How to Properly Oil a Pneumatic Tool

Just like virtually every other thing in life, your air tools require a certain degree of maintenance to perform at their peak, a little bit of premeditated tenderness to keep them operating smoothly. Fortunately, though, despite the overwhelming importance of oiling our pneumatic tools, the lubricating process is surprisingly simple.

Before I spill all the beans, though, let me say a few words about why properly oiling your air tools is so important. First, and as you know, pneumatic tools are built around a beautifully intricate system of gears, rotors, pistons, o-rings and so forth, that are designed to work together to convert compressed air into raw working energy. However, when you convert this air into that energy, condensation, or moisture, is produced within the tool which, in turn, mingles with the oil already existing within the tool. Together they become, essentially, a mess. The oil becomes gloopy and gummy causing more violent metal upon metal impacts inside the tool, this also generates more heat and invites the ever tragic reality slaps of premature wear and tear.

Ultimately, unless properly maintained, the action of doing exactly what it’s designed to do, attacks the overall performance and efficiency of our pneumatic tools. It’s a sad lot, but this wear and tear, or, really, component erosion, is easily and entirely preventable. Simply oil it, and your pneumatic tool will continue building, creating, finishing, and etc for all the live-long day.

To oil the thing, simply wipe-down the tool (it is always good practice to keep your tools clean) and, either before or after each use, plop in just a couple drops of air tool oil; keep in mind that sometimes even just one drop is perfectly enough to lube-up your tool. If you use the tool heavily, it is advised to oil it periodically throughout the work-day, or once every (approximately) 3,000 shots. Whether you oil-up your air tools before or after using them is entirely up to you – many crafters, however, prefer to oil at the end of a work-day as the extra oil will protect the tools interior metal components from any residual moisture produced during the day’s use.

While oiling, though, ensure the oil doesn’t get all over everything else, and if it does, make sure you clean up after yourself. While it is important for some components to be lubricated, it is equally important that some components stay dry.

It is also extremely important that you don’t over-oil your tools. Over-oiling can cause nearly as much damage as under-oiling rendering the tool’s innards sludgy and under-performing. So remember, despite the need to oil your air tools often (every day or with every use) they never require more than a few tiny drops to stay lubed.

Engineer GCC Mining Qualification

Many mining engineering job opportunities have a requirement for candidates to have a Government Certificate of Competency (GCC) – Mines and Works, over and above their academic qualifications and working experience. This certificate, also referred to as a “Government Ticket”, is issued to a successful candidate by the Department of Minerals and Energy in South Africa. The qualification is widely used as a recommendation for positions in mining roles in Africa, not only within South Africa’s borders.

The rules and syllabi governing this qualification are regulated in terms of the Mine Health and Safety Act (1996). A certificate is issued to successful candidates in one of two forms:

Certificate of Competency as Mechanical Engineer for Mines and Works or

Certificate of Competency as Electrical Engineer for Mines and Works.

There are various steps to be completed before registering for the Qualifying Examinations which are held twice yearly. The Institution of Certificated Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, South Africa (ICMEESA) provides clear guidance on this and has published a chart showing the different routes to GCC.

1. Qualifications required

Academic Route

A B.Sc. degree in mechanical or electrical engineering recognized by the Commission of Examiners; at least two years post graduate appropriate practical experience in the maintenance and operations of mechanical and electrical machinery, satisfactory to the Commission of Examiners and of which at least one year has been at a mine in the RSA; or

Technikon Route

Individual Technikons may structure a curriculum to cover the electrical and mechanical courses according to the requirements of the Plant Engineering syllabus. However, these are subject to a clear set of pre-requisites for formal learning and length of experience similar to the academic route.

The qualifications and experiential learning leading up to acceptance for the qualifying examinations should, theoretically prepare the student to write the exams. In practice, it normally happens that additional tuition is needed to prepare for the exams, particularly in the mathematical calculations. External service providers run refresher courses to prepare candidates especially those with demanding day jobs and those who graduated many years earlier.

2. Qualifying Examinations

To qualify for a Certificate of Competency as Mechanical or Electrical Engineer for Mines and Works, the following subjects must be passed by persons accepted as candidates:

(a) Plant Engineering; and

(b) Legal Knowledge (Health and Safety Act and Regulations).

To qualify for a Certificate of Competency, candidates must obtain at least 50% in each subject stipulated above. Candidates need not pass both subjects at the same examination sitting, but the second subject must be passed within three years or six consecutive examination sittings after passing the first, otherwise both subjects must be re-written. An appropriate Certificate of Competency will be forwarded to candidates who have passed the subjects required to qualify for such a certificate.

There are additional requirements and regulations available to prospective candidates who are advised to refer to

Emotional Detachment

It took me a long time to discover that I had learned, from early childhood, to be a detached observer. I was the youngest of five children. My family was in constant turmoil. My parents argued all the time. My two older brothers were always fighting. And my mother’s volatile and often violent mood swings continued to keep the family on pins and needles.

So, kids do what kids do. They protect themselves. They go to their rooms. They stay away from the chaos as much as they can. And when they are in the midst of the family tornadoes, they often withdraw into silent observers. They become recorders, television cameras, quiet witnesses. They learn, very early in the game to passively take in what’s happening and not to participate. It is the only recourse they have; it gives them some kind of order and safety in their lives.

Then they become adolescents and adults. They can’t figure out why others tell them they are “too analytical.” They find themselves observing again as they did when they were children. But the observation mode begins to implode when a friend breaks down after his girlfriend tells him the relationship is over.

The first instinct of the grand observer is to look around for the nearest exit.

