A Look at Understanding Structural Foundation Damage

If you live in a house that has large cracks in the walls or large cracks coming off of the corners of your doors and window openings, there’s a good chance that your house is suffering from structural foundation damage. What does it look like and what can we do about it?

The first thing that we need to do is understand how the structural foundation damage actually happened to your house. The major cause for structural foundation damage in most parts of the United States is going to be poor soil conditions and erosion.

If the soil isn’t compacted properly or the house was built on poor soil, there is a very good chance that the house will suffer eventually from foundation damage, however the extent of the damage won’t be known until it actually happens.

Now what can you do about the house that has large cracks on the interior and exterior walls? You can fix the walls, but if you don’t fix the foundation, you’re going to have more cracks in the future. You can’t fix the walls before you fix the building foundation damage.

It would take a lot more than this simple article to tell you everything that I know about structural foundation damage, but the one thing that I can tell you for sure, is to get it fixed as soon as possible, to prevent more damage to the rest of the house.

Even if you get books, read articles or watch movies on foundation repairs, it wouldn’t be a bad idea to contact a licensed professional to get their opinions. If you’re not going to hire the building foundation repair contractors, explain your situation to them and see if they can offer any advice or work out some sort of financial agreement, just in case you need their services.

Screw and Bolt Tips For the DIYer

Screws are a great invention; they secure things ten times better than nails and don’t need any impact to insert. However there are quite a few tips you may need to know on how to deal with screws. Now not being a DIY expert myself I have looked up ways of solving some of the problems you have when using screws.

* Quite often we want to get a screw out and it has rusted up. If you soak it overnight with some lemon juice by wrapping a lemon juice soak tissue, this will make it much easier to remove.

* If a screw is stuck no problem here’s a great trick to sort it out. Assuming the screw head is above the surface use a small hacksaw blade to cut a new groove

* You know those little bags of silica gel crystals you find in many electrical products packaging? Save them and put it in you screw boxes. Apparently it will keep them shiny.

* Another tip for rusty screws came up trying to remove it. Try using a soldering iron to heat the head of the screw. The heat will expand the metal and loosen the rust.

* Cola has a phosphoric acid content, which eats rust. So when you have a rusted screw dip it in some coke overnight and the rust will be gone.

* Yet another interesting, but successful tip for rusty bolts is the use of good old Tabasco sauce. Just squirt a small dose on the screw and make yourself a cup of tea. After which there shouldn’t be any problem unscrewing it.

Finally, a very useful tip for the storing screws using a jam jar with a metal screw top. Simply drill a hole in the top of the lid and screw it to the underside of a shelf of table. You now have a place to put the jar and its contents, what a space saver this is.

How to Choose the Right Arrows for Your Crossbow

Crossbow popularity is on the rise! With most US states allowing hunters to use crossbows, many have begun switching to these versatile weapons. When purchasing their first crossbow, most people opt for packages that include everything from the crossbow, scopes to broadheads. Eventually most will need to purchase additional accessories for the crossbow such as arrows which are the most important accessory.

An arrow is a shaft tipped with either a field point or broadhead on one end and a fletching and a nock on the other. Each arrow has a threaded end where you can screw the broadhead or field point in place. The wrong combination of field point or broadhead and bolt will surely result in inaccurate shots.

Types of arrows

Choosing the right crossbow bolts for your crossbow can be a challenging yet exciting task as it can be a bit technical. Finding the right one depends on the draw weight, the power stroke and brand of crossbow you are using. Most crossbow companies include minimum shaft length & weight in the package you have chosen to use with the crossbow. Using an arrow shorter or lighter than recommended by your manufacturer can result in a broken crossbow or worse, a rogue arrow.

Crossbow arrows come in either aluminum, carbon and an aluminum/carbon mix. Aluminum arrows can be a little less durable than carbon arrows as they tend to bend or break over time.

Arrow nocks are also important when choosing arrows. Crossbows are different and need either flat, moon, fill moon or capture nocks. You must keep this in mind when choosing arrows.

Arrow Length and Weight

As mentioned earlier, choosing the right length and weight of arrow is important. Choosing the wrong arrow can be a huge safety issue. Arrows come in different lengths ranging from 16 inches to 22 inches. You will need to refer to your crossbows user manual or the manufacturer.

Arrow Vanes

Vanes or fletching are the wings of your arrow and keep arrows flying straight. Without fletching, an arrow will not fly as far as and can’t deviate from its indented target. It is important that you take utmost care when handling, installing or removing fletching. If these become bent or broken you can bet you will not hit your target no matter how accurate you are.

Assembling Arrows

When assembling an arrow, remember to use the right amount of pressure, especially when inserting broadheads or fletching. Applying too much force when removing or installing the fletching can damage the integrity of the arrow. It is recommended to align the blades of your broadhead to the fletching as much as possible for maximum performance.

Using Large Batch Concrete Mixers For Large Jobs

When it comes to concrete and construction jobs, you need a great concrete mixer. Sometimes large jobs call for large batch concrete mixers. Construction is happening all over the place and these machines come in handy time and time again for construction companies, landscaping companies and even do-it-yourselfers.

For large construction projects, large batch concrete mixers are almost a must-have. You can’t complete the processes needed for mixing large quantities of concrete by hand or even with small portable mixers. You will need something bigger and stronger for these jobs. The good news is that there are many options out there for you; you just need to know what they are and how to best take advantage of them.

