How To Build Steps With Stone Pavers

When homeowners incorporate a stone patio or pathway into their yard, many will like to join the two by constructing some steps in matching pavers. Steps made from pavers are also beneficial in areas of your yard when the path would otherwise become quite steep. So, how do you build steps out of pavers?

Marking and Measuring

  1. Use spray paint to outline the path that your steps will follow, then drive stakes into the ground at the top and bottom of this line. Tie a piece of string to the top stake and run it all the way to the bottom one, attaching a line level as you do. Adjust the string until it is level (the bubble on the line level should be in the centre).
  2. Measure the total distance that the pavers will run from the bottom stake to the bottom stake; this is known as the ‘run’ of the steps.
  3. Measure the vertical distance from the string to the ground on the bottom stake (which you leveled off earlier). You can then calculate how many steps you will need by dividing the total rise of the slope (in inches) by 8 (for a steep slope) or by 6 (for a more gentle one).
    Eg. For a 24 inch rise, you will need 3 or 4 steps.
  4. Use spray paint to outline the width of each step on the ground. You will need to estimate the width of each paver you’ll use at the top of the steps, but flat pavers that are at least 12 inches wide tend to work best.

Excavating and Setting Risers

  1. Dig a base trench inside the paint outline that is about 6 inches deep and 18 inches wide. Fill this trench with about 4 inches of gravel and compact it with a compactor.
  2. Place your first lot of pavers into the trench. Use a level on top of each paver as you lay it to ensure that their line is level. Add more gravel underneath is the need to raise the height of a paver or two.
  3. Run a 1 quarter inch S-shaped line of masonry adhesive along the sides of your pavers to glue them together once you have laid them.
  4. Dig a trench for your next lot of pavers, ensuring that you are starting straight back and at the same level as the top of the pavers that you have already laid.
  5. Place your next lot of pavers into the second trench, ensuring that the distance from the ground to the top of the pavers is equal. You can add gravel underneath to level out the pavers if needed.

Continue this process until you have arranged your steps from top to bottom. If you have left any gaps between the pavers, you can fill these in using a mix of 50% compost and 50% soil. Pack it in

tightly using your hands, as this will help to prevent the pavers from shifting.

Flagstone Or Travertine Pavers – You Decide

Flagstone pavers come in various styles and shapes and are installed in an interlocking pattern to create a strong, solid surface with a high-end look. They are made of real, natural stone like limestone, sandstone, or slate that is cut into flat, relatively thin slabs of stone in various shapes and sizes. They are then set into a bed of sand or mortar in an attractive pattern to create a solid surface suitable for patios, pool surrounds, lanais, terraces, walkways, or other landscaping features. They come in many earth tone colors.

Travertine pavers are also made from natural stone, but travertine is a particular kind of stone. Likewise, travertine pavers are cut into various sizes, shapes, and thicknesses of paver stones. Similar to flagstone pavers, travertine pavers can also be installed in a bed of mortar or sand, depending on the intent and use of the landscaping being created. Pavers can also be used for indoor applications, if desired.

Travertine is a high-end product that also comes in many natural beautiful colors and patterns and makes a very attractive solid surface for landscaping features just as those suggested for flagstone pavers. Both have similar benefits and features, so the choice of which you prefer to use really comes down to a personal choice based on appearance, cost, and availability in your area.

Most pavers come with either a honed chiseled finish for a more classic look or a tumbled finish for a more natural, rustic look. They are typically cut about 1 ¼” thick and they are also fitted together in patterns like flagstones when installed. As a natural stone product, most naturally have slight indentations in their surface. These indentations can be filled and smoothed to create a smoother surface; however, they are not polished as that could create a slippery surface and an artificial look. People who prefer a less uniform appearance opt for pavers with an unfilled surface that are then mechanically brushed to create a desirable texture. The edges may also be chiseled for a more dramatic presentation when installed. For people who want an even more natural, rustic appearance, pavers may be tumbled to soften the edges and create natural looking differences for less uniformity. The pavers are literally tumbled with abrasive materials to rough them up to the desired level.

Using natural stone products like flagstone pavers and travertine pavers is a beautiful way to enhance your home and your property. Improvements constructed with pavers have lasting value that will endure the test of time, both in terms of appearance and durability. And, though home decorating and landscaping designs may change over the course of time, beautiful patios, walkways, terraces, lanais, pool surrounds, and landscaping features created with real, natural products will endure.

Concrete or brick pavers and other man-made products like asphalt typically retain heat from the sun. Natural stone pavers do not retain heat, so they are particularly attractive for landscaping areas where people may be lounging or walking around in bare feet. They perform extremely well in tropical climates and hot weather, but they also function in many different climates, as well, and they work effectively in extreme cold climates, too.

If one paver does crack or get damaged inadvertently, pre-cut pavers from natural stones are easy to replace and coordinate in terms of color. They will not fade or change color over time, even with direct exposure to the sun. And pavers are safe for applications where there is water, such as around pools, because the surface will not get slippery, even when wet.

How to Remove Stripped and Rusted Screws

A screw that has been subjected to wear, nicks and other damage, or rusting can be difficult to remove. If the threads have been degraded or stripped off entirely, the fastener may not respond to standard insertion and removal methods, requiring an alternate strategy for addressing the problem. Exposure to a combination of water and oxygen can cause iron-oxide to form on metal screws, creating a rigid and non-reactive surface coating that deteriorates a fastener’s functionality. Like stripped threads or screw damage, this corrosion-rust-can cause a component or machine to fail if the afflicted screw is not properly removed.

Removing a Stripped Screw

While it’s possible to purchase a specialized stripped screw removal kit, in many cases the job can be accomplished using a standard set of tools. One of the major considerations in fastener removal involves slippage. It is important to apply leverage to move the damaged screw in a counterclockwise direction, but using insufficient force or an improperly sized tool can cause your grip to slip away. For this reason, a manual screwdriver can sometimes be better suited than a power drill, as it allows you to apply more pressure, and hence more friction, to rotate the screw without slipping. A socket wrench can also be used to apply additional torque because it provides more arm leverage than a screwdriver, increasing the amount of pressure applied from the same level of physical exertion.