The other instinct is to click into the detached mode and calculate all the possible solutions for the friend. “Have you thought about an online dating service?” “Why don’t you go on a trip, get away?” “I’ve got a single friend; I think you guys would really hit it off.”

Detachment from the world, according to many of the medieval Catholic ancients, is one of the highest spiritual goals (celibacy, of course, being one of its many forms). If we are detached, we will never become obsessed, we will avoid all unnecessary and, of course, immoral attachments. We will, in a word, be “free.” From the burdens of desire. From the passions of lust, avarice, greed. From the all the excesses that too many blank checks seductively lead us into.

The monastic movement was the brick-and-mortar extension of the philosophy of detachment. Monks would escape into the cloistered religious life in order to discover all the quiet luxuries of silence and transcendence. They would escape the world’s rabble. They would not be tortured by all the gauntlets of sensuality and sin. They would be purified by the “refiner’s fire” of an isolated cell, prayer, meditation, silence, and work. Their souls would be car-wash clean of all imperfections. They would be ready to meet their Maker.

Leave it to the great Western classic thinkers to have discovered stoicism, the tepid secular philosophy of detachment and the even-tempered. No surprises. No drama. No lows. No highs. The arid land of the flatline.

And then there are Buddha and Gandhi, one telling us to pull back from desire, the other to come down a notch on the belt of our material pursuits.

All this psychological squeezing and belt-tightening aptly describe the world of asceticism, the topographies of the dehydrated in some of the extremes of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Christianity.

Detachment, withdrawal, the simmering of our desires, the holding back of our emotions-all of the mandates of physical and psychological austerity that so many of the great spiritual gurus clearly see as the ideal for all of us to follow.

But what about that kid who learned detachment as a child? What about that little girl who, as an adult, suddenly finds herself always trying to fix things for others because then she doesn’t have to look at herself (observers and fixers often have no internal mirrors)? What about that adult male who can analyze your life into all kinds of solutions but has never grieved? What about that adult scientist who trains herself to objectively observe the outside world but has no emotional energy for any kind of self-examination that would make her a compassionate human being? What about the Yoga expert who can do all the exercises and then goes on a sex binge-a detour into another isolationist act (the paradigm of learning physical techniques that will supposedly give you a sense of “well being” is no guarantee that you will necessarily want to live with “others” in the real world or to empathize with their suffering; it may actually increase one’s already overly-massaged narcissism).

If we have trained ourselves to withdraw, to clinically observe, to pursue self-serving physical regimens, to emotionally isolate, to detach, to search for that chronic silence of the undisturbed, then, I believe we may be taking a toxic journey of egotism and not a path of true emotional stability.

Emotional stability requires psychological connections, relationships, interdependency, opening up to ourselves and to others. When I am connected to others and truly open up, I don’t need facts or logic to support my position, nor do I need to escape into a regimen of physical exercise and self-centered acts of well-being. (I am sure I am offending the meditators, the chanters, the physical fitness buffs, and the yoga practitioners, but I believe that many of these activities only increase the possibility of our self-centeredness. The last thing I want to hear if I’m diagnosed with fourth stage cancer is that I “look great.”)

At a recent AA meeting, one of my old regrets finally surfaced. I put it on the table as a ninth-step amends I needed to make to my father.

After his second wife died, my dad experienced an almost complete psychological meltdown. His rage was often out of control, not just because he lost a wife he absolutely adored, but because he had felt abandoned by the family (that’s too long of a story to elaborate on here).

On our trip to Virginia, he began lashing out at the rest of my family for what he saw as their indifference to his loss and his sense of having been abandoned by my siblings. I immediately went into the withdrawal mode, the same kind of detached-observer mode I learned as a kid. I literally shut down and found myself stone-cold, as the old Westerners would say.

My father died about ten years ago. I miss him terribly. It was at the AA meeting that I finally came out of my emotional closet and told on myself that I regretted not opening up to my dad. Here he was wrapped tightly by his grief and rage, while I stepped seamlessly into the forest of the detached adult, the guy who would wait patiently to see him through without any emotional investment of my own. I would be cool. I would be collected. I would be strong. I would be rational. I would use common sense. I would be objective. I would be the dutiful and loyal son.

But inside, I was still the little kid who observed, who took mental notes, who took in the “facts” of my father’s distress but couldn’t feel the dark tones of his anguish. I would “know” what he was feeling, but I would not invest one dime of my own compassion.

At the meeting, I vowed that I would go to my father’s grave in the next couple of weeks and make my amends. I will weep for that one moment on a road to Virginia lost forever.

It remains one of the great paradoxes to me that three of the leading global religions keep hounding us about the need to psychologically pare down while, at the same time, telling us to be more expansive with our compassion.

Osho calls Buddhism, the religion of “removing obstacles,” while Pema Chodron advises us to expand, to breath out our love to others. Gandhi’s life exemplified the need for social justice while, at the same time, his own personal life exhibited an almost passive and fatalistic acceptance of austerity. And the Catholic Church still prides itself on its cloistered monasteries and its support of celibacy, while, at the same time taking pride in reading St Paul’s famous “the-greatest-of-these-is-love” sermon at every Catholic wedding.

However, no religion that I am aware of will ever tell a kid that she has every right, if not an obligation, to rediscover her essential, authentic, and primal self before she was taught to shut down, to be quiet, to be obedient, to listen, to be the passive observer.

When a child learns to withdraw, to retreat, he is taught to shut down, to close the door of his essence, to extinguish the light of his emotions, to stare blankly at reality like a store’s hidden cameras, to pull the shade down on the sun of his expansiveness, to dismantle all the “instincts” of his own beautiful self.