The first step is to understand the process of mixing concrete for large jobs. This isn’t the same as just doing a porch or patio at your home. There are actually many more important steps that go into large projects. It might sound easy but it needs to be carried out precisely to avoid very costly mistakes. This is how the process works: There are a few different types of concrete pours that require large volumes in order to complete the projects. These can be pre-stressed concrete which takes very thick metal wire and stretches it taut before the concrete is poured. Once the concrete has set, the wires are released and the concrete is compacted even tighter making it incredibly strong.

Concrete mixing is a complex process that must be done correctly if you want the batches of concrete to come out correctly. Large batch concrete mixers are those which are used on-site and considered stationary. They use volumetric measurements to decide how much concrete is going to be needed for each pour that is going to take place. This means the concrete is going to be mixed on site instead of in a concrete plant like for some other jobs. This will make it much easier for you to have the amount of concrete you need right where you need it. There is not going to be any waiting for the trucks to roll in with enough concrete to do the pour. This will ensure that you get the job done faster and more efficiently.

When using large batch concrete mixers for large jobs, be sure you know what you’re doing. If you rent or lease a machine, make sure it is operated by someone licensed and experienced in using these machines. If you don’t have anyone qualified for this, then it’s suggested to contact a contractor who can come out with their own machine and do the work for you.

Mistakes on these types of jobs can be very expensive so it’s important that you get it right the first time. It’s also important that everything is prepared beforehand for big jobs. Any chemicals that are needed will need to be on site and prepared before the pour begins. There won’t be time for going out for more supplies once the pour is started. Using large batch concrete mixers for large jobs like this require a lot of careful planning but when done correctly, it really pays off.

Concrete – How Concrete is Made and the History of Concrete

Concrete is the most widely used manmade product in the world. It powers a $35 billion industry, one of the largest on Earth. Concrete is used to make a variety of structures a which you use everyday.

Concrete is a construction material that consists of, in its most common form, cement, gravel and sand, and water. Concrete is the most highly used manmade product on Earth. It is used to make pavements, building structures, foundations, motorways/roads, overpasses, parking structures, brick/block walls and

footings for gates, fences and poles. Approximately six billion cubic metres of concrete are produced every year, which is one cubic metre per person on Earth! Concrete commands a $35 billion worldwide industry and employs, in the United States alone, 2 million people.

The origins of concrete can be traced back to the Babylonians, who used a clay-mix similar to concrete. However, the modern-day form of concrete was not invented till 1756, when British engineer John Smeaton pioneered the use of cement in concrete. His ingredients included pebbles and powdered brick as

aggregate. Nowadays, recycled materials are becoming increasingly more popular as ingredients in concrete due to higher public awareness about ecological sustainability and environmental damage.

The composition of concrete is traditionally relatively simple. However, modern concrete is often a complicated mix, ensuring durability and longevity. Cement is the main ingredient in concrete. Portland cement is the most common cement in circulation, which is just a basic mix of mortar and plaster.

Water is another ingredient in the manufacture of concrete. The w/c ratio (mass ratio of water to cement) is the key factor that determines the strength of Concrete. A lower w/c ratio will yield a concrete which is stronger, while a higher w/c ratio yields a concrete with a lower strength. Water also affects the workability and consistency of a concrete.This water and cement paste hardens over time, and both fine and coarse aggregates are added to provide bulk. Widely used aggregates include sand, gravel and crushed stone. Decorative stones such as, small river stones or crushed glass are sometimes added to the surface of concrete for a decorative “exposed aggregate” finish, popular among landscape designers.

Ad mixtures are also added to a concrete mix to give it certain characteristics not obtainable by basic production. Admixtures come in powder or paste form and generally consist of no more than 5% of the entire mixture.Concrete has many characteristics including:

Workability – ability to mould to certain shapes

Curing – keeping concrete under certain conditions till it hydrates

Strength – high compressive strength, low tensile strength

Elasticity – relatively low

Expansion and shrinkage – provisions must be made for both

Cracking – abnormal drying rate will result in cracks

Creep – the permanent movement of a slab of concrete

Concrete is used for many structures. Mass concrete structures are structures built with one, giant concrete slab so that there are no weak points, such as dams or shelters. Reinforced concrete structures have bars of steel running through the concrete to ensure strength and stability. Pre stressed concrete

structures have a predetermined stress level which will never be exceeded, as they will only carry their own weight. Concrete is an amazingly versatile material. Whether you are building some of the largest structures in the world or a small pathway, the evolution and discovery of concrete has changed our world

Selecting a Radiator – What You Need to Know About Materials

Your radiator is essential to the health of your drive train. Engines and transmissions both rely on radiators to operate at the correct temperature. If they run to hot, serious damage can occur. If they run too cool, your engine won’t be able to get optimal gas mileage and may develop other less common problems. Because of this, it makes sense to purchase a high quality radiator that uses the best core and tank materials possible. What are the best materials? That’s the focus of this article. We’ll examine the recent history of radiator materials, and then explain the benefits – and drawbacks – of modern manufacturing materials.

In the past, radiators were constructed primarily of brass and copper. These radiators were not as strong as modern radiators, nor did they cool as well as modern radiators. Their main benefit is that they are easier to repair than the recently manufactured radiators. This might sound like a major benefit, but any time you repair a radiator, you reduce its ability to cool. Most reputable mechanics would recommend that any time your radiator needs repair that you replace it. The cost difference isn’t great unless you’re repairing the radiator yourself, and your chances of having to make the repair again in the future are mineralized. When costs and benefits are weighed out, replacing a radiator is better than repairing the old radiator.