A screwdriver that fails to gain leverage against the stripped screw can be tapped with a hammer to position it properly. If the screw head is damaged, a screw extractor, which features special tapered threads designed to dig into the screw to acquire torque, can be a helpful solution. The extractor can be handled like a standard screwdriver, but if it fails to catch a grip, it may be necessary to drill a hole directly into the screw shaft so the extractor threads can gain traction. When doing so, it is important not to drill too deeply, as that may destroy the head entirely or weaken it enough for it to detach.

Removing a Rusted Screw

A screw that is subjected to moisture for a prolonged period will begin to acquire rust at a rapid pace. This can make it as difficult to remove as a stripped screw, and can ultimately lead to degradation in the quality of the device in which the screw is inserted. If rust has corroded the threads or degraded the screw head, the fastener can be difficult to grip with a screwdriver or a wrench, requiring a different range of solutions than those effective for stripped screws. In cases of severe rusting, there are several available options, including:

o Cutting: If a rusted fastener can no longer be salvaged, cutting it out may be the last viable solution. A splitter, cut-off wheel, or powerful shears can be used to slice it, though they will make the screw unusable for future projects. Likewise, employing a vise-grip to pull off the screw head and remove it from the slot will permanently break the screw.

o Torching: A low-powered gas torch can often solve a rusted fastener problem. Sufficiently heating a screw may cause it to expand enough to be loosened from its slot. It is important, however, to follow safety precautions when employing a torch or any other mechanical device, especially because some screw lubricants or coatings are flammable and may ignite when put under a flame.

o Lubrication: Lubrication may be a simpler screw removal option, as it relies on relatively little equipment to succeed. Various kinds of industrial or commercial lubricants can penetrate to a fastener’s threads. After apply a lubricant, tapping the screw head will help it pass through the fitting and reach the screw shaft, loosening the screw enough to be removed with pliers or a screwdriver.

Best Radiator Flush Method Ends 5 Nasty Problems All Radiators Have for Maximum Protection

5 hidden, harmful engine cooling system conditions to remove to prevent costly engine damage

  1. Anti-freeze over 4 years old that has turned acidic
  2. A residue film that holds heat in – like insulation
  3. Internal cracks on radiator and heater hoses
  4. Water pump seal and leaky head gasket that mysteriously lowers your coolant level
  5. Your radiator cooling fan quit running

My method, I use and teach to mechanics is the best way to remove those conditions and avoid the worst day of your life – sitting in your car along side the road, stalled by an overheated motor.

What you should know

Your radiator cooling system coolant always flows with 15lbs pressure – upon it, because that pressure raises its boiling point from 212 degrees, to 250 degrees. That higher boiling point helps keep your coolant in a liquid state, allowing it to absorb greater amounts of heat from your motors combustion area.

This process keeps your motor and transmission at their ideal operating level. When your motors cooling system is clean and all parts are in top shape, the system does the best job of instantly transferring massive amounts of heat your motors combustion process and friction develops, to the outside, cooler world.

A heat activated valve [thermostat] controls [slows] the coolants flow volume as it circulates through the radiator. This slower, precisely controlled flow allows just enough time for the boiling hot, 250 degree coolant to transfer its heat load [heat always goes from hot to cooler areas] to the radiator tubes and fins and then to the cooler air flowing pass them. The combustion zone part of your motor is constantly absorbing 500 plus degrees of heat, which the coolant is constant absorbing and transferring to the outside.

So far, what’s the problem? There’s five of them.

Electrolysis – for one thing, a natural process of decay that eats holes in metal and gasket material, and shrinks rubber seals – and of course, causes leaks. Electrolysis speeds-up when your coolant breaks-down and turns acidic; at its fourth birthday. Acid-loaded anti-freeze speeds up electrolysis and it hole creating.

When a leaks occurs, the 15lbs of system pressure [controlled by your radiator cap] can empty 50% of your coolant out the tiny, new hole in 15 minutes – without your ever knowing it until your motor cooks itself to death – like a roast left in your oven way to long.

I’ll show you an easy way to clean and end those and other problems all at the same time, below.

Well anyhow, as your coolant ages and dis-intricates from heat, acid, and time, a sticky goo forms and coats the entire cooling system. Its acts as an insulator limiting the rapid flow of heat from the coolant to the outside. Your motor and transmission oil begins to run much hotter – heat weakens oils ability to to lube by up to 90%. That is not good! There’s nothing as bad a little extra heat keep inside to kill your engine and transmission day in, day out, I always.

Acids, heat, and pressure harden the inside of your heaters hoses, and radiator hoses. Under pressure, They expand – contract, when cool. This creates internal splits – and become a candidates for leaks. Change the when 5 or 6 years old – your second system flush time.

Ditto for the same problems to the water pump seal. If you lose coolant with no visible leak. The pump seal – from wear will suck in air. Or a failing head gasket will push combustion into the coolant. Either one will form a basketball size air pocket – and force your water out – as steam. A repair is needed.

So, there you have it!

The problem inside your radiator. Now, here is what to do about them.

A company called Mega Power has a product you can order on line – info below, to service your radiator yourself. Three products are involved – each will end one or more of the 5 problems.

You will save your engine and transmission using this radiator service product.

The Mega Power chemistry safely removes the scum in minutes, as it neutralizes the acids – ending those two problems.

The two remaining products pack the coolant molecules closer together – a speedup of cooling occurs and a great motor transmission protection occurs. They add a form of conditioning to keep the hoses and water pump seal pliable. They contain a stop leak that has no particles -as all other product do. If ever a leak occurs- it will stop it without a whimper, as you go down the road of life.

Since no other brand can end all five problems, I feel Mega Power is the best for your radiator cooling system! I think you will too! You can learn more and order the product on line at this link.

Negatives to Using Wood Posts in a Crawl Space

Crawl space foundations are very popular, and it’s easy to understand why. Builders often prefer this type of foundation because it requires much less excavation work than a full-height basement foundation. Crawl spaces can be built quickly and inexpensively, offering a very practical way to “get out of the ground,” in builder’s parlance.

