10 Ways to Remove Limescale

What is Limescale?

Limescale forms when hard water is heated above 61°C or when it is left to evaporate on surfaces such as taps and showerheads. Hard water is water that contains high quantities of calcium and magnesium ions. These hardness minerals, in the form of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, are what precipitate out of hard water to form limescale. Therefore, to clean or remove limescale, we need something that will dissolve or soften calcium carbonate and/or magnesium carbonate.

Acids are generally very good at dissolving things and in particular, the following list of acids will dissolve limescale.

Warning: Some of these acids are extremely hazardous and their use as a descaler is best left to professionals. Additionally, some acids, hydrochloric acid in particular, will discolour (blacken) chrome taps and fittings.

1) Acetic acid

Vinegar is just dilute acetic acid, so it’s readily available around the home.

Mix half a cup of water and half a cup of white vinegar (not malt vinegar) to remove limescale from an electric kettle. Bring the mixture to the boil and leave overnight. Rinse out the next day.

Clean shower heads by soaking overnight in a tub of undiluted white vinegar. Mix with borax (50:50) to make your own, cheap, limescale cleaner for taps, tiles, baths and basins.

2) Citric acid

Citric acid is present to some degree in all citrus fruits, but lemons generally have the highest concentration. Lemon juice generally works better than vinegar and leaves a more pleasant smell.

To clean dishwashers and washing machines, use one cup of lemon juice instead of the normal detergent. Run a normal wash cycle without clothes / dishes. For washing machines, put the lemon juice in the soap powder dispenser. For dishwashers, just pour it straight into the bottom of the machine.

To clean electric kettles, follow the instructions for vinegar but replace the vinegar with lemon juice. Same for shower heads.

When cleaning taps, the problem comes when trying to keep the lemon juice in contact with the limescale long enough for it to dissolve or soften. One way to overcome this problem is to soak a cloth in lemon juice, wrap it around the tap and leave overnight.

Citric acid is also the main constituent of Limelite sprays, gels, descalers and wipes.

3) Formic acid

Formic acid, produced naturally by ants and contained in bee stings, will dissolve limescale. It can be bought as Kilrock K or in dilute form as Techno Swan. It is also one of two acids used in Cillit Bang Grime and Lime (the other being sulphamic acid).

4) Glycolic acid

Although mainly used in cosmetics, glycolic acid is as a minor ingredient in a number of commercial limescale cleaning products, including R8 Kettle Descaler. DuPont market glycolic acid for removing hard water scale deposits in industrial water and boiler systems.

5) Hydrochloric acid

Sold in Spain as agua fuerte (strong water). Be warned, hydrochloric acid is a strong acid and will burn skin – read all safety data thoroughly. It fizzes on contact with limescale and the vapour it gives off (hydrogen chloride) is toxic, so probably best to leave this one for the experts.

If you still want to try it, then a safer alternative, which contains hydrochloric acid as the main active ingredient, is No Nonsense Path Patio & Driveway Cleaner. Other kitchen and bathroom cleaners that contain hydrochloric acid are Harpic duraguard limescale remover and Lifeguard limescale remover.

6) Lactic acid

Sometimes known as milk acid, lactic acid is also a good limescale remover. Lactic acid forms when lactose, which is found in milk, is broken down by bacteria and is therefore found in sour milk. However, we do not recommend trying to remove limescale with sour milk. Instead, buy some Oust. Oust All Purpose Descaler contains 30 to 50 percent lactic acid and can be used for cleaning kettles, coffee maker and irons.

7) Oxalic acid

Oxalic acid is 3,000 times stronger than acetic acid and mainly used as a bleaching agent or to remove rust. It will remove limescale, but is rarely used in domestic cleaning products. It is used in Oxal Wash to remove limescale (among other things) from train exteriors.

8) Phosphoric acid

The principal use of phosphoric acid is as a rust remover, but it is also used in many commercial limescale cleaners and is found in some soft drinks, notably cola.

In the film, Limescale, the main character stops drinking water and only drinks cola in the belief that limescale is building up in his body and cola will dissolve the hardened deposits. Urban Myth according to the film synopsis, but both main brands of cola contain phosphoric acid (E338).

Phosphoric acid is sold in it’s raw state as a descaler on eBay and used in many commercial limescale cleaners. Proprietary cleaners that contain phosphoric acid include HG Professional Limescale Remover or Hagesan Blue.

9) Sulphamic acid

Sulphamic acid is widely used in commercial limescale cleaning products and is a less hazardous alternative to hydrochloric acid. For professional use, it is an active ingredient of Fernox DS3 limescale remover and in the home it is one of the constituents of Cillit Bang Grime and Lime.

10) Sulphuric acid

Knock Out Drain Cleaner is almost pure sulphuric acid but is not marketed as a limescale cleaner (although it will do the job). Sulphuric acid extremely hazardous and best left to the experts. Even then, few, if any, limescale removal products on the market contain sulphuric acid. Avoid!

Bar Promotions – 4 Bar Promotion Ideas to Get People in Your Bar and Keep ‘Em Coming Back

Bar Promotions are essential for most bars to stay open these days. And coming up with new bar promotion ideas is not always easy.

Although a tough economy may not affect the bar industry as much as other industries, it can still get tough to bring the people in. Bars, clubs and pubs all have to fight to keep people coming back night after night.

Before getting into some ideas for different bar promotions, lets examine the main reasons for holding these events in the first place (aside from the obvious ‘making more money’)…

  • Increase Customer Traffic – Bring in new customers and keep current customers coming back.
  • Get Customers to Come in Earlier and Stay Later – Fill those empty afternoon or early evening hours. By entertaining customers with different bar promotions and bar contests, people will stay longer and spend more.
  • Create Buzz – By putting on cool new bar events, people will talk, resulting in more customers on non-event nights.
  • Match or Beat out the Competition – Stay ahead of your competitors by doing something a little more fun / wild / crazy / cool than they’re doing.
  • Reward Regulars – Bar promotions give the bar a chance to give back to their regular customers.
  • Celebrate Milestones – Whether its new menu items, a new signature cocktail, the owner’s birthday, a remodelling or a 1 year anniversary, there are always good reasons to throw a party.
  • Creates a Lively Atmosphere – Without regular bar promotions, it’s not only your customers that are getting bored, it’s your staff as well.

Bar Promotion Ideas to Get People in your Bar

  1. Guest Bartenders
  2. You can either find local celebrities (radio DJ, weather girl, model etc) or you can pick a guest bartender from your list of friends / associates or one of the regular customers. You may want to have a pre-night quick bartender training (or at least orientation) before they go live. Guest Bartenders will bring in their friends to come and see them. And if you use a local celebrity, you should be able to get some press coverage with it. Careful to watch your guest bartenders – they may not know what’s OK to do and what’s not.

