Smallest Window For Bedroom Usage

It is possible to buy the smallest window for bedroom installation but let me first point out that there is a fire code on the size of bedroom windows. There has to be an easy exit in case of fire. There is a company that claims to make what is probably one of the smallest egress windows.

It can do this because of a tilt/turn so the window opens into the home like a swing door which makes it easier to get out of in a hurry. It is 380mm high and 380mm wide with an area of 0.35.2. This is probably one of the smallest window for bedroom usage.

The International Residential Code which is nation wide states the width should be a minimum of twenty inches, the height a minimum of twenty four inches, the net clearing a minimum of 5.7 square feet or 5.0 square feet for ground floor, the sill height above the floor has a maximum height of forty four inches so watch it when installing the smallest window for bedrooms because it may not pass inspection.

There is also a code for a minimum window size relative to room size that is nation wide. If you have a room, even a small room which you think you might use as a bedroom some time make sure it has at least one window with the legal egress requirements for a fire escape.

If you are buying a home make sure that the smallest window for bedroom installation meets the legal egress requirements. Some older homes were built before the egress code went into effect and sometimes the newer homes also lack them.

Skylights – A Homemade Shallow Box-Like Acrylic Condensation Cover for Dome Installations

Acrylic or polycarbonate dome skylights come is several sizes today. The traditional ones, however, are square to rectangular in shape, and run about 5″ in height. Their width and length can be anywhere from 12″ to 36″, and are 1/8″ thick.

These domes can be mounted onto wooden curbs (2×2″ to 2×6″), around which the roof shingles are caulked or thin-metal flashed to prevent any rain leakage around them. These domes can also be surface mounted directly onto the tar paper and wooden sheeting directly beneath the shingles.

In the latter case, the dome’s surrounding shingles themselves are directly laid over its flat outside flanges similar to the way the shingles are commonly laid over the flat metal of roof vents, furnace stacks, sewer vents and so forth. This installation minimizes the dome’s height.

Problem. Either way, or no matter how the domes are mounted, they can and will produce unwanted condensation and similar leaks even if they have an inner plastic shield within them. These domes are also vulnerable to being cracked from large hail, fallen tree branches, earthquakes, or careless roofers. When these events happen, the skylights will leak rain water as well in addition to forming moisture.

Solution. Build and install a shallow-box-like 5-1/2″-high hard transparent cover over the dome on the roof. This cover will act like a storm window does by taking the brunt of temperature change and the formation of most condensation. For this article, a 20″ square dome (which includes a 1″ flange on each side of the 18″-square dome itself), 5″ high, and surface mounted directly to the roof sheeting will be used as the example to be covered with the box-like storm cover. Similar covers can be built proportionally for other dome sizes.

Materials and tools (total cost for parts: $50-90, depending on the availability of the acrylic sheet).

  • One 2x6x96″ pressure-treated board ($5)
  • One 22×22″ sheet of heavy 0.22″ thick acrylic plexiglass ($25-60, depending on the cut sizes available at the outlet). If the piece must be cut from a larger sheet, leave the protective films unpeeled on both sides of the sheet until the sawing is done. Use a sharp fine-tooth saw blade. Otherwise, let the outlet cut it to size for you.
  • Twelve #12×3″ Philips screws
  • 20 to 30 – #8×1″ Philips drywall screws (wide head)
  • One small tube clear silicone caulk ($4)
  • Two tubes silicone window/door caulk similar in color to the roof shingles ($8)
  • Four perpendicularly flat 2-1/2″ L-shaped brackets ($5)
  • Eight #10×1″ wood screws (for attaching the L-brackets to the cover frame)
  • Eight #10×1-1/2 to 2″ wood screws (for attaching the frame’s L-brackets to the roof through the shingles)
  • One quart oil-base water-proof paint similar in color to the roof shingles ($4)
  • Tools: electric circular saw, electric drill, bits, Philips screwdriver, caulking gun, putty knife, rat-tail file, paintbrush

Cover construction.

1. Cut the 2×6″ board into four square-cornered pieces: 2 22″-long ones and 2 19″-long ones.

2. Assemble the 22″ square box-like frame by sealing/securing the four corners with the silicone window/door water-proofing caulk and 3″ screws.

3. On what will be the lower-end of the bottom side, use the file to make at least three half-moon groves for moisture drainage.

4. Paint both the inside and outside of the wooden frame. Let dry.

5. Place the acrylic plexiglass flush over the frame.

6. Mark on the plexiglass where the screw holes will go, about 5″ apart around the top of the frame.

7. At each mark, drill a hole through the plexiglass (only) wider than the drywall screw.

8. Then, by using a narrow bit, drill holes 1/2″ deep into the wood frame dead-center through the plexiglass holes.

9. Remove the plexiglass from the frame, noting how it fits onto the frame.

10. Brush away any plastic or wood shavings from the frame and plexiglass.

11. With the silicone caulk, add a narrow bead lengthwise on each side of the frame’s drill holes all around it.

12. Carefully replace the plexiglass atop the frame, aligning it to the original drill holes accordingly.

13. Install the screws to medium tightness, so not to crack the plexiglass. The caulk will flatten and spread between the plexiglass and the frame, sealing it.

14. Add at least one flat L-shaped bracket to each side of the frame flush to its bottom side with the 1″ wood screws.

15. Paint the brackets.

Cover installation (the easy way).

1. While using safety precautions, carry the completed cover up to the roof, assuming the roof is a low-pitch and safe to walk on.

2. Center it over the dome skylight, square to square.

3. Attach the dome to the roof through the shingles with the 1-1/2 to 2″ wood screws, depending on the thickness of the shingles.

4. Seal the bottom side of the upper end and both sides of the cover with the silicone window/door caulk. Seal the brackets and screws the same way. Leave the bottom side of the lower end unsealed for drainage. It is a storm window.