Unfortunately, putting too great a focus on economy can lead to some substandard construction practices. Some contractors deliberately take shortcuts and cost-cutting steps, while others do it because they don’t know any better. Either way, using the wrong materials and the wrong details inevitably causes problems.

Wooden Posts: Easy and Inexpensive

A typical crawl space foundation contains at least one beam or girder that runs the length of the foundation, providing mid-span support for the first floor joists. Since the “footprint” or plan of the house is usually too wide for a single joist to span its total width, one or more centrally located girders support joist ends which typically overlap the girder and each other.

Girders or beams also require mid-span support to prevent them from sagging near the middle. Wooden posts were once used to provide this support while resting on concrete pads or piers.

This framing system has been a standard treatment used in conjunction with crawl space foundations for many years. The girder or beam can be made from a single large-dimension piece of lumber such as a 6×10 or 6×12; but the framing crew is just as likely to have built up a thick, deep beam by nailing together several 2x10s or 2x12s. Regardless of the beam treatment, wood posts were installed at regular intervals beneath the beam to keep it from sagging. For framing contractors, this all-wood structural system is simple, inexpensive and easy to execute.

Problems with Wooden Posts

The weak link in the above described floor framing system is without doubt the wood posts that are supposed to keep beams straight and strong. They often fail in this regard for several reasons.

For starters, carpenters often wedge thin wood shims (or tapered wood shingles) between the top of the wood post and the bottom edge of the beam to make the post fit more snugly in place. Usually because the post was cut slightly short, the beam lost some of its width due to shrinkage, or the natural irregularities common to dimension lumber.

While the shims may do their job initially, they too are prone to shrinkage, shifting and compression of the weight of the floor. Over time, the beam can also shrink as it loses moisture, creating a loose-fitting post. When support beneath the beam is inadequate, the beam and floor begin to sag.

Another problem that compromises the stability of the floor system is the mold and rot that often take hold in a damp crawl space environment. A wood post can easily wick up moisture from a concrete footing that’s in contact with moist soil. Since mold thrives where there’s cellulose and moisture, wood posts can weaken from decay associated with mold. When this happens, their strength and stability suffers.

The Solution: Adjustable, All-steel Supports

Anyone dealing with sinking, bowing or bouncy floors knows this situation isn’t one you want to endure for long. Home safety and property value suffer, and like the failing posts below the first floor, furniture must be shimmed up to maintain its proper orientation.

Fortunately, the problems caused by wooden support posts in a crawl space can be overcome by replacing these posts with adjustable steel support posts designed precisely for this retrofit application– so it can be raised slightly if the beam shrinks. You never have to worry about a steel post weakening because of rot, and some posts are treated with a thick galvanized coating to avoid corrosion problems.

Remember: Wood is good in many construction applications. But for the posts that support the center of the main floor over a crawl space, adjustable steel posts provide long-term stability, strength and durability that wood posts can’t match.

How to Remove Gel Nails Without Acetone

There are women who are particular about beauty and one of those techniques is having pretty and chic nails. Nowadays there are a lot of ways in beautifying one’s set of nails such as applying nail polish to boost their appearance. But there are also other nail beautifying alternatives that include applying gel nails.

Gel nails are a great choice of artificial nails for women who cannot grow their nails naturally long. This type of artificial nails looks really beautiful and natural in any way. You can even add nail art on it if you want to have unique look of your nails. These nails are made available to various beauty stores and nail salons these days, and are not that expensive. These are actually affordable and are indeed perfect for special occasions like parties and events.

Gel nails may be removed by the use of acetone, but acetone is harmful for nails and skin. Plenty of women prefer to use acetone-free gel nail removal techniques, and the best thing you can do is to go to a nail salon and have your nails removed by a nail professional. They are trained and skilled beauty technicians who know how to remove them safely. However, if you choose to remove them yourself, there are many acetone-free gel removal techniques that are easy to do.

Foil Wrap Removal Method

The first thing you should do is prepare your gel nails for removal by taking off all traces of enamel and the surface is rubbed with a 240 grit file. Dip the remover in a bowl of warm water for about two minutes and making sure not to exceed five minutes. Use one of the following to drench with remover: a gauze pad, a cotton ball or a cotton pad, to be placed on top of the enhancement surface. Next is to cover the cotton pad securely in a square tin foil to avoid evaporation, and leave this for about 30 minutes. You may check for development with a cuticle pusher to make sure the product is completely removed. When it is done, rub the surface of the nails to ensure all gel nails have been effectively taken off. Then rinse your hands thoroughly, and apply hand lotion to condition your nails and skin.

The Bowl Soaking Method

These nails should be prepared for removal as well with the use of a 240-grit nail file. Use a bowl to fill with warm water, and mix in the remover enough for soaking your fingers. Cover your hands with a towel and leave for 20 to 30 minutes. After lifting and patting dry your hands, continue removing the gel nail with a cuticle pusher.

3 Types Of Web Application Architecture

Such terms as ”web app”, ”front-end architecture”, ”Web 2.0”, and ”HTML5 apps” have recently become trendy. Unfortunately these terms are often used in a misleading context which doesn’t consider the full specificity of implementation and usage of web app architecture. Today we’ll try to find out more about the types of web application architecture in the light of the latest web trends and key issues that matter to software owners.

We’ll outline 3 main types of web architecture and discuss their advantages and drawbacks for three points of view: software owner, software contractor (developer) and end user. There can be other types but they basically come down to these three as their subtypes.

First we’ll define a web application: it’s a client-server application – there is a browser (the client) and a web server. The logic of a web application is distributed among the server and the client, there’s a channel for information exchange, and the data is stored mainly on the server. Further details depend on the architecture: different ones distribute the logic in different ways. It can be placed on the server as well as on the client side.

It’s near to impossible to evaluate these completely different architectures impartially. But we’ll try to, using several criteria of evaluation:


Responsiveness/Usability. Updates of data on pages, switching between pages (response time). Such qualities of user interface as richness and intuitiveness in use.

Linkability. Ability to save bookmarks and links to various sections of the website.

Offline work. Speaks for itself.


