Freon Leak Repair – Air Conditioner

A freon leak repair kit may be the answer to the problem of freon leaks in your air conditioner that keep costing you money every cooling season. One of the biggest headaches people have with air conditioners is the system losing refrigerant though a small leak in the system. Larger leaks are typically easier to find in an air conditioning system because the will leave evidence such as an oil stain, a hole or crack in a coil, and in some cases when trying to add refrigerant you may even here the hissing sound of the freon escaping.

Larger freon leaks will most likely need to be addressed by an air conditioning service technician. They may have to solder cracks or holes in line and even replace evaporator or condenser coils. If your system loses all the freon do to a larger leak it will need to be evacuated to remove any moisture and none condensing gases from the system. This is done by putting a vacuum pump on the system that sucks all the contaminant’s out. If this is not done your system will not function properly even after recharging it. Many times when you have a smaller leak in your system the technician will spend time looking for a leak that can not be found and just add freon to the air conditioner only to have it leak out again by the next cooling season. This can end up costing you hundreds of dollars every year or two. The other problem with just adding freon is that before your air conditioner gets so low that you realize it your energy costs will be very high to run a system that is not fully charged.

A simple and effective method to address smaller freon leaks is a freon leak repair kit that contains the hose, valve and sealant need to simply do the job your self in just minutes. Now keep in mind this product is mainly for residential and commercial air conditioners that have leaks that lose the charge over a year or more. Using it is very basic, you simply clip the hose and access fitting onto the larger black or suction line at the condenser or outdoor unit and run the air conditioner. The compressor will then suck the sealant into the system and seal any small leaks though out the entire system. This product when used according to the instructions on the can is safe for your system with most types of refrigerants and can be very effective. The cans in the kit are sized to be used on a systems up to five tons. This should cover most residential applications and many small commercial ones do to the fact the there are two cans in the kit totaling 10 tons of cooling if needed. You can check the size of your air conditioner by the make, model and serial number with an online search. Most homes under 4000 square feet will have an air conditioner less that five tons.

So if your tired of paying an air conditioning contractor hundreds of dollars every cooling season to simply add freon to you system that should not be leaking, check out the freon leak repair kit at www.mainsupplies.com go to ” Freon Leak Repair Kit” under shop by category to purchase.

What To Look For In An Air Compressor

An air compressor is a handy tool to have at home. You may think that you do not need one, but they could save you money by not having to hire a handy man to do a job that you could have done yourself. Whether you are looking to buy one for yourself or perhaps as a present for someone else, this article will outline the essential points to choosing the right one. You cannot just decide to buy one on price alone, you need to keep a few important factors in mind before you make your decision.

The features that you need to keep in mind are the noise level when in full operation, how many amps it uses, the output of air, and finally whether it requires lubrication. Let’s look at each of these options.

You want to buy a model that draws as little amps as possible as this will help the motor to last longer. Low amps means that there is less chance of the motor failing when there is a drop in the voltage supply.

The output of air is an important factor that you need to consider. The higher the compression, the higher the performance of the device. Look for a model that uses a cast iron cylinder as this will provide the higher compression and performance you will be looking for. This ensures that the device will be able to be used at home and in tougher work situations.

Some manufacturers are offering an oil free compressor that is designed for the homeowner to use on DIY projects. Although this sounds convenient, it is not a good idea to buy one that requires not lubrication. With lubrication the pump will run much cooler and the wear and tear on the parts will be minimized. The changing of the oil, which will need to be done periodically, is actually very easy to do thanks to an oil drain mechanism. They do not take much oil and it is not expensive to do an oil change.

Make sure you choose a compressor than runs quietly. You will want to buy a device that allows you to easily have a conversation with someone else while in use. You will also want the device to be as quite as possible when it is used indoors. Try to find an air compressor that operates under 100 decibel and closer to the 80 decibel mark.

Introduction to Commodity Pyramid Trading

This article discusses the how to to profit from commodity pyramid trading.

These key points will help you learn this technique:

  1. What is Commodity Pyramid Trading?
  2. Commodity Pillar Trading Comparison
  3. Commodity Pyramid Trading Comparison
  4. Commodity Pyramid Trading Useful Tips

1. What is Commodity Pyramid Trading?

This is a method of trading commodity futures contracts in such a way that when the profit from a single trade equals the current margin for the commodity, the profit is used to self-finance an additional futures contract. This self-financing process can take either of two methods: Pillar trading or Pyramid trading.

The Pillar trading method involves adding one futures contract to your position during each self-finance round, while Pyramid trading adds one futures contract – but from each active futures contract with each self-financing step. This results in a doubling of your position during each self-financing step.

Both pyramid trades and pillar trades (hereinafter referred to as pyramid trades) should exhibit several characteristics which make them high profit potential candidates. These characteristics include:

  • The market is quiet and has exhibited low volatility for several months.
  • The margin for the commodity is relatively low.
  • The market is set up for a major move. This is evidenced by extreme commercial/public signal, as well as a 12-month high or 12-month low on the daily price chart with a likely 1-2-3 Top or Bottom price chart pattern in the process of unfolding.

A VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: The biggest danger in any futures trade is a limit move which goes against your position. With a single futures contract, this is risky enough. With multiple futures contracts, this risk is seriously compounded. However, if you monitor the market conditions (both technical and fundamental market conditions) and the financial news on a daily basis, you will generally receive a timely warning of an impending limit move which may go against your position – giving you time to close out your position before that occurs.

The Pyramid Trading Form

The Pyramid Trading Form is at the heart of helping you to successfully implement and manage these trading strategies. It contains areas that will let you monitor and track up to three commodities using this trading strategy. Each area allows for up to 7 futures contracts to be held in the pillar trade position, and up to 64 futures contracts in the pyramid trade position.

