How To Easily Get A Longer Penis – Make Your Penis Longer & Thicker

Is it wrong to want to have a longer penis? Of course not. Most men would gladly lengthen their penis as long as the process is pain-free and there aren’t any risks of harmful side effects. A longer penis will enable the owner to have harder erections and more control over ejaculation.

Every penis enlargement product out there claims to give you up to 3″ in added length. Unfortunately, all of the different methods will not provide these penis size gains so a lot of men are quite skeptical about what works and what is just a scam.

The Wrong Way To Go About Getting A Longer Penis

Let’s address the unproven methods first. These things all claim to provide permanent gains in penis size. However, there are no clinical studies to back up claims made by the companies. Of course, each method does have satisfied users, it’s just the majority of these guys get burned and then think every other product or penis enlargement method out there is bogus.

Penis pumps: Pumps are dangerous. They can cause bruising, broken blood vessels, and in the worst case scenario can cause the penis to curve. Penis curvature can cause discomfort to the male and the female, making intimacy a serious problem. Avoid penis pumps even for temporary enhancement.

Penis patches: Do you really think you can wear a patch and gain 3″ of penis length in a few months? This probably is NOT going to happen. What does happen is much like how the penis pill works. A chemical enters the blood stream causing the penis to hold more blood when aroused. While these can give you solid erections there is no proof of permanent gains. And no one knows the possible side effects from wearing the patch either. Not recommended even for erectile dysfunction.

Penis weights: Like pumps, hanging weight from your penis is not a safe way to get a longer penis. You can cause permanent damage by attempting this method of penis enlargement. And even if you are successful in achieving a gain using weight, it is almost impossible to gain any girth or width with weights. You will end up with a damaged penis or a pencil-thin penis if you try weights to lengthen it.

The Right Way To Get A Longer Penis

Now that we have gone over what is not good, let’s briefly cover what works. Right now there are actually two different methods that have clinical studies that back up their claims. These are the penis traction device (extender) and penis exercises.

A penis traction device will provide the biggest, fastest gains. Traction is an accepted medical procedure used by orthopedic surgeons around the world to successfully lengthen tissue. When you combine this with a top-notch proven penis exercise program, you will truly know the secret to getting a longer penis safely and easily.

This technology is now available to any man who wishes to get a longer penis No visit to a doctor is required, and men can see their penis getting longer and thicker in just a few weeks. The results are measurable in inches with a high-quality penis extender system.

Direct Or Indirect Plumbing Systems

Doing your own plumbing work can save you a lot of money, and simple plumbing jobs do not require a great deal of knowledge or skill. A beginner should be able to cope with straightforward jobs, like replacing a tap washer or plumbing in a basin, and an average handyman should be able to tackle more complicated jobs, such as plumbing in a separate shower. But you should think twice before trying to tackle very complicated jobs. Working on a plumbing system can be dirty work – especially if you have to lift the floorboards or work in a dusty loft and it can be fairly strenuous.

There are two main parts to a household plumbing system – the water supply system and the waste system. The water supply system is a set of pipes and fittings which carries clean water to baths, basins, WCs and so on. The waste system is another set of pipes which carries used water away to drains and sewers. In an old house, or one with many plumbing fittings, the pipework may seem very confusing, but basic plumbing systems are really quite simple. Before starling work on your plumbing system, trace all the pipework carefully so that you know where each pipe leads and what it does.

Water supply

A household plumbing system basically starts at the water supply undertaking’s (either a water authority or a company) stopcock. This is usually situated outside the boundary of the property about 750mm below ground under a small metal cover, probably in the pavement. Most water supply undertakings’ stop cocks need a special key to turn them on and off. The stopcock controls the flow of water between the water supply under-taking’s water main and the household water supply. The pipe which carries water from the stopcock to the house is known as the service pipe, and the responsibility for maintaining it lies with the householder. Before 1939, service pipes were usually lead or steel; nowadays they are often copper or polythene. Many service pipes slope upwards slightly from the water supply undertaking’s stopcock to the house but should always be at least 750mm below ground. Once inside the house, the pipe (now called a rising main) can be protected against freezing by running it along an inside wall. In houses with suspended floors it may be necessary to give the pipe additional frost protection.

There are two basic systems for moving water about the house from the rising main toplaces where it is wanted indirect and direct.

Indirect plumbing systems In an indirect system, the primary purpose of the rising main is to feed water into a cold water cistern (often, wrongly, called a tank) which is usually situated in the loft. Most of the taps and other plumbing fittings in the house will get their water supply from this cistern, which is kept lopped up from the rising main through a ballvalve. However, at least one tap usually the cold water lap in the kitchen has to be supplied direct from the rising main to provide a supply of drinking water.

Depending on the local water by-laws, one, two or more fittings may be made direct to the rising main – one for an outside water lap and one for a cold water supply to a washing machine or dishwasher, say. Another connection may be made for an electric shower.

Most indirect plumbing systems have two pipes (often called draw-off pipes) taking water out of the cistern. One pipe feeds WCs and cold water taps in bathrooms and any other rooms where there are basins. The other feeds a hot water cylinder where the water is stored and heated by a boiler or an electric immersion heater. Cold water cisterns may have extra draw-off pipes for some types of bidet or shower or to make pipe runs to some fittings more convenient.

Hot water taps draw their water from a pipe connected to the top of the hot water cylinder – again, bidet and shower installations may need their own, individual connections. The hot water cylinder will also have a pipe leading back over the cold water cistern to provide a safety vent to allow air bubbles and steam to escape.

To carry out work on a plumbing system, or to stop a leak or burst, different parts of the system need to be isolated and drained of water. In theory, only one stopcock or valve is really necessary in a system. This should be as near as possible to the point where the main service pipe enters the house to enable the whole house to be isolated from the water supply. Two draincocks are needed – one just above the main stopcock to drain the rising main and any branch pipes connected to it, and the other as low down as possible on the pipe feeding the hot water cylinder to drain the cylinder. Pipes feeding hot taps and cold taps connected to the cistern, and the cold water cistern itself, can be drained by turning the taps on. This will not, however, drain the hot water cylinder.

In practice, to save having to drain the entire system every time repair work is carried out, it is better to include more stopvalves, so that some parts of the plumbing system can be isolated from the rest. This usually entails having gate valves on each draw-off from the cistern. It is possible to fit small isolating valves just before each tap or fitting. There should not be any valve on the outlet pipe from the hot water cylinder.

Direct plumbing systems

In a direct plumbing system, all the cold taps, WCs and so on are fed directly from the rising main. If the hot water is heated by a storage or hot water cylinder (rather than by instantaneous heaters) this will usually be fed from a small cold water cistern often on top of the cylinder.

Which system is best?

An indirect plumbing system has three main advantages. First, and possibly most importantly, because most of the system is isolated from the mains by the cistern, water is less likely to be drawn back into the mains (this is called back-siphonage) so there is much less risk of contamination of the water supply. Secondly, the system operates at constant water pressure so you do not need to worry about variations in the mains water pressure – this is particularly important on some types of shower which need roughly equal pressures of hot and cold water. Finally, the cistern provides a reserve supply of water if the mains fails.

A direct plumbing system is a little less complicated and can be cheaper to install than an indirect one. But some of the fittings used may have to be specially designed to lessen the risk of contaminating the mains.

The type of system you are allowed will be determined by the local water supply undertaking. The latest option is to have an unvented hot water system. Here, the cold supply to the house is as the direct system above, but the (special) hot water cylinder is also fed directly from the rising main. Unvented hot water systems need to be properly installed and maintained, but have several advantages over conventional systems.

How To Use Plumbing Tapes And Sealants To Seal Hoses And Pipes

When embarking on a plumbing project, be sure that you seal the pipes and hoses well. It might be harder than you think. Do read up on how it can be done. However, it is also very important to make sure you have the appropriate tools.