Speed of development. Addition of new functional features, refactoring, parallelizing the development process between developers, layout designers, etc.

Performance. Maximum speed of response from the server with minimum consumption of computation power.

Scalability. Ability to increase computation power or disc space under increases in amounts of information and/or number of users. In case the allocated scalable system is used, one must provide data consistence, availability and partition tolerance (CAP theorem). It’s also worth noting that the case, when the number of features/screens of the client app is increased at the software owner’s request, depends on the framework and implementation rather than the type of web architecture.

Testability. Possibility and easiness of automated unit testing.

Software owner:

Functional extendability. Adding functionality within minimal time and budget.

SEO. Users must be able to find the application through any search engine.

Support. Expenses on app infrastructure – hardware, network infrastructure, maintenance staff.

Security. The software owner must be sure that both business data and information about users are kept secure. As the main security criterion we’ll consider the possibility of changes in functionality of app behavior on the client side, and all associated risks. Standard dangers are the same for the compared architectures. We do not consider security on the ‘server-client’ channel, because all these architectures are equally exposed to break-ins – this channel can be the same.

Conversion: site – mobile or desktop application. Possibility to publish the application on mobile markets or to make a desktop application out of it with minimal additional costs.

Some of these criteria might seem inaccurate, but the purpose of the article is not to show what’s good and what’s bad. It’s more of a detailed review that shows the possible options of choice.

Let’s outline three main types of web applications according to the roles performed by the server and the client browser.

Type 1: Server-side HTML

The most widespread architecture. The server generates HTML-content and sends it to the client as a full-fledged HTML-page. Sometimes this architecture is called ”Web 1.0”, since it was the first to appear and currently dominates the web.

Responsiveness/Usability: 1/5. The least optimal value among these architectures. It’s so because there is a great amount of data transferred between the server and the client. The user has to wait until the whole page reloads, responding to trivial actions, for example, when only a part of the page needs to be reloaded. UI templates on the client depend directly on the frameworks applied on the server. Due to the limitations of mobile internet and huge amounts of transferred data, this architecture is hardly applicable in the mobile segment. There are no means of sending instant data updates or changes in real time. If we consider the possibility of real-time updates via generation of ready chunks of content on the server side and updates of the client (through AJAX, WebSockets), plus design with partial changes of a page, we’ll go beyond this architecture.

Linkability: 5/5. The highest of the three, since it’s the easiest implementable. It’s due to the fact that by default one URL receives particular HTML-content on the server.

SEO: 5/5. Rather easily implemented, similarly to the previous criterion – the content is known beforehand.

Speed of development: 5/5. This is the oldest architecture, so it’s possible to choose any server language and framework for particular needs.

Scalability: 4/5. If we take a look at the generation of HTML, under the increasing load comes the moment when load balance will be needed. There’s a much more complicated situation with scaling databases, but this task is the same for these three architectures.

Performance: 3/5. Tightly bound to responsiveness and scalability in terms of traffic, speed etc. Performance is relatively low because a big amount of data must be transferred, containing HTML, design, and business data. Therefore it’s necessary to generate data for the whole page (not only for the changed business data), and all the accompanying information (such as design).

Testability: 4/5. The positive thing is that there’s no need in special tools, which support JavaScript interpretation, to test the front-end, and the content is static.

Security: 4/5. The application behavior logic is on the server side. However, data are transferred overtly, so a protected channel may be needed (which is basically a story of any architecture that concerns the server). All the security functionality is on the server side.

Conversion: site – mobile or desktop application: 0/5. In most cases it’s simply impossible. Rarely there’s an exception (more of exotics): for example, if the server is realized upon node.js, and there are no large databases; or if one utilizes third-party web services for data acquisition (however, it’s a more sophisticated variant of architecture). Thus one can wrap the application in node-webkit or analogous means.

Offline work: 2/5. Implemented with a manifest on the server, which is entered to HTML5 specifications. If the browser supports such a specification, all pages of the application will be cached: in case the connection is off, the user will see a cached page.

Type 2: JS generation widgets (AJAX)

Evolved architecture of the first type. The difference is that the page, which is displayed in the browser, consists of widgets (functionally independent units). Data are uploaded to these widgets through AJAX query from the server: either as a full-fledged chunk of HTML, or as JSON, and transforms (through JavaScript-templating/binding) into the content of the page. The option of uploading chunks of HTML excludes the necessity of using JavaScript-MV*-frameworks on the client side; in this case something simpler can be used – for example, jQuery. By lowering interactivity we boost the development speed and make functionality cheaper and more reliable.

The foremost advantage is that updates from the server arrive only for the part of the page requested by the client. It’s also good that widgets are separated functionally. A particular widget is in charge of a part of the page; changes in a part will not affect the whole page.

Responsiveness/Usability: 3/5. The volume of transferred data for a part of a page is smaller than for the whole page, that’s why responsiveness is higher. But since a page is a set of widgets, the applicable UI templates in a web application are limited by the chosen UI framework. Cold start (the first full loading) of such a page will take a little longer. The content, which is fully generated and cached on the server, can be instantly displayed on the client; here time is spent on getting the data for the widget and, as a rule, on templating. At the first visit the website will not be that quick to load, but further it will be much more pleasant in use, if compared to sites based on the architecture of the first type. Also it’s worth to mention the possibility of implementation of ”partial” loading (like it’s done on

Linkability: 2/5. Here special tools and mechanisms are needed. As a rule, Hash-Bang mechanism is applied.

SEO: 2/5. There are special mechanisms for these tasks. For example, for promotion of websites based on this architecture it’s possible to predefine the list of promoted pages and make static URLs for them, without parameters and modificators.

Speed of development: 3/5. Not only does one need to know the server-side technologies, but also to use JavaScript frameworks on the client side. It’s also required to implement web services on the server side.

Performance: 4/5. The time and resources, spent on generation of HTML-content, are relatively minor if compared to the time spent by the app on retrieving data from the databases, and on their processing before templating. Use of the extended type of this architecture (when data are transferred as JSON) lowers the traffic between the client and the server, but adds an abstraction level to the application: retrieval from database -> data processing, serialization in JSON -> API: JSON -> parsing of JSON -> binding of data object on the client to HTML.

