access to mango, take one in the morning right after brushing before breakfast, and one at night after dinner. Mangoes are very effective bowel movers. There is a sure guarantee that you’ll have to “go” at least twice before nightfall.

10. Create a mixture of Spiegel seeds and warm milk. This is done by dipping the Spiegel seeds (5-10g) in warm milk (200g). To this, mixture, add sugar and you have for yourself a highly effective treatment method.

11. If you are suffering from chronic constipation, take a drink of figs dipped in water in the morning. If taken in copious amounts, you’ll definitely find yourself reaching for the next available toilet.

12. If you want instant relief from constipation, drink water that has been kept in a copper container and has been left overnight. It acts as a superb constipation relief.

13. Get half a glass of water and mix one-quarter (¼) of Epsom salts with it for fast constipation relief.

14. Also try pouring a whole sachet of Andrew’s Liver Salt in a glass of water sand gulp down immediately. This will also produce a fast constipation relief.


Doctors specializing in natural medicines recommend at least one colon cleanse a year to eliminate the toxins and excess waste that builds up over time in the intestinal tract. The body is like a highly functional machine. A machine as we well know must go through a period of complete readjustment, cleaning, realigning, refurbishing etc, so also should our body.

There are several good colon cleanses on the market. results vary from one manufacturer to another. Some are natural, other use ingredients you may have trouble pronouncing, because they are synthesized rather than natural.

How To Adjust PVC-U Doors And Side Hung Windows

One of the most frequent faults that I come across in the nature of my repair business is dropped or catching PVC-U doors and windows.

Most people outside the trade (and quite a few that work within it) do not know how to set up doors and side hung windows properly to make sure that they do not drop out of position after a few weeks of use. This process is called ‘Toe and healing’.

PVC-U doors and windows (especially side hung windows) actually rely on the glass unit or panel to hold and keep the opening part of the door or window straight and level. This is important to ensure that all the locks stay in line and the frame does not drop or scrape along the bottom cill.

The correct procedure is this:

The glass needs to be sat on glazing packers to hold the frame square, these to be positioned as follows:

Place one packer (usually one about 4-6mm thick by the width of the unit) on the bottom rail in the corner at the hinge side of the door, place a second packer vertically up the hinge side at the bottom corner next to the first packer thus forming a corner.

At the opposite top corner, place one packer on the top rail and one in the top corner on the vertical door locking side. (these will probably have to be held in place with silicone sealant or similar.)

This will mean that the glass unit is held at opposite corners and will sit square in the frame.

Position the glass into the aperture, check to see if the glass is making contact with the packers at the top corner. If not, and the gap is more than say 4mm at the top, then lift the glass unit up and fit another packer on top of the packer at the base of the unit to raise the glass up a little bit until it touches or nearly touches the packer at the top of the glass.

Do the same for the ones on the bottom and top side packers. The idea is to ensure that the glass is held squarely and securely at both opposite corners .

Try and close the door, if it catches at the bottom, It will be necessary to place another packer on top of the glass at the top corner, this is achieved by having an assistant pull up the door vertical bar to create a gap on top of the glass. Once this gap is there it is easy to push another packer in which will hold the door frame in the raised position. Once it does not catch anymore, complete the fitting of the glazing beads.

These packers are available in various thicknesses and also in a range of sizes to suit different widths of glass units. It is crucial to use packers that are the same width as the glass unit, too narrow and they could get caught in between the panes and cause breakage, too wide and they could impede the fitting of the glazing beads.

Once the door has been packed, it helps to actually hang on the door, check the operation and then repeat the process,

Hanging on the door speeds up the settling down process of the installation and if done should stop the need for a re-adjust after six weeks or so once the door has settled down with use.

If a door starts to catch, its quite simple to remove the glazing beads and then re-pack back to the correct position.

Benefits of Skylights

Skylights can make a dreary room bright, capture a view, or provide a starlit panorama from your bedroom. They provide up to 30% more light than regular windows. This added light can transform a room – giving it an open, airy feeling.

Like windows, skylights can be fixed or operable. Fixed skylights might be flat, or domed, and they obviously only provide light. Other models of skylights which provide ventilation can be opened or closed using a hand crank, a remote control, a wall switch, or an automatic temperature sensor.

When open, a roof skylight can create an updraft, venting a room of hot air. This can be done year round – including the air conditioning season – because the colder air will stay low.