  3. Dog-Friendly Bar
  4. Many bars don’t allow dogs into their establishments. If you’re open during the day and especially if you have a patio, allowing dogs into your establishment can bring in a whole new crowd of people. Why not kick it off with a Dog Lovers gathering and use Facebook Ads to traffic people in your area with dogs?

  5. Wines of the World Promotion
  6. If your establishment serves a fair amount of wine, you may want to try a Wines of the World promotion. Make a punch card that the customer can take with them (with your bar contact details on the back) and punch it each time they try a wine from your Wines of the World promo. You could offer 10 wines from 10 different countries, crossing as many grape varieties as possible – chardonnay, sauvignon blanc, merlot, cabernet sauvignon etc… This bar promotion could be run by the bottle or glass depending on how many wine drinkers frequent your bar. If they punch their way through 10 glasses or bottles, give them some bar or wine merchandise – a pair of wine glasses, a wine opener, a bottle opener etc.

  7. Video Game Tournament
  8. Play them or not, video games have a huge following. Find out what the popular video game of choice is amongst your patrons and put on a tournament. This works especially well if you can put the game on a projector screen so that everyone in the bar can see. Have people sign-up before hand and make sure you check all the equipment before the big night / weekend. You can charge people an entry fee and give away cash prizes and / or bar merchandise.

These are just a few of the ways that you can bring people into your establishment. When trying to think of new bar promotions for you bar, ask and look around. Ask your guests for their opinions or what they’ve seen. Talk to your own staff and see what kind of ideas they have. And lastly, look around your city to find out what other people are doing – and then do it better.

How To Make Your Penis Large Naturally In 3 Simple Steps

In this article we are going to stay away from any further conversation about pills, potions, or lotions and instead, discuss how to make your penis large naturally. It’s important to remember, there are 3 distinct ways to improve your anatomy: You can enhance your physiology, your can enhance your psychology, or you can improve the APPEARANCE that your penis is larger than it is. Let’s take a quick look at each.

Mind over Matter:

There is an increasing amount of anecdotal evidence that supports the idea that your mental health, or your anatomical awareness, plays a significant role in your size during sex. Recent studies support (although they remain contravened my many mainstream scientists) show an increase in blood flow, rigidity and ultimately, the SIZE of your erection due to your internal mental process before and during sex. There is LOTS of interest in this area going forward, and much like advances in other alternative, holistic, mind/body medicines, this holds much potential for future exploration!

Good Grooming is Great

We’ve talked about this before, but you can control simple appearance elements of your whole nether region simply by maintaining proper grooming habits, and keeping the rest of the abdominal muscles streamlined and taut. This is strictly a visual thing of course, but if you NEED a quick way to super size the APPEARANCE of size, nothing does this overnight quite like a little good grooming detail will!

Actual Anatomical Enlargement

This is the long term solution. (no pun intended..:-) Simple, effective exercises designed to lengthen and thicken, and well as stimulate enhanced blood flow through the penile cavity. Natural exercises like Jelqing, (“milking” the penile cavity) Kegel and many more magical motions have changed the lives of thousands of other men, (including myself) and a daily commitment to this process WILL reap remarkable rewards for most.

Things to Know About Boilers

What is a boiler? Well, a boiler is a closed vessel in which some kind of fluid or water can be heated. This fluid or water is then used for various reasons. Boiler has got a pressure vessel in it which is usually made up of steel or wrought iron. As far as creating heat is concerned, well, heat is created by use of various types of fuels like wood, oil, coal and natural gas. In case there is electric boiler than the heat is produced with the help of electricity. Boilers are classified in various configurations. They are:

1. Pot Boiler: Pot boiler is also known as haycock boiler. It is like old kettle where the water was heated by a fire below the kettle. Due to less efficiency, new boilers were invented.

2. Fire – tube Boiler: In this particular boiler, water is partially filled in the vessel and some water is filled above to create the steam. Such boilers are normally used in locomotives.

3. Water – Tube Boiler: In this type of boiler, water tubes are arranged in furnace in almost all possible ways in order to generate maximum heat. One drawback in water – tube boiler is that in this case, there is less space in the boiler.

4. Sectional Boiler: Sectional boiler is also commonly called pork chop boiler. There are iron sections and water is stored in these cast iron sections. These sections are always created at the place the boiler is required. The sections are assembled at the site.

One should know that boilers have got a history of injuries attached to it. Many times, due to heavy pressure and small mistakes, boilers explode leaving a lot of people around injured or even worse. There needs to be proper precaution and safety measures to bee followed in and around the boiler. Even a single leak in the steam pipe can lead to serious problems.

There are various fittings and accessories to be mentioned when one discusses boilers. Some of them are:

1. Safety Valve: In order to prevent boiler explosions, a safety valve is there which is used to release pressure.

2. Water level indicators: The person who operates the boiler, get to know the level of water or the fluid filled in the vessel with the help of water level indicators.

3. Bottom Blow down Valves: With help of these, the condensed solid particles which accumulate in the boiler during the process of heating get removed. This valve as the name suggest is normally located in the bottom of the boiler.

4. Continuous Blow down valve: This allows a continuous release of water out of the boiler in order to avoid saturation of water.

5. Hand Holes: For the purpose of inspection and checking, steel plates are installed in the header. They are known as Hand Holes.

Apart from the ones mentioned above there are various other fittings and accessories are like flash tank, circulating pump, surface blow down line, steam drum internals, feed water check valve, top feed, chemical injection line etc.

Staining Wood Filler

Wood fillers come in handy and have any number of uses. I have found, though, the best results are those I have made myself as opposed to store bought. These can be created using sawdust and different types of glue, depending on what you need the finished product to look like.

Staining wood filler?

Some of these techniques will take a stain and some will not.

If you have a wood chip or gouge on a piece of furniture that won’t be readily visible you can use carpenter’s glue or a cyanoacryate like Mister Glue’s Instant Glue. The end product will not take a stain so best to use this type of fix for areas that will be painted or not visible. This can be done a couple of different ways. If you have a very thin chip or area to fill you can put in some sawdust and then a few drops of Instant Glue which will wick in and make for a very hard filler. Sand it smooth and you are done. This will set up very quickly. Another way of doing this is to use white or yellow carpenter’s glue.