Scalability: 4/5. Same as for the first type of architecture.

Testability: 1/5. It’s required to test the server side, the client code, and the web service which returns the data to update widgets.

Security: 4/5. Part of the logic is shifted to the client JavaScript which can be modified by an intruder.

Conversion: site – mobile or desktop application: 0/5. Same as for the first type of architecture.

Offline work: 1/5. The manifest mechanism works in this case, but there’s a problem with updating or caching the data displayed on the widget. This functionality has to be implemented additionally: in the manifest can be indicated only names of the files which will be cached from the server. Correlation between the widget template file, cached in the manifest, and logic of page behavior requires extra labor efforts.

Type 3: Service-oriented single-page Web apps (Web 2.0, HTML5 apps)

Here we’d like to say that the term ”Web 2.0” isn’t quite correct here. One of peculiarities of Web 2.0 is the principle of involving users into filling and repeated adjustments of content. Basically the term ”Web 2.0” means projects and services which are actively developed and improved by users themselves: blogs, wikis, social networks. This means Web 2.0 isn’t bound to one technology or a set of technologies.

Let’s figure out the essence of this architecture. An HTML-page is downloaded from the server. This page is a container for JavaScript-code. This code adresses a particular web service and retrieves business data only. The data are used by JavaScript application, which generates the HTML-content of the page. This type of architecture is the evolution of the previous type, which actually is a self-sufficient and rather complex JavaScript application, where part of the functionality is shifted to the client side. To compare, the architecture of the second type cannot show a high number of interrelated and structured functions.

It’s also worth noting that nowadays rarely do appear JavaScript apps which work fully offline (with few exceptions, e.g. This approach allows an easily made reverse conversion: publish an existing application on the web.

Responsiveness/Usability: 5/5. The volume of data transferred for updates, is minimal. That’s why responsiveness is at the highest level. UI is generated via JavaScript, it’s possible to implement any necessary variants. There is an issue with multithreading in JavaScript: in this particular case processing of big volumes of business data should be shifted to the web service.

Linkability: 1/5. One will need special tools and mechanisms, as well as frameworks which can use, for example, Hash-Bang mechanism.

SEO: 1/5. The hardest architecture to promote. If the whole app is promoted directly, there’s no problem: it’s possible to promote the application container. If it’s needed for a part of the application, a special mechanism will be needed for that purpose. Each more or less big search engine offers its own methods of standartization for this process.

Speed of development: 2/5. It’s required to develop a web service and apply more specialized JavaScript frameworks which build the app architecture. Since the architecture is relatively new, there aren’t many specialists who are able to create a high-quality site/system based on this approach. There aren’t many time-tested tools, frameworks and approaches.

Performance: 5/5. Under this architecture this criterion has the lowest influence from the server side. The server only has to give the JavaScript application to the browser. On the client side performance and browser type are of the biggest importance.

Scalability: 5/5. All the web logic is on the client side, there is no content generation on the server. When there’s an increase in the number of users, it’s required to scale only the web services that give the business data.

Testability: 3/5. It’s required to test web services and the client JavaScript code.

Security: 0/5. All the logic is shifted to the client JavaScript, which can be relatively easily modified by an intruder. For protected systems it’s required to develop a preventive architecture, which considers the peculiarities of open-source applications.

Conversion: site – mobile or desktop application: 5/5. A website becomes an application with the help of such platform as PhoneGap or similar ones.

Offline work: 5/5. This architecture is a full-fledged application; it’s possible to save separate data, as well as parts of the application using any storage (for example, localstorage). One more advantage is the possibility to switch data storage and management to the offline mode. To compare, the two aforementioned arhitectures are only partially functional in the offline. Here the missing data can be replaced with mocks, it’s possible to show alert windows or use data from the local storage, while synchronization may be left for later.

Thus we can see that there’s no perfect architecture – the optimal choice depends on tasks and priorities. If some criterion wasn’t mentioned here, it doesn’t mean it was ignored – it’s just the fact that for each particular software project every criterion has different importance. Each project must be discussed separately so the software owner will be able to make a choice. For every real project one of these criteria may be defining. It’s also possible to optimize the architecture of the app or implement a hybrid architecture which will perfectly meet the business requirements.

Arch Supports – #1 Metatarsalgia Treatment

Can Arch Supports Help Relieve my Metatarsalgia Pain?

Metatarsalgia involves a sharp, dull or burning pain around the forefoot, or ball of foot. It is particularly common among women who wear high heeled and pointed toed shoes. The pain is normally felt under the middle toes at the ball of the foot. You may feel like you are ‘stepping on a golf ball’ or a pebble and can experience tingling of the toes.

One of the most common findings with metatarsalgia is dropped metatarsal heads. This can sometimes be associated with overpronation. Pronation occurs when the foot moves in an inward rolling motion that usually causes the arch of the foot to flatten when pressure is applied. Overpronation is when this rolling motion is excessive. To improve this biomechanical issue, your doctor may recommend arch supports (foot orthotics). It can also occur in a more rigid, supinated foot.

How Are Arch Supports Designed For Metatarsalgia?

Proper supports designed for metatarsalgia will work to minimize the stress on the metatarsal bones and metatarso-phalangeal joints (the joints at the base of the toes at the ball of the foot). Metatarsal pads are often added to the device help relieve pressure at this painful point on the foot while supporting the arches at the same time.

Arch supports for metatarsalgia in the pronated foot include this padding and support to prevent excessive motion of the foot and ankle joints. Pain and injury can easily occur due to poor foot alignment associated with overpronation, so pronation should be addressed in treatment if it is present. In a supinated foot, foot orthotics can offer support to accommodate high arches.

Foot orthotics for metatarsalgia also help distribute your weight away from the central painful area and more evenly over all five metatarsal bones, and throughout the feet. This reduction in pressure reduces metatarsalgia pain. By supporting both the longitudinal (regular arch) and transverse arches (across the foot), they help provide stability and relief from fatigue as well as pain. Metatarsalgia can be a very painful condition and arch supports specific designed for the condition are usually the best solution.