Never use a sealant that is not designed for what you are doing. Use plumber’s putty to seal the sink flanges of a garbage disposal unit. There are types of special wax or grease sealants that are suitable to be used on the base of the toilet. Shower pipes and spouts should be sealed with caulking, and the list goes on from there.

Most will learn from their mistake of utilizing the wrong sealant for certain jobs. Do not substitute PVC Pipe glue when instructions ask for plumber’s putty. If you use these things rather than Teflon plumber’s tape on hoses, you will never be able to remove it should you ever decide to replace the hoses.

Be sparing but not stingy. It’s also important to use the right amounts. For example, a ¼ inch bead of plumber’s putty is sufficient to seal around a sink. Too much of it will certainly mean that more cleaning up is needed. If insufficient amounts are used, water will leak under the sink.

Remove the excess but make sure not too much is removed. Too much sealant will tend to crack and tear after it hardens. Using your finger or a damp sponge, lightly wipe away any extra and you should be fine. In addition, ascertain that all smears are removed before they are dry.

Do not stingy about the use of Teflon plumber’s tape. It is uncommon to use too much, but in some cases, it can create gaps for water to seep through. Because it is relatively malleable it can be difficult even if you want to overdo it. You want to ensure that not too much is being used as it can make it near to impossible to fit the new pipes or hose back on.

Wind it in the proper direction. If you are handling hoses, the direction is not a problem, however if you are threading pipes, direction will matter. If it’s not done correctly, the tape will twist off. The tail of the tape should be facing the direction you will be threading onto it. It will create a seal that us tight as the tape will extend in the similar direction as the pipe while the pipe is being threaded. If the tape is facing the opposite direction, the seal will not be tight.

Avoid torn ends. Do not tear or bite the tape off using your teeth. It can seem like a good idea if you are working in a cramped space that is hard for you to move around. This can lead to stretching and tearing of the ends. If the tape is stretched too much before it is threaded on the pipe, it will not seal correctly.

If the tape is cut cleanly, it will set in the threads better and not leave any ridges that could cause leaks. This should be done on the front and back of the tape. If you have ridges, you will create small openings for water to escape from.

If you utilize the appropriate sealant for the job and follow instructions faithfully, your project should be free from leaks.

Getting Your Husband Pierced for Male Chastity

One of the most common questions I get about the topic of advanced chastity is about piercing.

The thinking behind it is fairly straightforward: many of the more secure, serious and thus expensive chastity devices require the man to have a piercing in his penis to the device can be locked into place properly.

Probably the most common combination is a Prince Albert piercing (where the securing pin enters the penis through a hole in the underside of the head and exits through the urethra), but there are devices compatible with frenum and appalling piercings, too.

So, this raises a couple of questions.

First, why would anyone do this?

Well, the answer to this is simple: it makes the devices much more secure. Most chastity devices — even full belts — can be escaped by a man who’s determined to do so, provided he uses enough lubrication and can endure a little pain. It’s possible there are some devices for which this isn’t true but I’ve yet to come across one.

But a device that’s secured with a piercing is as secure a chastity device as you’re ever going to get, simply because the penis is held prisoner with a metal pin that actually passes through the flesh. And the devices’ design means there’s no way to remove the device without removing the pin first, unless you’re willing to tear your own flesh (very few men would want to do this, I’m sure).

And for men serious about chastity, a secure device is part of the thrill. There is something about being locked in a secure device that really does turn men on. The feeling of having no control of their own orgasms is intoxicating for them.

Just bear in mind: no chastity device is or ever can be 100% secure, meaning no man is ever kept in a chastity device against his will.

There’s no doubt some devices are more secure than others, and it’s likely many could only be removed or escaped from with the help of tools.

But the tools required are simple and most men probably have them already lying around in their garage. Moreover, removing the device would be perfectly safe, too, so long as he took care.

Even a device which uses a piercing pin to keep the penis secure can be removed simply by cutting the pin (which could be done simply and safely with a pair of tinsnips or wire-cutters, say).

The second reason for the piercing is that for many men and women it’s symbolic — and the symbolism is very powerful. In a large proportion of relationships where they practice male chastity, part of the dynamic is the woman “owns” the man’s penis, or at least has all the “rights” concerning it.

In these cases having the penis pierced, whether the man really wants to have it done or not (bearing in mind he always has the choice in reality, and so it’s just part of the game) is symbolic of the power-exchange.

Of course, you don’t need to be pierced to enjoy chastity, and you don’t even need a device. The idea you do is just another myth propagated by various people who have their own agendas for wanting you to buy into this idea.

My husband, John, was pierced but he never really settled into the device, so we took the piecing out and he currently wears a Lori #2C, which is designed for un-pierced men. At present he is in long-term orgasm denial and the reason he doesn’t escape is he doesn’t want to.

Male chastity is really about two people who enjoy whatever dynamic they choose to implement and is just a case of becoming informed about safe, sane and sensible practices.

Removing Fence Posts Mounted in Cement Footings – DIY Fence Repair

The best way to remove a fence post installed in a solid concrete base if the wood post is broken off at ground level without digging or using expensive equipment. There are plenty of solutions on the internet that are satisfactory when the fence post is strong and sturdy: use a lever to raise the fence post, excavate a trench at the side of the fence post and push the post out, raise the post using a bumper jack or high lift agriculture jack, or bring in heavy equipment – but each of these methods really doesn’t tackle the common dilemma confronting a home-owner after wind damage – the wood post is snapped off.

All too often the fence post is splintered so there is nothing available above ground that is solid, the base is of unknown dimension and depth, and the fence to be repaired is in a location close to structures that hamper accessibility of a backhoe (not even accounting for the rental expense or the harm they may cause to yards). In the event that only a few fence posts are damaged on a fence, the new posts really need to be set in the very same position – chopping the broken posts off lower than lawn level and installing the replacement wood posts utilizing an off-set is simply not a solution.

Applying a combination of approaches is the best approach – first cut down the hold the ground has on the post by using the Wood Post Puller (a simple engineering solution to the dilemma) and then execute the best lifting technique accessible. Making use of a brute force procedure of lifting concrete is plainly a poor idea; concrete is extremely strong when compressed, but tremendously fragile when pulled – in fact, the tensile strength of concrete is only about 10% of its compressive strength. Pulling the cement out of the ground is very likely to cause dangerous flying chunks as the concrete fractures under the tension.

Fence Post and Concrete Base Removal

Step 1: Remove anything fastened to the wood post and clear the area nearby the post and cement footing.

Step 2: With the water hose attached and water flowing, push the spike tool fully in the ground at the edge of the cement base.

TIP – Attempt to wiggle the post after the initial insertion – any type of shift of the cement base in the ground (even a vibration) will allow the water to force its way alongside the surface of the concrete footing and develop a thin layer of mud. If the fence post is broken try to jam a pry bar into the existing wood post and then push the bar forwards and backwards, or hit the cement footing strongly side to side with a sledgehammer. Now try lifting the fence post and cement footing using the instructions in Step 4 – often the wood post will come right out!

Step 3: Repeat step 2 at uniform locations around the footing – typical fence posts will call for less than 4-6 insertions of the spike tool, but stubborn posts can need the spike tool to be inserted every 2-3 inches until you have encircled the complete cement footing. If you are unable to pull out the fence post and cement base in Step 4, replicate Step 3 at even more locations around the post.

Step 4: [Different lifting methods could be selected] Securely force a pry bar into the cement base at about a 45 degree angle from the soil. Duplicate the arrangement on the opposite side of the cement footing. The closer the pivot is positioned to the footing the more leverage will be utilized. Two 5-6 foot pry bars are excellent but a multitude of various other things could also be applied. Completely insert the spike into the ground right next to the cement footing. With the water turned on completely to the spike, apply even downward force to both pry bars [requires 2 people], lifting the concrete base and post. Do not hurry up this step – permit time for the water to start building hydraulic force on the bottom side of the cement footing and help out on the lift. The water must be on during this action or raising the concrete footing will start building a sucking force pulling the fence post back down.