Skylights can be great problem-solvers. For instance, in a small bathroom with limited wall space, a skylight might be the only way to get natural light into the room. A skylight with clear glass will direct the sunlight to a specific spot. If you buy one with acrylic or obscure glass, the light will be spread over a larger area.

Thirty years ago, skylights consisted of a single piece of glass in a frame. Today, they come with low-E and tinted coatings which control transmission of both heat and UV rays. As an alternative to tinted glass, you can buy shades or blinds for your roof skylight. Skylights that open will usually come with a screen as well.

Skylights also save you money. Besides reducing the need for electric lighting, they can provide warmth in the winter and cooling in the summer, minimizing your need for heating and air conditioning.

In the winter, the sun’s heat will radiate into a room. In summer, a ventilating skylight will add to your air circulation by releasing the warm air – making the room feel cooler.

Skylights come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The size you choose should be determined by the size of the room you’re putting it in. To get the location of your skylight, you should be looking at the way the sun passes over the house, and where in the room you need the light.

When a room’s ceiling is away from the roof line, you can use a tubular skylight. These come in sizes up to 18″ in diameter. They consist of a clear dome over a reflective shaft that ends at the ceiling, with a diffuser which spreads the light.

This combination provides a great deal of light for its size, and it’s sealed, which minimizes heat transfer. I know one family that recently installed one of these and they LOVE it.

When you go to the retailer to shop for skylights, ask questions. Get knowledgeable about the styles, sizes, and features. Then you can make an educated choice about which roof skylight to buy.

What to Do When Building Garage Work Benches

Creating garage work benches for your garage will offer you copious amounts of working space while not taking up too much room. Whether you boast a work bench that is used for your maintenance on your vehicle, or if it is a woodworking garage work bench, the choices you will have when you go over your designs are endless. Building your garage work benches will acquire an afternoon or so to finish, and the conclusion is always pleasing.

It is moderately uncomplicated to make your own wooden garage benches, but in order to finish it you will have to follow these straightforward directions and have good plans. To begin with, you will have to decide how high you would like your bench to be. Once you have done this, make a spot on the wall at the stature you have selected with a snap line, then go on to verify the line you have made with a level and make the needed adjustments if need be. You have got to re-adjust the height of your bench should you want to put in cabinets on your wooden bench.

After that, you must drill holes where you have made your markings for the brackets. An electric drill and heavy duty bolts work the greatest. Subsequently, you must set up the metallic brackets onto the wall studs, inserting the top brackets just below the snap line. Cut up six pieces of timber according to the size of your work bench, and position a member on top of each bracket. Using wood screws will guarantee they reside in position. You will also be required to cut longer pieces of lumber to lie on your support brackets and secure them with nails. Position the rest of the timber at the end of the crossing supports and lock them. The final piece of the frame is to be connected to the face of the bench by means of nails to hold up and secure it. Finally, you have to use a saw on your particle board and cut it to go with the size of your frame. The finest way to do this is to cut the board in half length ways. Lay the two halves on each other and then on top of your frame and secure them nails. This will give you a sturdy table top surface.

If you want a portable bench, then the most excellent alternative for you would be to get hold of a rolling bench. They are prepared with steel and are outfitted with a quantity of sliding doors, shelves and cabinets. These work benches are also fixed with wheels which come with a locking system to ensure the steel rolling bench doesn’t move when working on it. These are perfect if you favor to move around your work space or garage.

Garage work benches are idyllic to have when you are working in your garage. Whether you have steel work benches for restoring items, using it as a woodworking garage work bench to construct something or polishing tools, it is fitting to boot.

Michigan Snakes

There are at least 17 recorded species of snake found in Michigan state in the USA, they are listed below:

1. Black Rat Snake

2. Blue Racer Snake

3. Brown Snake

4. Butler’s Garter Snake

5. Common Garter Snake

6. Copper-Bellied Water Snake

7. Eastern Hog-Nosed Snake

8. Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake

9. Eastern Milk Snake

10. Fox Snake

11. Kirtland’s Snake

12. Northern Ribbon Snake

13. Northern Water Snake

14. Queen Snake

15. Red-Bellied Snake

16. Ring-Necked Snake

17. Smooth Green Snake

The Black Rat Snake is the largest of the snakes to be found in Michigan. It can grow up to 2.4 meters. It is non-venomous to humans. These snakes have grey/blue eyes set against a black and brown patterned body. They are mainly found in the lower half of the state and are protected by law as they have become rare and their numbers are in decline.