How To Identify A Good Pyramid Trade Candidate

At any point in time, there will be several commodities with differing degrees of profit potential. However, it is important that you identify the commodity which has the best chance of being a profitable pyramid trade. This means that you must perform a current analysis of all commodities to identify the commodity that meets the following requirements.

a. You must first use the Commercial/Public selection tools to identify the commodities that appear to be ready to make a major move.

b. Of these commodities, identify those that appear to be making either a 1-2-3 Top or 1-2-3 Bottom in the daily price chart. Calculate the daily 50% retracement target for each one. Also calculate the dollar amount the move represents.

c. Where applicable, use the weekly chart to calculate the weekly 50% retracement target for each commodity. Again, calculate the dollar amount the move represents if the weekly target is attained.

d. Identify the margin requirement for each commodity. The ideal pyramid trade will be one with a relatively small margin requirement and with a dollar amount profit potential that is at least three times the margin requirement for the commodity.

e. The commodity that you select must be a quiet commodity – that is, one which does not have wild price swings.

f. The commodity you ultimately select as the best pyramid trade candidate must also have enough time to allow the move to unfold. This means you need to get into a more distant month to minimize loss from commission switch requirements (which can be expensive with 16 or more contracts in your position). Select the more distant commodity contract month that has 120-180 days available until the Last Trading Day (LTD).

g. The commodity which you have selected must have a daily volume of at least 10,000 contracts for adequate liquidity. Open interest should also be 10,000 or more.

It’s important to remember that once you are in a trade, you must religiously perform an analysis on a daily basis so as to identify any changes in the original analysis that may adversely impact your trade. In addition, you should always monitor fundamental “news” which will affect the price of the commodity. For example, if you’re short Orange Juice – and Florida has a freeze warning – close your position fast!

2. Commodity Pillar Trading Comparison

The commodity pillar trading strategy is the least risky of the two strategies because you only acquire one contract with each applicable price (profit) increase.

An example pillar trade resulted in $12,650 profit (before commissions). During the trade, your total risk was confined to $400 or less. If you had traded only one futures contract (with a 93.79 entry price, and a 94.92 exit price), your gross profit would have been $2,825. The pillar trading strategy produced the additional profit.

3. Commodity Pyramid Trading Comparison

The commodity pyramid trading strategy is the most risky of the two strategies because you acquire two contracts with each applicable price (profit) increase. This results in a risky “inverted pyramid” position which, if not intelligently managed can produce significant losses.

An example Pyramid Trade resulted in $72,200 profit (before commissions). During the trade your total risk was confined to $4,600 or less. Again, if you had traded only one futures contract, your gross profit would have been $2,825. The pyramid trading strategy produced the additional profit.

4. Commodity Pyramid Trading Useful Tips

There are several things which you must do when using the commodity pyramid trading technique described in this course. Failure to do so will likely invite grief into your life.

* You must perform an analysis of the markets to identify an ideal pyramid trading opportunity. Having done that, you need patience and commitment to wait for the inevitable move in price. Your previous efforts at paper trading have given you the confidence and skills to identify major moves. Trust your skills.

* Get into the more distant futures contract to avoid the need to “switch” contracts. The commission on 64 contracts at $40 per contract will cost you an extra $2,560 in commissions each time you switch.

* You must monitor your position daily. This involves being aware of what the analysis “tools” (described in my complete Commodity FUTURES Trading Course) are telling you about the current state of the market.

* Be aware of any “news” items which would have an impact (positive or negative) on the commodity you are trading. For example, if you are short in Orange Juice, a “freeze” warning in Florida will cause price to move against you, and can likely result in a limit move – a catastrophe you should immediately take steps to avoid!

* A price move generally results in a series of minor retracements; leaving a support point during an increase in price, and a resistance point during a decrease in price. It is a sensible strategy to place the stop-loss a little below the support point for the uptrend and above the resistance point for the downtrend.

* Timing of the order entry is critical. You need to predefine what your entry strategy will be during each phase of pyramid trading.

Closing Advice

You must do your homework and try different strategies using various price charts. By covering the price chart with a sheet of paper so you can’t see price action beyond the entry point, you can slowly move the sheet of paper rightward exposing subsequent price action. This technique lets you retroactively “simulate” various strategies and react to market changes. Of course, you should also be entering the applicable data into your Pyramid Trading Form to track your “simulated” trade. This will give you skills and confidence to use this pyramid trading technique.

Special Note: There is substantial risk in trading commodity futures and options.

(C) 2008 Thomas Wnorowski

How to Combine Columns In Excel in 3 Simple Steps

The question of how to combine columns in Excel comes up often, and there are multiple ways to do it. This article will discuss a couple of quick and easy approaches to get you going, and you can choose what works best for you.

How to Combine Columns in Excel

1. Insert a new empty column that will ultimately contain your outcome – combined information from two or more columns.

2. Use one of the methods in this article to populate the first cell in your new column.

3. Auto fill the rest of your new column.

That’s it! Your new combined column can be built in a matter of seconds. Now the secret sauce is in step 2 – how you create the first cell in the new column. Here are two methods you can choose from:

The Concatenate Function. Excel has a built in function called CONCATENATE that is used to combine things together. Let’s look at an example of using concatenate with names. Suppose you have column A containing first names and column B containing last names, and you would like to combine them into a 3rd column that displays full names. Recall that the first step is to insert a new empty column, say column C. Then using the concatenate function, you would type the following formula in cell C1 and press enter:

=CONCATENATE (A1,” “, B1)

Upon pressing the enter key, Excel will combine the list of contents in the parentheses, replacing cell names with their actual values. The space inside quotes ensures that a space is inserted between the values for A1 and B1. If A1 contained Pablo, and B1 contained Picasso, then the result in C1 would be Pablo Picasso. Now you can select cell C1 and finish out the rest of the new column using auto fill.

The Ampersand Method. If the concatenate function seems unintuitive to you, another option is to use the ampersand (&) character to tell Excel exactly what to combine together. The same pieces of text and cell names will be put together, with ampersands between them instead of commas. For the example above, you could alternatively type the following in cell C1 using ampersands:

=A1&” “&B1

Upon pressing enter, the result displayed will be Pablo Picasso. Again, you may auto fill the rest of column C and you’re done!