TIP – If the bars are sinking into the soil, support them with scrap pieces of 4×4, or old fence posts.

TIP – Begin the pry bar position at 45 degrees or less – if they are too vertical the bars will be pressing in opposition to one another and not lifting the cement footing out of the ground.

Step 5: Alternately remove either of the pry bars and reset back again to the 45 degree beginning position – using the other pry bar to hold the concrete footing during the reset. After both pry bars are reset, repeat Steps 4 and 5 until the post is fully removed from the soil.

Caution – the post and cement footing combined are heavy (frequently over 100 pounds)! If the cement footing stays complete you will be able to pull out the post and cement footing as one solid piece, if the cement footing has cracked quite often the pieces may be taken out together due to the fact that the pry bars compress them towards each other like a jigsaw puzzle. Even if the wood post is considerably rotten inside the concrete footing and portions break off they will be simply picked up after removing the main portion – just reach within the soil and peel the damaged cement from the sides of the hole and from the bottom.

Immediately cover or otherwise secure the opening to avoid any unintentional entry or injury.

Given that you have removed the post and cement and have a nice clean hole, don’t duplicate the bad decision by installing your wood post with cement. Excavate a 10 inch hole and set the wood post 1/3 of its length into the ground [a traditional 8 ft wood post should be buried at least 2 1/2 feet]. Use the correct supplies [a treated 4×4 fence post approved for direct burial] and set the fence post with crushed gravel. Put 6 inches of crushed gravel in the bottom of the hole and compress the crushed stone firmly every 2-3 inches as you fill the hole and true the fence post. Using this procedure, your fence should be vertical and sturdy for many years.

Luxury Apartment Living in Modern Suburban Communities

Like many of my generation, I left fast pace, aggressive city living for a kinder, gentler lifestyle in South Florida. I sought temporary living accommodations, because I was sure that my housing wants and needs would become more apparent and defined once I settled into the tropical lifestyle, assuming they didn’t change altogether. So, I set out to rent an apartment from among South Florida’s abundant supply of luxury apartment communities.

Once I had made my decision to move I was eager to find a place to live and allotted myself a week in which to accomplish the task. Before leaving for Florida, I started my groundwork and searched online using a variety of websites that cater to the needs of people relocating and seeking housing in Florida. After I arrived in Florida, I picked up a couple of free paperback guides at the local supermarket, which proved more useful than I ever would have imagined. Finding a new home was going to be a snap, I thought.

IF YOU DON’T KNOW WHAT YOU WANT, YOU WON’T FIND IT HERE.I quickly learned that sometimes too many options can be (almost) as frustrating as too few, and came down with an acute case of “analysis paralysis” trying to sift through the dozens of possibilities I had before me. Initially, all I really knew was that I needed a place to live and that I wanted it to be somewhere on Florida’s Gold Coast, that vast region stretching from West Palm Beach south to the Florida Keys. With the Atlantic Ocean bordering the region to the east and the everglades to the west, I felt fortunate that my region of interest was fairly narrow, even if it had been longer than I would have preferred.

My next move was to buy a map of the region and select some criteria to focus my search and further limit my search area. Some considerations were more obvious than others were. For example, I knew I’d need a job and that, in my field, the prospects for finding one would dramatically increase with my proximity to the larger, denser urban areas of Ft. Lauderdale and Miami. However, I also knew that, with my luck, it was more than a possibility I’d land a job in less likely West Palm Beach and probably the day after the ink dried on my apartment lease in a community in the midst of one of those more prominent cities. I decided to hedge my bet and search within the nondescript area of Southern Palm Beach County-Northern Broward County, somewhat equidistant in space and time between the polar extremes of West Palm Beach and Miami.

In an attempt to further minimize my potential commutation time, I figured it might be a good idea to find a place near the region’s two major north-south highways, I-95 and the Florida Turnpike. Seeing still too many options on my list, I knew that further limiting myself to moderately priced communities would be sure to eliminate both the high end and more affordable extremes. I soon discovered that seeking moderate pricing would also narrow the geographic scope of my search, as I would now be looking too cheap to be near the Atlantic Ocean, but expensive enough to avoid sleeping with the gators in the glades.

Although I had done my best to winnow my list, I still had too many communities to evaluate in detail within the week’s deadline I had set for myself. I also knew that the kind of evaluation I needed to do would require more than a seat-of-the-pants review of the various apartment websites and paperback guides that I had at my disposal. It was time to get out in the field and kick a little dirt and wrestle with some bricks and mortar.

YOU CAN’T GET THERE FROM HERE. How hard could that be? I wondered. I had limited myself to a mere twenty-mile radius centered somewhere on Military Trail, between Boca Raton and Delray Beach, and I already possessed the complete addresses for all the communities I intended to visit. All I had to do was plan a logistically sensible itinerary, hop in my car and go take a look. As I started to plot each day’s itinerary on my map, I realized that having an address offered little insight into a destination’s location. After all, this was laid back Florida where residents come and go at a leisurely pace and show little concern about how long it takes to find their destination. Sure, South Florida has addresses, but no one abides by them, not even the mailmen. Around these parts, if you want to know where to go, you ask someone for directions, and get accustomed to hearing them in terms of mileage, number of traffic lights, or counting local landmarks like Winn-Dixies or Exxon stations.

I learned quickly that most street addresses are useless, especially those on streets that don’t extend more that a couple of miles, or those on streets that change their names occasionally along the route. Adding to the confusion is the fact that every other town seems to have a road, street, avenue, or boulevard named “Atlantic” or “Ocean,” or has street numbers and directional designations that from the perspective of passersby seem to emanate from some fictitious place. Streets that don’t calibrate evenly like, for example, NE (Northeast) 47th street, followed immediately by NE 52nd street, and then NE 89th street are bad enough. But, when they intersect, say, SW (Southwest) 11th avenue, you start to wonder if you’ve found a new wrinkle in our universe’s space-time continuum.

Many apartment communities just make matters worse by concocting their own “exclusive” street addresses specially designed to give their locations cache, even if they lack a spatial context. In reality, the addresses exist only on their own community site maps and usually relate to nothing more than a long driveway extending from public access roads to their front gates.

LOTS OF DATA, BUT NOT ENOUGH INFORMATION. Street address numbers are among the most heavily guarded secrets in Florida. Many places don’t even bother to display them or display them so poorly that even a pair of eagle eyes and x-ray vision can’t spot them modestly displayed behind palm trees, store signs, shopping center marquees and the like. Besides, in my experience, following address numbers are more likely to hinder than help. Sometimes they lull you into a false sense of security as you observe them ascending or descending toward your destination only to find them jump ahead or completely reverse direction when you pass from one town to the next.

After these revelations, I knew that nothing short of some serious old-fashioned dead reckoning was going to be required in order to find my way. That meant picking up a phone, calling leasing offices, and asking for specific driving directions to their apartment communities. In some cases, I literally had to simulate in my mind taking the actual trip by visualizing all its landmarks before ever leaving my driveway. Gone were the days when travel directions were a matter of pinpointing a major intersection near a destination on a map and then leaving the rest up to an organized grid of roads to get there.

As I approached the entrance of the first community on my list, I couldn’t help feeling the sense of accomplishment I imagined Magellan had felt after circumnavigating the globe, albeit on a much, much smaller scale. However, I realized my celebration was pre-mature as I sat in my car outside the property’s heavy metal gates trying to guess the magic words that would get me inside. I followed the instructions posted on the gates’ sophisticated telephone directory system, but was denied access just the same. I ultimately ended up sneaking in behind a resident entering with an electronic key card. I learned during subsequent visits to these so-called secured, gated communities that sneaking in was part of the normal routine, which explains why none of the representatives I met at the various leasing offices I visited ever wondered how I got in without their assistance.