The Blue Racer Snake, once common, has been under attack from persecution and loss of habitat and its numbers have fallen in many parts. These snakes are non-venomous but will bite is threatened or handled. They can grow to 2 meters in length. They are constrictors and kill by crushing in the coils of their body. Typical diet is small animals, frogs, insects, rodents and other small snakes.

The Brown Snake is a smaller snake with a light cream or whitish under belly and a brown or gray back with a light stripe and black dots on either side of the stripe. They grow to around 40cm but are often shorter than this. They are shy and rarely seen creatures that feed mainly on slugs and earthworms. They are non-venomous.

Butler’s Garter Snake is a small snake of about 40cm – 65cm in length as adults. They are a dark coloured snake in either brown, black or dark olive colouring, and yellow stripes and a yellow belly. Some snakes have dark spots between their stripes. Their favorite food is earthworms and they are found typically in the south and eastern Lower Peninsula.

Common Garter Snake is the most common of the Michigan snakes and can be found almost anywhere from open fields to urban areas and back yards. They are a medium size snake of about 1-1.2 meters in length. They are coloured gray, green or brown with 3 yellow stripes on their back in a checkered pattern. The most noted feature is a red tongue with black tip. They have a light coloured pale belly. They feed on earthworms, small mammals, fish, frogs and toads. They are not known to bite and are non-venomous but do give off a nasty smelling secretion if handled or threatened.

Copper-Bellied Water Snake is one of the bigger snakes reaching an adult length of up to 1.5 meters. They are an extremely rare species with a very low population and are listed as an “endangered species” in Michigan and “nationally threatened species” with the US Fish and Wildlife Services. They feed on small reptiles and insect larvae and tadpoles. One interesting fact about this species is that they are one of 10 species of snake that do not lay eggs but give birth to living young.

Eastern Hog-Nosed Snake, as its name suggests looks a little different from regular snakes. It has a shorter but thicker or fatter body with an up-turned nose. They grow up to around 1 meter in length and contrary to public belief; they are not harmful to humans. When they are threatened they can puff up their neck and body with air and hiss loudly which makes them appear aggressive. They have also been named “puff adder” and “hissing viper” for their behavior. They can be found mostly in the western and northern lower peninsulas.

Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake is Michigan’s only venomous snake. They feed mainly on small rodents, crayfish and other small mammals that burrow in marshland areas. It has a thick body coloured with a dark rectangular pattern against a lighter brown or gray back. The underside is black or almost black in colour and it is also the only snake in Michigan to carry the segmented tail rattle. I notable feature is the vertical pupil in both eyes, similar o that of a cat. The head is a triangular shape which is very characteristic of the rattlesnake family. These snakes can grow up to almost 1 meter in length. They have short fangs and potent venom. Keep clear of these snakes if you encounter one.

Eastern Milk Snake is a slim snake with smooth scales. It has reddish or brown patches on a light gray or tan background color. These can be identified by a light “Y” or “V” shaped marking just behind the head. The belly is white with a black checkerboard pattern. They can grow to around 1.2 meters in length. They feed mainly on small rodents found around farm buildings. They may bite if threatened or handled but are non-venomous and harmless to humans.

There are two species of Fox Snake found in Michigan. The Eastern Fox snake prefers the marshlands and wet areas while the Western Fox Snake can be found around wooded areas and fields. They grow up to 1.5 meters in length so are a medium sized creature. They can be recognized by the pattern of dark brown blotches on a light brown or yellow back with a red or orange head. The underside is yellow. They feed on rodents, birds and frogs and will coil and strike of threatened but are non-venomous to humans.

Kirtland’s Snake is a small snake which grows up to 45 cm in length. It is found most often around swampy woodlands and wet meadows and feeds on earthworms and slugs. It stays underground most of the time. It can be recognized by its small reddish brown body with four rows and dark blotches down its back. It has a red or pink belly patterned with a row of black dots along each side. When threatened they will flatten their bodies. They rarely bite and are non-venomous and harmless to humans. These snakes are now listed as “endangered by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources.