New radiators, from reputable manufacturers, use aluminum cores. Aluminum radiates heat much better than brass or copper and thus does a better job of cooling. Many times aluminum does such a better job that the number of rows in a core can be reduced with the aluminum core radiator still doing a better job cooling. For example, an application that in the past may have called for 3 rows of copper tubing might only call for 2 rows of aluminum cooling. Vehicle owners benefit from this with weight reduction. 3 rows of aluminum would always be lighter than 3 rows of copper or brass. Reduce the number of rows, and you have some serious weight reduction!

Tank material has primarily switched to plastic. This is both a weight and a cost issue. The thick plastic tanks are every bit as strong as the old copper or brass tanks in regards to holding pressure. Aluminum tanks are also available at an increased cost for many vehicles. Plastic will do the job for most applications; aluminum more than does the job. To be honest, for most applications aluminum is an aesthetic consideration only.

Regardless of core and tank material, production methods and quality control have to be considered. You’re not going to get a tour of the factory where your radiator is made – that’s just the way things are. One thing that indicates the quality of your radiator is the warranty. Quality radiators will come with an excellent warranty, no ifs ands or butts. So how long is an excellent warranty? There are plenty of manufacturers offering 90 day or 1 year warranties. The best radiators come with a lifetime limited warranty. Keep in mind that you should always make sure to keep your radiator fluid at the correct levels and keep good clean fluid in the radiator. No reputable company will warranty abuse, but all reputable companies will warranty their workmanship. So buy a quality radiator made from quality components!

Guide to HO Scale Model Railroad Trains 4 x 8 Foot Benchwork

Building bench-work for the first time for your model railroad is an exciting moment! To create a good first layout for HO scale model trains, a great way to start is with a basic plan for 4 x 8 foot bench-work. You are essentially building a table from a piece of plywood and will construct your exciting new layout on that. Below are some instructions for building a good, solid bench-work for your layout, starting with a materials list and moving into instructions.

The materials you will use include the following:

1 4 x 8 sheet of plywood (a good size for HO scale model trains; use 5/8 inch B-C grade plywood)

3 1×4 x8′ (for edge supports)

4 1×4 x8′ ripped into 1×2 stock (for 5 joists, plus bracing)

1 1×4 x10′ ripped into 1×2 stock (for bracing between legs)

1 2×4 x8′ ripped into 2×2 stock (this is for the table legs and is enough for a max height of 48 in)

1 box (100) 1-3/4″ dry wall screws (will use 72 of these)

8 1/4×3″ carriage bolts (for bolting on the table legs)

8 ¼” washers (for table legs)

8 ¼-20 nuts (for table legs)

1 pint yellow carpenter’s glue (not white, use yellow since it is waterproof)

The tools you will use include the following:

2 saw horses (optional)

1 saw (Almost anything will work – a saber saw or “Skil” saw or table saw or hand cross-cut saw. If buying a first saw, a saber saw will probably be most useful in future model railroad endeavors.)

1 3/8″ reversible electric drill

1 bit to fit drywall screws

1 5/16″ drill bit (for carriage bolts)

1 1/8″ drill bit for pilot holes

1 adjustable crescent wrench or open or closed end wrench to fit nuts

1 carpenter’s square

You’ll start with the tabletop, a 4 x 8 sheet of plywood. This is a good size for HO scale model trains, because it allows space for a track layout a bit more interesting than a mere oval or circle. You only need one good side on the plywood, and while that does need to be fairly smooth, it doesn’t have to be grade-A perfect, since you’ll be covering it up with track, accessories, scenery and other details. So go with the B grade for the good side, it’s less expensive than A.

This large sheet of plywood is rather floppy on its own, so it needs support to stiffen it before you set up a model railroad on it. The first step is a frame around the outer edge. Build the frame first, and then screw the plywood to it. Take two 8 foot lengths of 1×4 and two 3′ 10-1/2″ lengths. You will want to screw and glue them together, because nails tend to work themselves loose with the vibrations of the model railroad and the occasional jostling of the table.

Prepare the end of an 8′ side piece by drilling two pilot holes where screws will go into the shorter end pieces. Don’t make the holes too big. They should be just large enough to pass each screw. Prepare the end of one of the 3′ 10-1/2″ end pieces by rubbing yellow carpenter’s glue into the end grain until it’s fairly well-saturated. Then run an additional bead of glue along it. Press onto end of 8′ piece and screw together using pilot holes. Repeat at each of the four corners. Allow to dry.

Now, take the sheet of plywood and screw it onto the frame, good side up (B side up, C side should be touching the frame). Do not glue the plywood to the frame, as you may need to remove it from the frame later to build a lake or adjust the levels of your track.

You can drill this together in two ways; you can use a “pilot drill” and No 8 x 1-3/4 in flathead wood screws. Or you can use drywall screws with regular drill and drywall screw bit. With drywall screws, they are self-tapping, meaning you will not need to predrill any holes except if you are at the end of a piece of lumber and trying to avoid splitting.

Now the plywood has been stiffened on the edges and you are ready to add joists to firm up the middle. Turn the apparatus over so it is frame-side up. Take five 1 x2’s the same length as the short end pieces (3′ 10-1/2″) and screw them at intervals to the side pieces of the frame in such a way that they bear up against the plywood. Do not screw them to the plywood tabletop.

