History Of Citrus

The pleasing appearance of citrus trees and the fruit was mentioned by many ancient travelers, even though the fruit of citrus trees had not evolved to the point as an important food staple, the fragrance of all parts of the citrus trees, including the flowers and fruit, were desirable perfumers of rooms and were thought to repel insects.

The occurrence of citrus in Europe and Mideast were thought to have been natural occurring native trees and shrubs, but historians today believe that the ancestor of the citrus trees, Citrus medica L., was introduced by Alexander the Great from India into Greece, Turkey, and North Africa in the late 4th century BC. The most ancient citrus was called ‘citron.’

There are ancient clues from wall paintings in the Egyptian temple at Karnak that citrus trees had been growing there. There were other suggestions that citrus trees may have been familiar to the Jews during their exile and slavery by the Babylonians in the 6th century BC. Even though speculations suggest that citrus trees were known and grown by the Hebrews, there is no direct mention in the Bible of citrus.

The first recording of citrus, Citrus medica L., in European history was done by Theophrastus, in 350 BC, following the introduction of the fruit by Alexander the Great.

In early European history, writers wrote about Persian citrus, that it had a wonderful fragrance and was thought to be a remedy for poisoning, a breath sweetener, and a repellant to moths.

Citrus was well known by the ancient cultures of the Greeks and later the Romans. A beautiful ceramic tile was found in the ruins of Pompeii after the city was destroyed by a volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79. Another mosaic tile in the ruins of a Roman villa in Carthage, North Africa, in about the 2nd century AD, clearly showed the fruit of a citron and a lemon fruit growing on a tree branch.

Early Christian tile mosaics dating back to 300 AD of both oranges and lemon were shown in lemon-yellow and orange colors surrounded by bright green leaves and freshly cut tree branches; the relics can still be seen in Istanbul, Turkey at mosques that once were churches of Emperor Constantine.

It is not known how, where, or when the exceptional present day varieties of citrus trees developed, such as the sweet orange, lemon, kumquat, lime, grapefruit, or pummelo, but there appears to be a general consensus of opinions that all these citrus developments and improvements were obtained by natural and artificial selection and natural evolution. It is well known, that the Romans were familiar with the sour orange, Citrus aurantium L. and the lemon tree, Citrus limon. After the fall of Rome to the barbarian invasions and the Muslims, the Arab states rapidly spread the naturally improving cultivars of citrus fruits and trees throughout much of North Africa, Spain, and Syria. The spread of sour orange, Citrus aurantium L., and the lemon, Citrus limon, extended the growing and planting of these trees on a worldwide scale by planting the seed, which produced citrus trees very similar to the parent trees. The Crusades conquest of the Arabs later spread citrus planting and growing throughout Europe.

The sweet orange, Citrus sinensis, appeared late in the 1400’s, near the time of Christopher Columbus, who discovered America. After trade routes were closed when the Turks defeated the Eastern Roman Empire in 1453, centered in Constantinople (Istanbul), many European kings began to seek alternate, trade, sea routes to open trade by ships with China and India. The sweet orange tree introduction into Europe changed the dynamics of citrus fruit importance in the world. The voyage of Portuguese explorer, Vasco de Gamma, recorded that in 1498, there were multitudes of orange trees in India, and all the fruits had a sweet taste. The new sweet orange variety, known as the “Portugal orange” caused a dramatic surge in citrus planting, much like the much later appearance of the “Washington navel orange” tree introduction into California.

The lime, Citrus latifolia, was first mentioned in European history by Sir Thomas Herbert in his book, Travels, who recorded that he found growing “oranges, lemons, and limes” off the island of Mozambique in the mid 1600’s. Lime trees today are available in many cultivars.

In 1707, Spanish missions were growing oranges, fig trees, quinces, pomegranates, peaches, apricots, apples, pear trees, mulberries, pecans, and other trees according to horticultural documents.

The Mandarin orange, Citrus reticulata, was described in Chinese history in the late 1100’s, but was unknown in Europe, until it was brought from a Mandarin province in China to England in 1805, where it spread rapidly throughout Europe.

The pummelo, Citrus grandis, also called the shaddock and the ‘Adam’s Apple’ was growing in Palestine in the early 1200’s and was planted and grown by the Arabs. The pummelo is believed to have an Asian origin and was planted as seed in the New World.

The grapefruit, Citrus paradisi, is believed to have arisen as a mutation from the pummelo tree. Grapefruit were so named because they grew in clusters like grapes, but most gardeners considered them to be inedible until A.L. Duncan found an outstanding seedling grapefruit that was named Duncan grapefruit in 1892; the original tree is still alive and growing in Florida.

Christopher Columbus introduced citrus on the island of Haiti in 1493. It is believed that he brought citrus seed to be planted and grown of the sour orange, the sweet orange, citron, lemon, lime, and pummelo fruits. Records show that these citrus trees were well established in the American colonies in about 1565 at Saint Augustine, Florida, and in coastal South Carolina.

William Bartram reported in his celebrated botanical book, Travels, in 1773 that Henry Laurens from Charleston, South Carolina, who served as a President of the Continental Congrees, introduced “olives, limes, ginger, everbearing strawberry, red raspberry, and blue grapes” into the United States colonies after the year 1755.

William Bartram in his book, Travels, reported that near Savannah, Georgia, “it is interesting to note that as late as 1790, oranges were cultivated in some quantity along the coast, and in that year some 3000 gallons of orange juice were exported.”

Many of these wild orange groves were seen by the early American explorer, William Bartram, according to his book, Travels, in 1773, while traveling down the Saint John’s River in Florida. Bartram mistakenly thought these orange trees were native to Florida; however, they were established centuries earlier by the Spanish explorers.

The citrus industry began rapidly developing in 1821 when the Spanish gave up their territories and its many orange groves to the United States. Wild orange tree groves were top-worked with improved cultivars and residents traveling to Florida realized how refreshing orange juice tasted; thus began the shipments of oranges, grapefruit, limes, and lemons that were sent to Philadelphia and New York by railway and ships in the 1880’s.

Citrus plantings were extensively done in California by the Spanish missionaries; however, the commercial industry began to grow with the 1849 Gold Rush boom, and efforts to supply the miners from San Francisco with citrus fruit were successful. The completion of the Transcontinental Railway further stimulated the citrus industry, since citrus could be rapidly sent to eastern markets. Later improvements of refrigeration helped to increase citrus growing and planting, mainly oranges, lemons, and limes throughout the world in 1889.

Florida at first dominated citrus production in the United States, but because of some devastating freezes in 1894 and 1899, Satsuma orange trees were virtually wiped out in the Gulf States. Thousands of acres of Satsuma orange trees were wiped out in Alabama, Texas, and Louisiana in the hard freeze of 1916; thus the citrus production of the United States began to shift from Florida to California.