Northern Ribbon Snake is a slim snake that can grow up to almost a meter in length. It has quite striking colours with a black or dark brown body adorned with bright yellow or white stripes running the length of its body and a distinctive black head and white scales around its mouth. These snakes live around marshlands, lakes and ponds and are good swimmers. They feed on small reptiles and fish mainly.

Northern Water Snake can grow up to 1.2 meters in length and is found along the shorelines of lakes, ponds and streams. They are a light brown or gray colour with dark bands and a white belly with crescent shaped markings. Some have been found with orange speckled bellies and have been confused with the Copper Bellied Water snake. They feed on frogs and fish and are good swimmers, often retreating to the safety of the water if threatened. They will bite if handled or cornered but are not venomous and are harmless to humans.

Queen Snake is a slim brown or gray snake with a light or yellow stripe on each side of its body. Three narrow black stripes may be visible on its back. The light colored belly has four dark coloured stripes along its length. These snakes can grow up to just under a meter in length. They can be found near streams or other shallow water where they feed mainly on Crayfish. They are harmless to humans.

Red-Bellied Snake are very small snakes and typically grow to no more than 40 cm in length. They are a slim snake with brown or gray body and red or orange unmarked belly and faint stripes down its back. They can be found in woods and fields or around rubbish dumps and feed mainly on slugs, snails and worms. They are not venomous. They are very common though all of Michigan.

Ring-Necked Snake is a shiny scaled snake with gray or black back, yellow belly and a yellow ring around its neck. They are small and grow to around a maximum 60 cm in length. They can be found around woodland areas and feed on worms, small snakes and small reptiles. They are generally rare to see. They are not venomous and are harmless to humans.

Smooth Green Snake is a small bright green snake with smooth scales and white or yellowish belly. They grow to a maximum of 0.5 meters in length. They are a gentle snake and can be found in grasslands where they blend in with their environment more easily. They feed mainly on insects and their dwindling numbers may be a result of insecticides in use. They can be handled and seldom bite but will leave a musky slim on their captor from anal secretions. They are non-venomous and harmless to humans.

What’s Best For Your Home? – 4 Types of Veranda Roof

There are many different veranda roof designs available on the market and people could be forgiven for thinking that buying a veranda roof is like selecting a product at the supermarket. However, with all of the variety available these days buyers should make sure to shop around in order to get the product that best matches their needs and saves them time and money.

Veranda roofs- The types and styles issue

Any architect will tell you that a veranda roof is a major design element. They are a big shape, often covering a large part of a house, and there are a few things to consider when picking styles:

  • Shape: The basic veranda roof types are curved, flat, gabled and covered. Modern ones are elegant things, and you can really produce a beautiful building design feature for your house.
  • Construction: Wood, steel, and other types of cover are ideal for some homes, but not necessarily right for others. This is very much a matter of taste, but practical concerns in terms of matching house construction needs must be considered.
  • Interior and exterior lines: The new roofs are big and beautiful and you’ll find you can tailor your roof to match other design features.
  • Coverage needs: The space to be covered is a primary concern, and it also gives you some options in terms of size and cost. You may actually find that a bigger veranda roof is a more cost effective option.
  • Light and heat issues: The Australian veranda’s main mission since European settlement has been to help protect the house from glare and heat. This is an important positive factor in the roof designs, and you can achieve a lot with a good solid light and heat shield roof.
  • Colours: The good news is you have a great choice available. Consider colour matches and contrasts on their merits, but you’ll definitely find what you want.

Types of veranda roofs- What’s available, and what’s possible

If you’re getting a bit of “information overload” from looking at designs, and still not sure if you can get what you want, the simple answer is to just ask. The roof manufacturers and suppliers are also builders and designers, and if what you want is doable, they’ll know how to do it.

Design issues

The veranda adds large covered spaces to houses which include a range of functions like entertainment areas, recreational areas, and a hybrid patio/outdoor living space. In effect the veranda extends the living area. When looking at a roof consider the space function as a multi-value effect on your home.

The modern veranda roof- big, tough, stylish and versatile

Modern veranda roofs are much bigger than their predecessors, structurally solid, and their range of uses has changed even the basic concept of a veranda. If you want a look at a full range of design options, check out a major Australian brand, Stratco, to see the benchmarks in modern style.

Causes and Treatment of Right Shoulder Pain

Pain in the right shoulder could be from several factors. If you have right shoulder pain, seek out your primary care provider for a diagnosis, and treatment options. Indications of right shoulder pain vary in relation to the exact spot where the injury or disease occurred.