The part in quotes in this example is just a space, but you can put any text, characters, or symbols in quotes and combine them in any order. For example, typing =CONCATENATE(A1,” “,B1,”, the great!”) or =A1&” “&B1&”, the great!” would display Pablo Picasso, the great!

You might want to keep your original columns. When combining two columns, you may want to keep the two original columns and continue to add and update data in those columns. The new combined column will be automatically updated when you update the first two columns. But if you don’t see ever needing the original columns, you can also delete them and just update the new column. Good spreadsheet design is flexible and allows you to quickly specialize your views and obtain information using tricks like concatenate and ampersand.

Kitchen Gel Mats – How to Choose the Best Kitchen Floor Mat

Have you ever thought of a kitchen floor mat for your kitchen? Although these mats are not as popular as the cooking tools, cooking appliances, and food in your kitchen, they are also important. These mats have many uses, and it would be foolish not having them. They are made in a number of materials, depending on what you plan to use them for.

Plastic and rubber mats are ideal for children and the elderly. Wet floors have always caused accidents, and this is what you want to prevent. The texture of these mats prevents people from slipping on wet floors, which will make your kitchen a safer place to be in.

A gel kitchen floor mat is ideal for people who spend long hours inside the kitchen. Standing for long hours, preparing and cooking meals puts a lot of strain on the soles of our feet. This is why we need extra padding, aside from the shoes and sandals we wear. These mats are made from soft get, which are tremendously soft. This makes them ideal to stand on. They eliminate the discomfort of standing on hard floor surfaces; making spending a lot of time in your kitchen more pleasurable.

Fabric mats are the most widely used of all mats. These mats are great for cleaning up any form of dirt, prevent dirt from getting in or out of your kitchen, and can clean spills from any form of liquid. They are highly absorbent and are warm to our feet. In addition, we have grown accustomed to these types of mats throughout the years.

Aside from these mat’s many functions, they are also pleasing to the eyes. Yes, they are the first line of defense against dirt, but that does not mean they are eye sores. They come in assortment of sizes, shapes, patterns, and colors, which will make them compliment any kitchen design and theme.

Form function to design, color and shape, there are plenty of mats to choose from. Who says these mats don’t go with anything in your kitchen? All you have to do is pick the best kitchen floor mat that best suits your kitchen.

12 Types of Carpet

The carpet market is a huge market, with lots of types to select from. Here are 12 different types of carpet and what they will offer you and your home.

Woven

Woven carpet is produced on a loom that is very similar to woven cloth, being cut pile. There are numerous different colored yarns being used and the whole process is capable of producing very intricate patterns from designs that are pre-determined. Generally, woven is the highest quality of carpet available.

Tufted

This type of carpet is produced on a tufting machine by using either a single colored or sometimes a non colored yarn. If non colored is being used, then the carpet will be dyed or printed with a design as a separate process. Carpets that are tufted can either be cut pile, loop pile, or a combination of both. Machines can produce a lot more meters of carpet than weaving, and they are usually at the lower end of the market.

Needlefelt

The needlefelt type of carpet is a bit more technologically advanced. They are produced by electrostatic attraction of individual fibers that form a unique carpet with extremely high durability. You can normally find needlefelt carpet in the contract market such as in hotels or other places where there is always going to be a lot of traffic.

Flatweave

The flatweave carpet is created by interlocking warp and weft threads. The types of oriental flatwoven carpet include soumak, plain weave, and tapestry weave. This type is not well known in the North American region, although it is very popular in the orient and Japan.

Hooked rug

This is a simple construction of rug that is handmade by pulling strips of cloth such as wool or cotton through the meshes of a very sturdy fabric. Now, this type of rug is generally known as a handicraft.

Knotted pile

With knotted pile carpets, the structural weft threads will alternate with a supplementary weft that will rise from the surface of the weave at a perpendicular angle.

Cut and loop piles

The cut and loop pile combines both looped and cut fibers. They provide a variety of surface textures for medium durability. Cut and loop carpets are available in either solid or different colors. The several different layers in this carpet can hide dirt and footprints in formal and informal areas.

Saxony

Saxony consists of tightly twisted cut piles that are heat set straight. They consist of two or more fibers that have been twisted together in a yarn, and they provide a very soft texture for informal as well as formal areas. They will show each and every footprint and even marks from vacuum cleaners.

Textured saxony

Textured carpet is the best selling and it works well in informal areas due to the very soft feel. They are tightly twisted and texture headset for medium durability. They also offer a multi colored look that will hide tracks and footprints.

Plush/velvet

Both plush and velvet are lightly twisted and offer a uniform color. They are very soft and offer more level than textures. This type of carpet is ideal for formal areas due to it’s luxurious appearance.

Frieze

Frieze is a highly twisted cut pile type of carpet that is suited for high traffic areas. It has short fibers that will tend to curl in different directions at the surface to hide footprints and vacuum marks.

Level loop pile

The level loop pile is constructed by weaving even loops of yarn into carpet backing at both ends. This type of carpet is durable as well as track resistant, due to the strong loops. Higher loops in the carpet will create a more luxurious look. They are also great because they will prevent dirt from filtering on into the carpet.

Size Guidelines for Selecting Area Rugs

An area rug is often the defining feature of a room and, with this in mind, should be selected with care. The rug you choose will set the tone for the overall feel of the space and will be the factor that ties in all of the different components of the décor. If you have a large space that is divided into more than one area of use, rugs can bring these spaces together as a harmonious whole, or can be used to further define the different regions of the room to give the feel of separate living areas.

Area rugs are ideal for protecting wood or tile floors and bring warmth, texture and depth to any space they occupy. Choosing the area rug that is right for your space, your lifestyle and your décor preferences is largely a matter of personal taste, and the only real rules that should be followed are those guidelines you establish for what you want out of your area rugs and what will work best for you and your family.