Now you are ready for the legs and bracing. You need to decide on the height you want your layout to be, whatever seems appropriate for HO scale model trains. For ease of viewing those lifelike details on the model railroad, it’s common to make the display height fairly tall, just below eye level. I’ve seen recommendations ranging from 42 to 56 inches. (For comparison, most writing desks or dining tables are around 28 to 31 inches.) If your viewing audience includes children, consider a lower height, such as 30 inches. Also consider ease of working on the center part of the scenery and track.

Cut four 2 x 2’s to your chosen height. Contrary to what you might think, the legs should not be mounted at the corners of the plywood. You will have a much sturdier table with less flex in the middle if you mount the legs 20% inward on each end. For an 8 foot long table, this means mounting the legs 19″ from each end, measured along the long side.

Turn the table upside down (frame side up). Drill one 5/16″ hole all the way through the side piece of the frame and into a leg. Leg should be flush with the plywood, and hole should be about ¾ to 1″ up from the plywood. Stick a carriage bolt through from the frame side. Using fingers, tighten down a washer and nut onto the inside of the leg where the carriage bolt is sticking out. Now check that the leg is at right angles, using a carpenter’s square and carefully drill a second hole to keep it there.

The second hole should be ¾ to 1″ from the other edge of the frame (the edge temporarily facing up) and you will add another bolt-washer-nut. Now use a wrench to tighten both nuts down solidly. Repeat the process for the other three legs. You really want to be sure to use the square to measure in both plains that all four legs are perpendicular.

Now you could stop here, but even so the table would be a bit wobbly, and you don’t want that when you are setting up your model railroad. For maximum stability, you will need to install additional bracing. At each of the shorter ends, use “X” bracing. Take two 1 x 2’s and fasten them as close to the floor as possible on one end and as close to the table as possible at the other (this makes four braces in all).

Then you will want to install double bracing on the long sides. Attach a 1 x 2 as close to the floor as possible and run it to the other end of the table. Attach another 1 x 2 as close to the floor as possible and attach it to a point towards the middle of the table (this makes eight braces in all). This bracing may seem unsightly, but it is worth it. You can hang cloth curtains from the edge of the finished table to hide it, if you like.

Finally, if your floor is not level and even, you can make the legs adjustable. Drill a 5/16″ pilot hole into the bottom (the end) of each leg in the center. Hammer in a ¼” T-nut. Now thread on a ¾” bolt. This makes each leg independently adjustable to compensate for the unevenness in the floor.

Congratulations! The fine new bench-work for your model railroad is now complete! Turn the table over and you have a solid and sturdy platform on which to enjoy constructing your new layout for HO scale model trains.

Aircraft Structural Components

The major aircraft structures are wings, fuselage, and empennage. The primary flight control surfaces, located on the wings and empennage, are ailerons, elevators, and rudder. These parts are connected by seams, called joints.

All joints constructed using rivets, bolts, or special fasteners are lap joints. Fasteners cannot be used on joints in which the materials to be joined do not overlap – for example, butt, tee and edge joints. A fayed edge is a type of lap joint made when two metal surfaces are butted up against one another in such a way as to overlap.

Internal aircraft parts are manufactured in four ways: Milling, stamping, bending, and extruding. The metal of a milled part is transformed from cast to wrought by first shaping and then either chemically etching or grinding it. A stamped part is annealed, placed in a forming press, and then re-heat treated.

Bent parts are made by sheet metal mechanics using the bend allowance and layout procedures. An extrusion is an aircraft part which is formed by forcing metal through a preshaped die. The resulting wrought forms are used as spars, stringers, longerons, or channels. In order for metal to be extruded, bent, or formed, it must first be made malleable and ductile by annealing. After the forming operation, the metal is re-heat treated and age hardened.

Airbus Wings

Here in the UK and in particular at the Airbus facility in North Wales, our expertise is in the manufacture of aircraft wings. Aircraft wings have to be strong enough to withstand the positive forces of flight as well as the negative forces of landing. Metal wings are of two types: Semicantilever and full cantilever. Semicantilever, or braced, wings are used on light aircraft. They are externally supported by struts or flying wires which connect the wing spar to the fuselage. A full cantilever wing is usually made of stronger metal. It requires no external bracing or support. The skin carries part of the wing stress. Parts common to both wing designs are spars, compression ribs, former ribs, stringers, stress plates, gussets. wing tips and wing skins.

Airbus at Broughton employs more than 5,000 people, mostly in manufacturing, but also in engineering and support functions such as procurement and finance.

Wing Spars

Two or more spars are used in the construction of a wing. They carry the main longitudinal -butt to tip – load of the wing. Both the spar and a compression rib connect the wing to the fuselage.

Compression Ribs

Compression ribs carry the main load in the direction of flight, from leading edge to trailing edge. On some aircraft the compression rib is a structural piece of tubing separating two main spars. The main function of the compression rib is to absorb the force applied to the spar when the aircraft is in flight.

Former Ribs

A former rib, which is made from light metal, attaches to the stringers and wing skins to give the wing its aerodynamic shape. Former ribs can be classified as nose ribs, trailing edge ribs, and mid ribs running fore and aft between the front and rear spar on the wing. Formers are not considered primary structural members.