5. If necessary, touch-up the frame and brackets with paint.

By installing the cover atop the shingles, the wood sheeting beneath the shingles is also protected from any moisture damage. This placement also elevates the cover over the dome for adequate air space.

This cover will assume the formation of almost all the condensation that would otherwise occur within the dome, none of which will make it through the dome into the house nor beneath the shingles. It will also protect the dome from hail, fallen tree branches, and other damages. To learn more about skylight types and their maintenance, see these sites.

Garage Workbench Plans And Patterns

Could there be a more prefect piece of man-cave furniture then the garage WORKBENCH?

It’s kind of ironic isn’t it – your first workbench project will be BUILDING your own workbench. If done CORRECTLY, you’ll wind up with the perfect space for creating your next GREAT invention.

Planning is essential for a successful build. Skills with tools and woodworking are important, but you still need a good plan now matter how skilled you are.

You can buy workbench blueprints or you can design your own. Take a look at the blueprint links at the end of this article. Even if you decide to design your own, you’re certain to gain great ideas from the blueprints you purchase for cheap. You can always modify someone else’s design to fit your needs.

A good starting point in planning your workbench is to measure the dimensions of your garage. Get a good idea of how much work space you’ll have available at any available location inside the garage. Any workbench you build should fit this minimum criteria.

1. Access to electrical outlets. Extension cords bringing power to a workbench is no a good idea, and could violate local codes. In case of fire, you could find yourself without insurance.

2. Don’t crowd out the floor space. You’re going to need plenty of floor space remaining for the hot-rod you’re planning to build – or the wife’s Volvo.

3. Consider distance from the garage door if you plan on hauling materials directly from your truck to the workspace.

For the DIY workbench designers out there, consider building it permanently to the exposed wall studs in your garage walls. This type of bench is, for all intensive purpose, permanent, but can easily be dismantled in needed. It gives work space far more sturdy than the types found for purchase in the hardware store, and can be customized as much as you want.

Once you have a good idea on the size and location of your workbench, it’s time to consider storage space for tools, supplies and raw materials that you tend to work with most. You can build shelving underneath the workbench to provide enormous amounts of storage space for hobby supplies or other garage relegated storage. Cabinets or shelves above the workbench provide additional storage, or you can always use pegboard to arrange tools for hanging storage.

Finally, with location, and storage options figured out, it’s time to calculate all the supplies, and tools you’ll need for building your new garage workbench. Try not to leave out anything. Accurately calculate the number of screws or nails you’ll need so you make sure to buy enough first time around. You’ll have a good idea of the cost of your project by accurately projecting these needs. You can save a lot of money buying these fasteners in bulk, and if you have some left over – that’s one less hardware store trip the time you need nails.

With these line items complete, you can being. It really doesn’t matter if you plan on buying plans for a workbench or going with your own design. Follow these handy helpful hints and build the last workbench you’ll ever need.

Top 10 Art Galleries of the World

Art galleries are ideal platform for displaying visual arts, be it painting, sculpture, or photography. Art galleries are a collected culmination of endurance, time, effort, and tastes of many generations, in order to depict the diverse arts and cultures of various ages. Therefore, be it contemporary or traditional Fine Arts, art galleries house all. Promoting emerging artists of all ages, art galleries give them too a chance to flaunt their artworks, at times amidst internationally renowned artists. Committed to excellence in art, the top 10 art galleries proffer you a rich, memorable experience. This article tries to picture the top ten galleries of the world.

1. Musee Du Louvre, Paris. The Louvre of Paris is one of the most visited art museums of France. From its beginning as a royal fortress to the public gallery that we see today, Louvre, with it architectural superiority and one of the most stunning artistic collections, has dominated Paris ever since its establishment. The artworks on display in this art gallery have a universal appeal that strike a chord on all their spectators. Some exceptional paintings the museum houses include, Jacques-Louis David’s “The Coronation of Napoleon,” Hyacinth Rigaud’s “Louis XIV,” and Leonardo da Vinci’s “Mono Lisa” & “The Virgin on the Rock.”

2. The National Gallery, London. London’s National Gallery is an enthralling exhibition of the Western European art, where history is depicted and is well preserved. Founded in 1824, the art gallery houses a rich collection of over 2300 paintings belonging to 13th to 18th century. The gallery has always been a centre of criticism and controversy for not planning an effective management of space & on policies considering the preservation and the restorations of the artworks. Some imperative artworks are, Leonardo da Vinci’s “The Virgin Of The Rock” & “Burlington House Cartoon,” Raphael’s “Portraits of Pope Julius II” & “The Madonna of Pinks,” and Michelangelo’s “The Entombment” & “The Manchester Madonna.”

3. Museo Del Prado, Madrid. An art gallery in the capital city of Spain, it displays the stupendous & the royal Spanish anthology. It has an elaborate collection of approximately 5000 drawings, 2000 prints, 2000 decorative & work of arts, and 1000 coins & medals. The gallery houses one of the finest collections of Spanish paintings, especially by Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya, and El Greco. The artworks are, Velázquez’s “Las Meninas,” Francisco de Goya’s “La maja desnuda,” Roiger Vander Weydon’s “Descent of Christ from Cross,” “Self Portrait” by Albrecht Durer, and Hieronymus Bosch’s “The Garden of Earthly Delight.”

4. The Metropolitan Museum, New York. This North American art gallery has a colossal collection of about 2 million artworks and is considered the largest in its genre. The collection includes but is not limited to, classical antiquity & ancient Egyptian art; sculptures of European masters; American (“Portrait of George Washington” by Gilbert & works of Winslow Homer, George Caleb Bingham, & John Singer); modern art; African; Asian (Chinese calligraphy and painting including Nepalese and Tibetan works); Oceanic (Australian Aboriginal Rock Paintings); Byzantine & Islamic (miniature painting from Iran & Mughal India); & Greek & Roman (Euphronios Krates & Amanthus Sarcophagus) art; and a wide assortment of the musical instruments of the world.