Building Traffic With Keywords

When you are writing revenue share articles or articles promoting affiliate links, building traffic to your articles is essential. Traffic building is key to the financial success of any article or website. Some of the ways of building traffic are through back-linking, social marketing and forums. One good way of building traffic organically for free is to use good keywords throughout your article. Keywords are words and word phrases that people type into their web browsers when they search for information. Using good keywords in your article enables the search engines to find you and put your site or article in front of people who type in the keywords you target. Building traffic with keywords does require some work, but it is time well spent.

Where To Keywords For Building Traffic

There are many programs on the Internet that you can purchase to help when building traffic with keywords. The problem with most of these software programs is that they are over-priced and don’t give you real value for your money. The only software program I would pay for personally is Market Samuria. The reason is because it is more than just a keyword generator. This program does way more than just help you find good keywords. It shows you exactly who your competition is, what words they are NOT targeting, gives you insight on the small niches you can exploit to get a bigger return on investment, and also links to products you can sell using those keywords. That is just the tip of the iceberg, but it is also another post for next week.

There is no reason to pay for keyword generating programs as long as you know where to find them and are willing to do the work necessary to dig up those little golden nuggets that will pay big dividends long term. The most favorite tool among all marketers is the Google AdWords tool. But there are also a couple of lesser known ones that are useful as well. Trellion’s Keyword Discovery tool and SpyFu are excellent companions for cross referencing keywords with the Google AdWords tool. Finally, there is also the Keyword Difficulty Tool at This tool gives you even more insight into how difficult it will be to rank for different keywords.

What To Look For When Building Traffic

Generally you want to find words that have the least competition with the most traffic. Typically I look for words that have at least 20,000 searches a month with a medium level of competition. Now when I say medium level of competition, I am not talking about the number of competitors. Rather I am looking at what the first page of Google brings up. Why? Because that is where I want my article to rank for that particular keyword. If the first 10 results show high authority sites, I will keep looking; however if half the results on the first page consist of HubPages, Squidoo lenses and eHow articles, chances are I am going to rank well in a short amount of time.

Stay away from single and double word keywords when building traffic with keywords. Instead focus on three and four word key phrases. These are the keyword combinations that will help rocket your article to the front page of Google for that search term.

How To Effectively Use Keywords When Building Traffic

You need to use the keyword and key phrases you are targeting several times within your article. You do not want to insert them where it makes your article read badly or over-stuff the article with them because the Google God’s will look down upon you. Instead, attempt to use the keyword in the title of the article, once in the first paragraph, maybe two or three times in the body of your article and in the last sentence of your article. This peppers the keyword and key phrase without making the article look or read spammy. When building traffic with keywords, the words should flow effortlessly yet be in the article enough that the search engines notice.

House Of The Rising Sun Chords

A very popular song that will add confidence to your piano playing is called The House Of The Rising Sun. It is an easy one to play and to sing along with. One can play it in the Key of A minor and here you can use the following chord chart:

Am – C – D – F – Am – C – E

Am – C – D – F – Am – E – Am

You can also play this moderately slow song (Andante moderato) in the Key of E minor. I have transposed the music 5 half-steps down. Here is what the piano and guitar chord chart looks like:

House of the Rising Sun

Em G A C

There is a house in New Orleans,

Em G B7

They call the “Rising Sun”,

Em G A C

It’s been the ruin of many a poor girl

Em B Em B7

And God, I know, I’m one.

The left hand arpeggiated chords or broken chords would be played as single notes, one at a time, in such a smooth, legato style. For those who sight-read, you would be observing the slur marks. Let us begin with a chord breakdown. It really helps to know your chords or to have a chord dictionary in your music library. Many online resources are available for this as well.

First, you would play the Em chord with the single notes, E-G-B. Next, the G Major would have this inversion, D-G-B. Followed by A Major, play another inversion, C#-E-A and then C-E-A.

You will be anticipating the B7 chord change that stands out in the song. How I love that sound. At this point, you will want to play these bass notes, F#-B-D#. Keep in mind, while playing in the Key of E minor, the key signature has one sharp and that is F#. It is the same when you are playing a song in G Major, too.

So whether you play the song down low or choose to play an octave higher the second time for a more dramatic effect, you will want your melody line to be very melodic and flowing. Here are the single notes for the right hand.

B-E -F#-G-B-A-E-E (There is a house in New Orleans)

E-E-E-D-D-B (They call the rising sun)

B-E-F#-G-B-A-E-E (It’s been the ruin of many a poor boy)

E-E-B-B-E-E (and God, I know I’m one.)

Have fun playing the song for your own enjoyment and sharing with others.

Aquaponics Design – How to Create Your Very Own Aquaponics Design

Knowing how to create your very own Aquaponics design is not an intuitive thing to consider. The main deciding factor in this design will have to be the space you have available for your Aquaponics farm. This can include both the horizontal area and the vertical area that is available.

Because this style of farming is in its infancy, there is no established Aquaponics design that is considered to be the main stay for them. Most of the farmers in this type of business are there to make money. For this reason they make the most of the available space they have at their disposal.

The one constant there is in all Aquaponics design concepts is that the fish tank is on the floor of the facility or room. This is mainly due to the weight of the water. This is the same reason the collection tank from the run off of the bedding tanks is also located on the floor.

The simplest design is the flood and drain system where the plant bedding is located on top of the fish tank. If you are very limited on space, this Aquaponics design is best suited for you. The water in the fish tank will drop when the plant bed is being flooded, but it would return as the water works its way through the bed and back to the fish tank without the assistance of a pump.

Because the pump for flooding the plant bedding would be in the fish tank, the pump will be small and should have a screen on it to prevent any large fecal matter from entering the pump causing it to fail. This screen would need to be periodically cleaned as part of a routine maintenance program.

The Ebb and Flow design is the one that mimic nature. This allows for the flooding of the plant bedding then the total draining of the water away before the next flooding event occurs. Just like a tidal surge, the roots will then receive oxygen directly from the air since they will be periodically exposed. This also prevents the buildup of solids in the root system of the plants.