Make a fairly dry mix. Use it to fill a bottom tear out, a void in plywood, a chip or a gouge. Let it dry then sand smooth. The wood glue may stain a bit but the Cyanoacrylate will not. I’ve had many people use the CA (cyanoacrylate) to do repairs in wood carving as well but remember that it won’t stain so use it judiciously. If you are not putting stain on the finished product you can often, with practice, get the sawdust-glue filler to match the color of the wood – as long as you are using the same wood, obviously.

Stainable Wood filler:

If you are staining wood filler where you are doing the repair to the gouge, hole or imperfection, then there is something you can do for that as well. If you use clear varathane with sawdust from the wood you are filling – at least the same color – then it should not show when you finish the wood. One can use a water based urethane as well. Many other floor finishing urethanes will go to a yellow or amber color when dry so make sure that you get one that dries clear. Again, make a very dry mix of the sawdust and the urethane and put it into the area that needs filling. The water based urethane will dry more quickly that the oil or solvent based as well. Let it set up enough to sand and once smoothed out and dry you should be able to apply your stain successfully.

The best sawdust to use is sawdust from the wood you are finishing but try different types. I generally like to use very, very fine sawdust.

One other method that I have not tried (successfully) that was suggested to me was this: place some of the stain on the area that needs to be filled and then start sanding that area – the sawdust should adhere to the stain or other finish and fill in the gap. As I said – I have not gotten this one right yet – I either need more practice or maybe I’ll just stick with the ones that work for me.

I do caution you, though, on all of these tricks, to test them! There are lots of variables – test whichever technique that you are going to use to repair the furniture on an area that doesn’t matter before using it on that piece that everyone is going to see every day.

Keep Your Husband in Permanent 24/7 Chastity – Is It Possible or Desirable?

Can you really keep your husband in permanent 24/7 chastity? First, let’s be clear about what we mean by this. What it means, literally is 24/7 control of your husband’s orgasm; what it means colloquially though, and what people take it to mean is permanent 24/7 orgasm denial.

And the answer is… yes. It’s possible. What’s more, I believe now it’s actually desirable. I’ll explain why.

Keeping your husband in permanent 24/7 chastity

is an act of deep love and devotion and, despite the outward face of it, is not cruel, dominant behaviour or hard-hearted. In fact, when your man is close to orgasm and is begging for mercy, it is very hard for the woman who loves him to say “no“; but say it she must if she wants them both to enjoy the full benefits of true, long-term strict orgasm denial.

The practical side of it is actually rather easy, especially if your man, like my husband, John, is as willing as you are to make it happen (as an aside, men cannot be forced into chastity and orgasm denial against their will, and pretending otherwise is the act of a simpleton, but there’s no denying there are degrees of eagerness – although it’s my experience that you can with coaxing and compassion, teach your man to embrace, desire and even crave permanent orgasm denial).

Anyway, to continue: the practical aspects merely require a secure and comfortable chastity device. John is in a Lori #2C which is secure (even though he is not pierced) and enables him to cycle and work out and essentially live a normal life while wearing it 24/7. Of course it’s not 100% secure — no device ever can be — but it’s secure enough that escaping from it would be difficult and not without pain or risk. In other words it is an exceptionally effective deterrent to his masturbating (which is the only way he could ever orgasm, because while I do use Tease and Denial on him, I am strictly in control).

But what about the other aspects? His need and desire to orgasm and your desire to experience than and to experience him making love to you.

Let’s take the second point first: a sufficiently lifelike strap-on is the answer here. They are not cheap, but a good one is, not exactly perfect, but is good enough. You get 99% of the sensations of his making love to you “properly” without allowing him inside you or risking his orgasm (you can have him do this while he’s still locked, you see).

And to answer the first part… I used to think permanent orgasm denial was too much to ask of either of you, because you’d both be missing out.

But since John and I have embarked upon a full year in denial for him, it’s become apparent that the pleasure for both of us in regular tease and denial sessions with no hope of orgasm until New Year 2012 is to all intents and purposes the same as the mutual pleasure we get from his orgasm. In other words, there is no longer a need for him to have them any more.

The upshot of this is clear: IF a strapon is good enough for you and IF the pleasure of Tease and Denial is enough for you both, then permanent 24/7 orgasm denial becomes not only possible but actually desirable for couples living the male chastity lifestyle. Because, for a man, knowing he isn’t going to get to orgasm properly ever again, nor indeed enjoy penetrative sex with you again… yet is still going to get the pleasure of making love to you with a strapon and enjoy the Tease and Denial sessions you treat him to, it is one of the most erotic things imaginable.

Finish Off Your Deck With Wire Rope Fencing

Wire rope fencing is an often-overlooked alternative to traditional fencing. It can be a safer choice if you have a large drop off from your deck or yard.

If you are looking for an aesthetically pleasing way to finish off a deck or patio railing or are perhaps looking for a guard to prevent children or pets from falling to far down a slope or into a wooded area, you should consider the benefits of wire rope or cable railings. Cable railings and their residential uses have grown in popularity over the last decade. They provide a less intrusive safety net than traditional fences and are often a safer means given that they can support more weight.

Installing a wire rope fence can turn into a relatively easy do-it-yourself project if you have the right fittings and have done your research. Often people use wood supports to connect the different sections of the fencing. How you choose to link the sections together is entirely up to you, however keep in mind that the fittings must be secure and there will need to be a good level of tensioning. Some fittings offer easy ways to adjust the tension to your ideal place.

Once you have completed the project, make sure to double-check your work to ensure that the cable railing is strong and not vulnerable should someone lean against it. Always choose a stainless steel cable railing, especially if it is outside in the elements. After you have installed, keep a close eye on things to ensure that the metal is weathering well and not rusting. This could compromise the safety of the fencing and be dangerous should someone fall against it.

Most often, wire rope is installed horizontally across the fencing, but there is no rule saying it must be done this way. It is slightly more complicated to do it vertically, but still not impossible if you have a good sense of what you are doing. Vertical installation will require additional supports, which are most commonly metal.

Cat Fence – What Are The Options?

Is It Really Possible To Fence Cats?

It’s a great question and one that up until a few years ago, I would have answered “no way.” But currently there are several options available for keeping your cat contained within your yard. And believe it or not, they best of them actually are highly effective.

Why Would You Want to Use a Cat Fence?

There are time when using a cat containment system makes a lot of sense. Of course, felines are by nature very curious creatures. If you live in a house near a busy road, the chances of your pet getting hit by a car are greater. In this case it’s a good idea to use a barrier to keep your cat contained within your yard.