5. Sao Paulo Museum of Art, Brazil. Sao Paulo Museum of Brazil in Latin America is a prominent building that houses an exquisite collection of Latin American works, dating back to World War II. Some of the artworks in the gallery are, Raphael’s “Resurrection of Christ,” Rembrandt’s “Self Portrait with Golden Chain,” Brazilian art (Nicholas Tarsilao Amaral) & Brasiliana, Latin American (Torres Garcia, Gilbert Stuart), & North European paintings.

6. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. This gallery is one of the oldest and the largest in Australia, displaying over 63,000 artworks. The art gallery also conducts an art school, which has turned out to be an Alma Mater of many renowned Australian artists. The art gallery includes the works of Gian Lorenzo Bernini, Marco Palmezzano, and Rembrandt.

7. State Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow. A famous pool of Russian fine art in the world, this gallery exhibits the ranges from “Theotokos” of Vladimir & Andrei Rubler’s “Trinity” to the monumental “Composition VII” by Wassily Kandinsky, and “The Black Square” of Kazimir Malevich. The art gallery also possesses a fine collection of socialist realism sculptures such as Yevgeny Vuchetich’s Iconic statue of “Iron Felix.”

8. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. An extended collection of artifacts from the archeological locations of Greece, covering prehistoric art to late antiquity, this great museum is an ideal place for the students of archeology. Established in 1829, the museum is an imposing Neo-classical building, which was quite popular in Europe then. It displays a wide range of prehistoric art, sculpture collections, Santorni findings, Stathatos collection, Vlastos collections, Egyptian art, and Near East antiquity.

9. Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney. This public gallery in Sydney exhibits Australian (settlements to contemporary), Asian, and European art. Some famous works on display in the art gallery are, Ford Madox Brown’s “Chaucer at the court of Edward III,” Streeton’s “Fire’s on.” Other Australian works displayed are those of John Glover, Arthur Streeton, Rupert Bunny, and Roland Wakelin.

10. Vatican Museum in Rome. In the 16th century, Pope Julius II founded this Roman Museum, displaying a huge collection of Roman Catholic Church. The notable collections of the art gallery include Caravaggio’s Entombment, Leonardo da Vinci’s “Portrait of Saint Jerome,” and Raphael’s masterpiece, “The School of Athens.”

Types of Verandas

There are lots of reasons for wanting to build a veranda onto your home, and there are also plenty of different types to choose from. But the one thing that you are sure to get as a result of your efforts – regardless of what type, size or style you choose – is the satisfaction of having a brand new area of your home to enjoy.

Once you have worked out the amount of space you can devote to this new addition, you will need to decide what style you want to opt for. The one you eventually choose may depend on what kind of property you have and how you want to make use of the space.

Here are a few examples of the verandas you can have:

Curved

A veranda which features a curved roof can take on a more unusual and elegant feel compared to the more straightforward designs. It offers you shelter from the sun, but also opens up the veranda in a way that a flat roof will not.

The advantage of a curved roof is that it can also be combined with other types of veranda. This is an ideal solution if you have the space, as it breaks up what would otherwise be a continual flat roof and gives it more interest, adding a focal point to the whole structure.

Flat

This is the simplest design, and one of the most versatile. No matter what kind of area you want to cover or what shape you would like it to be, the flat roof can accommodate most ideas and desires.

The open nature of this design enables a great sense of versatility as well; for example if you have an outdoor pool near your house you could extend the roof so that it curves around the edge of it, giving an extra sense of symmetry.

Gazebo

This is a more complex and stunning design, and the presence of clear sections in the roof design means you will still get a lot of light streaming into the area, no matter how big the finished gazebo is.

Pergola

If you need something versatile then a pergola may fit the bill, as it doesn’t have to be attached to your home. The advantage of this design is that it enables you to keep the sheltered area very light and airy.

Sunroof

It’s wonderful to have a veranda that keeps the sun off you when the weather is too hot for words, but sometimes it’s nice to see the best of the weather. A sunroof enables you to do just that, as it has louvers which can be opened or closed whenever you like.

Gable

If you like the style offered by a pitched roof, then the gable design will serve your needs well. This looks ideal if you have an outdoor space with a table and chairs situated right underneath the roof itself.

There are other styles of veranda which may also complement your home, but as with any major structure like this it is always a good idea to ask a professional which style you would benefit from the most.

The Trapezius Muscle: A Cause of Upper Back, Neck and Shoulder Pain

The lower back gets a lot of attention as one of the leading causes of missed work days, disability and hospital visits per year. Although not as pervasive, upper back, neck and shoulder pain can be just as disruptive as lower back pain.

While sometimes a joint problem is responsible, the most common cause of pain in the neck, upper back and shoulder is muscular. There are a number of muscles in the upper back, the trapezius being the largest. It is triangular, stretching from the mid-spine up to the base of the skull and over to the scapula. Its unique shape makes it responsible for a variety of actions, including tilting the head, supporting the upper body, stabilizing the shoulder joints and serving as a base for arm movements. Since it is located in the neck, shoulder and upper back, the trapezius is a likely culprit for pain in these regions.

If you have injured your trapezius muscle, a number of movements will be painful, including shrugging your shoulders, rotating your shoulders and moving your neck. There are two common causes of neck, back and shoulder pain associated with the trapezius muscle.