Citrus is marketed throughout the world as a beneficial health fruit that contains Vitamin C and numerous other vitamins and minerals in orange and citrus products lime marmalade, fresh fruit, and frozen and hot-pack citrus juice concentrates.

Copyright 2006 Patrick Malcolm

Bar Stools – 7 Other Uses Besides in a Bar!

Barstools can be perfect for other areas besides a restaurant, bar or a kitchen in your home. They have this unique height that actually makes them an ideal piece for a variety of rooms.

1. Bedroom. Bar stools are a great choice for your bedroom. If it happens to be a small bedroom, it may be better yet! One idea is to have it eye level in front of a sit down vanity where you can see yourself easily in the mirror. They are even easy to store.

2. Game Room. If you have a bar in your gameroom, of course you can use them there. You guests just may stay longer if they can relax on a comfortable stool around a game table. Well, if you don’t want them to stay longer, you can use another type of seating!

3. Kitchen. Having these stools in your kitchen can definitely make it a fun place to be. Children love to sit on bar stools because they are high up and makes them feel grown up. Should you have unexpected guests, they can easily pull up a stool while you set the main table, etc. A perfect place to use bar stools is also at your kitchen island. Children can watch TV or do their homework or have a casual meal.

4. Bathroom. Bar stools are ideal for the bathroom, especially for families with young children. Preparing for school pictures and other special important occasions can go smoothly; all you need to do is sit your kid up on the bar stool and then work your magic. This way, your child won’t get tired of standing and you won’t have to bend over to fix his hair. You both win when you use a bar stool.

5. Den. Backless Bar Stools and Bar Stools with Backs – Backless stools fit right into any decor as do the ones with backs which give more support. Choose whichever you feel is the most comfortable. Everyone has their own opinion on this, course. Either one can make a great addition to any style room.

6. Family Room. Swivel Bar Stools – Can be quite stylish and fun to sit on. They offer true comfort and are quite stylish.

7. Enclosed Patio. Leather Stools – Many barstools are constructed of thick leather and/or durable grade vinyl and a heavy metal frame. Both children and adults alike enjoy sitting on these stools. In my opinion, they give any room a much more relaxed look and feel.

You can find quite a selection of counter stools. Some have very simple designs; others are made to look like tall dining room chairs. The materials that are available for counter stools include laminate, wood veneer, genuine wood as well as metal.

Do you know a good place to purchase barstools? If not, simply do a search online for restaurant furniture or restaurant tables to either find a store near you or an online store.

Once you purchase a few to add to your home’s decor, you will see the dramatic difference they make.

Penis Pumping Tips – How to Use a Penis Enlarger Pump

So there’s a lot of controversy around penis pumping and whether it actually works. Well, personally, I know it works… it can be an effective form of penis enlargement.

However, using a penis enlarger pump tends not to result in permanent penis enlargement on its own. For whatever reason, penis pumping must be combined with some sort of manual penis enlargement exercise (i.e. jelqing) for the enlargement gains to be permanent. I’ve known of people gaining quite a bit of length and girth over time with penis pumping, only to have it all completely disappear eventually. However, those who include jelqing into their pumping routines do experience permanent gains.

So how do you use your penis enlarger pump to actually gain some length or girth? First, you’ll need a good quality penis pump with a pressure gauge on it. I would personally recommend products from Boston Pump, as their pumps and their cylinders are very high quality.

Before you start pumping, I would recommend doing about 5 minutes of jelqing to warm yourself up (if you don’t know what jelqing is, check out my article on jelqing). Take a couple minutes break, get yourself erect, and put your penis in the tube. To create the best seal possible at the base, you should ideally be shaved in the whole area, or else the tube won’t have any suction on your body. It is also recommended you use some lube around the tube base to create a better seal.

Once you’re in the penis enlarger pump tube, give your penis a few small pumps, and see the pressure gage go up. For the first few minutes I would not go above around 2 Hg (this is the unit your pressure gage will be in). Over time, you can work your way up to a higher pressure, but do NOT go over 5 Hg as you could potentially damage your penis.

People have the tendency to overdo these things… they see their penis grow and they want more… so they increase the pressure, or increase the time they spend in the pump, or both. The thing is, in doing so, you’re overstressing your penis and it won’t grow.

I would recommend 10 minutes in the pump between 2 Hg and 5 Hg, and then take a break. Jelq for 10 minutes or so, and then another break… pump, break… jelq, break.

As a starter I would not go over two sessions of each. Once you have more experience, feel free to experiment a little bit and see what works best for you. Some people swear on using very low pressure for extended periods of time, while some people prefer short sessions of only 10 minutes (again below 5 Hg).

Anyway, those are the basics to using your penis enlarger pump. Be sure to include some jelqing, and hopefully some enlargement gains will come your way!

Lead – The Plastic Pipe Buying Guides

Lead and stainless steel pipe

New copper pipe can be joined to lead pipe by using special compression fit¬tings; making a proper ‘wiped’ soldered joint is a job probably best left to a qualified plumber. If your house contains much lead pipe, consider stripping it all out and having a joint made near the main stopcock in the house – this will make it easier to carry out future work.

Stainless steel was used in the 1970s for central heating system when copper was expensive. Sizes of stainless-steel pipe are the same as copper 15mm, 22mm and 28mm. It can be cut with a hacksaw or pipe cutting tool and bent with a bending machine. It is easier to make joints in stainless-steel pipe with compression fit¬tings rather than with capillary fittings.

Plastic pipe

There are three types of plastic pipe avail¬able for use as hot and cold water pipes inside houses:

o flexible polybutylene (‘Acorn’)

o semi-flexible cross-linked polyethylene (‘Pipex’)

o rigid CPVC (“Hunter Genova’).

Pipex and Hunter Genova come in lengths of 2m and 3m; Acorn also comes in much longer rolls, which makes it cheaper to use as fittings can often be dispensed with on long runs.

Both Acorn and Pipex can be cut with a sharp knife or a special secateur-type cutter; they are joined either with plastic push-fit fittings (expensive) or by using normal compression fittings with a metal insert to support the pipe. Both can be bent around gentle curves.

Hunter Genova pipe cannot be bent around curves and needs a hacksaw or pipe cutter to cut it. It is joined with special fittings using solvent-weld cement. Although these are cheap and fairly easy to use, adequate ventilation is vital as the cement gives off strong fumes and the joint needs to be left before the pipe is used.

For running pipes outside, medium-density polythene pipe (coloured blue) is used. This is joined with special brass compression fittings avoid having any joints under ground.