A sump pump system for your Aquaponics design has advantages that none of the rest offer. It does require 2 pumps to work; there is also an added tank for the raising of fingerlings so you can always have a fresh supply of new fish that will not be eaten by the adult fish.

The water is pumped from the fish tanks to the plant bedding. There it flows via gravity to the sump pump tank. Once the level in the sump pump tank reaches a preset height, the water is pumped back into the fish tank. This can be set up lineally or in a circle. The choice of this Aquaponics design is that of the owner and the available space.

These are just a few ideas on how to create your very own Aquaponics design to best fit your needs and the space you have available.

Hardwood Vs Softwood? Which Wood When?

Starting with the fundamentals for the novice woodworker, wood comes from trees, however there are couple of additional basic details. You may possibly know of two unique types referred to as Hardwoods and Softwoods. The peculiar point is actually that all hardwoods do not happen to be hard, and to add more to the bafflement not all softwoods are soft. Truth is some hardwood is softer than some softwood!

For example just take the preferred wood widely used to build model boats and airplanes, Balsa wood. It is one of the softest and lightest variety of wood available, but not the absolute lightest. Pound for pound, however, it is remarkably strong for its weight. Balsa is a hardwood.

The Yew tree provides an extremely hard kind of wood. Actually Yew is undoubtedly as hard a wood as one of the hardest hardwood, however, Yew is a softwood.

Perhaps you are asking yourself just how or where these puzzling terms originate. Well, Hardwood comes from broad-leafed trees and Softwood is related with fir trees. Common Hardwoods being used in do-it-yourself and construction projects consist of Oak, Ash, Teak, Birch, and Mahogany.

Oak wood has great strength and hardness, and is very resistant to insect and fungal attack. Today oak wood is commonly used for furniture making, flooring, timber frame buildings, and for veneer production. It is a popular choice material amongst professional carpenters & joiners. Novice do-it-yourself woodworking project enthusiasts should avoid working with Oak wood since it is an incredibly tough wood.

On the other hand, Ash is a hard, strong and elastic wood, which is why it is extensively used for handles and sports equipment. Ash veneers (thin slices of wood, usually thinner than 3 mm (1/8 inch), that are typically glued onto core panels (typically, wood particle board or medium-density fiberboard) are commonly used in the construction of office furniture as oppose as Birch veneers which is quite popular in the making of home furnishings and musical instruments.

Teak is a hard and durable kind of wood closely associated with the making of furniture, floors, doors and, window frames. Because of our awareness of the importance of sustaining natural resources, Iroko (African Teak) wood, being a more sustainable resource, has largely replaced teak. Iroko color is initially yellow but darkens to a richer brown over time. It is a very durable wood; Iroko does not require regular treatment with oil or varnish when used outdoors. Although it is almost as durable as teak it does not have the same stability.

Birch wood is fine-grained and pale in color, often with an attractive satin-like sheen. Birch wood is suitable for veneer, and birch ply is among the strongest and most dimensionally-stable plywood, although it is unsuitable for exterior use. Birch ply is made from lamination of birch veneer. It is light but strong and has many other good properties. Birch ply is used to make long boards (skateboard), giving it a strong yet flexible ride.

Mahogany wood is a richly colored material that is among the more valuable wood species in the world. It is known for its unique pink coloring, which develops into a deep reddish-brown as the wood ages. Unlike alternative wood products such as oak or pine, mahogany wood features very few knots or voids. This gives the wood a smooth, even grain pattern, which makes it ideal for fine furnishings and wood craft.

Of the Softwoods, Pine, because of long lasting, fast growing, and fairly low-priced character is without question largely in use. In fact, it is frequently used and directly linked with diversified product categories such as furniture, window frames, paneling, flooring, cabinet building etc.

Spruce is one of the most important woods for paper manufacture, as it has long wood fibers which bind together to make strong paper. Spruce wood, often called whitewood, is used for many purposes, ranging from general construction work and crates to highly specialized uses in wooden aircraft and many musical instruments, including guitars, mandolins, cellos, violins, and the soundboard at the heart of a piano. Because this species has no insect or decay resistance qualities after logging, it is generally recommended for construction purposes as indoor use only (ex. indoor drywall framing). This wood, when left outside can not be expected to last more than 12-18 months depending on the type of climate it is exposed to. It is commonly referred to by several different names which include North American timber, SPF (spruce, pine, fir) and whitewood.

Larch is a wood valued for its tough, waterproof and durable qualities; top quality knot-free timber is in great demand for building yachts and other small boats, for exterior cladding of buildings and interior paneling. The timber is resistant to rot when in contact with the ground, and is suitable for use as posts and in fencing. In central Europe Larch is viewed as one of the best wood materials for the building of residences.

Lastly keep in mind that wood is offered in a variety of dimensions and types (boards, planks, sheets etc) to fit specific purposes. Therefore comprehending the particular features of the different woods available will certainly guide you through making the right choice for your woodworking project.

What Are the Average Construction Costs For a Steel Building?

There are lots of variables that go into calculating the cost of constructing a building. Building your steel building yourself will cost you less than contracting a crew, assuming you’re not paying yourself an hourly wage. But for sake of giving the best average price for a steel building let include all labor costs. The average price per square foot for a basic steel building is anywhere between $6 and $20. Let’s take a look at what variables influence the construction costs of a steel building.


The labor cost of the construction of a basic steel structure typically ranges from $3-$10 per square foot. This price range takes into consideration variables such as the size and location of your building and the competitiveness of your areas labor force. Keep in mind these prices are for an average building, if you are erecting a highly complex building the construction time will increase and so the price of construction will clearly increase.


Steel buildings don’t always require a concrete foundation, but if your building does, be prepared to pay about $6 more per square foot. Depending on the size of the job and the crew prices can range a couple dollars higher or lower. Sometimes it is less expensive to contract the pouring of your concrete foundation separate from the building construction crew.


Insulation in a metal building is one of those finishes that comes with a sizable construction price tag. However, adding insulation does add significant value to the building. It soundproofs your steel building and makes it more energy efficient. The labor and construction of installing insulation in a steel building with unobstructed interiors adds $1-$2 per square foot to the cost of construction.