Overuse

Overuse injuries can occur to any part of the body. They are caused by repetitive motions that tax muscles, ligaments and tendons without giving them adequate rest time in between actions. Even light repetitive use of the trapezius can cause an overuse injury. If your job or other activities demand constant movement of a shoulder, the muscle will be contracting frequently without sufficient time to rest between contractions. Rest time is essential, since blood flow depends on a contraction/relaxation cycle. When a muscle becomes chronically tense due to overuse, it does not receive ample amounts of fresh nutrients and oxygen from blood. Chronically tense muscles can develop knots called trigger points that make it even hard for a muscle to relax.

The trapezius can suffer an overuse injury if you use a computer with a mouse throughout the day. Holding a phone between your head and shoulder is another way the muscle becomes chronically tight. If your upper back, neck and shoulder hurt on one side of your body, it is likely that something you do with that side of your body is causing an overuse injury. Being creative about your work station can resolve these types of injuries. For example, using a mouse with a roller ball or investing in a headset or ear bud for your phone would allow the muscle to relax.

You will need to undo the damage done to your trapezius by forcing it to relax. This can be done by self-myofascial release (SMR), trigger point massage or deep tissue massage. See the video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gCVowv5A66Q to learn more about SMR for your trapezius.

Postural Dysfunction

We’ve all been told as children to sit up straight, but how many of us practice proper posture at work, at home or on the road? The human body is not designed for prolonged sitting, yet modern life often encourages and demands it. Unless you have a very strong core and pay constant attention to your posture, you likely end up slouching part way through the day. This position entails hunched shoulder and a forward head.

Consider what happens to the muscles in the chest when held in this position. The pectoral muscles in the chest and the teres muscles in the armpit at the bottom of the shoulder blade are tight and shortened. Eventually, muscle memory develops to automatically tighten these muscles. Their shortened length and tension exert a pull on structures surrounding them, including the trapezius. The trapezius lengthens and weakens, and this tug-of-war further encourages stooped posture.

Overstretched muscles suffer tears that can cause pain. These muscles also react by attempting to tighten; this is to protect themselves from further tearing. An overstretched trapezius overworks to prevent further stretching, while it fails to perform its intended job of upper back and shoulder stability. Pain can be felt throughout the length of an overstretched trapezius.

Restoring proper length and strength to your muscle means relaxing the pectoral and teres muscles, then conditioning the upper back. SMR can be used on the chest muscles. You can stretch the pectorals by clasping your hands behind your back and pulling away from the body. The teres group may be stretched by lifting your arm above your head and bending to the opposite side. See http://www.livestrong.com/article/156529-home-exercises-for-the-trapezius-muscle/ for trapezius conditioning exercises.

Once balance has been restored to your upper body muscles, you can practice proper posture and prevent upper back pain from recurring.

Neck, shoulder and upper back pain are commonly caused by muscular problems related to overuse or posture. If your imbalance or injury is severe, you may need the assistance of a physical therapist. Otherwise, you can likely resolve the pain on your own with a little knowledge and motivation.

A Brief History Of The Bucket

The bucket has been a part of human history for thousands of years. Thought to originate from the word “buc”, which meant pitcher in Old English, the word first came into use in the 13th century, and continues to be a part of our ever evolving language, from slang to computer terminology.

From early childhood – the miniature bucket and spade, enjoyed in a sand pit or at the seaside, to the end of human life when people euphemistically “kick the bucket”, this essential item is part of daily life and language, used in every part of the world.

Ancient buckets

The earliest depictions of these useful objects are found on carvings dating from around 3200 BC, which show the Pharaoh Narmer with a servant carrying a bucket. Assyro-Babylonian carvings have gods and genies with small buckets, containing lustral (holy) water in one hand and a pine cone for sprinkling in the other. Ancient Olmec carvings in Mexico also show priests with small buckets.

Greek artefacts

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York has a beautifully painted Greek terracotta bucket (situla) dating from 350 BC. These buckets were used for decanting, cooling and serving wine. The museum also has very rare one made of glass with silver handles, which is most unusual, as metal situlas were far more common.

Roman fire fighters

The Vigiles, modelled on Alexandrian fire fighters, became known as the “little bucket fellows” (Spartoli), or the bucket brigades. The buckets they used were made of rope sealed with pitch. Human “bucket chains” continued to be used by firefigters, and are still used by rescuers of earthquake victims to this day.

Medieval Europe

In northern European countries, buckets were made from metal, wood and leather. Wooden buckets were made by coopers with staves or rope handles. Apart from their manifold domestic uses: milking, drawing water from wells, sanitation and building, they were also used in war machines like catapults as an early form of germ warfare, used for hurling waste, dead and diseased human body parts and animals over the fortification walls of towns, castles and keeps.

Galvanized iron buckets

Patented by Stanislas Sorel in 1837, sturdy and rustproof galvanised buckets rapidly replaced leather and wooden buckets. Metal buckets with different compartments and removable cups, were manufactured for use as lunch containers. Enameled lunch buckets known as gamelles and graniteware containers with lids continued to be made up to the last century. The basic metal bucket was further adapted for a variety of uses including coal scuttles, poultry feeders and drinkers, mop buckets and digger buckets.

The plastic bucket

Cheap, light, multi-coloured plastic buckets first became available in 1967, in a variety of shapes and sizes. They were rapidly adopted by the food industry for the sale of ice-cream, confectionery, take-away chicken and other foodstuffs. Plastic buckets are used to sell cleaning products, animal feeds, fertilisers, toys, nails, paper clips and countless other items.Their continued use seems to be assured, regardless of modern advances and inventions.

Bulldozer Tools and Its Functions

Bulldozer also known as the caterpillar tractor or a crawler tractor is heavy equipment with extensive metal plate or blade that is used for pushing large quantities of sand, soil and others during the operation and it is usually equipped at the back with a ripper to slacken off the compacted materials.