Here you will find some generally accepted guidelines for selecting an area rug that will fit your space well and perfectly accent your living area, but do keep in mind that personal preferences should trump any type of rules put forth by the rug industry or interior designers.

Basic Tips for Choosing Area Rugs

When selecting an area rug, size matters. In fact, the size of the rug is one of the most important aspects to consider. While color, style and design are obviously important factors in achieving the overall desired look, the size of the rug will ultimately determine if the rug looks like it belongs in the room or was haphazardly tossed on the floor without much thought.

Room-Size Rugs

When choosing room-size rugs, a good rule of thumb is to measure the room and ensure there will be approximately 18 to 24 inches of space between the rug and the wall on each side. This will help you achieve a balanced look that is not crowded or overbearing. If you are using the rug to cover a hardwood floor, this also allows some of the beauty and sheen of the base flooring to add a touch of elegance to the room by providing your guests with a glimpse of the wood around the borders of the space.

Dining Room Rugs

When selecting dining room area rugs, many people purchase rugs that are actually too small for this purpose. While some rug buyers focus primarily on the relationship of the size of the rug to the size of the dining room table, the space required for the chairs when they are in use is often overlooked. For example, if your rug expands only to the back legs of your dining room chairs when they are pushed in under the table, this might look lovely when the dining room is not in use, but it will become an issue when hosting a dinner party, or even simply having your nightly family meal.

When the chairs are pulled out from the table to be used, all of the legs should remain on your dining room area rug, which means your rug needs to be big enough to accommodate a space larger than the footprint of your table with the chairs pushed in. A good rule for this is to seek out an area rug for your dining room that is at least four feet wider and longer than the footprint of your dining set.

Hallway Rugs

Depending on the size of the hallways in your home, you will likely need a long, narrow area rug – or runner – for this space. In order to achieve a balanced look and find the right size rug for your hallway, keep in mind that the rug you select should be two to four inches narrower than the width of your hallway and 18 to 24 inches shorter than your hallway’s total length.

Bathroom Rugs

While many people opt for traditional bath mats in their bathrooms, area rugs can completely change the look of the room and transform it from a utilitarian space to an extension of the overall interior design of your home. An area rug is not necessarily any more difficult to care for than a bath mat and will bring an air of elegance and a completely new design dimension into the space. Because bathrooms often have limited floor space, you will want to select a rug that will accommodate all of your bathroom fixtures and furnishings, while leaving a border of at least two to four inches on all sides.

Shopping for the perfect area rug for your space is an exciting endeavor, particularly considering the impact the rug will have on the overall look of the room. While these guidelines are good to keep in mind to ensure you end up happy with your purchase, remember to have fun with the rug selection process and choose a rug that speaks to you and your personal sense of style.

12 Types of Carpet

The carpet market is a huge market, with lots of types to select from. Here are 12 different types of carpet and what they will offer you and your home.

Woven

Woven carpet is produced on a loom that is very similar to woven cloth, being cut pile. There are numerous different colored yarns being used and the whole process is capable of producing very intricate patterns from designs that are pre-determined. Generally, woven is the highest quality of carpet available.

Tufted

This type of carpet is produced on a tufting machine by using either a single colored or sometimes a non colored yarn. If non colored is being used, then the carpet will be dyed or printed with a design as a separate process. Carpets that are tufted can either be cut pile, loop pile, or a combination of both. Machines can produce a lot more meters of carpet than weaving, and they are usually at the lower end of the market.

Needlefelt

The needlefelt type of carpet is a bit more technologically advanced. They are produced by electrostatic attraction of individual fibers that form a unique carpet with extremely high durability. You can normally find needlefelt carpet in the contract market such as in hotels or other places where there is always going to be a lot of traffic.

Flatweave

The flatweave carpet is created by interlocking warp and weft threads. The types of oriental flatwoven carpet include soumak, plain weave, and tapestry weave. This type is not well known in the North American region, although it is very popular in the orient and Japan.

Hooked rug

This is a simple construction of rug that is handmade by pulling strips of cloth such as wool or cotton through the meshes of a very sturdy fabric. Now, this type of rug is generally known as a handicraft.

Knotted pile

With knotted pile carpets, the structural weft threads will alternate with a supplementary weft that will rise from the surface of the weave at a perpendicular angle.

Cut and loop piles

The cut and loop pile combines both looped and cut fibers. They provide a variety of surface textures for medium durability. Cut and loop carpets are available in either solid or different colors. The several different layers in this carpet can hide dirt and footprints in formal and informal areas.

Saxony

Saxony consists of tightly twisted cut piles that are heat set straight. They consist of two or more fibers that have been twisted together in a yarn, and they provide a very soft texture for informal as well as formal areas. They will show each and every footprint and even marks from vacuum cleaners.

Textured saxony

Textured carpet is the best selling and it works well in informal areas due to the very soft feel. They are tightly twisted and texture headset for medium durability. They also offer a multi colored look that will hide tracks and footprints.

Plush/velvet

Both plush and velvet are lightly twisted and offer a uniform color. They are very soft and offer more level than textures. This type of carpet is ideal for formal areas due to it’s luxurious appearance.

Frieze

Frieze is a highly twisted cut pile type of carpet that is suited for high traffic areas. It has short fibers that will tend to curl in different directions at the surface to hide footprints and vacuum marks.

Level loop pile

The level loop pile is constructed by weaving even loops of yarn into carpet backing at both ends. This type of carpet is durable as well as track resistant, due to the strong loops. Higher loops in the carpet will create a more luxurious look. They are also great because they will prevent dirt from filtering on into the carpet.

10 Homemade Carp Bait Recipe Tips For Beating Readymade Baits Like Mainline Cell!

As so many of you want to make your own secret homemade baits here are some tips for making and exploiting more highly potent baits which will out-fish readymade baits such as Mainline Cell!