Stringers are made of thin sheets of preformed extruded or hand-formed aluminum alloy. They run front to back along the fuselage and from wing butt to wing tip. Riveting the wing skin to both the stringer and the ribs gives the wing additional strength.

Stress Plates

Stress plates are used on wings to support the weight of the fuel tank. Some stress plates are made of thick metal and some are of thin metal corrugated for strength. Stress plates are usually held in place by long rows of machine screws, with self-locking nuts, that thread into specially mounted channels. The stress-plate channeling is riveted to the spars and compression ribs.


Gussets, or gusset plates, are used on aircraft to join and reinforce intersecting structural members. Gussets are used to transfer stresses from one member to another at the point where the members join.

Wing Tips

The wing tip, the outboard end of the wing, has two purposes: To aerodynamically smooth out the wing tip air flow and to give the wing a finished look.

Wing Skins

Wing skins cover the internal parts and provide for a smooth air flow over the surface of the wing. On full cantilever wings, the skins carry stress. However, all wing skins are to be treated as primary structures whether they are on braced or full cantilever surfaces.

Fuselage Assemblies.

The largest of the aircraft structural components, there are two types of metal aircraft fuselages: Full monocoque and semimonocoque. The full monocoque fuselage has fewer internal parts and a more highly stressed skin than the semimonocoque fuselage, which uses internal bracing to obtain its strength.

The full monocoque fuselage is generally used on smaller aircraft, because the stressed skin eliminates the need for stringers, former rings, and other types of internal bracing, thus lightening the aircraft structure.

The semimonocoque fuselage derives its strength from the following internal parts: Bulkheads, longerons, keel beams, drag struts, body supports, former rings, and stringers.


A bulkhead is a structural partition, usually located in the fuselage, which normally runs perpendicular to the keel beam or longerons. A few examples of bulkhead locations are where the wing spars connect into the fuselage, where the cabin pressurization domes are secured to the fuselage structure, and at cockpit passenger or cargo entry doors.

Longerons And Keel Beams

Longerons and keel beams perform the same function in an aircraft fuselage. They both carry the bulk of the load traveling fore and aft. The keel beam and longerons, the strongest sections of the airframe, tie its weight to other aircraft parts, such as powerplants, fuel cells, and the landing gears.

Drag Struts And Other Fittings

Drag struts and body support fittings are other primary structural members. Drag struts are used on large jet aircraft to tie the wing to the fuselage center section. Body support fittings are used to support the structures which make up bulkhead or floor truss sections.

Former rings and fuselage stringers are not primary structural members. Former rings are used to give shape to the fuselage. Fuselage stringers running fore and aft are used to tie in the bulkheads and

former rings.

Aircraft Empennage Section

The empennage is the tail section of an aircraft. It consists of a horizontal stabilizer, elevator, vertical stabilizer and rudder. The conventional empennage section contains the same kind of parts used in the construction of a wing. The internal parts of the stabilizers and their flight controls are made with spars, ribs, stringers and skins.

Also, tail sections, like wings, can be externally or internally braced.

Horizontal Stabilizer And Elevator

The horizontal stabilizer is connected to a primary control surface, i.e., the elevator. The elevator causes the nose of the aircraft to pitch up or down. Together, the horizontal stabilizer and elevator provide stability about the horizontal axis of the aircraft. On some aircraft the horizontal stabilizer is made movable by a screw jack assembly which allows the pilot to trim the aircraft during flight.

Vertical Stabilizer And Rudder

The vertical stabilizer is connected to the aft end of the fuselage and gives the aircraft stability about the vertical axis. Connected to the vertical stabilizer is the rudder, the purpose of which is to turn the aircraft about its vertical axis.


Elevators and rudders are primary flight controls in the tail section. Ailerons are primary flight controls connected to the wings. Located on the outboard portion of the wing, they allow the aircraft to turn about the longitudinal axis.

When the right aileron is moved upward, the left one goes down, thus causing the aircraft to roll to the right. Because this action creates a tremendous force, the ailerons must be constructed in such a way as to withstand it.

Flight controls other than the three primary ones are needed on high-performance aircraft. On the wings of a wide-body jet, for example, there are as many as thirteen flight controls, including high and low-speed ailerons, flaps, and spoilers.

Flaps And Spoilers

Wing flaps increase the lift for take-off and landing. Inboard and outboard flaps, on the trailing edge of the wing, travel from full up, which is neutral aerodynamic flow position, to full down, causing air to pile up and create lift. Leading edge flaps – Krueger flaps and variable-camber flaps – increase the wing chord size and thus allow the aircraft to take off or land on a shorter runway. Spoilers, located in the center section span-wise, serve two purposes. They assist the high-speed ailerons in turning the aircraft during flight, and they are used to kill the aerodynamic lift during landing by spreading open on touchdown.

Trim Tabs

Connected to the primary flight controls are devices called trim tabs. They are used to make fine adjustments to the flight path of an aircraft. Trim tabs are constructed like wings or ailerons, but are

considerably smaller.

Adhesive Failure – How to Break the Bond of Different Adhesives

If you are facing the task of separating an object that has been previously glued together, it is important to know that adhesives have certain characteristics that make them adhere and also fail. Technically speaking, adhesives cause bond between substrates, therefore what you are trying to do is make the adhesive fail to break that bond.

First thing you need to do is find out what kind of adhesive you are dealing with. If it is a silicone based adhesive
– commonly used for caulking- you are in luck because it is one of the easiest adhesives to get to fail. Just apply some heat to it and then you can peel it off. Try using a hair dryer.