GOOD LEASING FOLKS CAN EASE THE PROCESS. I’m pleased to say that most of the leasing representatives I met at the more than two- dozen communities I visited that week were highly professional and efficient in discharging their obligation to enlighten me about their apartments. The really good ones cut to the chase and sized-up their offerings quickly. Many answered questions before I had asked them and usually with a few well chosen words and the aid of brochures, fact sheets and apartment floor plans and site maps. I was particularly glad when some representatives dispensed with filling out all the pre-application paperwork until after showing me their available units. As far as I was concerned, it was a complete waste of time for both of us unless and until I decided I wanted to live there.

DON’T BE FOOLED BY SMOKE AND MIRRORS. The fun part of the process was actually making inspections of the apartments. It was also the time I felt the need to start paying close attention to what I was doing. Some apartment communities will only show you model apartments they reserve specifically for that purpose, which are designed to help prospective tenants visualize living there. Needless to say, virtually all the models I saw looked brand new, tastefully furnished, and in much better condition than the apartments actually available to rent. And, except for giving a sense of the layout of a floor plan (and some communities have many) and how furniture might be arranged, models give little insight into the finish quality of the apartments actually available to new tenants. They also offer no sense of your neighbors or any other features that relate to the ambience of your apartment, such as its views or its exposure to light, air, and noise.

PRETEND YOU LIVE THERE. I learned quickly that the easiest way to become enthusiastic about or eliminate an apartment was to examine its layout, especially paying particular attention to room configurations, connecting walls and sight lines. If, for example, while standing at the front door, I was able to see all the bedroom and bathroom doors, I knew immediately I was ready to move on to the next apartment and hopefully one that would give the appearance (if not the reality) of more privacy. If layouts flowed logically with, say, kitchens situated near dining areas but separated from other living areas, I was satisfied and moved on to examining the rooms themselves.

During my inspections, I came to appreciate that room quality was not only a matter of size, but also shape and wall space considerations. Large rooms are great, but those with imaginative polygon shapes create odd angled corners that are difficult to utilize. In the same way, wall surfaces that are too encumbered with closets, windows and doors could make even rudimentary furniture placement a frustrating exercise.

The number and placement of doors and how well they separate living spaces was another consideration. For example, some master bathrooms have toilet closets, but no doors separating the shower/bath tub from bedrooms, which won’t suffice if you’re claustrophobic or finicky about not wanting shower humidity spreading throughout your home. Kitchens without doors can be troublesome too, unless adequate care has been taken to prevent cooking odors from wafting throughout the home.

While examining rooms, I took particular note of the number and spacing of electric outlets, and telephone and cable jacks available throughout an apartment. It came as no surprise that older properties do not usually cater well to today’s space-age electrical, entertainment and telecommunications requirements.

SOME PRISONS HAVE MORE WINDOWS. Windows were by far the biggest disappointment I encountered in all apartments across the board. Generally, there aren’t enough of them, they’re small and rarely found in kitchens or bathrooms. To make matters worse, most (if not all) tended to be on one side of apartments. It amazes me that in a place like Florida with all its sunshine, clean air and pleasant climate (at least 6 months a year), more care isn’t taken by architects and builders to optimize the use of windows in residential structures. Suffice it to say that fresh air cross ventilation is hard to come by in Florida, so get used to working your air conditioner hard, because you’ll need it and every ceiling fan you can install to pump air through your home all day long, all year long. Another important factor about windows is simply the direction they face. For example, if you like it cool, you should select a northern exposure, or alternatively, if you’d rather bask in sunshine all day long, then a southern exposure will be to your liking. A preference for cool mornings or cool afternoons will translate into a preference for western and eastern exposures, respectively.

SO MUCH FOR AN OUTDOOR LIFESTYLE. Patios were my second biggest disappointment with Florida apartments, and for similar reasons as windows. In general, they’re too small and confining to provide a relaxed, comfortable living experience. Most amazingly, few patios are screened-in to provide adequate protection from all those lower forms of life that seem to outnumber humans by many orders of magnitude, especially during the summer. In addition, surprisingly few have overhanging roofs or eaves to provide that little extra protection from sunshine and rain that at times can enhance the patio living experience. On the other hand, most patios have such poor views and overlook such noisy mechanical equipment that you probably won’t want to spend any quality time out there anyway. Those of you who look forward to napping on the patio will best appreciate the importance of these seemingly nitpicky comments.

Among other factors, don’t overlook the importance of elevation to the overall quality of the apartment living experience. Most of the apartment communities I visited charge a nominal rental premium for an upper floor apartment (approximately $25 per month), probably because upper floor apartments don’t have pesky noisy neighbors overhead throwing cigarette butts off their patios. They are also less likely to be flooded from rainstorms and tend to receive fewer visits from all those critters you’ll find on your unscreened patios (ants, spiders, lizards, etc.) that Floridians have learned to coexist with. However, along with the superior views and access to light and air that upper floors provide is the excessive heat and possibility of leaks (on top floors). Upper floor units sometimes offer the amenity of a vaulted or cathedral ceiling that can enhance the light and air or feeling of spaciousness in an apartment.

DON’T BE TOO IMPRESSED WITH ALL THE SHINY GADGETS. During most of my apartment inspections, the leasing representatives did their best to talk around the aforementioned design flaws and tried to “sell” me on all the gadgets and labor saving conveniences that typically come with luxury apartments. Many apartments come equipped with washers and dryers (which I prefer to be installed in utility closets off the kitchen or outside on the patio, instead of adjacent to carpeted living areas). By the way, if washers and dryers aren’t featured in an apartment, you better get a peek at your apartment community’s on-site laundry facility. Many communities offer dishwashers, garbage disposals, oversized bathtubs, microwave ovens, refrigerators with icemakers, and one or more ceiling fans, in order to enhance the comfort of their apartments.

MAKE IT YOUR BUSINESS TO STRETCH YOUR LEGS. After touring apartments that met my basic criteria, I spent some time walking the communities to get a sense of their residents, a feel for their comfort and ambience and to inspect their amenities. Also, as I strolled I took particular note of how well properties appeared to be maintained. Although most luxury apartments will be up to snuff on the day you move in, even the newest and best built will require routine maintenance and repairs from time to time. Walking around may also give you some insight into the mindset and proficiency of the management and maintenance crew. If the common areas are well maintained (e.g., clean and recently painted, parking lots well paved, landscaping well groomed, and few signs of deferred maintenance), chances are better that the same philosophy and vigilance will apply to the upkeep of your apartment.

The best single place for a maintenance inspection is the pool and its surrounding lounge area, which usually is the most popular common area within a community. Most leasing tours for prospective tenants begin with a tour of the pool area, which is usually centrally located adjacent to the property’s leasing and property management center. As a community’s showcase, these areas are usually better maintained than other less visible areas. So, if the pool area needs a renovation, you should wonder how the rest of the property looks.

SWIMMING POOLS OR CEMENT PONDS? Even if the pool area is well maintained, you may not be all that impressed with the scale and scope of those facilities. Before I started my search it was inconceivable that I would find such woefully inadequate pool facilities in a place where sun bathing and swimming take place more than 300 days per year. In general, pools are small and shallow (barely 5 feet deep in some cases), not very well maintained and surrounded with only enough lounge chairs to accommodate 5% of their tenant population. Most of the places I visited had whirlpool spas, but some are barely larger than bath tubs, are not particularly well maintained, and are as likely to be out of service as they are to be operating on any given day of the week. Even more surprising is the fact that some brand new apartment communities I visited, which typically pride themselves on being loaded with recreational amenities, are not even bothering to build these all-popular whirlpool spas into their otherwise state-of-the-art properties.

DO-IT-YOURSELF TORTURE CHAMBERS. In most cases, health clubs are small, dark unfriendly spaces that suffer from a serious lack of cable TV entertainment and exterior light and views. If I had to use such facilities, I know I’d be even more eager than usual to finish my workout. Except for basic treadmills, stationary bicycles and free weights, the other equipment in some of these facilities looks as though it is borrowed from The Smithsonian. As for other forms of recreation, some apartment communities provide tennis courts, bicycle paths, basketball courts and kiddy playgrounds, but not necessarily in a state of repair you might consider inviting.