Buying hints

When buying your plumbing goods:

o decide on the material

Nowadays, cop¬per is the natural choice, but for large jobs plastics could work out cheaper. Con¬sider using flexible plastic pipe for long twisting runs inside houses

o plan the system

Always plan to use the fewest fittings and try to stick to simple couplers and tees

o shop around for prices

List the materials you need and try a number of do-it-yourself superstores prices can vary a lot. For more unusual fittings, you may need to go to a plumbers’ merchants

o buy in bulk

Many plumbing fittings (tees or straight couplings, for example) are often much cheaper if bought in packs of 10 or 20.

The Beginners Guide to Woodworking – Wood Putty 101

All too often novice woodworkers don’t realize the power of wood putty. No doubt, they have heard about it and perhaps worked with it once or twice but had poor results. Chances are they either used the wrong product or the wrong application or maybe even both. It is sometimes referred to as wood filler or wood patch. It may be a water base or a solvent based. Solvent base has probably been the favored choice in the past. The water-based products have really made some excellent strides in their performance and are now being used more.

There is nitrocellulose-based putty. This dries very fast. To clean up all you need is some diluted acetone or lacquer thinner.

A gypsum-based putty comes in a powder form and you have to mix the proper ratio with water. If you clean up while it’s wet, it’s simply done with plain water. If you let the gypsum dry and try to clean up with water, it just isn’t going to happen.

Finally, an acrylic based putty will clean up with water as well until it dries then after that you will need to clean with acetone or toluene.

There are advantages to working with water wood-based fillers because they don’t have the heavy fumes to them that the solvent-based ones do and they are easier to work with. What woodworkers like about it the most though is how easy it is to clean up. It is also more economical for storage as it doesn’t’ dry out as fast as the solvent-based putties do.

All wood putty is really is a glue mixed with material such a sawdust or gypsum for example. It creates a binder that holds the filler together.

Once you get used to working with wood putty ideally, you will want to keep both on hand if you are an avid wood worker or do it yourselfer.

Knowing which putty to use in the beginning may be a bit of a challenge. You want one that is going to stick and not shrink once it has dried. Another attribute about a good filler is you should need to sand it a great deal and it should have a satin finish to it afterwards.

Woods like poplar, rosewood or walnut just to name a few have very large pores and open grains. You can use wood filler to even out some of the grains in these types of woods.

Another good feature about wood putty is that it comes it different colors, which makes it much easier for blending. Ideally, before you use any of the colors check it on an unobserved piece of the wood to see what the end result is going to be. It may come out lighter or darker than you intended. If you are new to using wood putty ask your local paint supplier which seems to be the favored by most of their customers. This often gives you a good indication on how good and effective a product will be.

What Is The Best Size Hook For Trout Fishing?

If you walk down the “fishing hook” isle at any tackle shop or search any sporting goods website for fishing hooks, the choices can seem almost unlimited. Deciding on the proper size and style of hook to use for your favorite style of fishing can be a difficult task, but at the same time is one of the most important aspects to experiencing success on the water.

I am a trout fisherman and have been fishing for trout for over 20 years and one of the questions that I get asked more often than any other is, “what is the best size fishing hook for trout?” The problem with this question is that there is no one answer, other than of course as small as possible, but at the end of the day this answer doesn’t do anyone much good. Below, I will answer this question by listing the 3 most popular types of fishing hooks that are used for trout fishing, along with the sizes that are the most effective within each style of hook. Depending on your favorite style of trout fishing, you can then use this information to determine the best size hook for you.

    • Treble Hooks

    – Treble hooks are very popular among trout fishermen who like to use dough style trout baits such as Powerbait when fishing for trout. Treble hooks can also be used when trout fishing with soft cheese (such as Velveeta) or even marshmallows as well. Many anglers tend to use treble hooks that are entirely too large under the mistaken assumption that “the bigger the bait, the bigger the fish”, when in truth a # 12 or #18 treble hook is all that you need to use when fishing for trout.

    • Gang Hooks

    – This style of fishing hook is not known by a lot of trout fishermen, but it should be. A set of gang hooks is a pair of fishing hooks tied in tandem and is an excellent choice when fishing for trout with live bait. This fact is especially true if a technique such as drift fishing is being employed. The best sizes of gang hooks to use when trout fishing would be #8 or #10.

    • Single Hooks

    – Single fishing hooks are used by many anglers when fishing for trout. The most popular and effective styles of single hooks for trout fishing are salmon egg and bait holder. Again the bottom line here is “smaller is better” and the best sizes to use when fishing for trout would be #10 or even #12. Single trout fishing hooks are also available that are painted red, which is an option that many trout fishermen swear by when it comes to single fishing hooks for trout.

Armed with this information you should never again have to ask or wonder when the best size hook is for trout fishing. Even though the saying isn’t that helpful in choosing the best hook option for you and your favorite trout fishing style, it is nonetheless worth keeping in the back of your mind that “the smaller the better” when it comes to any type of effective trout fishing hook. The reason for this is because trout are a species of fish that are generally used to eating many small meals throughout a day, so matching your trout fishing bait to the size of the meals that the trout are used to eating is never a bad idea and will generally result in more bites from hungry trout.

How to Install a Wood Privacy Fence

There is no fencing material that has the natural beauty of real wood. Most people assume that a wood fence requires yearly maintenance and that it will not last very long. But that is certainly not the case. If a wood fence is installed properly there is actually very little maintenance and the fence can last for many, many years.

The key to longevity for any wood fence are the fence posts themselves. Never use a wood post for a wood fence. Wood posts (both cedar and treated) that are in contact with the ground can rot out in less than five years depending on soil conditions. Treated wood posts may also twist and warp as the posts dry out over time. A galvanized steel post will never rot or twist. It will last a lifetime. When installing a steel post be sure to use one that can be covered to look like wood. With a steel post that is covered the fence will look like wood and but will have the durability of steel.

People often think that a steel post is too expensive. A steel post can in fact cost less than a wood post. A wood post will use more concrete than a steel post does. The hole for a fence post should be three times the diameter of the post itself. This means that a wood 4 x 4 post requires a hole that is 12 inches in diameter while a steel post needs only a 6 inch diameter hole. And, the hole needs to go below the frost-line which can be up to four feet deep. A wood post should also have gravel below the concrete to allow for water drainage. When the cost of the post, the concrete and the gravel is added together the total price of a wood post may be more than that of a steel post. And then of course there is the additional labor of digging a bigger hole and disposing of all that dirt.