1. Most popular readymade boilies which are used by anglers today are a massive compromise of characteristics, features, properties and modes of actions etc which enable bait companies to actually sell baits in the first place and make a profit. But such baits more often than not are designed to appeal to anglers and this is a big problem because it mostly means that such baits are far from optimised for maximum success or even optimum performance regardless of bait company claims in the adverts! So many baits made to appeal to fish are often either not water reactive or receptor reactive enough, or not potent enough in other ways that limit their performance massively. All baits which are heated to make them last longer in water so that anglers have confidence they will still be on a rig when they reel in after fishing for a night are a compromise of many things. None of these baits can truly be classed as optimised for performance. This is where homemade baits and recipes score very highly indeed because you can optimise your own personal baits for optimum performance in every single possible way, including making baits that have zero requirement to be cooked, boiled, steamed or heated in any way.

2. It is very simple to make baits that have as few common characteristics as machine rolled boilies. It absolutely amazes me that anglers today are still stuck in a rut of this dumb paradigm of actually wasting time extruding baits through a bait gun and using a rolling table to from round or barrel or cylinder shaped baits. The most used shapes which spook carp and instantly produce more wary feeding are these shapes! Why on earth would anyone with their brain switched on actually waste their time making homemade baits that replicate the most common characteristics of readymade baits which actually reduce your catches right from the start? Think about all natural carp food items and I think you will discover that perfectly round and cylinder shapes do not figure very highly. Such baits do not replicate natural foods very well at all. Yet compare this to tiger nuts for instance which vary in texture, shape, size and other characteristics that mean it is far more difficult for carp to discern your hook baits among free baits! Apply this thought when making boilies and avoid using bait rollers! I make homemade baits approximately 10 times faster and easier without using a bait gun or rolling table; there are other ways!

3. Why is it that so many anglers coat their hook baits in paste in order to get more bites, or indeed in order to even get a bite? It is very simple for carp to avoid getting hooked on smooth surfaced baits. They have had decades of practice in sorting through millions of round and barrel shaped baits by now. Sure paste changes baits in many ways, but it does not improve boiled bait performance one bit when you cover up a boiled readymade bait with paste. You might as well ditch boilies as a bait format and use paste! I firmly believe that the future is making unheated baits. If you are still turned on by those flashy adverts and even logos of hooks attached to perfectly round or barrel shaped baits it is time to stop thinking like a commercially brainwashed angler and start thinking like a fish!

4. Coupled with bait shape is bait texture. When you stop rolling baits the texture of baits you can produce is absolutely staggering. You can use ingredients that you would never be able to use in bait that is rolled, including for example roughly broken silk worm pupae. Think about it; How many baits do fish experience that have both radically hard and soft areas on their totally uneven bumpy surface and within them inside them with a range of completely differing textures and sensory sensations? The vast majority of readymade baits simply offer a single texture with an even surface texture. Again think about it; why bother chopping up readymade baits with a knife to change their shape or texture? Such baits are not optimised for performance and very obviously flawed in terms of optimum design!

5. Think out of the box; why use a critically balanced bait all the time when it could very well be that because the vast majority of anglers are using them, the fish have simply learnt to deal with most of these kinds of hook baits the majority of the time! Making homemade hook baits that are significantly heavier definitely have their advantages, and when this characteristic is teamed with other deliberate differences to the vast majority of readymade baits you can be certain your fish will find it more difficult to avoid your hook baits. The majority of the time balanced hook baits on stiff or supple or hinged rigs are simply not pricking fish and getting runs but are simply being tipped up or shaken loose, so do something different instead!

6. How many anglers fish baits directly off their leads and fish in the upper layers of the water? I ask this because a great percentage of the time fish do not feed on or near the bottom at all, but are busy filter feeding on incredibly nutritionally rich phytoplankton and zooplankton in upper water layers. Many anglers are still addicted to the thinking that means they fish the bulk of their time waiting for whatever is the conventional feeding times, when fish may be feed on or near to the bottom, characterized by getting bites their. But actually you get far more bites by fish all water layers where fish are situated, and much of the time the majority of anglers simply do not have their baits in the correct water layers. When you can have 8 fish during the day fishing a buoyant bait fished at 20 feet up off your lead in a 40 foot depth of water, while your baits on or near the bottom get no fish surely you must take the big hint that actually fishing off the bottom the majority of the time at least with one of your rods has to be done when no fish are forthcoming! Making homemade buoyant baits which are irregular in shape and even mimic natural food items such as hatching insect larvae is simple when you avoid using bait rolling tables!

7. Strangely far too many anglers using 3 rods seem too anxious to experiment away from their chod rigs. Chod rigs were about in the early eighties, and they are nothing new, just like any of the circle type rigs about today, they are just another method so if you are addicted to using such things because they are in popular favour, why not let go of being a control freak and be far more creative! Using a mixture of bait formats on a rig instead of just one pop up bait is one obvious example; not many anglers consider that just by using a bait made up of 3 layers of different recipe baits they increase the attention of fish by offering 3 different nutritional profiles just for instance.

8. I know very few people who use multiple hairs on their rigs but I can assure you that this approach is brilliant. One reason is that so few actually use this type of rig, but I find in autumn, winter and spring at times when water temperatures are lower this offer massive advantages due to the way fish feed, and the way you can increase the effectiveness of your rigs through exploiting more than one set of baits and bait formats. Indeed in my tests I realised that even if a fish is not triggered by one forms of bait with a particular flavour or amino acid profile, when that bait is only on one hair, and you have a different bait on another hair then you are far more likely to catch when you might not have done. However things go much further than this obvious example, and indeed you can have a maggot extract and worm extract based homemade bait teamed with maggots and worms on different hairs just for example. Such combination rigs work extremely well especially when fishing gets harder, and in colder times in the winter. You can even spray maggots with liquid Tutti Fruitti flavour, or citrus extracts, emulsified essential oils etc.