DON’T TAKE ANYTHING FOR GRANTED. After one inspection, I started to pay attention to some of the amenities I would normally take for granted, such as where and how tenants go about retrieving mail or disposing of garbage. Tenant mail facilities range from the expected (i.e., located near apartments, sheltered from the elements by a breeze way or some other structure) to the ridiculous (i.e., all huddled together in the middle of a parking lot completely unprotected from the rain and sunshine, and dangerously close to moving vehicles). You may not mind waiting for the rain to stop to pick up your mail, but you can rest assured the mailman isn’t going to wait when he/she delivers it. If you live in one of those unfortunate places, you better have your mail delivered to a post office box, or get used to opening soggy mail.

As for the trash disposal, I resigned myself to the fact that the best I could expect would be having one large compactor and storage facility located near the exit of my community, regardless of how large an area that might be. The obvious advantage of such an arrangement is that tenants won’t have to smell or look at garbage anywhere else within the community and won’t have to be bothered by noisy garbage men carting it away in the wee morning hours. However, I’m still getting used to a routine of hopping in my car every time I need to dispose of trash or coordinating garbage runs with my daily travel schedule.

PEEK OVER THAT SECURITY GATE BEFORE SIGNING ON THE DOTTED LINE. Before registering a community on my short list of acceptable options, I made sure I drove completely around its periphery, and noted its proximity to public utility plants, highway interchanges, or some other equally undesirable land uses. In the process, I was sure to check out its neighborhood amenities, especially within a five-minute drive. Most appealing community locales were off main drags but near most of the daily conveniences I’d likely need, including supermarkets, restaurants, drug stores, banks, movies, etc.

Communities within 15 minutes of shopping centers, entertainment hubs and other desirable landmarks were placed high on my short list. As a contrast, some of the communities I visited were long hauls from commercial activity of any kind, and some were near special facilities I’d be more likely to visit on a monthly or annual basis, like Lowe’s Home Improvements, Home Depot, furniture outlets, vacuum cleaner distributors, and so on.

FINAL OBSERVATIONS. I am pleased to report that I live in a community that provides a reasonable blend of the four major features I had sought from the outset: decent living accommodations (spacious, functional layout, with a view); basic community amenities (good swimming pool and safe, convenient access to personal mail boxes and trash disposal facilities); abundant neighborhood shopping opportunities; and good accessibility to major highways and regional employment centers. Best of all, I reside near the intersection of two important road arteries, which means visitors can find me on a map even using the most schematic maps of the region.

Over the course of my inspections, certain facts emerged as apparent truths. And, you should be aware that some of the foregoing comments apply to other areas of Florida and other types of housing (like condominiums and single family homes) as well as luxury apartment rentals. Readers are encouraged to verify similarities and differences across geographic areas and housing types based on their own experience.

Some general comments are worth noting. Notwithstanding the extreme volatility in residential real estate markets recently, Luxury garden-apartment-style communities in this area of South Florida still rent for $1.00 (give or take) per square foot per month. That means a 900 square foot apartment will rent for approximately $900 per month. Not surprisingly, one bedroom units have the highest per square foot rents; three bedroom units the lowest. Some communities charge extra for water, sewer and trash removal. Most charge a rental premium for certain apartment views (especially golf course or lake views), upper floor apartments and pets.

Newer doesn’t always mean better and be aware that down here 10 years is considered old, if not a lifetime. Unlike other more traditional regions of the US, old residences down here are not considered classic, vintage, or quaint, but rather just plain obsolete and undesirable. However, as the expression goes, “they ain’t building them like they used to” and if you want spacious, well proportioned, logical layouts you’re going to have to look at the old stuff. The best compromise is to find an old unit that has recently been completely renovated and refurbished.

Age 55 plus communities cater to the seniors, but those without such designations don’t necessarily cater to the young single adult population. In my experience, the only tangible difference between the tenancies of the two types is the existence of lots of toddlers and teenagers in the latter.

Like everything else in life, tradeoffs do exist in trying to find that perfect blend of apartment features. In South Florida, within a given price range, if you want to be near the Ocean, you’re going to accept older, lesser accommodations. Newer properties tend to have more and better site amenities, such as pools, health clubs and tennis courts, but tend to be located farther away from regional employment centers and shops and facilities you’ll need to visit daily, such as food stores, restaurants, drug stores, banks, etc.

Finally, if you want to enjoy fresh air, sunshine and truly experience the lifestyle that has fostered Florida’s growth during the past several decades, you’ll just have to go to the beach!

Reinforced Concrete Facts

Loads of building especially flats is curried by reinforced concrete columns. The columns have to be constructed both vertically and horizontally in order for them to absorb the pressure equally.

Basically reinforcement is critical in giving he newly built structure tension strength. If the reinforcement had never been invented, then many concrete building would not have been built. Reinforcement on a building encompasses many types of components and structures. Some of them include beams, foundations, walls, slabs frames, columns and many more.

Most of the time, many reinforced concrete can be classified as cast in-situ concrete or precast. The floor system is where much of the focus on reinforced concrete takes place. The key to building an optimal building structures lye’s under designing and implementation. There can be a big impact on the building as a whole if a small change in the design of the floor is made. The impact is usually realized on the construction schedule, material cost, operating cost, the ultimate strength, end use of the building and occupancy level. Basically concrete is a mixture of Portland cement and ballast together with water.

The cement hydrates after it is mixed with water locking the aggregate into a rigid structure after forming opaque crystal lattices encapsulating. Any small appreciable tension can easily break the microscopic rigid lattice which leads to separation and cracking of the concrete. If this happens, then the building can easily collapse. Therefore reinforced concrete should be balance very well to avoid such accidents. There are about three key characters that give the concrete special properties.

First of all steels coefficient of thermal expansion is similar to that one of concrete. This results in the internal stresses elimination due to different thermal contraction and expansion. The second character is that after the concrete has hardened and taken shape, it now resumes the surface details making the stresses to be equally shared between it (concrete) and the steel bars.

Steel is usually more resistant to corrosion mainly because of the presence of alkaline chemicals. It is not just any steel that should be used for reinforced concrete. Construction steels come in different sizes and each size is supposed to be used for its intended work. By using steel for work that it was not intended, the structure can easily collapse and cause destruction of properties and even death. Therefore, safety measures should always be considered when building any form of structure.

How To Make Toaster Tongs-Craft Project For All

How many times have you had your toast or waffle stuck in your electric toaster and you, without thinking, started to use a metal knife to dig the toast out of the toaster? Of course, this could be extremely detrimental to your health!

Toaster tongs are the perfect answer to this problem. This is a really inexpensive craft project that you can sell or have groups of children in craft classes make. You can leave plain or decorate with decals or paint or even Sharpies (which are waterproof).

For one toaster tong, you will need the following:

2-Tong depressors (you can purchase at any drug store)

1- 3/4 inch diameter dowel, cut in one inch long piece

Elmer’s Glue

2- tiny tack nails

1. Sand the dowel piece on each side after cutting to make sure it is smooth.

2. Using the Elmer’s Glue, place a drop of glue on one end of the dowel and apply one

tong depressor to the glued side.

3. Hold down for a minute and nail the tiny tack nail in while glue is still wet.

4. Repeat with the second dowel on the other side.

5. Let dry about an hour before decorating.

This is a great gift to give to anyone. You can personalize or decorate any way you like with dot flowers or lady bugs or just about any design you can think of. And the recipient of this little gift will thank you for thinking of their safety!

Look for other great craft ideas at

Five Ideas For Creating Fun Wooden Crafts Out of Dowel Rods

Five Ideas for the Simple Wood Dowel

When one looks at a wood dowel, often times they do not think much of it. A race of ideas and crafts do not often spring into most people’s minds when they see a piece of wood. However, for a select few, these ideas do come and the knowledge of how to construct their ideas becomes easy to learn. These people are wood crafters. They are followers of the older ideas that one can create their own toys, decorations, and furniture. These people can create great things with a simple wood dowel and a little work.