For dog-eared wood privacy fences the tops of the posts should be about six inches below the top the fence itself. A post that is 7′ 6″ tall is the correct length for this type of fence. For a fence that will have a top rail, or picture frame, the top of the post should be 6 feet out of the ground. For this type of fence an eight foot post is required.

To begin the fence installation, lay out a string line and mark the hole locations. In most cases the posts should be on eight foot centers or less. In high wind areas six foot centers may be necessary. The diameter of the hole for a fence post is recommended to be 3 times larger than the diameter of the post itself. Make sure that the hole goes down below the frost-line. The frost-line can vary anywhere from 0″ to 48″ depending on location. All fence posts should be set in concrete. Fill the hole with concrete that has the consistency of thick oatmeal. Slide the post down into the concrete making sure that the post is plumb. Fence posts are normally set two feet deep into the concrete. A string line can be used to insure that the posts are at the correct height. Or, the posts can be set high and then cut to the correct height after the concrete has set.

Once the concrete has set, the stringers can be attached. Cedar stringers are preferable. Cedar stringers will more closely match the look of the fence boards and make for a more uniform looking fence. Treated stringers are not recommended as they have a tendency to twist as they dry. The stringers are attached directly to the sides of the posts without any brackets required. Usually only two stringers are needed. The bottom stringer is often installed about a foot up from the ground. The top stringer is installed at very the top of the post. In high wind areas three stringers are recommended.

When all the stringers have been installed it is time to attach the fence pickets. Cedar fence pickets should be as thick as possible. Try to avoid the thin pickets that are sold at the big box stores. They may cost less but in the long run they are not worth it. Thin pickets will cup and warp over time. It also helps if the pickets are rough sided rather than smooth. Rough cedar will accept stain and/or preservative much more readily than smooth wood will.

Attach the pickets with ceramic coated or stainless steel screws. There is no need to have a wood privacy fence with black stain lines going down from each of the screws. Use a string line, or a good eye, to make sure that the pickets are attached at the proper height. In most cases the wood pickets will shrink a little over time so it is often advisable to attach the pickets tight together with no gap in between.

Without stain a cedar fence will turn gray over time. If it is desired to stain the wood the stain can be applied before or after the pickets are attached. Be sure to use a high quality, heavy-bodied, oil based stain. The first application is the most important. To apply the stain do not use a garden sprayer or a roller as the stain will only rest on the surface of the wood. This will result in a fence that needs to be re-stained year after year. It is better to use a short (2 inches or less) thick-bristled brush. Using aggressive brush strokes work the stain into the wood. This does take a little more labor the first time. The brush will insure that the stain penetrates into the cells of the wood. When done properly the first year the fence will not need to be re-stained for up to five years. When the fence needs to be re-stained use a common garden sprayer.

With just a little labor a wood fence can be constructed that is both beautiful and long lasting. While it is still not maintenance free, a wood fence does not require the continuous upkeep that many people assume that it does. When installed properly a wood fence can last many, many years with very little labor. And there is no fencing material that looks as beautiful as real wood.

The Independent Living Movement I

I will start off by informing you that there is no real difference between the words “disabled” and “handicapped,” except for the linguistic ones. They both refer to physically challenged people, who often need special living accommodations.

Our Center Park of Seattle, Washington, USA, was founded by Ida May Daly, who had a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. While suffering from this debilitating illness, she managed to get enough public and private donations to buy a huge square block of land near downtown Seattle – and go set it up so that certain people would have a place to actually thrive and live, instead of one in which to waste away and die. She didn’t like what institutionalized or hospitalized living does to people in reality, and how most such places preach an afterlife – involving how you have to die in this lifetime to achieve it.

Nowadays, almost all those Jewish, Catholic, Protestant, Buddhist, Hindu, Moslem, private enterprise or whatever institutions in America are united along a diversity of racial and socioeconomic lines. This is due mainly to the efforts of various civil rights aficionados – and via coincidence of circumstances, Center Park is located in what in the 1980s was an African-American neighborhood. That was how the property values were low enough for Ida May Daly to be enabled to purchase the land in that neighborhood. It used to be white and Catholic, earlier – there still are some people from that time frame who live there. I attended their major church once, and witnessed hostilities and frictions that are probably entirely gone by now, although I suspect impoverished people yet reside there.

In the 80s, I worked at Center Park in that neighborhood, and wondered deeply about life itself, being a newbie professional writer and artist, working my day job helping the disabled. I was a live-in personal care attendant, living with and doing daily activities with physically and mentally challenged people, mostly white ones, before the days of the Internet. Back then, they also had Christian study groups, to pass the slow time, and involvement in local and national politics, which was more to my crowd’s liking. I wasn’t much for Christian studies, being too Jewish influenced to ever see myself that way.

Being deeply involved with fragile people with distinctively human lives and bodies, ones which were not so spiritually suited for an afterlife, I used to be sad at how many long years ago, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., alias Michael King, had to keep up such a “preachy” attitude of going on to another place to get rid of such a fallacy. He said he was heading for “the Promised Land,” which everyone disabled or handicapped I have ever met up here in the Pacific Northwest seems to think is indeed – Canada.

Dr. King himself, an African-American of long standing, and a pastor cum reverend at Ebenezer Baptist Church, far away from where we lived at Center Park, performed many of his duties far down in the American South – while we of this article were located in the American Northwest. Therefore I figured he probably meant something else by this catch phrase, “the Promised Land,” such as eternal peace, but many of the disabled I’ve met in the Pacific Northwest would like to live in Canada. It’s kind of an ongoing jest that “we” would all like to move up to the Promised Land, in this era of global warming.

The melting back of the glaciers up north does mean the expansion of the Northwest Territories, and it would be wonderful indeed to slowly be moving northward. The Great Seal of King County, as of 1986, sports the fine but somewhat overweight head of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., in support of all the many things he did for civil rights. This includes work on behalf of the handicapped and disabled, although strangely enough we have yet to see much of a united effort on the part of people of color and the physically challenged, especially on the Internet. It’s odd enough; it’s as though one movement is led by colored people, and the other movement is led by white people. There is thus the Civil Rights Movement, and the Independent Living Movement.

The former group is simply being led by other types of people than the latter group. It seems due to efforts on the part of both the left wing and the right wing of political participants, and so the disabled are led significantly by white men in wheelchairs at this point in time, in the year 2007. Dr. King’s face on the Great Seal doesn’t seem to have changed this any, although all of the city busses are now wheelchair accessible. Also, the days when the bus was “demarcated” for black people to be forced to ride in the back of the bus, with brown outlined windows signifying this, are over, as Mayor Norm Rice of Seattle went ahead and repainted the bus windows about a decade ago.