Three joints and three bones make up the shoulder region: the humerus (upper arm), collarbone and scapula (shoulder blade). A group of muscles and related tendons called the rotator cuff, attach to the shoulder joint. In addition to the ligaments, tendons and muscles that surround the shoulder joint and bones, there are small fluid-filled sacs that give people smooth muscle movement. These sacs are called bursa.

Shoulder pain can be caused by any of these structures. Trauma, overuse, or infection can cause inflammation of the bursa or bursitis. A painful inflammation of the joints, widely known as arthritis, can be caused by osteoarthritis (depreciation). Arthritis can also be caused by a reaction from the body’s immune system that results in inflammation. Strains or sprains to the muscles and tendons around the rotator cuff are the cause of rotator cuff syndrome. A tear in the tendons can also be the cause of rotator cuff syndrome. An intense pain in the shoulder can also be caused by a break or dislocation.

Specifically to the right shoulder, there may be other reasons which are not linked to the shoulder itself could give rise pain to the right shoulder. Cited pain, or pain giving symptoms in different body region or organ, could come out as pain in the right shoulder part.An heated gallbladder or gallstones penetrating the canals could cause pain under the right shoulder blade. Liver disease or duodenal (small intestine) ulcer may also leads right shoulder pain.

If you get shoulder pain, you ought to look for assistance from a medical professional if home care remedies do not relieve the pain, if you have sustained an injury or if you have intense pain. To commence the assessment of the problem, a physical examination will be done.

The range of movement of arm and shoulder must be checked to find out if any certain position or motion causes any pain or to see if the shoulder is not able to move. The shoulder will be examined for areas of weakness, tenderness, deformity, or muscle wasting. Depending on physical exam determinations, more testing might be conducted.

A variety of diagnostic tests may be performed to assess the damage to the shoulder. X-rays can show fractures, breaks and other abnormalities of the bones in the shoulder. Imagining tests such as an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT (computerized tomography) scan allow doctors to see the soft tissues of the shoulder joint, as well as the bones. Nerve damage may be found through an electromyogram (EMG) test. Sometimes right shoulder pain is the result of referred pain. Doctors will check out other body systems as well.

After you have found the reason for your shoulder pain, you and your medical professional can discuss the appropriate treatment options. Pain that involved the shoulder itself will be addressed directly. Most often you will find that you can treat your shoulder pain with non-invasive treatment methods.

Non-surgical treatment comprises of rest from exasperating activities or use of a sling to sustain the shoulder; easy exercise or physiotherapy to improve muscle strength and flexibility; medications such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, to alleviate inflammation and pain; or even a corticosteroid injection into the painful region to lessen inflammation.

Surgery may be required to treat some conditions that manifest themselves through shoulder pain. Arthroscopic surgery is one type of procedure that is commonly used. This type of surgery uses very small incisions and tiny instruments to diagnose problems that may not be picked up through routine testing. There are other situations, however, in which conventional open surgery may be needed to end shoulder pain.

Applications Of A Mobile Crushing Bucket In The Quarrying Industry

Mobile crushing equipment has become increasingly popular in recent years in quarrying applications, offering a tremendous amount of flexibility. Although static crushing plant and equipment still continues to enjoy a key function in the quarrying industry, due to their ability to process high capacities, mobile crushing has distinct advantages over its static counterpart.

One option, which gives even more versatility for certain applications, is a crushing bucket to an excavator. These are hydraulically driven and can be easily attached to most excavators. Crushing buckets are typically perfect for crushing inert rock and waste materials directly on site, including rock, hardcore, stone, tile, concrete, glass and asphalt. This allows immediate on-site recycling and reuse of waste materials. They are ideal for a range of applications and are predominantly used in the mining, quarrying, construction, demolition, recycling and landscaping industries. There are multiple reasons to crush waste on site and some of the main reasons for doing so are listed below.