If you are dealing with a stronger adhesive like cyanoacrylate, better known as crazy glue, try using some acetone which is the main ingredient in nail polish remover- make sure you are in a well ventilated area otherwise the fumes will get to you, so open the windows and let some air in. If you just spilled the glue, pour some water on it. It will cause the glue to cure and solidify. Then you can use some tool and scrape it off. Do not use paper towels to wipe it this could cause fumes, believe me this is something you do not want to happen, cyanoacrylate fumes are irritating. Porous surfaces are more difficult to remove glue from so it might take you longer to get the glue to fail.

To remove epoxy glue, use some acetone and follow the precautions previously mentioned. Let the acetone sit for a few minutes, this will cause the epoxy glue to soften making it easier to remove. Proceed to scrape it off with a tool.

Learning what type of glue you are dealing with and with some patience you should be able to remove that stubborn glue with out a problem. Always keep in mind the surface that you are working on and how delicate it is to avoid permanent damage while trying to remove the glue.

Pros and Cons of a Career in Architecture


You can do what you love

Architecture is a passion. Becoming an architect is for people who can’t imagine doing anything else. If you are a perfectionist and love being creative, architecture might be for you. You also get to make real, tangible things, which is very satisfying. You get to express yourself through your job and implement your vision.

You do lots of different stuff

You will never be bored as an architect. Projects are complex, and you will be doing all sorts of tasks. Also, the field of architecture is always changing. Trends and technologies constantly evolve. You will have to do some professional development to stay current, but that means you’ll always be learning.

Architecture matters

You’re making a difference with architecture. You may not be curing cancer, but you’re giving the people safe, healthy places to live and work in. What you do also counts because you are responsible for your buildings to be safe. Yes it’s a lot of pressure, but isn’t that the case with all things that are worth doing?


Becoming an architect takes a lot of effort

It takes a long time to become an architect. The training period is similar to other professions like law and medicine. At minimum it will take eight years to get your license in the United States. First, you will need to get an accredited degree in architecture, which is either a 5-year Bachelor of Architecture or a 2- to 3- year Master of Architecture. Then you must complete a program known as IDP (Intern Development Program). This will take at least 3 additional years to finish. During this time you will be working in an architecture office and getting professional experience. You also must pass the ARE (Architect Registration Exam). This is a 7-part exam that tests your proficiency as an architect. After you do all this, you are finally an architect!

Hours and Pay

An architect’s salary isn’t bad, but if you compare it to professions with similar training and licensing requirements, its much less. According to Salary.com, the median income for architects is $42,000 to $113,000 depending on experience. Expect long hours and lots of stress. This is a deadline-driven profession.

Times are hard when the economy is down

Architecture and construction are dependent on the economy. When the economy is good, architecture is a lucrative profession. Businesses are growing, and families are improving their homes. This means tons of new projects for architect. When the economy is bad, opportunities disappear, and many architects find themselves without work.

Why Do My Heels Hurt? The Answers And Simple Solution

Doc, why do my heels hurt? I hear this question at least once a day in my office. When I think about it I wonder why I don’t hear this complaint more often than I do. It is estimated that the normal person takes 1 million steps per year. With each step, each foot is required to hold one to one and a half times body weight. When you run you put two to five times body weight on each foot. Then when you add the force of impact the load sky rockets. So it is really amazing how much stress is put on the heels and how well they hold up under all this stress. The short answer to Why do my heels hurt? is inflammation. Heel pain is usually due to inflammation where the plantar fascia attaches to the heel. As with all inflammation the proper initial treatment is rest to allow healing and then correct the problem to prevent it from happening again. However for most people this simply is not practical. You need to walk around. You just can’t put your feet up for a few days. Who among us in our busy lives can take a couple of days off our feet. Even if we could rest for a few days if the problem that caused the pain is not corrected, the pain will return. The key is to correct the problem. In order to correct the problem we have to know the cause.

Causes of Heel Pain

While it is possible to bruise the fat pad of the heel by stepping on a stone, this is not the kind of heel pain I typically see in the office. The (why do my heels hurt?) type of heel pain I see in the office is usually from a condition called plantar fasciitis (plant-tar-fass-she-eye-tis). The heel pain from plantar fasciitis is usually worse in the first few steps in the morning and also when you get up and take those first few steps after sitting for a while. In the early stages, the pain subsides as you walk for a while and everything gets stretched out. However as the condition progresses the pain lasts all day long and may get worse throughout the day.

The plantar fascia is a band of fiber tissue that connects the heel to the bones of the toes. The plantar fascia acts like a spring and it is the tension in the plantar fascia that creates the arch of your foot. As you take a step, the plantar fascia stretches out a bit to allow the arch to flatten out and allow the foot to pronate (rotate toward the floor) This action of pronation allows the bones of the mid- foot to unlock. The loose, unlocked bones of the mid-foot allow the foot to adapt to uneven surfaces. The spring action of the plantar fascia also allows the foot to act as a shock absorber. At the end of the step the plantar fascia helps reverse the process. As the weight is transferred from the mid-foot to the fore-foot the plantar fascia tightens up again and allows the foot to supinate (rotate away from the floor). Supination relocks the bones of the foot and the foot becomes rigid so it can push-off from the floor and propel you forward.