When a wood crafter looks at a wood dowel, they see a million ideas. These people are wood working aficionados. They see wood not as just wood, but as a medium to bring their ideas into reality. These people are artists and workers at the same time. Here is a sample of those great ideas that a simple round, wood dowel has created.

1. Beaded curtains. These curtains have a fine thread running from the wood dowel to whatever length is desired. The fine thread is then used to thread beads, creating curtain of the beads, hence the beaded curtain. These beads can also be used to create designs in the curtain by matching colors to a certain pattern.

2. Flag posts. Home owners and some apartment renters tend to decorate their homes on the inside and out with flags. These can be everything from silly flags used for solely decoration to the patriotic, American flag. No matter what flags are hung, the thicker wood dowels are most often used because they have such great strength and beauty.

3. Toy wands. Every aspiring princess and wizard of the day has to have his or her own wand. To meet this need, the wooden dowel can be utilized and decorated to match the personalities of the children while still making the toy affordable. Ribbons, feathers, and glitter can all be added to the wand to add to the individuality of the piece.

4. Yoyo centers. Yoyos are one of America’s all time favorite toys. The simple construction of the yoyo, paired with the ease of use and fun actions of the yoyo all make it a classic toy. The simple wood dowel makes the perfect center in which to construct the yoyo and to attach the string.

5. Shelf railings. Shelves are a necessary part of life. Some of these shelves hold precious ornaments and heirlooms. Many times these shelves have railings on them. For those who are constructing their own shelves, the wood dowel can be used to make for an interesting and unique railing on the shelf.

These ideas are just the tip of the iceberg of ideas for the wood dowel. Imagine what you may come up with using only a little creativity and a wood dowel. You just might have that perfect idea for that perfect piece of art. You also might have the beginnings of the next craze in ideas and wood crafting.

The Bodybuilder’s Secret Weapon For Getting Ripped – The ECA Stack

ECA is the workingman’s solution to losing body fat. Consisting of over-the-counter ingredients, it creates a thermogenic, fat-burning effect in the body for less than a dollar per day. It’s completely legal, and when used correctly by healthy people, very safe. Here are the basics:


81 mg Aspirin

25 mg Ephedra tablets

200 mg Caffeine pills

Directions: Consume one 81 mg aspirin, one 25 mg ephedrine tablet, and one 200 mg caffeine pill, immediately upon rising in the morning. Drink one cup of water with it. Repeat this dose between 2 and 4 pm. Consume two doses daily per day – no more. Enjoy the ECA stack 6 days per week. Use it 4 weeks on, 2 weeks off, for the duration of your pre-contest dieting cycle.


The cost for running an ECA stack is less than one dollar per day. A month’s supply of Ephedra can be purchased for about $12 at any corner store like Walgreen’s or CVS under the product name “Bronkaid”. A 200 count Aspirin can be found for less than $5, and caffeine tablets can be purchased at any grocery store, costing about $2.50 for 24 tablets.


Ephedrine causes a thermogenic effect in the body and raises body temperature. This results in an increase in the metabolism. The body reacts to this raise, and attempts to correct the imbalance by producing phosphodiesterase. Caffeine counters the phosphodiesterase production INSIDE cells, allowing the ephedrine to do its job. Aspirin works to make this effect last longer by countering phosphodiesterase production OUTSIDE cells. Together, these three common medications have a strong synergistic effect and cause fat loss in the body.


ECA stack leads to a slight increase in blood pressure, usually 4 – 7 mmHg on average. If you have a pre-existing heart problem, ephedrine may cause issues, although that is still to be proven. Do not become addicted to caffeine. Watch for stomach ulcer issues from aspirin use. As with all medication stacks, consult with your doctor first, and use common sense. If you sense anything wrong, consult medical assistance immediately. If you’re a healthy adult with medical clearance, give ECA a shot and see why it’s so popular for body fat loss. Many top amateur and professional athletes actually prefer ECA to illegal fat burners like t3 or clen, because it’s just so effective. As with all things medical, bodybuilding, and life, use extreme caution at all times. Good luck!

Air Scrubber – How Does It Clean?

What do you use an air scrubber for? Air scrubbers are a reliable method to remove airborne gaseous contaminants from any indoor area. Many manufacturing plants, businesses, workshops and even homes use air scrubbers. There are two processes which an air scrubber can utilize to clean the air of gaseous contaminants. The first process commonly used with an air scrubber is called adsorption. Adsorption is a process in which one substance is drawn to and stuck on the surface of another. The words adsorbent and adsorbate relate to the act of capturing molecules. The adsorption process can be done easily when a material uses attractive force to overcome the kinetic energy of a gas molecule.

A more clear example of how adsorption works is the way cigarette smoke is absorbed quickly into a car’s interior lining. It’s really incredible how the gas molecules of the cigarette can leave the air and go into the car’s interior lining. When you enter a vehicle of a smoker you always can tell immediately that they smoke because of the gas molecules held fast in the vehicle’s interior lining. Air scrubbers adsorption process works much in the same way as the cigarette smoke in the car does. Instead of interior lining adsorption uses granular activated carbons (GAC’s) or sorbents such as activated aluminas to attract gas molecules. An air scrubber also uses the a resistance to airflow, the adsorbent bed depth, temperature, gas velocity, and the characteristics of the contaminants which need to be cleaned out of the air to more effectively rid the air of gaseous contaminants. The adsorption process is one of methods an air scrubber utilizes to clean the air of pollutants.

Another process an air scrubber can use to remove airborne gaseous contaminants from the air is called chemisorption. Chemisorption consists of adsortpion and irreversible chemical reactions. Most adsorbent materials do not eliminate all gases equally. It can be ineffective at time if you are seeking complete removal of pollutants. Chemisorption improves on the adsorbent process by incorporating various chemicals into the equation. During the chemisorption process certain chemicals are mixed with the less-adsorbable gases which reacts by forming a new more stable chemical compound. These new chemical compounds are bound to the application as organic or inorganic salts. This new compound is sometimes released back into the air as CO or water vapor. Chemisorption is the result of various chemical reactions on the surface of the adsorbent.

It is a two stage process. The adsorbates are physically adsorbed onto the adsorbent. Then they chemically react to the adsorbent and a chemical impregnant is added into the mix. The most common chemical impregnant used during this method of an air srubber is potassium permanganate. The chemisorption process of an air scrubber can effectively help clean the air of gaseous contaminants such as toxic gases, corrosive gases, irritant gases, odorous gases, and (ETS) environmental tobacco smoke. The air scrubber process you select to use it totally up to you and your air cleaning requirements.

Plasma Cutter Safety – Plasma Cutting Is As Safe As Welding – With A Few Exceptions

Attention Plasma Cutters! General Welding Safety is not enough.

There are a few things about plasma cutting safety that are different from general welding safety tips

This short list of plasma cutter safety tips is geared toward light duty plasma cutting using compressed air not large industrial units that use gas mixtures and water cutting tables.

Electric Shock Can Kill

– Operating a plasma cutter completes an electric circuit between the torch and the workpiece. The workpiece and anything touching the workpiece are part of the electrical circuit.

– Never touch the torch body, workpiece or the water in a water table when the plasma system is operating.

Voltages & Currents

– Plasma cutter output voltages are much greater than welding voltages, usually 100-200 volts.

Precautionary Measures

– Do not pick up the workpiece, including the waste cutoff, while you cut. Leave the workpiece in place on the workbench with the work cable attached during the cutting process.

– During plasma cutting operations do not move the work clamp.

Wear insulated gloves and boots, and keep your body and clothing dry.

– Do not stand, sit or lie on or otherwise touch any wet surface when using the plasma cutter system.

– Insulate yourself from work and ground using dry insulating mats or covers big enough to prevent any physical contact with the work or ground. If you must work in or near a damp area, use extreme caution.