And when that child becomes an adult, she retreats into logic, into control, into loyalty with resentments, into cerebral acts of trying to get everything factually correct and in order.

Hopefully, those children can overcome the psychological traumas of their learned silences by opening up to their own grief and to the sufferings of others without trying to “fix” the world and to put it back into some kind “order.” When that happens, they will “arrive” where they “started/and know the place for the first time,” as the poet says.

The Three Types of Rigid Foam Insulation

The use of rigid foam insulation is a type of thermal resistor to your home. It can help prevent the exit and the entry of unwanted air to your home from the roof down to the basements and foundation of the building. In fact, the manufacturer of the panel type of insulators creates the tool to fit into your attics or the basements. You no longer have to worry about choosing one particular type from the many supplies offered in the market. It can come in a plastic-like appearance that is durable and strong as steel. With the right kind of cutting that you can wrap around the flooring and the walls, you can assure yourself that your abode will remain warm and cozy for the rest of the year.

One of the first types of rigid foam insulation is made up polystyrene. The material is rolled and used in everyday products and equipments such as coffee mugs and picnic coolers. For the large models, they are found as padding to those shipping crates and materials. The polystyrene kind is called at times as the bead board, which typically contains liquid pentane and mixed with a blowing agent. They are of an expandable component, especially when exposed to increased heat and pressure.

The second type is the extruded expanded polystyrene foam board. It is a type of rigid foam insulation that is similar to the first type. It uses several other types of chemicals to make it more gaseous in nature. The density of this type of material is set at 1.5 pounds per cubic foot. This model is thought to be more expensive than the first type due to the increase of the R-value and the density of the material.

The third type of rigid foam insulation is the polyisocyanurate and polyurethane foam board. They are composed of the highest form of R-values that is measured to R 5.6 to R8. The padding is available in a huge variety of compressive strengths or basically the durability of the tool to resist deformation while still having its original shape. With the right and proper installation method, you will definitely be on your way to having the warm and cozy home that you want.

Benefits of Using Silica Fume in Concrete

Silica Fume has been used all over the world for many years in the area where high strength and durable concrete were required. Silica Fume improves the characteristics of both fresh and hard concrete.

1. Reduce of Concrete Permeability

For provision of a concrete resistant to the most aggressive environment, the most important property is the permeability.

Lower the ingress of movement of water or chemicals; lower the deterious reactions such as sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion… The reaction between Silica Fume and the calcium hydroxide, released as the cement hydrates, provides a dense impermeable pore structure. Although the total porosity of the Silica Fume concrete is similar to the OPC concrete the average pore size is much finer, conducting to a large reduction of permeability.

2. Improvement of concrete mechanical Performances

The Silica Fume reacts with the cement paste to form additional strong Calcium Silicate Hydrate (CSH) providing higher strength. Silica Fume reduces bleeding and enhances the cement paste bond to the aggregates. Thanks to its pozzolanic effect (reaction with Ca(OH)2 ), and therefore to the strength improvement, Silica Fume can be used to reduce to the cement content of the mix.

In addition of the cost saving benefit, this will reduce the total heat of hydration and can improve the performances of the concrete in terms of chemical resistance.

3. Improvement of Concrete Sulfate resistance

Prior to develop the advantages of using Silica Fume to improve the concrete sulfate resistance, it may be interesting to highlight the basics form of sulfate attacks and the properties of sulfate resisting cement.

The use and deterioration of concrete in environments containing sulfates has led to the development of special sulfate resisting cements. It has also spawned significant research into the use of supplementary cementitious materials to improve sulfate resistance. The utility of Silica Fume for enhancing the resistance of concrete to sulfate attack has been widely studied. Sulfate resisting cements (type V) have a low C3A content to minimize the risk off sulfate attack. However, this does not necessarily provide immunity:

– as certain sulfate react with hydrated lime and the calcium silicate hydrate the sulfate resisting cement provide less protection than expected.

– Low C3A cements are more susceptible to reinforcement corrosion attack.

The basic forms of sulfate attack are the following:

The reactive aluminates in the cement will react with the gypsum in cement during hydration. This process is harmless as the ettringite does not produce expansive forces and is stable in sulfate solutions. If the quantity of reactive aluminates in the cement is too high, then their hydrate form will be available to react with sulfates after the cement has hardened.

This will produce expansive ettringite and cracking of the concrete.

Aluminate Hydrate + Calcium Hydroxide + sulfate + water => Ettringite.

The second principle cause attack is the acid interaction of sulfates ions and calcium hydroxide, causing gypsum formation.

Calcium Hydroxide + sulfate + water => Gypsum

It has been shown that the cation (calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Ammonium) of the sulfate salt affects the type and the severity of the attack.

4. Improvement of Reinforcement Corrosion Protection

In a marine structure, the performances of the concrete in terms of sulfate resistance must be taken into consideration for concrete design but the resistance to chlorides diffusion through the concrete is generally a main concern as well.

Some studies conducted in several countries proved that Type 1 cements (with high C3A content) blended with Silica Fume used in combination with a high range water reducer provide high durable performance against chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion and against sulfate attack.

The main reasons of this result can be summarize as follows:

– Silica Fume reduces the permeability of the concrete. Water and chemicals ingress are thus reduced.

– The ability of high C3A cement to complex with chlorides results in the formation of insoluble compound, able to reduce the mobility of free chloride ion to the reinforcement-concrete surface.