We had our usual struggles between racial groups, typical of what you may have seen before, and now the buses are almost fully together when it comes to human rights. There are still some odd issues involving Native American rights – there are municipal and county buses where an area is demarcated for “red” skinned people. I don’t know if anyone is ever going to change that, but I do know no one is forcing aboriginal people to ride in the backs of the buses – there are simply red outlined windows in the far back which are obviously more than a mere coincidence. No “Indians” are forced to sit back there, and I doubt much farther will be done about the bus painting arrangement.

It’s similar to the large red black and white “No Smoking” huge signs on the Washington State Ferry system’s large ferry boats; the symbol screams of being a swastika derivative, but nobody Jewish is making any complaints about it. People are too used to it to make any real fuss over something as subtle and hidden as such signs are in public. Nonetheless, the “brown skinned” population of Seattle may make a move against these signs, someday, if someone other than me finally sees them in their own clarity.

Chief Sealth, a Native American or aboriginal, was the brown of color man our Emerald City of Seattle in Washington State was named after, and he resides currently in a grave near an aboriginal people’s reservation. He was the leader of a tribe hereabouts, the name of which I have forgotten. He gave a wonderful “final” speech where he handed over his tribal lands, possibly the Duwamish were involved, and he asserted in a noble and peaceful way that “we” who now live here might be able to handle the privilege. I myself keep hoping someone will do something about those “red” demarcated bus windows. I’m sure Chief Sealth would not like his people to be stuck with such a set of circumstances. And I suppose the Jewish community may or may not ever do anything about the giant “No Smoking” swastika style signs on the ferry boats, against white skinned people.

But who is the true Chief of Seattle; is it the Mayor, or someone else? Many communities exist here in our lovely area, led by many an interested party or person. But what makes a person such a being of involvement? Is it his or her heart, or brains, or beaucoup bucks that do this, or the fact there must be someone for greatness to be thrust upon? What is “greatness” really – is it something that is simply there for certain people, in a certified and given time, in a definite and realistic way? And is greatness something achievable by just anyone, or is it only for specific people, ones who know what they are doing?

Someone – everyone needs to be “a somebody,” like Jesse Jackson, one of Dr. King’s own men in their times, once put it; he said that you really should become that somebody. In a way, that will always be my John Tyler, part Indian or Native American, part white man, who ruled one floor of a multi-story apartment building as a radical who fought for the rights and freedoms of the underprivileged handicapped American. He was ably assisted by one Jewish liberal named Ronald Gary Schwarz, who had been a Republican before he became disabled, and who when disabled, finally had found his life’s purpose was to assist those in wheelchairs to finally enable themselves to live their lives. These two blokes in wheelchairs were my mentors and friends when we are stayed at Center Park, there situated in the mostly Black People area of town, the Central Area.

Monasteries and Convents: Unconventional Lodging at Its Best

One of the great things about traveling is that you get to stay in a nice, comfortable accommodation where someone else is responsible for changing the sheets and keeping your room clean. Unfortunately, most of us are programmed to automatically book a hotel when considering places to lay our head during vacation. If you’re like me, you may be a little more adventurous and prefer unusual digs that most tourists would not only dream about, but be totally unaware of its existence. Staying at a monastery or convent is a perfect off the beaten path mode of lodging that more people are taking advantage of these days. As an added bonus, it helps to create lasting memories and is kinder to your wallet.

Once a former hospital, Park House Guesthouse is located in Liverpool, England and is run by Augustinian nuns. All rooms are en suite and the available amenities are television, beverage equipment, ironing facilities, on-site parking and full board. A theater and library as well as shops and restaurants are nearby. Rates start at 32€ pp.

The number of monks and nuns is dwindling; so many monasteries and convents are beginning to offer their properties for short and long term lease. It makes sense to offer the available quarters for rent because the revenue helps to pay for the upkeep of the often aging structures. Some are still fully functioning entities while others have been converted to Inns and B & B’s rather than be left empty. While they may not offer creature comforts like four and five star hotels, this would be a great opportunity to enjoy the historical aspect of such properties.

The Abbey of Mount Melleray was originally founded in 1832 in Brittany, France but their monks were expelled during the French Revolution so they decided to relocate to Cappoquin, Waterford, Ireland. Today the monks operate a thriving dairy farm and an abbey guesthouse with shared bathrooms (prices are to be negotiated). The monks also manage an on-site gift shop and cafe.

In most instances, the daily rates are between $25.00 to $95.00 US for singles and doubles; $100+ for suites, the rooms are average size, some meals may be included and bathrooms are likely shared. While these accommodations are available world-wide, US properties may tend to be a bit more modernized while European ones are more historical treasures. My friend, Eileen Barish runs a website and sells guidebooks that spotlight European monasteries and convents. You will be amazed at the excellent deals that can be had for staying at such elegantly stoic landmarks.

St. John’s Abbey offers singles, doubles and suites from 65.00 to 110.00. Each room is minimally furnished and has a private bath, lakeviews, heating and air, a phone for local calls and is wired for internet access. Contact them at http://abbeyguesthouse.org/

Monasteries and convents are often sought out when people are looking for their own personal spiritual retreat. The grounds are quiet, one can walk the gardens in peaceful introspection and there are many places were you can sit in solitude without being disturbed. This type of pilgrimage or retreat is not suitable for the tourist, because most of the time is spent in prayerful silence and religious worship. While they do not proselytize or force feed their religious beliefs, they only ask that you respect their standards of conduct. Please note that they may also have standing curfews that are strictly enforced. If curfews are a concern, be sure to ask about their policies before booking your stay.

Maison Notre-Dame du Chene is a spiritual pilgrimage located in Loire, France. While there is a separate house for families and groups to use for celebrations and meetings, the guesthouse is primarily reserved for those seeking religious sanctuary. All guestrooms are ensuites and breakfast is served daily; rates begin at 35€ pp.

In her books about European Monastery lodging, Good Night and God Bless, Trish Clark “provides detailed descriptions of each type of facility. There are directions on how to get there, along with general tourist information and some ideas for things to do and see in the surrounding area. It also lists nearby restaurants and pubs.”

Located in Kent, England, this 13th century order of the Carmelites provides single, double and family rooms at rates beginning at 26€ pp including breakfast. The Friars Aylesford Priory has an on-site restaurant and sits on acres of park-like grounds. Visit them at http://thefriars.org.uk

The beauty of the entire experience is that you’ll never know what hidden gem you will find in your research on monasteries and convents. Perfect case in point: Maison du Seminaire in Nice, France. Located at the foot of the Mediterranean Sea, this beautiful former Seminary has 60 rooms that rents for 70€ per night. Each room is en suite, has televisions and telephones and wi-fi and parking is free. The rooms are bijou, but the views more than make up for that. There is a restaurant on the first floor that opens out onto an outdoor terrace. From that vista, you will get to see the rich and spoiled frolic on the beach or watch them sail by on their luxurious yachts. The delicious irony for you, my dear budget traveler, is that you get to enjoy the same beach for a mere pittance compared to what they’ve paid.