History

The very first bulldozer was adopted from the farm tractor that was utilized to p lough the fields. The versatility of this equipment in the squashy ground for road building and logging had led this tractor to become an armored tank during the First World War.

James Cumming and J. Earl McLeod complete the first design for bulldozer in 1923, and the imitation is present at Morrowville, Kansas City Park from where the two constructed the very first bulldozer.

Primary tools of Bulldozers

Blade – bulldozer blade is made by the heavy metals placed on the tractor front with the purpose of pushing the objects, shoving soils, sand and debris. For military utilization, dozer blade was rigid on the combat engineering vehicle that can also be fitted to other vehicles like artillery tractors.

Dozer blades could also be accumulated to the main battle tank which was utilized for clearing antitank obstacles and digging improvised shelters. The combat functions of dozer blades incorporate the clearing of the battlefield obstacle and the preparation for the fire positions.

Ripper -is a device at the rear of bulldozer which is elongated and claw-like in appearance. Rippers can be single shank or they can also be in a cluster of multi shank rippers. Single shank was commonly chosen in doing heavy ripping. Tungsten steel alloy tip which is replaceable is used in fitting the ripper shank.

Rocks that were ripped allow ground surface rocks to be broken to tiny rubble which are easy to hold and transport and can be detached so that grading will take place. The agricultural ripping allows very firm rocks like podzol hard-pan be wrecked so that lands that can not be ploughed may be farmed. Hard soil may be broken and ripped in order to permit planting to orchards wherein trees could not grow.

Bulldozers were modified to develop into new equipment that can function in some ways which the original bulldozers can not. As time passed, they become more sophisticated. Essential developments included drive trains similar to automatic transmission as a substitute to manual transmission, blades controlled by means of hydraulic cylinder instead of cable winch/brake and mechanical grade control. Hydraulic cylinders permits more exact manipulation of blades and also automated controls.

Stump buster, is a less regular attachment which is a sole spike that extends beyond horizontally and could be elevated to be taken out. It is used to divide a tree stump. Bulldozers with stump busters are utilized in land clearing operations and perhaps have brush-rake blades.

The best popular producer of bulldozers is possibly Caterpillar of U. S. A. that has earned its status by producing durable, tough and reliable machines. JCB, John Deere and Komatso are their competitors at present.

Bulldozer – A Powerful Machine

Bulldozer, usually called as dozer, is a powerful tractor used to move piling earth and rock and it is most utilized construction equipment in the world. The first bulldozer was used to till fields. It was designed by James Cummings and J. Earl McLeod. It is composed of a blade or blade, track and engines.

The base of the bulldozer is composed of fabricated steel plates and casting frame and undercarriage. The cab contains rubber, plastics and glasses. The power source of the dozer may vary depends on the type of engine. The rotating twin tracks and the vertical steel blade of the bulldozer make the equipment easily to move. The blade is use to push loads from one place to another and it weighs up to 7,264 kilogram. It is attached to the frame by an extended lever arm that can be move up and down and inclined using hydraulic power. Instead of using wheels, bulldozer is equipped with a huge flexible track.

More bulldozers have a built-in elevated sprocket which suspends the power train that makes the bulldozer’s movement more flexible especially on rough terrain and slope area.

Power train contains the differential, transmission and gears that revolve the track. The power train is attached to the crankshaft that will transmit power to lift the sprocket gear. Self-regulating steering wheel is used to rotate the sprocket at full power while the other is slowly rotating as the bulldozer is revolving.

New innovations in the field of bulldozer are invented in recent years. This includes planetary gear transmission, differential steering and hydraulic power, automatic transmission of drive trains, automated controls and the blade is powered by hydraulic cylinder.

Attachments to bulldozer make the machine more flexible. One of the most common attachments is the ripper. The ripper is used to loosen compacted soil. A large bulldozer has single shank on the ripper while there are multiple shanks on a small bulldozer. The shanks are attached with a replaceable tooth.

How to Replace Burners on a Weber Grill

While Weber is most known for their line of charcoal grills, they also make a large variety of high-quality gas grills that are popular with consumers. If your grill isn’t heating up all the way or you have uneven heat, the burners are most likely the problem. Here’s a walkthrough to help you confirm that the burners do need replacement as well as how to do it.

Do the burners need to be replaced?

The first step is to make sure your burners are in fact beyond repair. Start by making sure the propane tank has enough fuel then look for leaks in the fuel hose by using a solution of water and dishwashing liquid. If you see bubbles in the solution, there’s a leak in the line. In this case you’ll need to order some affordable replacement grill parts to fix the leak. Next, try lighting the burners to high for 10 minutes. Check the spider screens for any blocks that may prevent propane from reaching the burner itself.

You can also try resetting the excess flow safety device. To do this, turn all burners off and turn off the valve on the propane cylinder. Disconnect the regulator valve, turn all burners to high and wait one minute. Now, turn the burners off again and reconnect the regulator valve. Turn the valve on the tank back on and test the burners.

If these steps didn’t work you’ll need to replace the burners of your grill. Here’s how to do it.

How to Replace Weber Grill Burners

1. Get the right Weber grill parts. You’ll need your model number to make sure you order the right burners. You can either order grill parts online to save money or see if your local hardware store has them in stock.

2. Now, turn off the valve on the propane tank and disconnect the cylinder, removing it from the tank, as well as the cooking grates and flavorizer bars.

3. Remove the control panel by taking out the screws holding it in place.

4. Loosen the burners by turning the nut underneath with a pair of pliers.

5. Pull the burner up at an angle to remove the burner along with the tube assembly.

6. Insert new burners in the same position and make sure the burner tubes fit inside the venturi tubes behind the control panel. The burner tubes don’t actually attach to the venturi tubes but should be at least 1/2″ inside so they don’t become disconnected if the grill is bumped.