The main advantages of a crushing bucket are:

· It crushes materials directly on site

· Only one bucket is required to demolish, crush, recycle and load materials

· It reduces the use of mechanical pieces of equipment

· It solves the problem of having to dispose of demolition materials offsite

· It cuts down on time, transportation and manpower costs

· It is ideal for small and large worksites

· It allows materials to be recycled, resulting in significant savings

· It offers enhanced operator safety, reduced transport costs and quick installation and changeover

· It is much more versatile than traditional and cumbersome crushing plant

· It can be used to load materials directly to a truck, eliminating the use of another bucket needed with traditional crushers

A crushing bucket can compliment large mobile crushers on wheel by offering more flexibility. It is a useful and must-have piece of equipment for people who work in special locations such as quarries and mines, or at any worksite of a complex nature. The crushing bucket can be used as a complementary tool for primary crushing, and can easily be transported together with the operating excavator. Using the bucket, you can crush materials anywhere, from steep areas to worksites with extremely difficult conditions (marble quarries, gold mines). Crushed materials can be reused on site or loaded/even crushed directly onto trucks so that they can be hauled to other locations or delivered direct to customers, eliminating a loading stage in the crushing process.

Different Types of Japanese Dozers and Their Uses

Dozers are very commonly used construction machine in any kind of construction projects. Dozer is equipped with a blade attached to its front to push (doze) materials ahead. It is an effective and versatile construction machine for the construction site and construction machine team. In the site the dozers are generally used for pushing materials, land clearing, ripping, helping scrapers in loading, and towing other pieces of construction equipment. Like other construction machinery dozers are come up with different size and type to meet the various site requirements. Choosing the right size and type dozer is very important to get maximum productivity for the specific task.

Classification by size: Based on size dozers are classified as big dozers and small or mini dozers. Mini dozers are used in the garden for landscaping or place where the task is simple and light and do not need much power, traction and flotation. You can find good small dozers of HITACHI and other brand as well. Larger dozers are used for specialized jobs and require heavy power, traction and flotation. For example, KOMATSU D575A-3SD is the world biggest production and most powerful supper bulldozers built by Komatsu in Ishikawa, Japan. For bulldozing, bigger size or type is really better. The bigger dozer works more efficiently and more aggregate they can push. Their blades of bigger dozers are specially designed to provide good control over materials during shoving.

Classification by running gear: Technically dozers are classified on the basis of running gear.

1. Crawler type (track laying machines )

2. Wheel type.

1. Crawler type: In this type of dozer the undercarriage is track. They are designed for high tractive effort jobs. No other pieces of machine can provide the power, traction and flotation as the crawler type. It can easily operate on 45 ° steep slopes. The crawler type is effective on a variety of soils but fine sand increase running gear wear and give fast return speed, 8-26 mph. It can work over any terrain and this type is suitable for short travel distances. They can operate on soft ground and slick surface conditions. They can handle tight soils.

2. Wheel type: In this category of dozer, flotation increase due to greater contact area of wider tires. Higher speed in excess of 30 mph for some models can be achieved in wheel-type dozer which is a bit advantageous over crawler type. The wheel type is effective on firm and abrasive soils that have no sharp edge pieces and give slow return speed, 5-10 mph. For level and work in downhill and long travel distances this type is suitable. But the operation become slow or even stops on soft and slick surface conditions. They are found best to handle loose soils.

Engine: To power most dozers internal combustion engines are used. The most common primary power units are the diesel engines. Smaller or mini machines are equipped with gasoline engines. The large scale task like tunnel work electric and air-powered dozers are used.

Blades: A dozer blade has a moldboard with replaceable cutting edges and side bits. Blades vary in size and design based on specific job purposes.

Whether you’re buying or renting dozer, the right size and type for your particular task is very important. Some jobs might require a specific type of blade or fixed tractor power, so choosing the dozer often means determining which features are necessary for your particular task and in which type dozer satisfy the requirements and maximize the work productivity.

Bulldozer Tools and Its Functions

Bulldozer also known as the caterpillar tractor or a crawler tractor is heavy equipment with extensive metal plate or blade that is used for pushing large quantities of sand, soil and others during the operation and it is usually equipped at the back with a ripper to slacken off the compacted materials.


The very first bulldozer was adopted from the farm tractor that was utilized to p lough the fields. The versatility of this equipment in the squashy ground for road building and logging had led this tractor to become an armored tank during the First World War.

James Cumming and J. Earl McLeod complete the first design for bulldozer in 1923, and the imitation is present at Morrowville, Kansas City Park from where the two constructed the very first bulldozer.

Primary tools of Bulldozers

Blade – bulldozer blade is made by the heavy metals placed on the tractor front with the purpose of pushing the objects, shoving soils, sand and debris. For military utilization, dozer blade was rigid on the combat engineering vehicle that can also be fitted to other vehicles like artillery tractors.