Another reality is that outdoor kitties are more susceptible to disease and injury (from fights or accidents) that indoor pets.. It’s well known that an indoor cat has an increased lifespan. And yet most felines love to play and explore outdoors. If you do have a garden, even a small one, you can use a cat enclosure to give your beloved kitty a place to go without subjecting him or her to the dangers beyond your house.

What Kinds of Cat Fence Are There?

There are really three kinds of fences for cats. One is a complete cat enclosure that you can put up in your garden. The best of these can be moved around the garden. They allow your cat complete safety while being able to play outdoors. Cat fence enclosures can also be linked to the house with a cat door. The second kind of cat fencing is meant to complement your existing fence. If you have a fence around your yard that goes up to 6 feet, you can add a portion of special fencing to the top that prevents your cat from escaping. This is probably the most expensive option. Finally you can use an electric cat fence. These require you to bury a line around the perimeter of your house and for your pet to wear a special collar that provides a shock when he crosses the line.

Some Final Tips On Cat Fence?

The kind of cat fencing you end up purchasing really depends on a few factors. First is the size and shape of your yard. Second is your budget. For various reasons, I’ve used specially designed pet enclosures rather than fencing for my feline friends and have been very happy with them.

Learn How to Get Your Fair Share of Assisted Living Veterans Benefits

Many veterans or their surviving spouse don’t know about or understand how to go about getting Assisted Living veterans benefits.

The simple truth is that most families think that they need to use a veteran’s home or nursing home run by the VA for a place for their aging veteran’ care. With this well-kept VA secret now finally beginning to get out among the general population it is important to know that every single Assisted Living facility is an option for your war-time veteran relative or friend.

This VA benefit often provides funds that help the veteran or their surviving spouse pay 50% up to even 100% of the Assisted Living facilities cost. Who knew that you could get paid a benefit from the VA to help you offset these expensive care costs.

For too long it was commonly thought that you needed to be wounded or have an immediate disability incurred during the veteran’s active duty.

It was too often understood or assumed that a veteran did not qualify for any VA benefits if their disabilities they face as they grow older did not have it’s origin from a documented active duty injury or wound.

This myth has been soundly busted.

WWII, Korean and Vietnam veterans are now beginning to experience normal disabilities due to the natural aging process. Some of these difficulties are due to their active duty but many are not.

The non-service connected disability pension benefit from the VA does not require that the difficulties or disability that you are now experiencing be related to your active duty. Again, to be clear…it does not have to be service related.

What is this little-known VA benefit? It is officially called the “Improved Disability Pension Benefit”. Their are three monthly payment thresholds that are defined by:

  1. Income and Assets
  2. Housebound Status
  3. Need for assistance with activities of daily living

The third threshold entitles the recipient to an entitlement commonly called “Aid and Attendance”.

A widowed surviving spouse of a qualified veteran (just 90 days of active duty with 1 day during an official stated period of war) is also eligible for this pension benefit.

For widowed surviving spouses it is officially called the “Improved Death Pension Benefit with Aid and Attendance Entitlement”.

So, this “new” benefit you may be hearing about called the “Aid and Attendance Benefit” is really either the long-standing VA benefit no one every heard about called either the:

  • Non-Service Connected Disability Pension Benefit with Aid and Attendance Entitlement (for veterans)

or the

  • Non-Service Connected Improved Death Pension Benefit with Aid and Attendance Entitlement (for un-remarried widowed surviving spouse of an qualified veteran)

Now, here is the best part.

The award amount of this VA non-service connected benefit:

  1. A Veteran with a dependent (typically spouse) can get up to $23,388 per year, paid monthly at $1,949
  2. A Veteran with no dependents can receive up to $17,728 per year, paid monthly at $1,644
  3. An un-remarried widow surviving spouse can receive up to $12,684 per year, paid monthly at $1,057

Assisted Living Veterans Benefits Qualifications

There are five qualification criteria:

  1. When the veteran served with at least 90 days of active duty with a least 1 day during a stated time of war. (The veteran does not have to have seen action, serve overseas or be in a combat area to qualify)
  2. Must no longer be able to safely drive
  3. Must need assistance with activities of daily living
  4. Must have liquid assets less than $80 thousand. But, there is no look back if you need to do move assets out of the applicants name to meet this requirement. If you transfer excess assets today you are eligible tomorrow.
  5. The actual amount of the veterans benefit you can receive is based on a simple formula.

This last qualification criteria often confuses families looking to get the Veterans Benefits for Assisted Living.

How to Deduct Travel Expenses on Schedule C, Line 24a

Travel expenses are another of those “obvious” expenses that most Sole Proprietors incur. It is also one of the most abused small business expenses, so it’s important that you understand the basic rules so as not to run afoul of the IRS in the event of an audit. And Line 24a (along with 24b, Meals) is one of the most frequently audited lines on Schedule C. So the purpose of this article is to explain the rules on travel expenses so that you know what you can and cannot deduct. If you follow these rules carefully and are ever audited, you’ll have nothing to worry about.

The first “ground rule” is the obvious one: the travel expenses must be related to an overnight trip of a business purpose. You can only deduct travel expenses for yourself and your employees. If your spouse or children happen to travel with you, their travel expenses are not deductible, unless your spouse or child is an employee of your business and there is a bona fide business purpose for their presence on the trip.

The two most common types of deductible travel expenses are transportation and lodging. Let’s take a close look at both of them.

Transportation is the cost of getting to and from your destination. It can include the cost of traveling by plane, train or bus, or any other form or public transportation. If you drive your own car, you would deduct the transportation expense based on whether you are using the Mileage Method or the Actual Expense Method for your vehicle deduction.

Lodging is the cost of staying in a hotel or motel. What happens if your spouse travels with you and your spouse is not your employee? How do you determine the deduction for the hotel room? If the cost of the room is the same regardless of the number of people staying in the room, then you get to deduct the actual cost of the room. But if the cost of two people is more than the cost of one person, your deduction is the one-person room rate, not the two-person room rate.

What about the cost of meals? You do get to deduct meals while on an overnight business trip, but not on Line 24a. Meals expenses, for either overnight business trips or for local business meals, are deductible on Line 24b.

With regard to both lodging and meals, you can deduct the actual cost of the expense (for meals, that means actual cost times 50%) or you can take a deduction based on the Per Diem Method, regardless of the actual expense amount. A per diem is a standard IRS-approved amount determined by the location of the trip. For details on per diem rates and how they work, see IRS Publication 1542.

Capitalism, Socialism, and the Affordable Housing Market

One of the cornerstones of capitalist economic theory, as taught and practiced in the business, governmental, and academic sectors of the United States of America, is called the “efficient market hypothesis”.