Acid Rebound, Acid Reflux And Your Health

If you are like many of us today, heartburn or acid indigestion is a recurring problem. And for most of us the tried-and-true remedies are great products like Tums or Rolaids. But there is a possible problem for those of us who use these calcium carbonate containing antacids. I’m referring to the phenomenon called acid rebound.

Antacids are used to neutralize the effect of the acid in your stomach. Basically, they simply make your “stomach juices” less acidic to make you feel better. There are a number of ingredients that can be used in various antacids such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, sodium, magnesium hydroxide or aluminum hydroxide. All have their pros and cons.

But products that are calcium carbonate containing antacids can also stimulate a release of gastrin from the duodenum and distal stomach. This hormone is mainly responsible for the stimulation of acid secretion in your stomach. Once these types of antacids are finished working in your stomach, the stomach actually begins an overproduction of acid, hence the term acid rebound!

Now, at this point there is no medical research indicating that this acid rebound is actually detrimental to your health. However, doctors are concerned that this overproduction and over stimulation of stomach acids can eventually be harmful in the long run. But you have to wonder, if stomach acid was the cause of your problem in the first place, how are things going to improve if you’ll eventually end up with more acid in your stomach! More gastric acid would also seem to indicate more heartburn.

And there is more. Some people with heartburn also experience acid reflux, where the stomach acid is actually forced up into the esophagus. This is where you experience that feeling like a chemical burn in your chest and throat. For some people this acid reflux actually becomes quite frequent and is called Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Adding more stomach acids can only mean increased problems in this area. And what can this mean for your health in the long run?

Well, you should know that there is a link between this acid reflux and a particular type of cancer. For some people, if acid reflux results in stomach acid reaching the esophagus repeatedly over the years, then there is also a possibility of a change in the lining. It is gradually replaced by a tissue similar to that found in your intestine This is known as Barret’s esophagus and a small number of people who have this condition develop esophageal adenocarcinoma, a cancer which is often not curable. Obviously, not something to take lightly.

If you are one of those who uses these calcium carbonate-based antacids, then you might be wise to check with your doctor about the possible effects of acid rebound and acid reflux on your health. And more importantly, if you do have a tendency to use antacids, you would also be wise to talk to your doctor about the underlying causes of your heartburn or indigestion. Your body is telling you something and you should listen!

Herbal Remedies at Home For Athlete’s Foot

Feet may be the most abused part of you body, constantly suffocating inside of shoes, holding up the weight of your body and often forgotten in skin care treatments. There are numbers of foot care products on the market, however they are very expensive and contain harsh chemicals and artificial perfumes. Instead, try pampering your feet with natural home remedies that are gentle, effective, fun and affordable. Read follow materials to learn how to care for feet with natural home remedies.

As the common cold, there doesn’t seem to be a fast solution for athlete’s foot. The fungus thrives in the warm, moist environment of shoes and on locker room floors. Most of time you don’t need expensive long-term treatments. You can make a home remedy for athlete’s foot that will make those itching, burning footsies happy once again.

First you’d better prepare some supplements such as lime, strawberries, olive oil, kosher salt, ground almonds, almond oil, and essential oil (lavender, rosemary or geranium).

Step1 Cut limes in half and then gently massage the juice into your feet, calluses and between your toes for five or ten minutes before rinsing with warm water. A simple and affordable foot care remedy, lime will help combat athlete’s foot and foot odor and will leave your feet feeling soft and supple.

Step2 Mix eight strawberries,2 tbsp. of olive oil, 1 tsp. of kosher salt and 1/2 tsp. of finely ground almonds. Mash the ingredients into a paste to create an exfoliating foot care cream. Massage the paste into your feet, rinse and dry.

Step3 Try to moisturize your feet and heals with a few drops of almond oil after showering to prevent dry, cracking skin. Almond oil absorbs deeply into the skin, can help relieve aches and pains and is often used as a relaxing agent in aromatherapy. Always purchase small amounts of almond oil and store it in the refrigerator, as it goes bad faster than other oils.

Step4 In the end, add a few drops of essential oil to almond oil for a relaxing foot remedy anytime of the day. Rosemary, lavender and geranium essential oils not only smell fantastic, they also help to relieve tired aching feet. Add five drops of your chosen oil to ten teaspoons of sweet almond oil. Carry your oil with you and apply whenever your feet need a break.

To prevent future recurrences of athlete’s foot, be vigilant about keeping your feet clean, dry (try a hair dryer to get in between those toes good), powdered, and in protective shoes when visiting public areas where the fungus may be lurking. If your athlete’s foot persists after trying a few home remedies, see your doctor.

Parallel Bar Dips – The Upper Body Squat!

More than just a chest and triceps exercise, the parallel bar dip is a full upper body powerhouse movement. Not only will it add size and definition to the chest and triceps, it will help increase strength and stabilization in many other pressing movements. This can help lead to heavier and more productive upper body workouts, which in turn leads to new growth and strength development.

The functionality and biomechanics of the dip exercise are extremely similar to the squat and its effect on lower body development and strength. In a full rear barbell squat, the body acts to stabilize itself actively through recruitment of numerous muscle groups such as the intrensic core stabilizers, hip flexors, spinal erectors, hamstrings, quadriceps, and glutes. The squat taxes all systems in different portions of the movement, and requires constant active stabilization to perform correctly. This is the main advantage of the dip over a supported pressing exercise (such as the flat bench press); the dip requires balancing stabilization with the hands supporting the entire movement, just as the feet are the center of balance in a barbell squat.