7. Reattach the locking nut under the grill to secure the burners in place.

8. Reattach the control panel and put the cooking grate, flavorizer bars and propane tank back in place.

9. Reattach the propane gas regulator to the valve and turn it back on.

That’s all it takes to replace the burners on your Weber grill. While Weber grill parts are made well, all burners eventually wear out and need replacing. Make sure you order the right parts and you’ll find it’s easy to do the work yourself and save money without buying a brand-new grill.

Oil Painting For Beginners – How to Get Started

So are you a total beginner to painting or do you have some experience in painting with other mediums? Well either way there are some key facts that you will need to start you off on the right track. To a certain extent you can do whatever you like with acrylics, just keep piling the paint on until you get what you are looking for but with oils it is slightly different.

So, to start with you will need some materials. The art shops have a huge selection of materials to choose from and this can be quite daunting if you don’t really know what you are looking for. In addition to all the numerous paint colours you can chose from there are a wide variety of mediums, brushes, painting surfaces etc.

Paint

Let’s look at paint to start with. There are 2 main types of oil paint in terms of quality – student colours and artist’s colours. Student oils paints are often cheaper than artists as they don’t use the expensive pigments and are produced in larger quantities. The colour strength might be slightly lower than artists’ quality oils but really these are good enough if you are starting out and are often used by professional artists in conjunction with the higher pigment colours of artists’ oils or as base colours before using artists’ oils for the top layer. So to start off with you need only have a basic selection of 10 or 12 tubes of paint. You can often buy the starter boxes which contain a lot of the colours that you might need.

Painting Mediums

In addition to the paint you will need to get some thinners and also a bottle of painting medium. There are so many options with regard to painting medium but to start off with you can just chose to use linseed oil and as you go on and experiment more try different types of medium and how they affect the paint and help or hinder with your style of painting.

Brushes

So, then you will need some brushes. These also come in so many different types and sizes. It may well depend on what style of painting you are planning to do as to what brushes you need. For example if you are going to paint realistically in fine detail you may want smaller round brushes but if you are going to paint big abstract blended paintings then go for big softer flat brushes. I may be contentious in advising this but when you are just starting out, especially if you are just going to be testing out various techniques I would advise getting some cheap brushes to see what kind of shape and size you prefer to use. The main problems with cheaper brushes in my opinion are that firstly, some of the hairs may come out whilst you are painting and secondly, the brushes may not retain their shape as well. Advantages are that you don’t buy expensive brushes that you subsequently decide are not the right type for you. Once you have decided your painting style and which brushes are suitable for that you can then buy the more expensive ones. For me, as an abstract artist, I also prefer the much softer (and for some reason cheaper) big brushes that blend the paint really nicely and don’t leave so many brush strokes. I will use the brush firstly on a test painting and that will generally get rid of any of the lose hairs so hardly any will come off on my actual painting.

Support

Then of course you need something to paint on! The main choice in art shops is between stretched canvas and canvas board. There are obviously a lot of alternatives but to start with choose either a board or a canvas that is primed and suitable for oils (just read the label or chose one of the more common makes like Daley-Rowney or Winsor & Newton). Maybe choose a small one to start with just to get to grips with the medium.

Once you have your paint and your surface or support (canvas) you can start! You will also need a palette of some kind but you can use anything from disposable plates, to a piece of wood, a proper palette from the art shop or a book of disposable palettes (saves on messy palettes hanging around as you can just throw them away!). Plastic palettes are useful as they usually have little sections that you can pour your medium into and use whilst you are painting.

What to Paint

So, now you can start. But what do you paint? If you are really just starting out then you may want to get a book that gives you a step-by-step guide as to how to paint a particular scene or painting, then you can learn the methods used to bring the painting to life. Otherwise you may have a favourite photo or a picture from the internet or even an old master that you want to recreate. I really think that trying to copy something that someone has already done is a good way to learn about techniques as it pushes you to try and think about how to do something and in doing so you learn these new techniques that you might not have learnt otherwise.

Layers

Whatever you are trying to paint, you should use a number of layers to build up the painting and not try to complete it all in one go! When I say this I mean the following: For the first layer, use the paint ‘watered’ down with thinners. This is starting the painting using the ‘fat over lean’ method. In basic terms when you apply paint, the most oily layer (fat) should be on top of the layer with least oil (lean i.e. containing thinners) underneath. If you don’t use this method then your painting might subsequent have cracks in it where the different layers of paint dry at different speeds.

There are many different schools of thought as to how to actually paint and what colours to use and this article is not going to be encompassing enough to go through those. Basically on the first layer apply it with thinners in a loose manner (i.e. the painting does not have to be precise at this stage). The main aim is to cover all of the canvas with some paint to provide a foundation. As you apply more and more layers – the number of layers is up to you – the paint should have more oil in it as you go on. So for example in the next layer you could use half linseed oil and half thinners as a medium and then the layer after linseed oil with no thinners.

Cleaning Brushes

The common school of thought is to clean brushes with turps or a specific brush cleaner. However, I find it better (I think on the environment as well as the smell and keeping the brushes for longer) to use soap and warm water. Soap can be just a simple soap or you can use washing up liquid. Make the brush wet then build up a lather with the soap. Rinse out the paint with warm water and repeat until the brush is clean.

Oil paints do take a reasonable time to dry – particularly if you compare them to acrylics. Paint with more thinners in will dry quicker however and you can also buy mediums that will make the paint dry quicker (e.g. liquin). The first layer with thinners should dry reasonably quickly, particularly if you are using earthy colours. It is up to you if you wait for the layers to dry, quite often this depends on the type of painting you are doing, or if you add subsequent layers on top of the wet paint. If you do this then just be careful to work in definite strokes and to clean your brush often so that the paint does not ‘muddy’ and mix layers together more than you would like.