9. Just one way to beat readymade baits in situations where for instance Mainline Cell is the dominant bait is not to use the proprietary base mix or a copy cat approach at all and instead ignore whatever the dominant bait is totally. In truth a dominant bait is simply an illusion. If anglers were to use worms or duck poop in the right place they will catch fish, and if the majority are doing that then the majority would appear to be catching on worms or duck poop, thus making these the dominant baits. Whatever readymade bait is currently catching the most fish I can assure you that if you make your own highly potent homemade baits and refine them for your water you can out fish any popular readymade bait even without using many kilograms of bait in establishing it! A truly potent bait will catch fish from the very first cast! Potent boilies or pellets etc do not need to have concentrated flavours to be instant baits and in fact my rule of thumb for a great new nutritionally-stimulating homemade bait is that it catches right from the first cast with zero pre-baiting up to condition fish at all. If you are afraid of competing with a dominant readymade bait, then do not. Simply make your homemade baits totally different, and refine them for your water in increments methodically; it is easy!

10. Just so you know, the fastest most instant way to catch fish on a totally new bait recipe, and to establish a new recipe that you want to use on a new water is to use paste baits instead of using baits heated in any way whatsoever! Think hard about the reasons for this and apply them to your bait making as these really can made a massive difference to your catches! Revealed in my unique readymade bait and homemade bait carp and catfish bait secrets ebooks is far more powerful information look up my unique website (Baitbigfish) and see my biography below for details of my ebooks deals right now!

By Tim Richardson.

Denture Adhesives – What Type of Adhesive Is the Very Best?

There are days when you need extra reassurance that your dentures are not going to fall out and embarrass you. Other times, dentures become loose or uncomfortable and you just cannot get to the dentist quickly. At times like these, finding the best denture adhesive for you is very important. However, it can also be a challenge. The most important thing to consider when choosing a denture adhesive is which type is best for you. There are two things to consider when choosing an adhesive. First, you want to choose an adhesive that you are comfortable using. Next, you want one that gives you the stability and reassurance you need to make it through your busy day.

There are many different types of dental adhesive. The most common types are powder, wafer, tape, cream or paste, and cushion. Please keep in mind that while denture adhesives will keep your dentures secure, they should never be used with rocking, poorly made, or truly ill-fitting dentures. They are all designed to make your dentures more comfortable and give you peace of mind – not to fix any underlying structural problems your dentures may have.

There are pros and cons to each type of denture adhesive. Powders are easy to apply. If you use too much powder, the excess is relatively easy to clean up. And, while powders do provide a secure grip it usually only lasts for a few hours at a time.

Tapes and wafers are placed on the denture base and cut to fit. This means that these types of adhesive are very easy to apply. These usually provide a good, secure grip all day. On the other hand, these do not provide any cushioning and, therefore, do not make wearing your dentures any more comfortable. Pastes and creams are equally easy to apply. They provide a good, secure grip for longer periods of time. However, if you use too much, the excess squeezes out from between your gums and the dentures and will need to be cleaned up. Sometimes this is difficult to accomplish.

A special type of denture adhesive is cushion grip. This product is applied like a cream or paste. It might be a little messy until you figure out just how much to use. However, some cushion grip adhesives can keep you dentures comfortably in your mouth for up to four days. The other adhesives last for anywhere from a few hours to one day.

No matter which of these denture adhesives you choose, there are a few other things to keep in mind when picking out a product. Always make sure your dentures are clean and all left over adhesive has been removed before applying new adhesive. Make sure you always follow the package directions and your dentist’s instructions when using your dentures or any adhesive product. Also keep in mind that allergic reactions can occur when using a new product of any kind. If you suspect you are having an allergic reaction, always discontinue use and contact your doctor or dentist right away.

Super Glue vs Miracle Glue

For the last half century or so the conventional wisdom for gluing something together when you really needed it glued now was to go out and buy a small tube of superglue.

Super glue or Krazy glue have been used for repairing a thousand different things – From broken toys, to fingernails, to skin.

But it has had its problems. I’ve heard just about every complaint out there about superglue or krazy glue. Often, it just doesn’t work or, the biggest complaint seems to be that when you are ready to use it there is nothing to use – it has dried up. My unsubstantiated theory is that is why the containers have gotten smaller over the years. One never gets more than one use out of a tube of super glue because the cap glues shut and you can’t get at the rest of it. So, the manufacturers have now made the tubes a one shot deal.

Approximately ten years ago another product hit the market on this side of the Atlantic – an industrial version of this type of glue that has been marketed mainly through trade shows and events. The main ones available are Miracle Glue, The Last Glue, Pasco Fix and Lighting Bond. You can invariably find these glues being demonstrated at Home Shows and Boat Shows around the country. Most can now be found more easily on the internet.

Technically, the difference is this: The base of all of these adhesives is something called cyanoacrylate. If you move in the hobby circles, it is commonly referred to as CA. The latter, newer glues are far superior. The main difference is in the distillation process – the number of times the product is distilled. Super Glue and Krazy Glue can be considered your raw form. They are your “crude oil”. The newer products: Miracle Glue, The Last Glue and the others are the “refined oil”. They are distilled several times. The solvents are distilled out. Solvents make super glue dry out too quickly and get brittle and discolor once cured.

In application here are some of the differences. The newer glues come in larger bottles which generally last much longer – a year or two if kept refrigerated or in the freezer. You can get literally hundreds of uses if you take care of a bottle. Because there are no solvents, they will not dry out quickly when exposed to the air. If you forget to put the lid back on for even a couple of hours it isn’t a problem – as long as you don’t knock it over. They bond extremely quickly depending on the material being adhered. And for the most part once glued the item will stay glued. The better ones dry both clear and flexible. For all the fishermen out there – you can mend your waders with these types of glue as well. Because there are no solvents, you won’t melt the neoprene. Super glue or krazy glue will eat a nasty hole right through your waders or wetsuit.

So, the next time your are visiting a Home Show, Boat Show and sometimes the state fair, have a look for the person demonstrating the “miracle glue”. Quite a show! You will be impressed, I’m sure.