So, what do you think, dear reader? Would this type of accommodation be appealing to you? Or you may have already had the good fortune to stay at one of the monasteries or convents. If so, where did you stay and would you recommend it to the rest of us?

"Depreciation" and Manufactured Homes As an Investment

There is a long standing belief that all manufactured homes (what many used to call “mobile homes”) will “automatically” depreciate once it is purchased. While it is true that manufactured homes have lost value from their initial purchase price, this is not historically a given. There are many examples of manufactured homes which have appreciated (gained) value. It should also be noted that site built houses, gain – or lose – value for similar reasons that manufactured homes do – as the recent sub prime mortgage meltdown has underscored.

Let’s take a brief look at the factors which cause that gain or loss of value.

Many are familiar with the old real estate adage, “location, location, location!” The location of the home has a tremendous impact on its value. Let’s use an analogy to explain this example.

Having lived in the Houston metro area, imagine a mansion from the River Oaks district being placed in Houston’s Fifth Ward. What would happen to that mansion’s value? It would drop like a rock! Even a gorgeous home, set in an older, blighted area will lose a lot of value. The reverse could happen too. If an older “challenged” home from the Fifth Ward and could magically find its way onto a site in the River Oaks district, it would immediately be worth more – just because of its location.

The lesson is, what is the manufactured home’s proposed location? Is the location upgrading, or going down? “The better the location, the more likely the value is protected.”

Next is the condition of the home. If you have a conventional site built house that is run down, is it any surprise that it is worth less than a site built house that has been well maintained, where the property has been landscaped, and where improvements are taking place? The same is true for manufactured homes as well!

If you don’t maintain the manufactured home, over time, similar things will happen to it that would happen to a site built house that isn’t maintained. Now, if you take a neglected manufactured home (or a site built “fixer upper”) and it is purchased “right” and then repaired and upgraded, what you will have is a home that will often sell for more than what it originally sold for when it was new! Why? Because as building materials cost rise, the value of older housing (manufactured or site built) that is maintained or brought up to standards will go up too! So if you buy a pre-owned manufactured home, and do the same things that a site built home owner would do, you will experience similar results.

Many are surprised to learn that studies done by the largest insurer of manufactured homes, Foremost Insurance Company, reveal that MHs appreciate for the same reasons and at similar rates to site built housing. But there are “caveats.” Is the MH in a good location? Is the home well maintained? Another factor of course is the local market conditions – a booming economy will naturally enhance values, just as a slumping economy will hurt values. One must also point out that when there is a glut of repossessions on the market. That fact will hurt the MHs value, just as a glut of foreclosures on the market hurt the value of site built houses.

The “bottom line” is that MHs can be a very good investment in and of themselves. But let’s step beyond the appreciation/depreciation issue, for just a few moments. Let’s look at another analogy – one that I’m a little hesitant to make, because one shouldn’t compare a MH with a car or other vehicle. But let’s do it for just a moment, to make an important point.

Millions today lease a car. They know that their vehicle will depreciate, and they want to use as little of their money for that vehicle as possible. The rest of their money that would have gone towards a higher car payment, they may invest for a good rate of return, or to have more fun, etc..

So, stop and think of the comparison! What if you invest your housing dollars in a home that costs 1/3 to 1/2 less than a comparable site built house! Why not take the money you save, and invest those funds! Thus, you still have the benefit of living for less, and have the benefit of earning money on the money saved in housing costs! Even if your house lost value, what you may earn on the money you save could very well create an overall better lifestyle!

Take it a step further – because the manufactured home has a lower purchase price, and lower taxes, if someone pays off or buys a home outright, then the money saved in mortgage payments and on taxes vs. a conventional house could be used for savings, investment, travel, charity – a host of positive possibilities! These are just some of the advantages of manufactured homes as an “investment.”

In short, depreciation in manufactured homes are neither inevitable nor is it necessarily a tragedy if it does occur. What’s needed are the facts and a good plan. With the right information, you can make a housing decision or investment that will yield a host of potential benefits, from lifestyle advantages, to financial ones, less stress and beyond.

Why Concrete Is Reinforced With Steel

Most concrete structures are constructed with steel reinforcements. In almost all cases, it is not possible to see the steel because it is inside the concrete. Concrete structures built without steel reinforcement will not last long under the forces that will be acting on it over its lifetime.

Composition of concrete

Under normal circumstances, concrete usually consists of materials such as sand, crushed stone or gravel, commonly called aggregates, and cement to bind them together. Water is then added to make the mixture plastic enough for form work. For the concrete to be properly shaped accordingly, it should be in a plastic condition during mixing. The mixture is then placed in forms depending on the shape that is desired. These forms can be made of wood or steel. Inside the forms, steel reinforcement may be put depending on the strength required. The cementing material will later harden to give the concrete the appearance of a natural stone. The cementing material is a finely- ground powder manufactured by cement companies. Due to the chemical reaction with water, the cement later hardens. The mass begins to stiffen in about 45 minutes, and thereafter continues to harden indefinitely.

Steel reinforcement

Concrete beams reinforced with steel can be considered as a beam of two materials. To understand how the two materials will behave under stress or strain, it is necessary to transform the composite beam into an equivalent beam of one material. It is important to know that the strength of concrete is much greater in compression than in tension. It is strong in resisting compressive forces (those that tend to crush it) but weak in resisting tensile forces (those that tend to pull it apart). Hence concrete is the best material to use for members that are subjected to compressive forces such as posts or beams. When a slab or a beam is loaded, it bends or deflects, so it has one convex surface and one concave surface. For beams supported on both ends such as a floor slab, the top surface will be the concave side while the bottom surface will be the convex side. In any beam, the material on the convex side will be stretched therefore in tension while the material on the concave side will be shortened and therefore in compression. Compressive forces will be acting on the concave side of the concrete slab while tensile forces will be acting on the convex side. Hence a rectangular beam of concrete will fail from the tensile stresses on the convex side. The beam can be greatly strengthened by imbedding steel bars on the convex side. Since concrete grips the steel strongly, there will be no sliding of the steel bars with respect to the concrete during bending. In practice, the cross-sectional area of the steel bars is usually such that the tensile strength of the concrete on the convex side is overcome before yielding of the steel begins, and at larger loads the steel alone takes practically all the tension. Hence in establishing the bending stresses in reinforced-concrete beams, it is assumed that all the tension is taken by the steel and all the compression by the concrete.