Dozer blades could also be accumulated to the main battle tank which was utilized for clearing antitank obstacles and digging improvised shelters. The combat functions of dozer blades incorporate the clearing of the battlefield obstacle and the preparation for the fire positions.

Ripper -is a device at the rear of bulldozer which is elongated and claw-like in appearance. Rippers can be single shank or they can also be in a cluster of multi shank rippers. Single shank was commonly chosen in doing heavy ripping. Tungsten steel alloy tip which is replaceable is used in fitting the ripper shank.

Rocks that were ripped allow ground surface rocks to be broken to tiny rubble which are easy to hold and transport and can be detached so that grading will take place. The agricultural ripping allows very firm rocks like podzol hard-pan be wrecked so that lands that can not be ploughed may be farmed. Hard soil may be broken and ripped in order to permit planting to orchards wherein trees could not grow.

Bulldozers were modified to develop into new equipment that can function in some ways which the original bulldozers can not. As time passed, they become more sophisticated. Essential developments included drive trains similar to automatic transmission as a substitute to manual transmission, blades controlled by means of hydraulic cylinder instead of cable winch/brake and mechanical grade control. Hydraulic cylinders permits more exact manipulation of blades and also automated controls.

Stump buster, is a less regular attachment which is a sole spike that extends beyond horizontally and could be elevated to be taken out. It is used to divide a tree stump. Bulldozers with stump busters are utilized in land clearing operations and perhaps have brush-rake blades.

The best popular producer of bulldozers is possibly Caterpillar of U. S. A. that has earned its status by producing durable, tough and reliable machines. JCB, John Deere and Komatso are their competitors at present.

What Is the Nutritional Value of Sweet Potato?

The sweet potato is an incredibly popular vegetable that features on it’s own, and as part of other dishes in restaurants and homes all over the world. Have you ever wondered about what the nutritional value of sweet potatoes are though, I mean just how good for you are they? This article is going to explain to you in simple terms all of the sweet potato nutrition facts, that highlight just why this is spud is such a common choice for the dinner table.

Nutritional data

I am going to start off by putting all of the nutritional information surrounding the sweet potato in black and white for you, before going on to explain what it all really means. Statistics don’t necessarily mean the same thing to everybody.

The following sweet potato nutriton facts are based on one potato without the skin, weighing 151 grams.

Vitamin A – 23,769 IU

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) – 0.1 milligrams

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) – 0.1 milligrams

Vitamin B3 (Niacin) – 0.8 milligrams

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) – 0.9 milligrams

Vitamin B6 – 0.2 milligrams

Vitamin B9 (Folate) – 9.1 micrograms

Vitamin B12 – 0.0 micrograms

Vitamin C – 19.3 milligrams

Vitamin E – 1.4 milligrams

Vitamin K – 3.2 micrograms

Choline – 16.3 milligrams

Calcium – 40.8 milligrams

Copper – 0.1 milligrams

Iron – 1.1 milligrams

Magnesium – 27.2 milligrams

Manganese – 0.4 milligrams

Phosphorus – 48.3 milligrams

Potassium – 347 milligrams

Selenium – 0.3 micrograms

Sodium – 40.8 milligrams

Zinc – 0.3 milligrams

Protein – 2.1 g

Cholesterol – 0.0 milligrams

Dietary Fiber – 3.8 g

Carbohydrates – 26.8 g

Water – 121 g

Total fats – 0.2 g

Sugars – 8.7 g

So what do all of these nutritional statistics actually mean, which are positive, and which are negative?

The positive nutritional values of sweet potato

Let’s begin with the good news, as there is much more of this to talk about. The sweet potato is a natural food and therefore it is something that is loaded with vitamins and minerals. Some to a higher degree than others of course, but overall making a notable contribution to a great many of these that your diet requires on a regular basis.

Dietary fiber – Fiber is a fundamental part of the human diet, and the 3.8 grams you can get from just one boiled potato is 15% of the total you need in a whole day.

Vitamin A – They are simply an enormous source of vitamin A, a nutrient important to your health for various reasons such as the functionality of your eyes. You can get over four times the amount of vitamin A that you need in a day through just one sweet potato!

Vitamin C – Vitamin C is renowned for helping your immune system stay healthy, but it has many other roles in the body too. You can get around a third of the total vitamin C needed in a day with a single sweet spud.