That hypothesis claims that a free market is an “efficient” market, meaning that it perfectly provides for the needs of consumers in a nation, at prices they can afford.

I disagree.

“Efficient market hypothesis” claims that markets are rational, meaning that they will make automatic adjustments in prices, to match supplies of (and demand for) particular commodities (whether they be food, clothing, housing, or gasoline).

However, one of the problems with the efficient market hypothesis, is that markets are not rational, because markets are made by human beings, not computers, and most human beings (from my observation) are not rational.

In fact, from what I’ve witnessed, I would claim that most human beings appear to be famously irrational.

So it would only stand to reason, that markets made by human beings (for things like food, clothing, gasoline, and housing) will not naturally fluctuate with the needs of consumers, but rather, will usually charge prices set as high as the sellers of those various commodities can get away with charging.

But what if thousands of people, in a place like a snow-covered environment, can’t afford to pay what the sellers of housing are demanding to be paid?

Should they merely sleep outside in the snow?

I don’t think so.

Yet many of them do.

Why?

I can’t say definitively, but while visiting the city of Boston, Massachusetts in the Spring of 2012, I had the opportunity to meet a fairly large number of the many, many thousands of homeless people who resided in that city then, and what I found was shocking:

There were what appeared to be, over ten thousand homeless people in that city then, contrasting sharply with the large number of “for rent” signs I saw on various houses and apartment buildings in the city, and it’s various suburbs.

I met former businessmen and women, many of whom had lost their jobs in the mass-company-firings of the recession of the 1990’s and 2000’s, (which apparently caused their companies to permanently downsize their jobs), in what resulted in tens of millions of Americans being put out of work (and in many cases, they and their families being evicted out of their homes).

While learning about the struggles of the homeless in the United States of America, the first thing I noticed is that the formal and informal network set up to help the homeless, in actuality accomplished very little to help in any real, tangible way when it came to housing people whose primary need was just that.

Instead, most of the organizations I contacted, and interacted with, seemed to offer everything but.

Food, clothing, toiletries, (and at a few of the better facilities, phone calls, and occasionally, showers), were often available, but real progress towards attaining permanent housing seemed to be continuously (and maddeningly) elusive, not just for myself, but for almost all of the hundreds of homeless people I met and spoke with.

That lack of the one crucial thing homeless people need the most, appeared to lead to a very high level of despair among many of the dozens of homeless people that I spoke with, and that despair appeared to often led many to engage in self-destructive behaviour, and even angry verbal outbursts.

More depressingly, that despair appeared to be intensified by the self-hatred many homeless people seemed to experience after such (usually-justified, yet often misdirected) outbursts, and many of the people I met seemed to be descending down into a deeper and deeper predicament.

Many began to resort to the habitual use of alcohol or drugs, in an apparent attempt to numb the feelings of resentment and self-hatred that seemed to engulf them.

Then, when those same suffering people went to seek housing, those incidents of self-medication with alcohol or drugs would be included in their “client profile”, and many of them would be shunted off into a “bad client” category, and often be:

1) forced leave the homeless shelters,

2) forced to “meet with the police”,

3) forced to attend burdensome anti-“substance abuse” classes and meetings, (despite the fact that some of them had no place to sleep at night),

or…

4) forced to “leave the immediate vicinity” of the homeless shelter, and go…

where?

As a result, many of the hundreds of homeless people I met in Boston, Massachusetts, Manchester, New Hampshire, Miami, Florida, San Diego, California, and Los Angeles, California, seemed to find themselves having no choice but to live outside for many months, years (and some, even decades), at a time, sometimes even in the ice and snow.

I met a few men who had spent entire previous, New England winters outside, some in tents in the snow-blanketed woods, and some feebly attempting to sleep on top of heating exhaust vent grates, to escape the bitter (and sometimes deadly), below-freezing, winter night-time temperatures.

It appeared that every few nights in one of the major north-eastern United States cities, someone would die from sleeping outside in the bitter winter cold. In a rare effort to avoid such tragedies, police officers in progressive Cambridge, Massachusetts would drive around, all throughout the night just before, and during, major snow storms, on the lookout for people who had fallen asleep outside.

While exploring the back streets of Cambridge, Massachusetts in the middle of a few of those bitter cold nights, I occasionally saw people bundled up inside cardboard boxes, feebly (and perilously) attempting attempting to survive the night without freezing to death.

Even more shocking, was the fact that most of the major cities I visited (such as Boston, Massachusetts, Miami, Florida, San Diego, California, and Los Angeles, California), all appeared to have their main homeless shelters located in their downtowns, often within close walking distance (and sometimes in sight of) luxury, high-rise, residential condominium towers, many of which had dozens of empty apartments for rent.

So, despite what many of us may have been taught in college economics courses, the fact is, the free market for housing in the United States of America is not at all efficient. In fact, if you explore the intricacies of many major, urban, United States housing markets, you will often find that they are woefully inefficient.

To make matters worse, the extreme contrast between the levels of contentment of the well-heeled, housed urban professionals, and the barely-surviving homeless appeared to lead to levels of hostility that were, not only disheartening, but even dangerous.

As a result of the predictable frustration experienced by those two extremely alienated groups of “have-more-than-enoughs”, and “don’t-have-anythings”, conflicts would often erupt, with the housed scurrying away to hide inside, and the police sometimes arriving to accost and interrogate the homeless, who were usually intimidated back to “wherever they came from”.

As a result, many of the homeless people I met seemed to be developing an increasing level of resentment towards the United States of America, and the wealthy (or those perceived to be).

After 5 months witnessing the social schisms, and other social unrest caused by homelessness and wealth inequality in Boston, Massachusetts, I boarded a bus for Manchester, New Hampshire, where I witnessed the exact same, corrosive social dynamic at work, actively undermining our national unity and sense of connectedness.

Being unable to find sales work in Manchester, New Hampshire, and knowing that the bitter-cold New Hampshire winter was quickly approaching, I boarded a plane on November 3rd, and flew to Miami, Florida.

Upon my arrival in Miami, I hopped onto a bus straight to Miami Beach, where I witnessed the exact same, depressing social inequality, occurring right alongside the winter-long festivities of one of the most lively international tourist hot-spots in the western hemisphere.

While there, I again noticed the same super-luxurious residential high-rise condominiums that I saw in Boston, Massachusetts, many seemingly built in the last decade or so, during the supposed “recession” that saw millions of American workers jobs (and paychecks) offshored to foreign countries, while corporate profits sky-rocketed, sending the Dow-Jones Industrial average, and wealthy peoples bank accounts, to before-unheard of heights.