Summary

So in summary, for the complete beginner in oils I would say this. Get yourself a box of student oil paints, some thinners, some linseed oil, a palette, 2 or 3 brushes in different sizes, and a canvas. Choose a subject or get a book that gives you step by step instructions. Paint in layers ‘fat over lean’. Keep practising!

There have been lots of books written on the subject and I would advise you if you are really serious about painting with oils to get hold of one that gives you all the detailed information but this article is just to give you a few hints and tips to start you off.

An Easy Way to Grout Stone Cobbles

Stone cobbles are one of the most beautiful materials to use in paving. Done properly they have a European elegance and robustness which is hard to match.

Cobbles come in several types of material, including granite, porphyry and even concrete. They can be laid on a sand base if they are at least 60mm thick and grouted with gravel, sand, tar or mortar. For the best results though they should be glued onto a concrete slab and this article discusses this procedure.

Cobbles can be purchased either as individual stones or already glued in a pattern to a mesh backing. The mesh backing allows quicker laying although they are not always precise and, if glued to a steep concrete surface, the mesh inhibits good glue contact between the stone and the concrete and is not recommended for vehicle traffic. On level surfaces there is no problem with using the mats.

Once stones are glued, grouting can begin the following day. Grout can be a simple sand/cement mix with an oxide added for colour if desired or a premixed coloured grout. The premixed grout is more expensive but less labour-intensive and is more consistent in colour and hardness.

The Problem:

Traditionally grout is spread into the 10mm gaps using a rubber squeegee or by hand and cleaned with a sponge and water when the grout has partially cured. Over a large area such as a driveway this is a very slow and tedious process. Granite cobbles have a rough surface which is difficult to wipe clean and easily absorbs cement, which can leave stains. These can later be cleaned with hydrochloric acid but this requires considerable time and runs the risk of staining the grout.

Alternatively, the stone can be sealed before grouting with a good quality penetrating stone sealant. This will prevent staining. However, since the cobbles need to be clean and dry before sealing, on large job this is not always practical.

The Solution:

Faced with these problems, I was convinced that if I could use an extrusion method such as a large grouting gun to force mortar into the gaps I could cut the time on this part of the project significantly.

Some investigation revealed ‘The Pointmaster’, a very simple device consisting of a PVC cylinder with a replaceable, stainless steel nozzle and a hand plunger. The Pointmaster was designed primarily for pointing old brick work but it proved to be a magic tool for grouting cobble.

Using premixed mortar, fill the cylinder. Taking care to not spill any, place the nozzle in a gap and slowly squeeze grout out. It takes some practise (and a strong back) to get a smooth flow.

If you fill gaps to near the top then let the mortar set for about 3 hours. It can be smoothed down as low as you want to allow the stone to stand higher. For smoothing I use bolts of various sizes or even sticks. It’s a simple and rather satisfying process and produces and excellent result.

Tips:

1.Don’t try to smooth the mortar too early or it will be slow and messy. Neither should you leave it set until the next day or it will be very difficult to work. What works best is if you grout in the morning, leave it to set and smooth in late afternoon.

2.While they are noisy and annoying, a leaf blower is the best thing for clearing gaps in the stone before grouting and for removing debris when the grout is smoothed down.

Happy grouting!

Mounting a TV in Your Caravan

What to buy? Where to put it, How to mount it? Yes: I’m talking about the correct position and way to place a TV in your caravan. Here is a definitive guide to buying and fitting a TV into your caravan or motorhome.

Installing a TV in your caravan or motorhome is different from installing or mounting a TV on the wall of your home due to the lack of space and the wall material is lass stronger than the brickwork which you would normally use to fix your home TV too.

First we have to consider how much space you have to place a TV in your caravan. You need to consider the viewing position of your TV viewers and also the proximity of cooking devices. We suggest a flat surface on the side of a cupboard or an exterior wall. You must also consider where the power points are and if your caravan or motorhome has a pre fitted aerial how close is this to your mounting point.

Now that you have determined your ideal location for your caravan or motorhome you have a rough idea of the space you have and you can now think about buying a TV. We recommend that you buy a specialist 12v or 24v TV which are designed for caravan or motorhome use. Many have DVD players and come with Freeview as standard. If your TV has a DVD player this could impact of the location you place your TV as many DVD players load from the side and you will need enough room at the side to load the disc.

We have an Avtex L215DR 21.5″ 12v TV which we will mount and comes with M4 holes in the back which will fit any standard mounting bracket. We bought a Svensen SV0.5 quick release fixed wall bracket as we wanted a wall bracket which would let us remove the TV easily from the wall when we were out of the caravan.

Place the bracket in the centre of the wall and use a spirit level to make sure that the bracket will be level and mark the holes you will need to drill and the top of the bracket. Drill the holes with the appropriate size of drill and check that the holes line up the the holes in the bracket. You cannot use normal screws to mount your TV so either use nuts and bolts to secure the bracket to the wall or cupboard or use Cabinet Fixing Bolts. These open from the back when you screw them into the wall and this is the method that we used.

Position the bracket over the holes you have drilled and screw/bolt into place. Now you can fix the front plate of the bracket to the back of the TV and mount. As we are using a quick release fixed wall bracket, this makes it really easy to fit the two together as they have a quick release mechanism. Now you have fixed the TV to the wall you need to hide the wiring. We used some self-adhesive micro cable trunking to hide the wires from the TV to the plug and the wire from the TV to the aerial.

Now turn on your TV and enjoy, safe in the knowledge that it has been fixed correctly.

How to Keep Bolts From Coming Loose

Among some of the most inconspicuous and hidden pieces of the construction puzzle, nuts and bolts, and associated hardware such as various types of washers, make up the “glue” that holds everything together.Of course, for many projects, screws or even nails do just fine, but in this article we’ll be sticking to the science behind the thicker shanks coupled with nuts that we call bolts.