To make concrete resist the forces that will act on it, steel is embedded in it for the purpose of resisting the tensile forces. Reinforced concrete is a combination of concrete and steel. The steel is arranged such that the two materials act together as a unit to carry the loads. To protect the steel from damage by fire, the reinforcement in beams and columns should not be placed nearer the exposed surface. It is advisable to leave a clearance of about 1.5 inches or approximately 4 cm. This specification fixes a lower limit for the depth of concrete below the reinforcing bars.

How to Install Iron Or Metal Balusters in Wood Handrails

As promised I am putting forward information on the installation of iron balusters. During the day, one of the most common questions I get from customers is the how to of iron baluster installation.

Many building codes require three balusters on a tread to comply with the 4″ sphere rule. Check with your local code officials if you have any doubts about your stair’s compliance.

First, I let the customer know that the very last thing in balustrade installation is the iron balusters. It simply works well to install the newel posts, handrail, treads and risers first. Once installed layout the balusters on the floor and use a level to plumb up to the handrail center and mark the connection at the center bottom of the handrail. Using a ½” paddle or spade bit one can drill upward 1″ deep into the handrail. Using a 5/8″ paddle bit drill a hole no more than ¼” deep into the floor. Once these are drilled out the bottom of the handrail can be sanded with an orbital sander and the complete balustrade system can be stained and finished. Once the stain and finish is completed one can begin installing the iron balusters.

One of the following two tools is recommended for cutting iron or metal balusters: a power miter box with a metal cutting blade, or a portable band saw. My preference is the portable band saw. It works cleaner, is more portable, and doesn’t cause sparking as does the power miter box (or chop saw).

Turn the baluster upside down and set the round dowel top into the hole in the floor, holding the baluster plumb to the hole under the handrail. Mark the baluster with a pencil, measure up 3/8″ minimum and that would be the cut mark. Note that you are cutting off the bottom, not the top, of the baluster. This ensures proper alignment of the design elements.

For gluing the installer has two options: Epoxy or construction adhesive. My personal preference is construction adhesive as I have more control over the product and, if it gets messy, wipes away easily and can also serve as a caulk around the iron. Epoxy comes in the mixing tubes and doesn’t always mix properly. If it gets messy and dried, removing the epoxy also removes the powder coating on the iron. Some carpenters prefer and have their own control over epoxy. I do not. I find construction adhesives easier to work with.

Squeeze a small amount of the adhesive into the hole under the handrail. The adhesive is thick and slow and will not drain back out, giving time to complete the installation. Make sure the shoe for the iron baluster is slid up while installing. Push baluster’s round dowel up into the ½” hole under the handrail and then drop it into the 5/8″ hole in the floor in a bed of additional construction adhesive. Square off the baluster’s alignment then drop the shoe down to the floor. If the shoe comes with a set screw, use an Allen wrench to tighten it. The glue in the handrail hole will settle around the baluster creating a perfect seal. Once the glue has dried the baluster will be well secured, even helping to strengthen the handrails load.

When installing 5/8″ iron balusters the process is identical, one only needs to drill a 5/8″ hole under the handrail and a ¾” hole at the floor. 5/8″ iron is ideal in remodeling work, when replacing wood balusters. Most installed wood balusters have a 5/8″ hole under the handrail and a ¾” hole at the floor. If replacing wood balusters with ½” iron it is usually recommended to install shoes under the handrail to cover a small square peg in a larger round hole. The use of wood or cabinet screws helps to lock the baluster in, serving as both a wedge and forcing the baluster on center.

Round 5/8″ iron or metal balusters can be installed without shoes simply by drilling a 5/8″ hole into the handrail and into the floor and following the same procedure outlined above.

I have been asked about making the holes square. It is possible with a little more work. To cut the square hole in the floor or handrail, drill a round hole in the wood the same size at the baluster’s overall width. Then chisel out the hole to make it square. Another option is a “mortising bit.” I have not used one of these but have spoken with carpenters who have. Their comment tends to be that this method is a “pain in the you know what.”

The Major Effects of Industrialization

120 years ago or so, the industrial revolution was taking off. All sorts of machines were being invented, powered by coal, electricity, gas, you name it. People were being blessed with greater ease in manufacturing, more readily available necessities, safer and healthier foods, and a host of other good things. However, while humans were benefiting from this new rush of industrial craze, the earth wasn’t fairing so well.

Today however, being environmentally friendly is the new vogue. From the middle of the 20th century on, the population of the planet has been taking a closer look at the effects of industrialization. Books like Silent Spring (1962) or Dr. Suess’ children’s story The Lorax drew attention to the sad state of the world around us. Disasters like that in Seveso, Italy, where an explosion rocked a chemical facility, became frighteningly frequent. Thousands of Japanese residents were affected with Minamata disease, brought on by extreme mercury poisoning, from the Chisso Corporation’s dumping of chemicals. In the United States, the Upper Sacramento River was contaminated with 20,000 gallons of chemicals that were dumped into it, killing every form of marine life in a 38 mile radius. With dozens of these events occurring, people realized something must be done. The 1970s saw a landslide of government legislation passed in America that made enormous leaps and bounds in environmental protection. The creation of the Environmental Protection Agency, and statutes like the Clear Air Act, the Clean Water Act, Food Quality Protection Act, Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and countless others came into effect and has stood as guardians of the earth.

Now, environmental protection among the little folks is helping too. People are more careful about wasting resources. Steps taken in the home, like being frugal with water and electricity and gas are stretching these resources further. A popular campaign has been for people to use canvas bags for groceries as opposed to plastic bags, which are known for being virtually indestructible and are dangerous to animal life. Recycling, the practice of reusing items like glass, plastic, and metal has become huge in the last 30 years and has drastically lowered the amount of waste created by humans. Landfill gas recovery, a technique that turns methane gas created by waste in landfills into natural gas that can be used for energy, is also drawing additional resources from the world’s refuse.

The world we live in is a wonderful place, and we are fortunate to be on this planet. Earth however, can be hurt and damaged, and as its population, humans must care for it and ensure the continued health of the planet. Hundreds of programs have been created to guard wildlife, plant life, air quality, and other aspects of the natural world. Arbor Day, a holiday each year, celebrates the Earth and is a day set aside for doing something good for the environment. While humans have great capacity to harm the planet, they also possess the powerful ability to heal and preserve it.