Work Cable

– Ensure metal-to-metal contact between work cable and workpiece or work table.

– Work cable clamp should make contact with clean metal free of rust, dirt, painted surfaces, etc.

– Do not attach work cable to the piece that will fall away when the cut is complete

Plasma cutter Arc Rays

Plasma cutter arc rays produce intense visible and invisible (ultraviolet and infrared) rays that can burn eyes and skin.

Protective Clothing

– Guantlet gloves, safety shoes and hat.

– Flame-retardant clothing to cover all exposed areas.

– Cuffless trousers to prevent entry of sparks and slag.

– Remove combustibles, such as a butane lighter or matches, from your pockets before cutting.

Noise Levels of Plasma Arc Cutting

– Plasma arc cutting systems can generate noise levels in excess of 120 dB during high-amperage cutting operations.

– Ear protection should be used when operating or working near plasma arc cutting operations.

Toxic Fumes & Gases

Plasma arc cutting can produce toxic fumes and gases that deplete oxygen and cause serious injury.

– Keep the cutting area well ventilated or use an approved air-supplied respirator.

– Do not cut in locations near degreasing, cleaning or spraying operations. The vapors from certain chlorinated solvents decompose to form phosgene gas when exposed to ultraviolet radiation.

Pacemakers & Hearing Aids

– Pacemaker and hearing aid operation can be affected by magnetic fields from high currents. Pacemaker and hearing aid wearers should consult a doctor before going near any plasma arc cutting and gouging operations

Overall Plasma Safety

– The plasma arc cutting process can be very safe.

– By paying attention to safety standards and correctly setting up and operating the system, plasma arc cutting poses no more a threat than most welding processes.

Top 10 Best Compound Bows: Best Selling Consumer Reviewed

Top 10 Best Compound Bows: But which is the best compound bow? Compound bow reviews should reveal the top compound bows, the fastest, the most versatile, the lightest and the best compound bow for the money.

1. Bowtech® Diamond Razor’s Edge Realtree® Hardwood HD Camo: Although some would consider this a beginners bow, it packs a punch. It is available in right or left hand configuration. It is accurate, fast and most importantly affordable. It has a fully adjustable draw length from 19 to 29 inches. Price range from $329.00

2. Bear Archery Omni Pro Compound Bow: Another top seller by Fred Bear. This omni pro bow consists of a machine speed, precision one cam system. It has a 28 to 30 inch draw length and a 60 to 70 pound draw weight which will propel your arrow up to 300 feet per second (fps). One of the most desired characteristics of this top 10 best compound bow is how light it is… almost less than four pounds. price range from $357.89

3. Martin Archery® Threshold Adventure Series: This item is part of the Martin Archery threshold adventure series and is one of the more affordable ones on our list. Don’t let the low price fool you… This item delivers incredible accuracy and propels your arrow up to 305 feet per second. This one has a smooth draw, a 70 pound draw weight and weighs in at a sturdy four pounds. Price range from 219.97

4. Bear Archery Strike Ready Compound Bow: This is one smooth shooting, total system machine. This item has only one purpose in mind… helping you to consistently hit your target, each and every time. This is one of the lightest entry’s on our list coming in under four pounds. This one brings a draw length range of 26 to 30 inches with an 80% let off and a peak draw weight of 50… 60… or 70 pounds (your choice). Price range from $499.99

5. Genesis 10926 Genesis Original: Although this is a best seller (which is why it made our list) it is designed and marketed to be the one that makes the “prefect introduction in the the sport of archery”. It is for this reason that this versatile and functional beauty is always a top seller. Value priced starting around $148.90 puts this bow in the affordable range for almost all archery enthusiasts and should rank high on anyone’s best compound bow for beginners list.

6. G5 Quest™ QS33 Bow: This bow is quiet, lightweight, and lethal. This is a bow that makes our list for several reasons. One, because it is a top seller and two, because Quest final agreed to bring its price into the range of affordability. This bow has an adjustable draw length from 26 to 30 inches and peak draw weights of 60 to 70 pounds. At four pounds and affordable priced from $299.97 (that’s $200.00 off its retail price) this is one bow you may want to put on your list of “must haves” this season.

7. Bear Archery Apprentice Compound Bow: This bow is Bear’s third entry into our list this year. This bow was designed for the beginner and adjusts to grow with your favorite junior hunter. This bow has an amazing 13 draw length positions which allows it to be quite versatile allowing it to grow with its developing user. This bow is extremely lightweight, weighing in at just under three pounds and still manages to pack an impressive 265 feet per second punch. Starting around $279.99 this bow is one to own. If I was building a best compound bow for beginners list this bow would most likely rank number one.

8. Martin Archery® Cheetah M2 – Pro Accessory Package: Martins second entry on our list and an impressive one at that. an amazing 320 feet per second put this bow high on our list of fastest compound bows. This bow boasts a draw length range between 25 and 30 inches and a draw weight range between 50 and 70 pounds. Starting around $383.14 this is one durable versatile bow and should be on anyone’s best compound bow for the money list.

9. Diamond Stud Bow Wilderness Accessory Package: The Diamond Stud bow is truly a work of functional art and is arguably the best value on the market. This is an “upper crust” bow with a working mans price. This bow has an impressive 25 to 30 inch adjustable draw length and a draw weight of up to 70 pounds which will push your death sticks up to 318 feet per second.

10. Precision Shooting Equipment Browning Verado Compound Bow: Rounding our top 10 list of compound bows for sale is the Verado compound bow. With an adjustable draw length between 27 and 30 inches and a bow speed of 305 to 313 feet per second this is one functional bow. Starting price $333.87

Proper Land Drainage is Important!

Many property owners are not concerned with yard drainage until they have a problem. Water naturally follows the path of least resistance to lower elevations and problems arise when original pathways constructed by the builder become blocked or were inadequate from the beginning. Not having suitable slopes and drains on a property to direct or divert water runoff can allow the water to find a path directly to areas where you would least want it such as foundations, under pavement, in your basement etc. Flooding basements and cracked foundations are good wake-up calls to the issue but addressing problems beforehand can save you thousands of dollars, and headaches, down the road.

The two categories of water supplying a lawn are surface and subsurface. Subsurface water refers to the water below the first layer of topsoil which cannot permeate any lower due to the tightness of the soil beneath. Also known as the water table, all soil has this layer of water with differences in depth depending on the area. Although a high water table can be a problem in some areas, in general, surface water is the cause of excess subsurface water as too much surface water penetrating the ground can raise the water table. Surface water sources are rainfall and irrigation, such as sprinklers, and can be particularly troublesome in urbanized areas which contain numerous impervious surfaces.

Streets, driveways and parking lots simply leave nowhere for rainwater to go. As with a lawn, the runoff will either pool in depressions or flow to soil around the edges causing saturation in another area. When soil reaches 100% saturation, with little or no drainage to assist in excess water removal, not only do pools of water collect, but the saturated soil takes much longer to dry out. This excess water retards plant growth by decreasing aeration in the root zone and decreasing nutrient supplies. Additionally, excess water in the soil will increase freezing damage in the winter months. Having proper drainage on your property will prevent water from collecting around your building or home foundations, minimize soil erosion and help protect your vegetation from death and disease.

Surface and subsurface are the two types of drainage solutions and both are vital protections for buildings and lawns. Surface drainage refers to the natural pathway taken by the water following rain or irrigation and is achieved through gutters, downspouts, surface grates, exposed French drains and by shaping and grading your lawn to provide maximum surface water removal with minimum soil erosion. Subsurface drainage refers to pipes and drains placed in the lawn which remove excess water that has gravitated underground, either through holes in the soil or simply from soil saturation. Water travels through soil by capillary action, which is much like a paper towel – when one side gets wet, moisture will slowly travel to the dry side until the entire substance is saturated. Once the soil is saturated, subsurface French drains are needed to remove excess water. In doing so, subsurface drainage keeps plants healthy, helps soil to warm earlier in the spring and leaves less water to freeze in the winter, minimizing frost heaving damage to your home or building.