Even more disturbingly, while in Miami Beach, I noticed that many of the poor homeless women I met seemed to feel compelled to sell their bodies, in order to afford to pay for basic, life’s necessities, such as food, clothing, shelter, or medication.

Many of the homeless people I met there appeared to spend at least half of their time hiding from the police helicopters, cruisers, and all-terrain-vehicles, that appeared to patrol the beaches relentlessly, in an attempt to chase them away from the sight of the well-heeled international visitors who flock to that city all winter long.

When not resting in my tent concealed in the sand dunes adjacent to the awe-inspiring “South Beach”, I spent my days socializing on the seawall running parallel to the beach. While walking by there one day, I met a homeless African-American Iraq war veteran, just returned home from combat.

He appeared to be suffering from a serious case of “Post-Traumatic-Stress-Disorder”, as a result of having his foot blown off by a suicide-bombers attack on the Humvee caravan he was travelling in, and he appeared to be in terrible daily pain, even though army doctors had somehow surgically re-attached his foot.

He spent his days sitting near the seawall adjacent to the boardwalk, and seemed confused, depressed, and very, very angry at the way he had been used, and apparently abandoned and disposed of, by our countries government and military establishment.

After a few months in Miami Beach, the police presence there persecuting myself, and the other homeless people, became too overwhelming, so I decided to relocate to Hollywood Beach, Florida.

Hollywood, Florida is an interesting city. Most of it isn’t anywhere near the beach, but is inland, being despairingly separated from the beachfront by the “intracoastal waterway”, and so is very humid, though very calm and sociable, inland.

The beach-front itself is almost entirely for tourists. It has a beautiful boardwalk, is very clean and quiet, and is great for:

– families with children,

– those who don’t like (or can’t tolerate) diverse or international crowds,

or

– those who need a break from the faster paced, party beaches, such as Miami Beach.

However, while in the inland part of the city of Hollywood, I met men who revealed to me that one of the homeless shelters there was charging “rent” to people who slept there, even sending disabled people out onto street corners to sell homeless-advocacy newspapers every day, in order to earn the money to pay their rent.

While walking down the street one day, I met a man in a wheelchair with withered legs due to a serious neurological disease. While listening to him speak, he recounted to me that after he had had a disagreement with the manager of the homeless shelter regarding his pain medication, he was unceremoniously evicted out onto the sidewalk a few blocks away, and left there all by himself, even though he couldn’t walk.

Subsequently, the shelter where he formerly resided was seized by the city, and condemned, and the man who operated it was intimidated out of that Florida town for being:

“too nice to criminally-prone homeless people”.

That was the first indication that there is a trend in many warm-weather cities to be hateful and hostile towards homeless people, and the more I investigated the phenomenon, the more disturbed I became.

For example, in both Florida and California, I heard repeated accounts of serious, even murderous violence being repeatedly directed against homeless people, with some cities and towns in Florida appearing to have reached epidemic levels of such repeated outbursts being directed against poor (and sometimes disabled) people living outside, as discussed in this article here:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/12/16/florida-homeless_n_4453312.html?temp-new-window-replacement=true

Sadly, such crimes appear to also be on the rise in California as well, as evidenced by this section of the “Huffington Post” news website, which discusses the rising epidemic of violence against the homeless:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/homeless-hate-crimes/?temp-new-window-replacement=true

My belief is, that at least part of the reason for this, is that poor and working-class Americans are so angry and frustrated because of their recent economic difficulties, that they are striking out at convenient, socially-acceptable targets, and in the United States of America, where we worship rich people, poor people within easy reach are becoming the targets of choice.

The worship of rich people, and the resultant demonization and dehumanization of poor people, are just two symptoms of the extreme wage, income, & wealth inequality that exists in the United States of America today.

In fact, from my research, I would estimate that the last time wealth inequality was so unjust in the United States of America, was during the late 1800’s, in an age of income inequality so extreme, that the chief corporation-owning beneficiaries of our collective labors were frequently called “robber barons”.

Because of the refusal of the corporation owners of that time to equitably share the fruits of their corporations (and thus, their workers) efforts, an organized labor movement began to take shape, and by the 1950’s, it managed to secure adequate wages and working conditions for tens of millions of American workers, many of whom still do the bulk of the physical work in this country.

That organized labor movement led to the creation of the often idealized “American Middle-Class”, which many credit for the social stability that came to encapsulate the idea of the “American Dream”.

However, during the 1970’s, a new mentality began to infect the hearts and minds of the collective consciousness of the American intelligentsia, and many economists and business-people began to promote a new world-view, which disturbingly extolled the perverse paradigm that “greed is good”.

In fact, such dangerously infectious slogans were charismatically advocated by the protagonists of movies glorifying such selfish mentalities, as evidenced by Michael Douglas’ “Gordon Gecko”, in the 1987 greed-inspiring movie, “Wall Street”.

From the 1980’s, through the 1990’s, up until the victory of President Barack Obama in the mid-2000’s, this countries “greed-is-good”, and “it’s all about money” paradigms were also advanced by mind-warping, wealth-worshipping television programs, such as:

“Lifestyles of the Rich & Famous”,

and

MTV’s: “Cribs”.

As a result, the level of hyper-materialism in the United States of America reached such epidemic proportions, that people who don’t have enough money are no longer merely viewed as “undesirables”, but increasingly, as an entire underclass who are “good for nothing” but to be exterminated.

I believe that this new form of socio-economic fascism represents a very clear and present danger, not only to the millions of homeless people in our country, but also to the tens of millions of us who are merely a paycheck, illness, or missed mortgage payment away from homelessness ourselves.

So, contrary to the idea promoted by generally accepted “free-market” economic theory, the free market for housing in the United States of America does not appear to be at all adequate when it comes to meeting the shelter needs of the people who reside within our nations borders.

And so I believe that our elected government officials have, not only the right, but also the responsibility to intervene, and insure that all of the people dwelling within our nations borders of authority have their basic, housing needs met.

Unfortunately, when broaching such topics in economic discussions, it isn’t uncommon to see some contentious mass media commentators irresponsibly launch socio-economic extremist labels at their opponents, in an attempt to marginalize and demonize them, usually utilizing one of the following nebulous labels:

“Communist”, “Socialist”, “Redistributionist”, “Collectivist”, et cetera…

Yet, very little thought is often invested into what the exact definitions of those terms are.