Hair Bow Business: 11 Tips to Start Selling Hair Bows

1) Caution! Don’t Start Online”…”Yet: Everyone wants to sell on the internet as it opens your business up to the entire world. Many people try to immediately start selling online via a website only to find out they make very few sales. Why? No one is finding their site. Selling online is great, but it can take time to get sites set up or traffic to your site. Simply put, starting a website will get you nowhere if you don’t get traffic to see it. There are lots of variables in getting your website noticed by Google but we will save that for a later article. Easier ways to begin selling online are by listing your bows on eBay or Etsy. Both of these sites allow a beginner to showcase their products with ease. If your product is priced competitively and you have good pictures to display, you should be able to start selling right away via these sites.

2) Local Business Marketing: We recommend this as one of the best ways to start selling your hair bows and ribbon products. This is why we listed it as the first “do” item. Many people try to immediately start selling online via a website. Selling online is great, but it can take time to get sites set up or traffic to your site. To get off to a quick start, focus your efforts initially on your local market. Find local boutiques and children’s stores and drop by with examples of your products. Be sure to have an idea of how you both will benefit from working together. You can sell your bows at a wholesale price or work out a commission for the store if they agree to sell your hair bows. Get in touch with the local schools cheer leading and dance teams. Consider creating school fundraisers and doing “hair bow parties”. Hair Salons are also great avenues to sell your bows. Finally, do what we did starting out and sell at some nearby community craft shows or public events where a booth can be purchased.

3) Social Networks: Facebook and Twitter and similar networking sites are the rage these days. Don’t forget to use these sites to market your business. Learn the options of each type of site and focus your efforts on getting followers by posting great relevant posts. Use these sites to show pictures of your creations and post bow ideas to your followers. Announcing promotions and sales are a must on social networks.

4) Blogs: There are lots of Blogging sites you can use. Blogger and Word Press are two popular options where you can easily create a blog for your business. Post pictures and write about your products. Come up with creative designs that will catch the eyes of your readers. Make sure you link your blog to your website which can help drive sales

5) eBay and Etsy: Rather than starting with a website, start generating business online with eBay or Etsy. These sites already have huge amounts of shoppers and you can list your bows here for a small fee. Both of these sites allow a beginner to showcase their products easily and effectively. Key points to selling via these sites: price your hair bows competitively and use good pictures and descriptions. Once you have developed a good number of sales through these sites, it may be time to consider starting your own branded website.

6) Starting Your Own Website: We started our first website at WahmShoppes. For $8 per month, you can open your very own e-commerce store. Customize the look of your store by using any of their various templates. It takes time to start getting web traffic organically. If your budget permits, Google Ad words is an immediate way to start driving traffic to your website. With Ad words, you only pay when someone clicks on your ad. Be careful as it can be quite expensive, especially if people are just clicking and not buying. Gaining traffic organically is a whole subject to itself but make sure you submit your site to the search engines and to some online directories to start. To take online payments, we suggest using PayPal and/or Google Checkout to save on monthly merchant account fees until your volume may dictate a merchant account will pay for itself.

7) Ribbon Suppliers: If you are going to sell hair bows, you are going to need lots of ribbon. Sure you can go to Wal-mart or Hobby Lobby but generally the selection will be less and the prices will be higher versus finding a niche online store that serves the hair bow industry. Look for a company carrying abundant variety, quality products, great pricing, excellent customer service and ships promptly. You want to build a long-term relationship with your supplier and these points mentioned are key to your sanity and success. Be sure you can get color cards from your suppliers so you can accurately match multiple colors on the bows you create with real samples. Don’t rely on images on a computer monitor for color matching. Let your customers use the cards to pick out their colors for a custom bow made to their specifications. Do a web search on a search engine for “hair bow supplies” to come up with a list of good suppliers.

8) Hair bow Templates: Save yourself lots of time and frustration. Use hair bow templates! Create a consistent bow size every time and eliminate your grosgrain ribbon waste by using a template. By doing a search online for “hair bow templates” you will find several retailers offering templates you can purchase online.

9) Hair bow Instructions: There are so many different types of hair bows you will never learn them all. Many sites sell instructions but others offer them for free. Search around on Google and even EzineArticles to find an abundance of free instructions. If you prefer video tutorials, check out YouTube for some excellent videos to view.

10) Shipping: The goal of every business is to get to the point where they have so much business they can’t keep up. When we got to this point we purchased a shipping tool called Ship Rush. This program ties your computer and electronic scale together and allows you to click and copy the customer information right off the email or customer receipt. It then quickly prints out a custom shipping label for the US Post Office or UPS without you having to type in any address information. Trust me, it will become a huge time and money saver as your business grows if you ship out a lot of packages.

11) Financial Software: The number one reason businesses fail is by failing to understand and manage their finances correctly. Your business finances must stay organized and your cash flow needs to be handled carefully. With money coming in and out constantly, this can quickly become a real challenge. Using accounting software such as Quicken or QuickBooks can keep your finances organized. Talk to your CPA to see what they recommend.

How to Dry Up Sinus Drainage! – Sinus Infections and Other Sinus Problems – Nurse’s Secret!

How to dry up sinus drainage is one of the questions about sinusitis, sinus infections and other sinus problems that I’m most frequently asked. This problem is common and just about everyone is affected by them from time to time.

If you’re affected by sinus problems you may often find you’ve experienced drainage down the back of your throat. Many people think they need to dry up this drainage – that somehow this is not normal. However the truth is that this drainage goes on all the time. This is where the sinuses drain about a quart of fluid or mucous every day. This quart of mucous is necessary to keep your sinus cavities functioning at their optimum level.

Now what you may notice is a change in the fluid – in that you have a funny taste in your mouth or you are experiencing a slight sore or irritated throat. Often people think they are getting a sore throat, cold or strep throat when in actuality it is the beginning stages of a sinus infection.

Often people think they need to stop this drainage. Or they may be getting drainage out of their noses. This again is normal drainage unless you are getting yellow mucous, plugs or drainage which is a classic sign of a sinus infection. Your nose may feel congested also.

It’s commonly thought that you want to dry up your drainage – whether it’s from your nose or in your throat. But you don’t want to do this. You want to keep your sinuses moist. What happens is this – when the sinuses get blocked with dried up mucous and the drainage can’t move through properly then a sinus infection can start from fungi (mold) or other organisms. You don’t want to block these sinus cavities, of which there are four sets, located in four different areas of your head. You want to keep them moist. That is one reason why you don’t want to use antihistamines because they will dry up the sinuses and prevent them from healing.

You want to keep them moist. So think about how you can moisten your sinuses to help keep them open and working properly. There are many ways to do this and using medications or drugs will usually make it worse or dry them and cause other side effects that you don’t want.

Look at alternative treatments for sinusitis, acute and chronic sinus infections and other problems rather than drying them up and you will heal faster. Many people have overcome their chronic infections with natural treatment. You can do it too.