A stabilization component added to any exercise adds numerous benefits, such as enhancing core strength and stability, increasing caloric utilization, and achieving greater neuromuscular efficiency. Because the dip is supported only by the hands, entirely different paths of muscle recruitment become involved in stabilizing the eccentric, isometric, and concentric portions of the movement. In effect, this requires all of the systems of the body to constantly adapt and fire off responses to keep the body from falling forward, descending too quickly, or losing control of elbow position.

Beyond the stabilization component, the dip is similar to the squat as a multi-joint exercise in that it retains constant tension on the primary movers throughout the entire range of the movement. The dip has the advantage over squats in this department however, as at the top end of a squat the knees can be locked out! In the dip, the top of the concentric portion of movement (the press up) still actively requires the tricep to stabilize and extend the elbow and keep the body from falling forward, side to side, and rearward. Comparing dips to the squat, the chest acts as the glutes, the deltoids act as the hip flexors, and the triceps act as the quadriceps. A simple side view of both exercises demonstrates these similarities very vividly, and it becomes evident that the dip is truly of equal as a power movement – only for the upper body!

Not just limiting to the prime movers, a number of other muscles must be recruited in order for the dip to be executed with control and safety, as in the squat. Just as a tight core is required in the squat, such is the same with the dip for reasons discussed prior – stability. The body must be controlled to prevent excessive forward and rearward lean and maintain ideal neutral spine position. The core functions to keep this balance in both exercises, and becomes an important factor in setting the dip apart from the rest of the presses.

To keep the elbows in line with the body, the latissimus dorsi act as guides for the arms in the movement along with the trapezius muscles. These help to again stabilize the elbows extension during the delicate balance of allowing the tricep, chest, and deltoids to accelerate during the concentric portion of the dip. The forearms act much like the lower leg in a squat, helping to stabilize the wrist (akin to ankle stabilization in the squat).

The range of motion in a parallel dip is much more free than the comparable bench press; it allows a deep stretch during the eccentric portion of the movement, as well as a powerful contraction during the concentric phase. In comparison to the barbell press, a much deeper eccentric stretch can be accomplished, barring flexibility rather than the limiting factor of a barbell resting on the chest. Even in a dumbbell press, stabilization of each hand is required to perform a deep eccentric stretch, and can become a dangerous exercise if side to side balance loss at the wrist occurs.

Understanding everything involved in this complex movement reveals an exercise that rivals the king of lower body exercises as a resource to help build strength, muscle, and stabilization endurance. The constant tension on nearly all muscle groups involved, the synergy of working muscle groups, the stretch and range of motion, and the degree of muscle fiber stimulation prove that the parallel bar dip is a potent exercise for many goals. To understand how to utilize this exercise, care must be taken to understand each portion of the movement. Also important is the knowledge of both progression and regression of the exercise, in case of additional strength requirements or deconditioning and general inexperience with the exercise.

Starting with the beginning portion of the movement, grip should be slightly wider than shoulder width (roughly 2-2.5ft total distance between hands). Grasp the handles and press up into an elbows extended and locked position, making sure the feet are either high enough to not touch the floor in full body extension or that knees can be comfortably tucked into a 90 degree angle to the rear of the body. Control the body from swaying front to rear before beginning descent. In preparation for descent, tighten the core muscles and prepare to draw in air. Slowly lower the body down, allowing the elbows to bend alongside the lats. Maintain core tension, and inhale during the descent.

The ending of the eccentric portion of the movement is when the arms reach a bend of 90 degrees at the elbow. Do not initially allow the body to lower further than this position, as flexibility can become a limiting factor in performing the exercise safely. Body position can be varied in order to help place emphasis on different movers. For example, leaning forward slightly into the descent places more tension onto the chest and deltoids, whereas remaining near vertical will shift weight towards greater tricep tension. Use caution when differing from a neutral upright position, as excessive strain can occur in the elbow joint, rotator cuff, deltoid, and pectorals if flexibility and strength are limited.

Coming out of the hole, guide the arms tight aside the lats into full elbow extension by pressing through the chest, deltoids, and triceps. You should never bounce out of the bottom of the movement; this can cause excessive tension and lead to injury. Extend the elbow to a “soft” lockout, do not snap or jerk the elbows into full extension. Utilize muscular control and tension to achieve a full extension rather than relying on momentum, thus utilizing more stabilization mechanisms and potential stimulating the muscle even further.

To progress the dips further, adding weight is a very viable option. Just as with any other exercise, to make changes in strength, endurance, or composition the stimulus must be progressed in order for adaptation to occur. When a sufficient amount of bodyweight dips can be performed (12 or greater), added weight can be a viable means of getting more from the exercise. Additional weight can be added be either gripping a plate or dumbbell between the legs, or investing in a dipping belt to which weights can be attached. The latter option is greater, as it relieves the stress of having to actively support the weight during the movement by clamping with the knees or lower leg. Please take into consideration body and wrist stabilization before adding weight however, as weak factors in form can and will be exposed by increasing load. Just as adding too much weight to a bench press can result in rapid loss of control of either the eccentric or concentric portion of the movement, the same can occur in a dip. Losing control quickly can result in falling to the ground from and elevated position, or can destabilize the movement causing undue stress on a number of muscles at the same time. Use common sense, and progress slowly to reap the benefits of continued weight and adaptation.

To regress the exercise, it is recommended to have a spotter assist you in hold your legs from the rear. This has the advantage over using a dipping machine that may have an “anti-gravity” knee pad, as you can still move in a natural path of motion while stabilizing a portion of your body weight. Only the deconditioned or heavier person should utilize a dipping machine, as they may need a greater amount of assistance than a single spotter can provide. Begin with low repetitions per set, with greater amounts of sets to accomplish a higher number of overall dips. For example, completing 6 sets of 3 reps still equals 18 total reps in the end. Next time around progress 5-10% more total reps per workout. In no time will you be dipping your bodyweight for multiple sets, in ample quantity of repetitions.