The pain associated with plantar fasciitis comes from inflammation where the plantar fascia attaches to the bottom of the heel. This area of attachment becomes inflamed if the foot over-pronates and stretches out the plantar fascia too much. The over-stretching causes the plantar fascia pulls away from the bone. The body protects itself by building-up the bone where the plantar fascia attaches to the heel. The resulting build-up of bone is called a heel spur. On x-ray the heel spur looks like a hook shaped piece of bone coming out of the heel. However the heel-spur itself is not what is causing the, why do my heels hurt, type of pain. The heel pain comes from the inflammation of the fascia where it attaches to the bone.

Another cause of heel pain is at the site of attachment of the Achilles tendon to the back of the heel. The pain from this condition is bursitis. Bursitis is inflammation of the bursa. A bursa is a pillow-like sac of fluid that is found anywhere a tendon comes in contact with or curves around bone. The bursa acts like a cushion to protect both the tendon and the bone. Too much pressure or friction on the bursa causes the bursa sac to become inflamed and painful. Thus bursitis is usually the result of over-use and this type of pain in the back of the heel known in medical terms as retrocalcaneal bursitis (retro means behind, the calcaneus is the medical term for the heel bone). Usually this is caused by excessive running but can also be caused by the shoe being too tight and putting too much pressure and friction on the area.

The Solution To Heel Pain

Now that you know the answer to, why do my heels hurt, the next question you may ask is What can I do about it? The treatment for these conditions is usually relatively simple and straightforward, seldom requires surgery and may not even require a visit to the doctor.

Since the cause of plantar fasciitis is usually due to over pronation and excessive stretching of the plantar fascia the treatment is to limit the amount of pronation and stretching. This is most easily accomplished through the use of a simple arch support. However the arch support must do precisely that, support the arch. Some people use the term arch support to refer to the cushions you can but over-the-counter in the drug store but this is not what you need. The over-the-counter arch supports seldom provide enough support to correct the problem of over-pronation. An arch support with the rigidity to support the arch must be custom fit to the contour of the foot or it will cause pain. That is why the over-the-counter arch supports are soft. If they are soft they do not need to match the exact contour of the foot. However if they are soft they will also not support the foot. Therefore the proper treatment requires a custom arch support. Fortunately custom arch supports no longer have to cost an arm and a leg. New technology allows custom arch supports to be made that are only slightly more than what you would pay over-the-counter.

The pain from retrocalcaneal bursitis (pain behind the heel) is treated by rest, anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen and a simple heel insert that lifts up the heel slightly to put a little bit of slack in the Achilles tendon and allow the inflammation to subside. However if a heel insert is put in one shoe it is important to also put the same size insert in the other shoe to balance the leg lengths.

Pain in the heel is your body’s way of telling you that something is wrong with your foot biomechanics. If you have a problem with your foot biomechanics you could also have a problem with knee, hip and low-back biomechanics. If you ask yourself, why do my heels hurt, then it is important to have this condition diagnosed and corrected as quickly as possible.

How To Use Construction Mortgage Loans To Finance A New Home Building Project

Construction mortgage loans are a short term loan that finances the cost of constructing a new building. Once the building is completed the construction loan is paid off. Construction loans are meant to cover only the cost of building a new building. The loan is paid off once building is finished. The construction is usually paid from the proceeds of a conventional mortgage loan.

Usually you only pay interest during the construction phase. When the construction is completed the balance of the loan is due. A certificate of occupancy will then be issued. A certificate of occupancy is issued by the local government. It certifies that the building meets all the building and zoning laws and is ready to be occupied.

When building a new home the loan is usually part of a construction-to-permanent financing program. With these the loan automatically turns into a mortgage loan once the certificate of occupancy is issued. With construction-to-permanent financing there is only one application and one closing.

Construction loans typically have a variable rate of interest. The interest rate is often tied to the prime rate or a similar short term interest rate. During construction you will only have to make interest payments. If you already own the land that the building is going to be built on then you can use the land as equity on the loan.

If you currently own a home that you are selling you can use a bridge loan to raise the funds for a down payment on your new home. A bridge loan is a temporary loan. A bridge loan bridges the gap between the price of your new home and your new mortgage in case your current home has not sold yet. Your existing home is used to secure the bridge loan.

When you take out a construction loan you and the builder will agree to a draw schedule. The draw schedule is the schedule of payments that the builder will receive. The draw schedule will be based on the different phases of the building process.

Construction mortgage loans makes the building of new homes possible. Without them there would not be sufficient capital to finance new development. These loans are the mechanism that keeps the building industry viable. If you need a loan consult with your banker and your construction company to come up with a loan plan for your project.

Traffic Building – Strategies to Increase Blog Traffic

The blogosphere has emerged as a huge and potent virtual world with an ever expanding number of blogs. According to recent statistics the numbers have exceeded 100 million. There are some fundamental rules that can be easily implemented to increase blog traffic.

These tips are helpful even for starters and also for experienced pros. Firstly, the topic should be something which is interesting and off-beat. It should be regularly updated and modified. Ensure that the content is relevant and written in a compact manner.

Many times we have questions in our minds for which we struggle to find proper satisfactory answers. Writing blogs on such topics after doing proper research is really worth the effort and can immensely help to increase blog traffic.

Secondly, you have to get properly noticed and get in the good books of the popular search engines like Google, Yahoo, MSN, Ask, etc. Submit the URL of your blog to these engines to enable the search spiders to crawl over your content. Mere submission does not ensure that you will come in Google’s top ranking, but sustained effort and following Google-friendly strategies will pay in the long run.