All About Heart Valve Replacement Surgery

Your heart is basically a pump with four valves that keeps your blood flowing in the right direction at the proper rate. With each heartbeat, your valves open and close. But if something has caused your valves not to open or close properly, you may be a candidate for heart valve replacement surgery.

Valves can become damaged through disease or aging. When the valve does not open properly, the problem may be stenosis – an abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve. You need the valve to open properly so the right amount of blood can pump through it. If the valve doesn’t close properly, the condition is called regurgitation, which is a problem because the blood leaks back into other parts of the heart. The type of treatment your doctor will recommend depends on the heart valve involved and the type and severity of the valve disease:

Aortic valve disease

Mitral valve disease

Pulmonary valve disease

Tricuspid valve disease

Some of the tests and procedures that your doctor may order to assess the condition of your heart include:

resting and exercise electrocardiogram (ECG)

Holter monitor

signal-averaged ECG

cardiac catheterization

chest X-ray

computed tomography (CT scan) of the chest

echocardiography

electrophysiological studies

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart

myocardial perfusion scans

radionuclide angiography

ultrafast CT scan

The doctor may decide that the diseased valve can be repaired using a ring that supports your original valve. Or the decision may be to remove the entire valve and replace it with an artificial valve. Artificial mechanical valves are made of metal or plastic or tissue from animal valves. Doctors also use human valves taken from cadavers.

Years ago, this type of procedure meant open-heart surgery. There was no other way to get to your heart than by opening your chest, cutting the breastbone or sternum in half and spreading it apart. Once the heart was exposed, the doctor would insert large tubes into the heart that pump the blood through your body during the surgery. The tubes, part of a cardiopulmonary bypass machine, keep the blood flowing while the doctor stops your heart to replace or repair the valve.

Today, there is often another alternative – minimally invasive heart surgery. The cardiac surgeon is able to make small incisions in the right side of your chest, instead of opening up your chest cavity, to get to the heart. The surgeon maneuvers to work between the ribs. The result is a far less painful recovery and a quicker recovery. The surgeon will still have to stop your heart to repair or replace the valve, but with this less-invasive procedure, the doctor actually has a better view of some parts of your heart than in the more invasive approach.

You need to talk to your doctor to find out if minimally invasive heart surgery is an option for you. Generally speaking, people who have already undergone heart surgery or have certain heart diseases will not be a candidate for less invasive heart surgery.

Symptoms

So how do you know if there is a problem with your heart? Usually a person with a damaged or diseased heart valve will experience the following symptoms:

Dizziness

Chest pain

Difficulty breathing

Heart palpitations

Swelling of the feet, ankles, or abdomen

Rapid weight gain due to fluid retention

Risks associated with heart valve replacement

No surgery is without its risks, including heart valve replacement. These risks can include, but are not limited to:

Bleeding during or after the surgery

Blood clots that can cause heart attack, stroke, or lung problems

Infection at the incision site

Pneumonia

Breathing problems

Abnormal heart rhythms

What to expect after the procedure

You can expect to remain closely monitored for several days, including time spent in the intensive care unit. Your doctor will keep you connected to monitors that constantly monitor your heart, blood pressure, breathing rate and oxygen level.

It is important that during this time that you cough and take deep breaths. While this may not feel very comfortable because you are sore from the surgery, it is extremely important so mucus doesn’t lodge in your lungs and cause pneumonia. And of course, you will be offered pain medication to help keep you comfortable.

Do not expect to come out and eat a four-course meal. You will start with a liquid diet and advance to more solid foods as you can tolerate them. Gradually, as you recover, you will be moved to a room and encouraged to get out of bed and walk the floor.

When it is time to go home, your doctor will give you specific advice regarding activity, medications and wound care. You probably will not be able to drive for a period of time. Follow your doctor’s advice and return for all follow-up visits.

The information provided in this article is for informational purposes only. It is not a substitute for medical advice. All medical information presented should be discussed with your healthcare professional. Remember, the failure to seek timely medical advice can have serious ramifications. We urge you to discuss any current health related problems you are experiencing with a healthcare professional immediately.

How to Pound Chicken Breasts Like a Pro

Chicken breasts can be chopped up or cooked whole. They can also be pounded thinly or sliced thinly, for dishes like chicken piccata or various stuffed, grilled chicken recipes. There is no need to both slice and pound the chicken, since you can pound it as thinly as you need it.

Before you start, you will need either a meat mallet with a smooth side or a flat-bottomed frying pan. A wooden rolling pin is another option. Do not use a spiky meat mallet because these are for tenderizing beef and will tear right through your chicken or leave it looking ragged.

Spray some oil on to the meat so the mallet slides on it, then begin to pound in the center. Bring down the mallet and let it slide off one side, rather than just crash into the center of the chicken breast.

Put the chicken between two sheets of wax paper or saran wrap before you begin, if you like, to minimize mess. Saran wrap is perhaps the better option because wax paper can tear. Put a little water between each sheet of saran wrap and the chicken, and then you will find the mallet slides more easily.

You can either turn the meat between each blow or let the meat mallet slip off in a slightly different direction each time you hit it, in order for the chicken to have an even thickness. Keep pounding it until it is a quarter of an inch thick all over.

Beef, turkey, pork and most other meats can be pounded in the same way. Remember that this is not a test of strength. The goal is not to see how hard you can hit the meat but to get it uniformly thin and not tear it.

Ideas for Flattened Boneless Chicken

Roll a flattened chicken breast around a filling and wrap bacon around it for a classic dish. You might need to use toothpicks to secure the filling and the bacon, so remember to remove them before serving the stuffed chicken recipe. This is especially good if you grill it, because of the smoky flavor you will get.

You can flatten chicken and slice it into strips for making stir fries. Alternative you can roll a flattened chicken breast in flour and pan fry or broil it for a couple of minutes or until it is done. Flattened chicken breasts cook very fast.