With that in mind, I’d like to offer my opinion as to what I perceive to be the correct definition and appropriate usage of such socio-economic labels to be:

First, a “communist” is generally viewed as a person who believes in completely equal ownership of the means, and output, of production, of a nations industry.

(In the past, that goal was frequently attained by government mandate (usually through “nationalization” of a nations private corporations (a form of seizure and redistribution generally regarded as unpleasant by most.)).

On the opposite end of the socio-economic philosophical spectrum, we have what are generally called “capitalists”.

Capitalists are those who believe in allowing vastly unequal ownership of the means, and output, of production of a nations industry.

(In recent American history, that philosophy has been pursued almost to the extreme, by unjust recalibration of of our nations tax policy and codes, and has created many tens of millions of “working poor” in our nation (whose ranks appear to be growing by the day)).

Both of those extremes (of Communism, and Capitalism), have generally proven to be very ineffective forms of economic policy in the past, and sadly, they can occasionally result in widespread violence (as witnessed in the cases of both the French & Russian revolutions).

More intelligently, would be a theoretical balance between those two extremes, called “Socialism”.

Socialism, (provided it is not enforced by violence, or accompanied by racial, religious, or ethnically supremacist theories) is usually the best economic approach for a nations economy, as both the extremes of “capitalism”, and “communism” have historically proven to be ineffective models for meeting the material, and spiritual, needs of a nations populace.

Such deficiencies in meeting the needs of a nations populace can sometimes result in:

Violent internal “civil” wars (a.k.a. “revolutions”), as in the case of pre-revolutionary Russia (where a Tsarist aristocracy attempted to forcibly rule the nations repressively unequal feudalistic peasantry-based agricultural economy,

or

Violent, externally aggressive wars, such as those we are seeing in the modern-day United States of America, the leaders of which appear to be on endless Quixotic quest to (mis)-identify and displace their disenfranchised citizens rage at their increasing economic impoverishment onto convenient, external, foreign targets.

Instead, it might be helpful for our nations leaders to temper our current hyper-capitalist orientation with more socialist economic principles.

Introduction to Steel Reinforced Concrete

Steel Reinforced concrete is concrete in which steel reinforcement bars, plates or fibers have been incorporated to build up a material that would otherwise be fragile. In industrialized countries, nearly all concrete used in construction is reinforced concrete.

There are a number of building materials that have been found to be exceptional when it used in the construction of buildings. One of these exceptional building materials is steel concrete. Steel-reinforced bridges are also among the most common type of bridge built. In fact, the vast majority of highway bridges is of this type and is most frequently encountered along interstate highways. For added strength and support, the concrete used in constructing these bridges is often reinforced with embedded steel bars which are commonly called as rebar.

Steel concrete is a specific type that has had strong steel rebar or fibers added to it while dripping, creating a very strong type of concrete that is able to withstand almost anything when it has dried. Because the results of using steel reinforced are so good for the strength of the building, most modern buildings today use steel reinforced concrete in the construction process.

Steel concrete can fail due to insufficient strength, leading to mechanical failure, or due to a reduction in its durability. Corrosion and freeze may damage poorly designed or constructed reinforced concrete.

Physical characteristics of steel reinforced concrete:

o The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is similar to that of steel, eliminating internal stresses due to differences in thermal expansion or contraction.

o When the cement paste within the concrete hardens this conforms to the surface details of the steel, permitting any stress to be transmitted efficiently between the different materials.

o The alkaline chemical environment provided by calcium carbonate causes a passivating film to form on the surface of the steel, making it much more resistant to corrosion than it would be in neutral or acidic conditions.

Fiber concrete is also becoming an increasingly popular construction material due to its improved mechanical properties over non-reinforced concrete and its ability to enhance the mechanical performance of conventionally reinforced concrete.

Porting and Polishing Chevy Muscle Car Cylinder Heads

Porting and Polishing Chevy Muscle Car Heads

The heart of your engine is the cylinder heads.  A time-honored method for increasing Chevy muscle car horsepower and torque has been improving the air flow potential of the engine cylinder heads. There are many ways to do this; expensive “bolt-ons” such as aftermarket heads, supercharging or turbo charging. For the real gear-head with little money and basic mechanical skills, porting and polishing the OEM heads is always an option.

With just a few key modifications, most heads can be made to flow 5 to 10% better than stock and the effort only requires a few basic tools, patience and a weekend’s worth of sweat labor. That’s free horsepower! If you are doing a valve job anyway, especially if upgrading to larger valves, this improvement could be in the 20 to 25% range.

The Basic Steps Are: 

1. Remove ridges from the intake and exhaust port bowls; this is formed when the valve seats are cut and once the heads are disassembled you can easily feel it with your finger; it’s in the head just below the seat. Blend the ridge into the port walls using a carbide burr with a ¼ inch die grinder. A variable speed grinder and a light touch are best. Be very careful that the shank of the burr does not come in contact with the valve seat. Remove as little material as possible.

The entire port should feature a continuous smooth radius. The valve guide bosses can also be cleaned up but be sure to leave .125 of material surrounding the valve guide hole. You can use abrasive rolls to polish the exhaust ports but do not polish the intake ports. With the intakes, too smooth and you lose the turbulence needed to thoroughly mix the gas and air being pulled into the combustion chamber.

2. Unshroud the valves by gently removing material from the sides of the combustion chambers. Match the head gasket with the bolt and dowel-pin holes in the head and then scribe a cylinder-bore line around the chambers. Using machinist bluing or a dark felt tip marker will make the scribe line easy to see. You then know how far you can safely grind but do not go outside the scribe line or serious sealing problems may result. Again, remove minimal material to avoid reducing the compression ratio. Use some old valves in the chamber to protect the seats while grinding. You can also polish the chambers with abrasive rolls; it will reduce the tendency for carbon buildup.

3. Port match the intake runners to the intake using the intake gasket as a template for a scribe line. Some say this is worth 4% more CFM, 2% is more likely, but every little bit helps.   Do not polish the intake runners or fuel puddling and loss of flow turbulence could result – leave them a little rough.

Tools Needed:

o Variable speed die grinder with 25,000 rpm potential; an air grinder is OK but an electric with variable speed control seems easier to modulate

o Carbide burrs; 1/2 inch head and some smaller sizes for tight spots all with 2 inch long shanks

o Abrasive rolls (basically medium to fine grits, try to stay below 1/2 inch diameter)

o Leather gloves

o Ear plugs

o Eye protection

o Dust mask

o Duct tape (wrap the grinder tightening nut and tape around the combustion chamber scribe line just in case); running a burr across an unprotected head surface will ruin your whole day – the duct tape offers a little extra protection.