Utilization of the parallel bar dip is as much of a no-brainer as adding the squat to legs day. The overall muscle stimulation provided, coupled with an intense stabilization mechanism and ability to actively progress and regress the exercise make the dip a formidable foe to the stale bench press.

Normal Penis Length And Size – What Is The Average Penis Size?

Guys like you all over the world want to know about the normal penis length and size. You want to know what is the average penis size? But even after you get the answer to this question, the next question you need to be concerned about is – is the average penis size enough for women? Is that all women want from their lover? Or is there something more you can do as a man?

So let’s start with the normal penis length and size. Depending on which study you read, the average penis size when erect is 5.8 inches, plus or minus 0.8 inches. So this means most mean have a normal penis length of between 5 and 6.6 inches.

And the normal or average penis size or girth is 4.9 inches, plus or minus 0.2 inches. So from 4.7 inches to 5.1 inches in circumference is normal.

Now you can go get out your ruler and watch some sexy videos to get it erect and measure your penis and see how you compare to the average male penis size. More than likely you will fall somewhere in this range. Contrary to what you see in adult films, not all men have an 8 to 10 inch penis.

Now that you have that information, is the “average” enough to please women? How deep is the vagina? When not aroused, a woman’s vagina is only 3 to 5 inches deep. However when aroused for sex, it can elongate to 7 inches or more. So if you have a normal penis length of 6 inches and your lover can handle up to 7 inches or more, will she be fully satisfied?

Considering that most women do not have an orgasm during sex, she may not be fully satisfied with your normal penis length.

Granted penis size is not the only factor that comes into play when making a woman have an orgasm. But it does play an important role. Having your wife, lover, or girlfriend fully aroused during sex can help her achieve an orgasm. Spending more time during foreplay is also recommended. You both have needs during sex and you want to make sure you take care of hers just as much as you want to take care of yours.

You also need to be able to maintain your erection and be able to control your own climax and ejaculation until your partner has one. You can accomplish this without having the biggest penis. There are steps you can take to make sure you remain in control during sexual intercourse.

So what are the steps needed for getting a bigger than normal penis length and controlling erections and ejaculation? The recommended course of action you can take is combining male sexual enhancement pills along with a penis enlargement extender. These are the affordable choices compared to a penis enlargement surgery procedure that can cost up to $10,000 or more. You can buy these male enhancement products online.

These two products give you the best chance of growing beyond the average penis size and being able to maintain an erection and control your ejaculation until you can give your partner an orgasm. This is the ultimate goal because as the saying goes, “if she ain’t happy, you ain’t happy.”

Being able to sexually satisfy your partner can help ensure that both of you are happy and will not need to go elsewhere to get her needs met from someone who has a better than normal penis length and size. You can soon be the one to fully satisfy her needs.

Boat Fuel System Maintenance

Replacing the filter is recommended at 200 hour intervals. Remember to close the fuel stopcock to prevent fuel from draining from the tank. Diesel can be messy and its best contained. Place a bowl below to catch any escapes or try hanging a plastic bag around the filter.

Checking and replacing the primary filter Clean filters are essential to keep water and particles out of your boats engine. Most marine engines have two filters, the primary filter in the fuel lines between the tank and the engine, and the secondary filter between the fuel lift pump and the injection pump.

You should check regularly throughout the season for collected water. It will be clearly visible and will require occasional draining. To drain the filter bowl, hold a container underneath the open cock. Once any water has passed through you will see a stream of clear fuel.

Replacing the filter is recommended at 200 hour intervals. Remember to close the fuel stopcock to prevent fuel from draining from the tank. Diesel can be messy and its best contained. Place a bowl below to catch any escapes or try hanging a plastic bag around the filter.

Check the seal between the bracket, canister and bowl. They won’t need replacing every time but as new filters come with seals you may still want to. To fit the filter, reverse the process. Assemble the base plate, bowl and filter as a single stack before inserting the bolt. A smear of oil on the sealing rings of fuel and oil filters help them to bed in smoothly when tightened.

Filling the primary filter with the lift pump can be tedious. Even if you have a dip pipe fuel system you can sometimes shortcut the process by opening the filter’s bleed screw and blowing down the fuel tank breather pipe to lightly pressurize the tank and drive fuel into the filter.

Replacing the secondary filter The secondary filter is usually one of two types – a spin-on filter, similar to car oil filters, or a type similar to the primary filter as described above. To replace a spin-on filter, unscrew the filter with a wrench, place a plastic bag around the filter and unscrew it allowing the fuel to drain into the bag.

Bleeding the system Changing the fuel filters allows air into the pipes. For the engine to run properly this must be bled by driving it out under slight pressure from high points in the fuel system. Some engines are self-bleeding, but most require you to carry out a few simple steps.

Firstly, make sure you have plenty of fuel and that all the valves are open. Try to operate the left pump lever – if it won’t move, hand turn the engine half a revolution to move the drive cam, then try again. If your primary filter is below the level of fuel in the tank, and your fuel is drawn directly from your bottom of the tank rather than via a dip pipe, you can fill the primary filter simply by cracking open the bleed screw on the top. You should see the bowl fill with fuel, and once clean, bubble-free fuel starts to starts to flow from around the bleed screw. There may still be air on the downstream side of the filter which will need to be vented using the method described below, but having already filled the primary filter accelerates the bleeding process.