Recipe for Pounded Pork Tenderloin

What you will need:

  • 2 tablespoons soy sauce
  • 2 lbs pork tenderloin or boneless chicken
  • 2 tablespoons white sugar
  • 1 teaspoon black pepper
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 2 tablespoons vegetable oil

How to make it:

Pound the pork or chicken with the smooth side of a meat mallet to tenderize it. Stir together the soy sauce, sugar, salt and pepper and marinate the meat in this mixture for two hours.

Heat the oil in a skillet over a moderate heat, and then pan fry the meat for a minute or until it is cooked through. You will find that pounded meat cooks much faster than thicker meat, which means that pounded recipes like this one are fantastic if you are in a rush.

A Beginner’s Guide – How to Build a Brick Wall

There is something about building walls that gives people a sense of accomplishment. This is why it is not a surprise that even though you can always hire a professional bricklayer, a part of you would rather do it yourself. Whether you intend to pursue it as a career or you just plan to engage in it as a hobby, building a brick wall entails extensive background on the rudiments of bricklaying.

Here is a step-by-step guide on how to build a brick wall to help you on your first wall-building project:

Step 1: Gather all the tools you will need such as the brick trowel, mortar mix, bricks, jointer, hammer, level, line, water, tape measure, brush, nails, wall ties, wheelbarrow, safety gear and shovel. The brick trowel, a triangular shaped flat metal with a handle, is the primary hand tool you will be using to construct the wall. It is what you will use to spread mortar as you lay the bricks. The mortar is a mud-like substance wherein the bricks are set in. To make a mortar, mix 15 to 20 shovels of sand to one 70-pound bag of mortar mix. This will require about 5 gallons of water but it is advisable to mix the dry materials first before including the water. Add one gallon of water at a time until you reach the preferred consistency. There are different sizes of bricks but for your first project, try using the standard bricks which measure about 8 ½ inches long, 2 ½ inches tall and 4 ½ inches deep.

Step 2: Bricks are meant to be constructed as a veneer wall, meaning it should be against another wall like that of a house. Ensure that there is sufficient foundation to hold the bricks.

Step 3: Measure the length of the wall you intend to build. Since your bricks are about 8 ½ inches long, mark the wall with 8 ¾ intervals to give a little space for the mortar that will come between the bricks, which is called the joint.

Step 4: After you have indicated the markings, you can now continue laying down the first layer. To do this, you have to start from the left side going to the right. Use your left hand to grab a brick from the stack and your right hand to get some mortar with the trowel. Spread a layer of mortar and set the brick in it. Remove any mortar residue that comes out of the pressed brick.

Step 5: Repeat the process and continue laying down the bricks until it reaches your desired height. Just remember to consistently check with a level in the middle of the wall to ensure that the wall is level. If a side appears too high, put the bricks closer at the other end.

You will find this step-by-step procedure helpful in your brick wall-building feat but for more detailed information and training, it is advisable to purchase a bricklaying DVD or undergo intensive bricklaying courses.

Flat Foot Problems – Symptoms And Treatment

What Is Flat Foot?

The common condition known as flat foot is where one or both feet does not have a fully formed arch.

There are four arches of the feet but it is the medial longitudinal arch or inner arch that is affected. This is the main arch of the foot and it forms between the base of the heel bone (Calcanium) and the head of the first metatarsal.

The ligament involved is suspended by the talus, navicular and three cuneiform bones, like a string on a bow.

Causes Of A Flat Foot

Many people suffer with low arches or a lack of any formed arch at all, may be very painful and this may be due to a number of conditions:

  • Developmental
  • Hereditary
  • Ruptured Tendon or Ligament
  • Cerebral Palsy or Spina Bifida

If flat-footedness has been experienced by any other member of your family, then the condition may be hereditary. Depending on your age and severity of the condition a different approach to insole supports may be necessary.

If the foot does not develop correctly this can also lead to an abnormal walking position, but the chances are, it will be more correctable if the patient is younger than the condition is picked up sooner rather than later.

Other conditions such as Spina bifida, muscular dystrophy or cerebral palsy will result in flat-foot, as can a ruptured tendon or ligament causing a dysfunction of the gait cycle and in these cases surgery may be the only option.

Because flat-footed people are walking unnaturally on this part of the foot they may develop calluses or corns which can become painful. They will also wear out their shoes quite quickly if the correct arch supports are not fitted. This may also lead to other painful problems with the ankle, knee or hip, as the alignment of the lower limb is not as it should be.

How To Treat A Flat Foot With Insoles

There are several ways to treat flatfoot but it is probably better to get professional advice from your Chiropodist/Podiatrist before you embark on self treatment, particularly if you have secondary lesions such as corns, because these can ulcerate and become infected.

Sufferers will generally need to buy high quality insoles known as orthotics made from a range of materials which fit inside the shoe and support the arch in a specific way. There are off the shelf products from your local pharmacy to do this but it is often better to get a custom orthotic made.

The material the orthotic is made from is also important as to whether it needs to be softer so as not to cause pressure from the collapsing arch to one that is harder, providing more support. This will depend on the amount of dropped arch you are experiencing as to whether an arch supporting insole will be beneficial as opposed to a gel insole.

This may be more expensive but if it is an adaptable orthotic, it can be adjusted by ‘posting’ as the arch is lifted over time.

More About Arch Pain

If you’re experiencing inflammation or a burning sensation in the arch at night then you probably have some degree of arch pain.

This is where the plantar fascia ligament which forms the arch becomes inflamed and is not to be confused with plantar fasciitis, which is a micro tear of the ligament at the heel. In both cases it is due to an over stretching of the ligament from trauma.

The best treatment for this kind of arch pain is to use an orthotic to remove the pressure from the arch and provide support to correct the positioning of the foot and subsequent posture of the body.

Even if you don’t suffer with flat-footedness or arch pain it may be a good idea to use an off-the-shelf arch support or insole to prevent the condition from occurring. If you are an athlete or runner or your work requires that you are standing for long periods of time you will find this kind of arch support will be very beneficial.