Potassium – One of the most essential minerals that your body must have in order to perform a variety of processes. Potassium gives you energy, helps your muscles and regulates both your blood pressure and nervous system. A boiled sweet potato can provide you with 10% of the total potassium your need in a day.

Manganese – Another mineral that this vegetable is rich in is manganese. In fact 0.4 milligrams is 20% of your body’s daily requirement.

Being a natural plant food, the sweet potato contains no cholesterol, a low amount of sodium, and an incredibly low amount of fat. It is a great source of carbohydrates, which is where it’s calories come from, and also contains a moderate amount of sugar.

Calories in sweet potato

Something that may border on the positive and negative is the number of calories in a sweet potato, which for the example used on this page is 115. This may sound a lot for one potato, and it is 6 per cent of the total calories the average adult male should be consuming in a day, but when you look at all of the nutritional benefits this is a no brainer. The sweet potato offers too much in it’s nutritional goodness to overlook, for the sake of cutting out a few extra carbs and calories.


You are going to be hard pushed to find any reason to leave something as healthy as the sweet potato out of your diet. It is a versatile food that tastes delicious on it’s own as well as complimenting many main meals, and even being made into dishes such as the ever popular potato pie.

If you can overlook the calorie content, which really is not exactly all that bad, you will be greeted by a wealth of positives when it comes to what they can do for you.

I hope that this has been a sound explanation for all of those people looking to find out the answer to the common question, ‘what is the nutritional value of sweet potato?’. With bases covered you can do your health nothing but good by eating them.

An Easy Way to Grout Stone Cobbles

Stone cobbles are one of the most beautiful materials to use in paving. Done properly they have a European elegance and robustness which is hard to match.

Cobbles come in several types of material, including granite, porphyry and even concrete. They can be laid on a sand base if they are at least 60mm thick and grouted with gravel, sand, tar or mortar. For the best results though they should be glued onto a concrete slab and this article discusses this procedure.

Cobbles can be purchased either as individual stones or already glued in a pattern to a mesh backing. The mesh backing allows quicker laying although they are not always precise and, if glued to a steep concrete surface, the mesh inhibits good glue contact between the stone and the concrete and is not recommended for vehicle traffic. On level surfaces there is no problem with using the mats.

Once stones are glued, grouting can begin the following day. Grout can be a simple sand/cement mix with an oxide added for colour if desired or a premixed coloured grout. The premixed grout is more expensive but less labour-intensive and is more consistent in colour and hardness.

The Problem:

Traditionally grout is spread into the 10mm gaps using a rubber squeegee or by hand and cleaned with a sponge and water when the grout has partially cured. Over a large area such as a driveway this is a very slow and tedious process. Granite cobbles have a rough surface which is difficult to wipe clean and easily absorbs cement, which can leave stains. These can later be cleaned with hydrochloric acid but this requires considerable time and runs the risk of staining the grout.

Alternatively, the stone can be sealed before grouting with a good quality penetrating stone sealant. This will prevent staining. However, since the cobbles need to be clean and dry before sealing, on large job this is not always practical.

The Solution:

Faced with these problems, I was convinced that if I could use an extrusion method such as a large grouting gun to force mortar into the gaps I could cut the time on this part of the project significantly.

Some investigation revealed ‘The Pointmaster’, a very simple device consisting of a PVC cylinder with a replaceable, stainless steel nozzle and a hand plunger. The Pointmaster was designed primarily for pointing old brick work but it proved to be a magic tool for grouting cobble.

Using premixed mortar, fill the cylinder. Taking care to not spill any, place the nozzle in a gap and slowly squeeze grout out. It takes some practise (and a strong back) to get a smooth flow.

If you fill gaps to near the top then let the mortar set for about 3 hours. It can be smoothed down as low as you want to allow the stone to stand higher. For smoothing I use bolts of various sizes or even sticks. It’s a simple and rather satisfying process and produces and excellent result.


1.Don’t try to smooth the mortar too early or it will be slow and messy. Neither should you leave it set until the next day or it will be very difficult to work. What works best is if you grout in the morning, leave it to set and smooth in late afternoon.

2.While they are noisy and annoying, a leaf blower is the best thing for clearing gaps in the stone before grouting and for removing debris when the grout is smoothed down.

Happy grouting!