Key Learning: A valve job will be needed after this process because I have never seen anyone port and polish heads without nicking at least a few of the valve seats, no matter how careful they were – so plan accordingly.

What Is the Difference Between Rebar and Wire Mesh?

A little knowledge goes a long way in helping you make an educated decision when hiring a contractor. If you are looking at having a new concrete driveway poured, you may be asked to decide if you’d like wire mesh or rebar used for support. If you have no idea how to answer that question, this article will provide a brief overview to give you an informed decision.

Wire Mesh

Wire mesh is made from cold reduced deformed steel. It comes to the contractor in a roll that, when laid out, is a series of open squares. Imagine square chicken wire made of thick steel bars. The bars have ridges to help the concrete attach to them. The wire mesh is used to add strength to the concrete. First, it is there to give support during the “green” period when the concrete is setting. Then it helps maintain the concrete’s integrity against cracking during its lifetime.

Rebar

Rebar, shortened from “reinforcing bar,” is also made of steel. It is rounded bars with ridges that measure in sizes varying by 1/8th inch thickness. Also used for support, rebar is generally laid individually in larger squares than the wire mesh. Rebar is a major component in adding strength and maintaining structure when cracking occurs.

So which do you chose?

Cost

Wire mesh is cheaper than rebar. Firstly, wire mesh is made of thinner steel bars, so less materials. As you’ll recall, it can be rolled up. And secondly, because it does come in a roll, the labor of installation is less intensive. Rebar’s cost will depend upon the thickness of the bars and will ultimately add to more labor expense.

Support

Rebar is definitely the stronger candidate for support. However, that said, if we’re talking about a four inch thick residential driveway (four inches is the thickness recommended for driveways holding less than 10,000 lbs), mesh does the trick just fine. In fact, many contractors consider rebar for residential jobs overkill. If you are looking to get a thicker driveway because you plan on having heavy trucks or an RV parked on it, then rebar is a good suggestion.

Cracking

Both wire mesh and rebar cannot prevent cracking, but are helpful in holding the concrete together when cracking occurs. The steel behaves similarly to concrete in how it expands and contracts during hot and cold temperatures, which is why it’s used in concrete slabs. Likewise, the mesh and rebar will stop small cracks from expanding further. Wire mesh must be laid correctly to serve the concrete best. It should be directly in the middle of the slab. So a four inch slab should have the wire mesh two inches deep. If it becomes exposed to the air, it ultimately can rust and lead to cracking. But a good contractor will make sure that doesn’t happen. Some contractors feel the smaller squares of the mesh, and the thinner steel, allows for more flexibility as the contractions in the concrete occur, staving off cracking better than rebar.

The myth about strength

When people talk about mesh or rebar and compare it for strength, one major part of the discussion should focus on the base of the concrete slab. Neither wire mesh nor rebar will perform its duty if the bottom of the slab isn’t laid properly to hold concrete.

Stoked And TestoPRO – One Of The Best Testosterone Booster Stacks On The Market

Before we discuss TestoPRO and Stoked and why they make one of the best testosterone booster stacks on the market, we need to be clear about just what exactly stacks and testosterone boosters are. In this instance, a stack refers to two or more testosterone boosters being used simultaneously. A stack however is not limited to testosterone boosters, it could in fact refer to other dietary supplements being used simultaneously such as creatine, fish oils and multivitamins to name just a few. A testosterone booster is typically a dietary supplement that has the ability to increase or boost the levels of endogenous testosterone of the individual who consumes them, they also usually come in capsule form and have enough servings in each container to last a month. They frequently contain a number of different ingredients, although testosterone boosters that contain just one ingredient can also be found. However, those of the one ingredient variety are generally regarded as being not as effective.

What Does TestoPRO Contain And How Does It Work?

TestoPRO contains a number of different and highly effective ingredients that are known to be effective in boosting concentrations of natural testosterone as well as promoting particular metabolites of oestrogen that are conducive to muscle-building. It also consists of two more ingredients that help with the bioavailability and uptake of the other ingredients. The first ingredient is an extract of Fenugreek seed called Testofen and it contains compounds called Saponins which have been proven to raise free testosterone by 98.81 per cent and they are also precursors of various sex hormones. The significance of the increase in free testosterone and not just total testosterone is that testosterone can only be of any benefit in building muscle when it is unbound from sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The second ingredient is Divanil and this also increases free testosterone since it binds to SHBG and stops it from binding with testosterone and rendering it inactive. The third ingredient is Indole-3-Carbinol which is a compound that is found in vegetables such as Broccoli and Cauliflower amongst others. The reason this is included is because it helps to promote healthier metabolites of oestrogen as well as discourage other less healthy ones. The last two ingredients are Quercetin and a patented form of Piperine called Bioperine. The reason they are included is because of their ability to increase the absorption and bioavailability of the other ingredients.

What Does Stoked Contain And How Does It Work?

Stoked is a testosterone booster that is typically used in order to bring testosterone concentrations back to normal levels after they have been lowered. It moreover contains two ingredients that are not contained in TestoPRO. The first one is Resveratrol and whereas other supplements may contain inferior less bioavailable forms of it, Stoked contains the most bioavailable form, which is Trans-Resveratrol. It is included because of its oestrogen receptor modulation ability and also its capacity to control aromatase, which is the enzyme that turns testosterone into estradiol. The other ingredient is Horny Goat Weed and it is incorporated because it is a rich source of Icariin. This substance has been shown by research to have a positive impact on concentrations of natural testosterone and it has also shown that the metabolites of this substance, desmethylicaritin and icaritin also have a strong oestrogen receptor modulation ability in the same way that Resveratrol does. Quercetin and Piperine are also included ingredients for the same bioavailability and absorption reasons that they are included in TestoPRO.

What Is The Reason For Stacking Them?

The main reason why testosterone boosters are often stacked is in order to achieve a synergistic effect since they will usually both complement each other in some way, as is the case with TestoPRO and Stoked. This is because they both contain ingredients that the other one lacks and therefore boost the production of natural testosterone and enhance the ability of this hormone to assist in muscle-building in different ways. In other words, the bodybuilder who is using such a stack will highly likely experience a greater rise in his concentrations of natural testosterone and superior gains in muscle mass than if he was to use either of them just one at a time. The way in which Stoked helps in this stack is to increase total testosterone through controlling oestrogen, whereas the way in which TestoPRO is of benefit is primarily by helping to increase levels of free testosterone. It should therefore now be possible to see exactly why combining these two products will have a more powerful effect than using just one of them at a time and why it is one of the most popular and well-respected stacks available.