Constructing a steel building is a relatively simple process because all of the components are rather large, come pre-engineered and are attached with bolts and rivets. Therefore, unfortunately, it’s the small details what end up costing the most because they are what take the most time to assemble. Additions like faux paneling, custom canopies, and other detailed accessories can drive up the costs of construction for any steel building.

All in all, the price of construction will directly correlate with the complexity of your building. Between contractors prices should be in the same ballpark, but there will be some differentiation depending on the efficiency and specialties of the different crews. For instance, experts in metal buildings or in concrete may be able to cut costs in specific areas of the one jobs while still supplying superior quality because they are that good at what they do.

That being said, if you decide to take advantage several crews vying over one job by pinning them against one another in a price war, do not simply go with the contractor that gives you the best bottom dollar bid. Think about it. There are only so many places a contractor can safely cut costs. In the end, the contractor is going to make sure he or she needs to make a profit on the job so be cautious of extremely low bids. A bid that seems too good to be true probably is. Refer to a contractors previous work, contact their prior customers, and even try to visit some of their previously built buildings to get an idea of what you’re paying for.

Rough Openings For Doors

One of the most important parts of framing walls is getting

the rough openings right. Items that determine what the

height of One of the most important parts of framing walls is getting

the rough openings right. Items that determine what the

height of your opening will be are floor finishes and the

use of underlayment. Door widths will stay constant with the

size of a standard door.

In new construction most doors are hung after the floors are

installed. This allows flooring contractors (tile, hardwood,

vinyl, laminate) to lay their flooring products without

making tricky cuts around door jambs. It also makes for a

neat and clean door installation. Exceptions to this are

carpeted floors. Doors are hung before the carpeting is

laid. When doors are hung in carpeted areas, its a good idea

to shim them up 1/2″, putting a shim under each jamb leg.

This eliminates the need to cut the doors down after the

carpet is installed.

For a 6′ 8″ high door (80 inches) I like to frame my rough

opening height at 82 3/4″. This allows room for all the

situations mentioned above. If your header material is a

double 2×12, holding it to the top plate will give you that


Rough openings for door widths are pretty much standard. The

rough opening width is 2 inches wider than the door itself.

this allows room for the door jambs which are usually 3/4″

thick. This gives you approximately 1/2″ of play and shim

room when installing a prehung door. For a 36″ door (3′ 0″)

the rough opening width would be 38″. Here are the most

common door sizes and their rough openings.

Door Size Rough Opening Size

2′ 0″ x 6’8″ -26″ x 82 3/4″

2′ 2″ x 6’8″ -28″ x 82 3/4″

2′ 4″ x 6’8″ -30″ x 82 3/4″

2′ 6″ x 6’8″ -32″ x 82 3/4″

2′ 8″ x 6’8″ -34″ x 82 3/4″

2′ 10″x 6’8″ -36″ x 82 3/4″

3′ 0″ x 6’8″ -38″ x 82 3/4″

To figure the rough opening for double doors or french

doors, take the door size times 2 and add 2″. The most

common sizes for exterior doors are the 2’8″ and the 3’0″

doors. The 2’8″ is usually used for the back door and the

access door from the garage. That size door for exterior use

is being used less these days because of the size of

appliances and furniture. Exterior doors with sidelights and

sliding patio doors rough openings vary from manufacturer to

manufacturer. These should be verified and gotten from the


Getting the rough openings right the first time keeps the

sawzall in its carrying case and having to change the

opening after the walls are drywalled and painted.

Mike Merisko (c) 2006

Primer Surfacer – The Final Fill

The Purpose

Primer surfacer is the final step or your final chance to produce the perfect surface with the correct texture before painting. Scratches and small imperfections can be repaired with this fill primer. Filling is the main purpose of this type of primer, you can think of it as a final filler. We finished the body filler or glazing putty with 150 grit, feather edged, cleaned the surface, masked, applied two coats of epoxy, and now we’re ready to apply primer surfacer.

Flash and Window Times

After the epoxy has been applied, you can now apply the primer surfacer. Be certain to allow the epoxy to flash the recommended account of time. The manufacture procedure page will tell you how long of a flash time needed before top coating. With PPG you need to let it flash at least 30 minutes. However, you also have a window. This is the time that you have to apply another coat without sanding. Most epoxies have a long window time. The epoxy that I am familiar with has a 72 hour window. If you wait more than 72 hours to apply the primer surfacer, it must be lightly scuffed to ensure proper adhesion.

Adhesion – Mechanical vs Chemical

I keep talking about adhesion. I would like to expand on this and tell you why this is important. Adhesion is just another word for stick-to. For instance, in upcoming lessons we will refer to glue as adhesives. In order to prevent body filler, primer, paint, etc, it needs to adhere to the surface. There are two ways to provide adhesion. The first is a mechanical adhesion. This is why we sand the surface before we apply the coating. That is why it is so important to sand the edges extremely good. If a panel is going to peel, chances are it will start peeling from an edge. The second type of adhesion is chemical adhesion. This is when there is still a chemical bond with two products. For example, the 72 hour window with the epoxy primer is the time the surface will produce the chemical bond. After that, the chemical bond will no longer adhere. That is why after the 72 hour window, the surface will need to be re-sanded. Since we no longer have the chemical adhesion, we now have the mechanical adhesion to takes it’s place.

Applying The Primer Surfacer

Alright, I took a little rabbit trail, but I wanted to make sure that you understand flash times, window times, and the types of adhesion. Now, let’s talk about applying the primer surfacer. After the epoxy has flashed of the recommended amount of time, apply your first coat of primer surfacer. Only apply enough to cover the epoxy primer. Check the procedure page to determine the recommended number of coats needed to achieve the desired thickness or mills. Normally, two – three coats are sufficient. I usually apply two wet coats allowing each coat to flash off. Apply each addition coat a few inches past the first coat.

What’s Next?

We’ve applied epoxy primer to provide additional adhesion and corrosion protection. Then we applied primer surfacer to fill the minor scratches and small imperfections. Now we’re ready to apply guide coat and block sand the primer. We’ll discuss that in another article.

By Donnie Smith