In either case, the next stage is the secondary filter. Open the bleed screw and operate the lift pump. This may take several minutes, especially if you have to fill the primary filter this way. Fuel should start appearing around the bleed screw, once this is free of bubbles you can close the screw.

The History of Silly Putty

Silly Putty has become one of the most recognizable toys in the world. The part liquid, part solid toy (actually it’s a non-Newtonian fluid!) is loved by children and adults across the globe. But have you ever wondered how Silly Putty was invented? And how did it become so popular? The answers are found when taking a look back at the history of this remarkable material.

It all started during World War II. Rubber had become a scarce resource due to its many military applications. Demand for rubber was so high that in the United States citizens were asked to reuse and recycle their rubber, even going so far as having rationing instituted. The search for rubber alternatives became a major goal for most industrial companies.

One inventor working for General Electric, a Mr. James Wright, discovered that mixing boric acid with silicone oil produced a material with unique properties. It would bounce when thrown against a wall or floor, yet it had a gooey composition. Unfortunately it did not make for a good industrial rubber replacement. Despite Wright’s efforts to have other scientists experiment with the material, no uses could be found.

That is until 1949 when a toy store owner by the name of Ruth Fallgatter and marketing consultant Peter Hodgson teamed up to market the bouncing putty. They ran an ad in a catalog selling the putty, and it quickly became one of the best selling items. Hodgson saw more potential for the item and began packaging it in 1 oz plastic eggs. It was an immediate hit. 250,000 eggs of Silly Putty, as it was then named, were sold in just three days.

While originally marketed to adults, by 1955 the majority of consumers were children under the age of 12. In 1957 the first television commercials for Silly Putty were aired during the Howdy Doody Show. By 1961 the novelty had stretched across the world, becoming popular across Europe and the Soviet Union. It’s popularity was so strong that Apollo 8 astronauts brought Silly Putty to the moon.

Peter Hodgson died in 1976, and Silly Putty was sold to Binney and Smith, the makers of Crayola products. They kept the tradition of selling putty in small plastic eggs, and by 1987 Silly Putty was selling over two million eggs every year. Today it remains one of the most popular toys in countries all around the globe.

How to Install Threaded Inserts

Threaded inserts are fastener-related devices constructed of metal or plastic materials. They are generally used to provide thread tracks for screws or bolts. These inserts can allow a fastener to form a more secure attachment to soft or pliable surfaces that would otherwise reject fastening, repair a damaged thread track, or install threads into a workpiece without relying on a more elaborate production process. Threaded inserts are usually placed inside an existing hole or slot, and they feature an external design that allows them to be lodged securely, along with a cylindrical inner cavity lined with threads.

Fastener inserts can be made from a wide range of materials, including metals such as brass and steel, and plastics such as PVC. Likewise, they are available in a variety of design types depending on their application. Molded inserts are used in plastic fabrication cavities, while key-lock inserts are employed for repairing stripped thread holes. Threaded brass inserts are most often used for fastening plastic materials, although they can also be applied to wood and other surfaces as well. Installing these inserts is usually a multistage process, and can sometimes require special equipment or techniques to accomplish.

Threaded Inserts in Wood

Installing a threaded brass insert into a wood surface requires a certain degree of care. A threaded rod with a length depending on the specific application needs will be required, along with a few similarly-sized nuts, masking tape, and copper tubing with an internal diameter slightly larger than the external diameter of the threaded rod.

First, a pilot hole must be drilled into the wood at the point where the threaded insert will be installed. To help keep the angle of insertion perpendicular to the surface, it can be helpful to mount the workpiece in a drill press, but it is important that the drill press is off during the procedure. The workpiece should not be clamped too tightly because the threaded rod should be able to rotate inside the copper sleeve. The rod can then be twisted into its slot with a wrench, while masking tape is used to keep it from slipping out of the copper tubing, which functions as a sleeve. Depending on the hardness of the wood, considerations may need to be taken for clearing chips from the area.

Threaded Inserts in Thermoplastic

Putting threaded brass inserts in a thermoplastic material, such as acrylic, involves a different set of equipment and methods than those used for wood surfaces. In some cases, the insert may need to be melted into the workpiece in order to form a secure joint. Generally, this occurs on the more rounded side of an acrylic piece as a smaller amount of melted plastic will gather near the insert and the installation will be easier. The standards steps in such a procedure include:

o Positioning: A threaded brass insert usually has a taper on one side to help with insertion into a slot. Inserts should be placed along the surface of the thermoplastic workpiece in their intended spots, ideally along a series of predrilled holes.

o Insertion: The workpiece should be clamped or moved to ensure that the insert holes are overhanging the edge of a bench or other work surface, and a heated soldering iron may then be pressed into the threaded insert. Applying a slight amount of pressure onto the soldering iron will help push the insert straight down into the material.

o Protrusion: The soldering iron can be used to guide the insert and keep it straight as it enters the workpiece. The insert should be pushed until it lies flush with the top surface of the workpiece, although there may be a small accumulation of melted plastic that rises over the insert. Depending on the application requirements, the insert should also be checked to see if it lies flush with the bottom half of the plastic surface.

o Inspection: After the threaded insert has been installed, it may be helpful to use a screw or bolt to verify its positioning. If the screw attaches at a bent angle, the soldering iron can be applied to reposition it correctly.

It may be necessary to preheat an insert on the soldering iron before beginning installation, especially if working with a large brass insert. Alternatively, a drill press can be employed to grip the workpiece while heat is applied to the insert, although the press should not be turned on during the process.