Thirdly, linking and reciprocal linking is a very important strategy to increase blog traffic. Be generous about providing outward links and also provide trackbacks as they help you to get in touch with other bloggers in your domain of knowledge. Readers from other blog sites also come to your link. The search engines also consider this strategy to be very positive.

Finally, give opportunity for others to post comments on your blog and also respond to them. Place comments on other people’s blogs and also provide your link in that comment which would act as a link back to your own blog site. Try to make that comment as genuine and insightful as possible. People would click on your link out of curiosity if your comments show resourcefulness and are interesting.

Having a Clean House Keeps Mice Away

It has been said that cleanliness is next to godliness. Well, while that is true, it will also keep mice infestations from happening for the most part. Having a dirty house with food left out is sure to attract rodents and once they get a foothold, it is hard to get rid of them except by using an exterminator. You need to make sure that your house is clean and that food is disposed of properly. A dirty house is an invitation for rodents to make themselves at home. This also goes for those that hoard things. Make sure that cooked food is always put up, the the trash is closed off and the all food is wiped off of containers. This is extremely important in keeping rodents away from your home. Don’t give them anything to eat!

Mice love hiding in quiet and soft places and can do serious damage to a home as well as someone’s health. If you hoard things, you may have no idea that you have a rodent infestation and may not find out until a rodent bites you. This is not the way you want to find out that you have a rodent infestation. They carry nasty diseases and germs. You need to be very careful in how and what you store in your home. The same holds true for leaving trash in the house and being careless with food. Rodents are always looking for something to eat and if you have a nasty house for any reason, they can consider that as you putting out a welcome mat for them. Do you really want to have rodents as roommates?

Keeping a clean house is one way to keep mice at a minimum. While this cannot be stated enough, you need to understand that if you don’t, you are asking for trouble. While a clean house can still get rodents, a dirty house will have an infestation so bad, that you may need to go back to the beginning and start all over again. Is it worth it to keep a dirty house? The answer is no it isn’t. You don’t want rodents infesting your house. They are hard to get rid of once infestation starts, so keep a clean house and dispose of food properly.

In conclusion, everyone is entitled to keep their homes the way they like, but we hope that you choose to keep your hoe neat and clean to keep the rodents at bay.

Flower Shop Logo Design – Ideas for Florist Logos

If you are thinking about going into business as a florist then you absolutely must have a great looking logo design for your flower shop. A logo design will help you to enhance your professional image, make a great impression on prospective customers and help you to build a reputable brand in the long term.

An original and appealing logo will also help you to stand out in a competitive market. It is possible that a certain design could even entice people to buy flowers just by seeing it, even if they had no intention of buying them just a few minutes earlier.

Here are some thoughts on florist logos to give you some ideas on how to brief your designer before they start working on your project.

Get A Professional Design

The best way to get a reasonably priced logo design that has been designed from scratch specifically for your flower shop is to order one online. There are many custom logo design firms that will allow you to have input into the design process. They will present you with a range of initial concepts and then you can choose the one that most appeals to you. A good design team will usually work with you, making minor alterations to the logo until you are satisfied. Finally, files are delivered to you in a variety of file formats.

Communication is of the highest importance here. You must let your designer know what kind of business you have, where you are located and who your typical customers will be. Only then can they come up with something that will be a perfect match with your store.

Consider giving your designer some words that describe the image that you want to project with your design. Words like feminine, sophisticated or modern will give your designer an idea of how you want to shape peoples perceptions of your business when they view your logo.

Popular Images on Florist Logos

It is not essential to have an image or symbol on a florist logo and in some cases a simple text logo can work well. However, most flower shops go for a combination of text and image. The important thing is that the logo is kept simple so as to make a strong and memorable impression without appearing too cluttered and complicated.

To see what kind of images florists around the world have used on their logos, do a Google image search for ‘florist logos’ and you will find many good examples. You will notice that most florist logos feature floral images as it makes sense for a logo to make an obvious statement about a business and its products and services. Others have gone for slightly related images like a vase, a fairy, a bee or feminine designs and patterns.

Unless you are in a specific niche such as providing floral arrangements for weddings for example then it is best to stick with what works. A great designer will be able to take an over used image like a flower and put a totally original spin on it so that it appears to be original and fresh.

If you feel that an image of a flower would make your logo too similar to other florists in your area then you may come up with a creative idea for something more original. In this case think about the reasons why people give flowers and come up with images associated with love, celebration or happiness. Think about what makes your service or your personality unique and try to capture that in your design. If you have the word ‘florist’ in your logo then an image of a flower is not essential.

Ideas for Color Selection

Flowers are naturally colorful and you can therefore expect flower shop logos to be colorful. Look for some combinations of bright colors that work but try not to use more than three colors in the overall design. Too much color can make a design messy to look at and detract from its simplicity. Excessive color also makes for printing headaches.

Font Style

There are many kinds of font to choose from and your designer will be able to offer a selection of styles and make a recommendation. Some florists these days are going for bold looking ‘modern’ fonts while others prefer more traditional looking cursive fonts that look as if they have been written by hand.

With a great looking florist logo your business should be able to bloom, just like the flowers that you sell. A logo should be seen as a key part of your branding and marketing plan. Treat a logo like an investment into your business that will pay dividends for years to come.