Bolts are especially advantageous when dealing with larger lumber and steel, due to its strength, wider flexibility of length, and ability to more or less permanently fasten the joint. Aside from the obvious strength issue, the problem with screws and nails is the feared eventuality of them becoming loose over time, and jeopardizing the integrity of joints. This is especially true of joints subject to vibration and movement.

What is the Preload of a Bolt?

For the most part bolts don’t face the above problem due to the ability to produce what is called a clamping load, or a preload, which if large enough, will ensure joint integrity. The preload is the force that is created when torque is applied to a bolt to fasten two or more objects together. The bolt is pulled into tension as torque is applied, while the fastened parts experience compression.

This tension, as long as it’s within the elastic limit of the bolt, exerts an equal and opposite force (Hooke’s Law) called the tensile stress which works to keep the bolt from loosening. Above all secondary safety measures such as lock nuts and washers, the principle of tightening the bolt down sufficiently to begin with, is the most crucial factor in preventing premature loosening.

How Will a Bolt Fail?

Bolts are manufactured in such a way that the bolt shank will fail before the threads strip. In other words, the collective strength of the thread can withstand forces greater than what would be necessary to rupture the actual bolt shank! Of course, in order for this to be true, there must be a minimum amount of bolt thread “engaging” the nut, known as minimum thread engagement.

A bolt can fail in any number of ways. When speaking of a bolt failing, one might assume it’s the yielding of a bolt. But a bolt can also “fail” by becoming loose over time, thus compromising the joint it was supposed to hold together. This is perhaps the most common type of bolt failure – where the mechanical load exceeds the preload of the bolt causing it to loosen.

What is Brinelling?

This is what happens when a bolt is tightened down on a material that isn’t sufficiently stiff, like wood, causing an impression. (See further below.) This can happen to a low quality washer as well, and causes a loss of preload leading to premature loosening of the bolt. When there is even one applied load that is greater than the yield limit of the material being fastened, brinelling will occur.

What about Bolting Wood?

Unlike harder materials like steel, when fastening wood with bolts, it is important to bear a few things in mind. Like screws and nails, bolts are not exempt from the consequences of movement either. Wood will compress substantially even under small preloads, and will tend to compress further with time and movement.

This is the primary consideration that must be taken into account when attempting to bolt wooden objects together. The degree of compressibility will vary, even significantly, depending on wood type, but wood is wood and it will always be enough to cause problems. There are a few common ways to counter this problem – not all of which are necessarily recommended in all cases.

  • Lock washers, or split washers. These are washers that are split and bent into a helical shape, putting a spring force on the two surfaces it contacts. Contrary to popular belief or use, split washers don’t offer a sufficiently effective “lock” to make them safe for critical applications. The torque required to flatten a split washer is in most cases significantly less than the recommended torque for a given joint. As per Hooke’s law, that states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion to the force applied to it, we know that the bolt tightened down with the lock washer will not be able to resist a rotational force greater than the force applied to tighten it – which as you’ve probably noticed, isn’t all that much.
  • Elastic stop nuts. There are various kinds of elastic stop nuts, but the concept is the same. The nut thread or some portion of the nut is made to deform elastically, creating friction, which keeps the bolted joint from coming loose. If used properly, with the right amount of applied torque, this can provide a fairly effective locking mechanism.
  • Thread adhesive, or thread-locking fluid. Applied to bolt threads, thread adhesive can be applied both before or after bolting. There are two kinds: removable and permanent. The removable type can be removed by simply applying heat. Note that bolt thread must be cleaned thoroughly and even primed in some cases before adhesive application.

Rather than lock washers, elastic stop nuts and tapered thread nuts are recommended for applications expecting large loads and movement, due to the above mentioned reasons. In any application where the integrity of bolted joints are critical to structural safety, locking washers of any kind as the primary safeguard against rotation are discouraged.

Other measures you can take when dealing with wooden bolted joints is minimizing movement at the joints by sufficient bracing. Vibration, movement, and worst of all, rotation at the joints, can be reduced to a minimum by transferring loads and forces away from joints and toward the foundation. This is done by properly bracing a structure.

Electric Cement Mixer Or Gas Powered Cement Mixer

One of the biggest inconveniences when mixing concrete, is running over an electrical cord, with your wheelbarrow, every time that you go to move a load of concrete that you have just mixed. One of the other inconveniences, when using a gas powered cement mixers, is the fact that you need to turn the gas motor off, when you’re not using it and restart it, when you are.

Each one of these problems can irritate, the workers who are mixing the concrete. I have talked to people that use cement mixers on a regular basis and have gotten two sides to both stories. What’s better than electric cement mixers or a gas powered cement mixers?

It all depends on what you’re going to be doing with the cement mixer. If you’re not going to be mixing your concrete, near electricity, it wouldn’t be a bad idea to purchase a gas powered cement mixer.

If you don’t feel like starting and stopping these large concrete mixing devices and you’re not interested in going down to the gas station, every time that you run out of fuel, I would recommend that you purchase an electric cement mixer.

The most common cement mixer used by professionals, is a gas powered cement mixer. They have more power usually and seem to have less problems and can be located, anywhere. This makes a big difference, when you’re working on large block walls, out in the middle of nowhere.

I own an electric cement mixer and have been happy with it for years. Almost every job that I do, is right next to the house and there is usually an electrical outlet that I can plug into, located conveniently. I also enjoy the fact that I can turn the switch on or off, whenever I’m not mixing concrete. This is one of the most important things to me and would be a determining factor, on my choice, whether to purchase a gas powered cement mixers or an electric powered cement mixers.