Rent a Temporary Fence for Your Pool Area

With all the bills that you have to pay every month, you might find it difficult to add an expenditure to fit to your budget. However when it comes to the safety of your family members, you should not think twice whether you should purchase something that would add to their security or not. If you have a swimming pool, you should definitely consider getting pool fences for the safe-keeping of your family.

But there is no need to spend a lot for this kind of pool accessory. If you do not have enough money, you can actually rent a temporary pool fencing so that you can still provide that protection against mishaps like slipping and drowning.

If you are interested to rent for a temporary fencing for your swimming pool, you can find a vast range of companies offering this product online. You can simply e-mail them or call their hotline instead to inquire directly to their company.

They would only ask a couple of information about the area such as the size, the type of fencing that you need, and the like. In just a matter of minutes, you will get a reply from these companies giving you quotes about the pool fences that you would like to rent. Of course, the price varies depending on different factors. There are different kinds of temporary pool fencing including fences made from iron, wood, aluminum, or glass. Of course, the tougher the materials are, the more expensive it would be.

By the time that you already agreed to the quote and paid the amount for this temporary pool fencing, the company of your choice can install it to your home the next day. Make sure that you compare their quotes before making your decision and check for the reviews from their previous clients as well.

Senior Moves Mean Planning Ahead

Your senior years should focus on carefree living. For many older adults this means downsizing to an apartment or assisted living accommodations. A larger home may no longer suit your needs; requiring more maintenance and house cleaning than a smaller home. Staying in your current home may also pose health and safety risks if you live by yourself. This is especially true if you have mobility or health issues or if your neighborhood has changed so that you no longer feel safe.

It can be difficult for an older adult to leave their home particularly if it holds many family memories. Recognizing the benefits of downsizing and making the choice to move is preferable to being forced to move in a hurry later due to illness or injury. Today’s retirement and assisted living options offer safety, security, companionship, and activities. Take control of the situation by making the best choice now and deciding what to do with your accumulated treasures, memorabilia and possessions.

It is never too early to get family and friends involved and think about what you would like them to have and what they would actually like. Often we are misguided in what each family member really would like to receive. We forget that our family members have also accumulated many things over the years and that they are also looking for ways to simplify their lives and their spaces. They may not be able to take the family treasures and heirlooms you had envisioned them having. It is better to know this earlier to avoid the emotional strain and have time to deal with the logistics that go with such decision making.

Moving for anyone is a marathon and for seniors it has added stresses. This is not something that should be done quickly. Much is done today to ensure the quality of life for seniors in their homes. But let’s not forget that we want to equally ensure that same quality of care in preparing a senior to relocate. Asking seniors to make rush decisions and perform physically demanding tasks are not in their best interest. Starting several years ahead is the best way to make this transition comfortable for seniors and family members.

Visit apartments and retirement living options to see what kind of arrangement would suit you best. Begin by thinking about what you will really need in your new home. Distribute possessions amongst family members, donate to charity, or sell them to finance your move.

Be realistic about how much space you will have in your new home and what items will you actually use. Do you need china for a setting of 10? Minimize and keep only the things you love and need. You may not need a service for 10 but definitely use the good china and many of your precious well loved items that you often saved for special occasions. Decide to use them all now.

Will your sofa fit in your new place? Do you use all of those kitchen gadgets? Moving items that will not fit in with your new life is a waste of time by repacking and disposing and money by paying movers to move the extra boxes.

It will take some time to adjust to your new life and you need to give yourself time to adjust to your surroundings. It is equally important to remember that it also takes considerable time to plan ahead for creating that new life. Take the time required to make your move manageable and don’t cut the planning short at the risk of your emotional and physical well being.

Unusual Hotels in Spain – From Castles to Caves

Finding unusual lodging can make your trip to Spain memorable whether you are looking for a modern hotel in Madrid or a eco-friendly experience in the countryside.


The Paradores of Spain are operated by the Spanish government. They are medieval castles, Moorish fortresses, ancient monasteries, charming palaces and stately manor houses. The buildings may be historic and centuries old, but the amenities (e.g.,wireless internet, satellite TV, and minibars) and service are modern. The 93 hotel chain was founded in 1928 by order of King Alphonso XIII.

The Paradores are located all around the country. It is rarely more than a few hours, or at most half-a-day’s drive between one Parador and the next.

The restaurants at the Paradores are as special as the paradores themselves. Each offers a menu that centers around the traditional dishes of the local region, yet prepared in the chef’s own style. The wine lists feature some of Spain’s best wines.

Several of the Paradores are set in extraordinary natural surroundings. Most of Spain’s national parks have a Parador either inside or very near.

Other Paradores are located at historic attractions. The Parador in Granada is located literally inside the Alhambra, one of Andalucia’s architectural jewels. When you stay there you are right inside the beautiful grounds.

Other Unusual Lodging Experiences

El Ventorro Hotel in Andalucia, Southern Spain has 8 en-suite rooms carved out of the mountain. Even though they are caves, they have comfortable beds, TVs and heating. Off the courtyard is a door that leads to Arab baths complete with warm and cold pools and a area with masseurs.

Hotel Silken Puerta América, Madrid, Each floor of this hotel was done by a different designer. From rooms that are all white to bathrooms that are all red, the rooms at this hotel are very modern and very dramatic. Even the hotel garage had a designer.Some of the rooms are not too expensive, but most are quite pricey.

Want a different type of camping experience? Try a Tipi holiday. This eco-friendly luxury camping experience comes with a double luxury camp bed with feather duvet and a private shower room within the cave complex. They have an outside kitchen with a BBQ, gas hob, a refrigerator, and pots and pans. You can use this to prepare your own meals if you wish.