Problems associated with improper drainage

Improper drainage can lead to pools of collected water in your lawn and/or around your home or building, both of which pose a threat. When collected close to your foundation, standing water can potentially cause foundation cracks, foundation movement and flooded basements. When collected on your yard, pooling water gives mosquitoes a breeding ground and can leave your grass susceptible to disease.

Foundations: The most costly issue associated with improper drainage is your foundation. Soil naturally expands when it is wet and contracts when it is dry and as long as all the soil underneath your building expands and contracts uniformly, it is not likely to cause a problem. Damage is done, however, when only part of the soil heaves or settles. This differential movement is most often due to differences in soil moisture. Improper drainage on one side of the building can leave wet soil that remains waterlogged for days or weeks (or in worst cases leaves constant water pooled around your foundation walls) while the other side of the structure has soil that dries quickly following a rain.

The wet side has expanded, and remains so, while the other side contracts as it dries, and this action pulls the walls of the structure away from one another. Repetition of this process will eventually produce cracks in the foundations, walls and/or ceilings. Foundation repairs are not usually covered by homeowner’s insurance policies and can cost as much as $20,000 to $30,000 or more to fix, not including cosmetic fixes to drywall, door jams, bricks, flooded carpets, flooring, etc. Anyone who has experienced a flooded basement or cracks due to heaving can attest to a costly fix! In addition, the drainage issues which caused the problem will still need to be addressed.

Basements: The same issue associated with foundations applies to your basement, with the added problem of letting water into your home through the cracks. In addition to damaging carpets, flooring, drywall and furniture, the water increases your basement’s humidity creating the perfect environment for the growth of bacteria and mold. Mold enters your home as tiny spores, which need moisture to grow and multiply. They can grow on almost any surface and they digest and destroy your home as they do. When disturbed, mold spores are released into the air and can be breathed in by you and your family, aggravating allergies and asthma. A small number of molds produce mycotoxins which can induce nausea, fatigue, headaches and lung and eye irritation when a person is exposed to high levels. Furthermore, mites and spiders can proliferate in a moldy basement as mites feed on mold spores and spiders feed on mites.

Waterproofing your basement can help protect your home and is a good insurance policy, but your first line of defense against a wet basement is improving the drainage in the lawn and all areas surrounding the home or building. According to most engineers and home inspectors, 85 to 95% of wet basements and interiors of buildings can be made dry by improving exterior drainage around your house or building.

Mosquitoes: We are all familiar with one of the biggest nuisances of the summer but were you aware that mosquitoes need less than an ounce of water in which to lay their eggs? While standing water is generally the egg-laying site for mosquitoes, some species lay their eggs on damp soil and, if your lawn has poor drainage, leaves your grass as a perfect home for these pests. Needing only two to three days to hatch, your property needs to be able to dry out quickly enough either to prevent females from seeing your yard as a prime location or to dry out eggs that have been laid.

With females laying up to 300 eggs at a time, your yard can easily become infested, driving you and your family inside on warm summer nights. Along with the itching and aggravation of bites, mosquitoes bring diseases such as West Nile Virus, Malaria, Dengue and encephalitis. All are potentially fatal. Your pets are also at risk, as mosquitoes are the hosts for heartworm and can communicate this disease to dogs, cats and other animals. Additionally, West Nile and encephalitis can be transmitted to horses. The American Mosquito Control Association instructs property owners to not only eliminate standing water around your home or building, but to ensure proper drainage on your property to eliminate this potential hazard.

Turf Diseases: As the first impression a visitor or customer has of your home or business, it is no doubt important to you to have well-maintained and inviting landscaping around your property. Death and disease of grass and plants is not only ugly, it is a waste of money invested as well as expensive to correct. Excess water on or in your lawn prohibits the growth of grass, plants and trees by robbing them of their air and nutrient supply and leaving them susceptible to attack by fungi, moss and mold. Fungi, the most common cause of lawn diseases, are microscopic organisms that spread by air- or water-borne spores. The spores act like seeds, sprouting to life and infecting its environment when conditions are right.

Rhizoctonia Yellow Patch, Red Thread, and Pythium Blight are some common fungi diseases which appear in moist environments resulting from extreme soil and surface moisture. Many of the fungi diseases are difficult to control once they appear and damage may remain for two to four years following treatment. While fungicides can be applied to help prevent or control lawn diseases, several strains are resistant to fungicides. The best prevention is the absence of favorable conditions, including improving moisture conditions on top of, and under, your turf.

Mushrooms also need extreme wet conditions to grow. While mushrooms do not harm grass, many of them are poisonous and can be a danger to children and pets that ingest them. Poisonous mushrooms have no features to distinguish them from nonpoisonous mushrooms and identification, therefore, is only possible by those educated about the various genera and species.

Erosion: In addition to the issues associated with standing water, water moving too quickly off your property causes problems as well. As raindrops fall on your lawn, if there is sufficient intensity, the impact will dislodge small particles of soil which can then be carried off by the rain as it flows. This soil will either be carried off to sewers or deposited in another area of your yard, depending on your drainage conditions. Over time, original drainage measures, such as ditches and trenches, can become filled with soil, defeating their purpose and redirecting how water moves on your property. Erosion is accelerated where plant cover is sparse and spaces between plants become larger, leaving no protection for your soil during intense rains. Proper grades and slopes stop water from carrying away your soil by keeping water runoff at an acceptable rate. Slowing down water that is running off too quickly gives soil particles time to settle out of the water and back onto the ground before being transported too far away. Additionally, healthy plant life with deep roots protects and holds on to your soil.

Benefits of proper drainage

Structural Protection: Having a comprehensive drainage system in place protects your structure by preventing water’s damaging contact with concrete. Water that doesn’t evaporate and isn’t absorbed by soil eventually goes somewhere and, oftentimes, it sits under and around your foundations. Drainage solutions will keep the moisture content around your foundation stable and uniform, keeping contraction and expansion to a minimum. This maintains the integrity of foundations and helps prevent cracks and water seepage.

Plants and Landscaping: Proper soil moisture is essential for plants and lawns to establish a healthy root system. Removal of excess water in the soil deepens the root zone and increases the air in that area. The increased aeration, in turn, increases the supply of nutrients, many of which need the air to convert chemically before they are accessible to plants. The deep root system which grows will then holds on to the soil and protect it from erosion. Additionally, water will not pool in areas of your property, leaving turf susceptible to disease, and help you maintain the pleasing aesthetics in which you invested.

Recreational Areas: By implementing drainage solutions, recreational areas, such as parks, golf courses and athletic fields, improve traffic ability and increased use of the property. Drains help nature clear out excess water and allow turf to quickly recover from rain. The result is that the recreational area can be open for extended periods of time and for more intensive use, resulting in increased revenue.

Spring showers are not the only cause for concern

The Midwest is notorious for extreme weather changes with a drought one year and floods the next. While St. Louis has an average rainfall around 40 inches, in 2008 we had 50.72 inches pour down on us, with nearly half of that amount coming between June and September. If you have weathered winter snow and spring rains, do not let down your guard thinking you are safe for another year. Summer can sometimes bring surprises and the added deluge to your soil will only intensify existing problems requiring more extensive repairs.

A note about water tables

Water table refers to the depth at which the soil always contains 100% water. In some areas the water table is higher than the bottom of the foundation, requiring a complex system of drains and sump pumps to draw the water away from your structure. High water tables can lead to devastating damage to your foundation or basement and is sometimes cited by professional waterproofers as the cause of a problem because of the expensive measures to correct it. The National Association of Home Builders, however, estimates that only five percent of wet basements are due to high water tables. If you have water damage, you are most likely dealing with surface runoff problems which can be corrected through slopes, grades and drains in your yard, along with proper gutter systems. Modern building codes prevent contractors from building basements where water tables are high and if your home or building is less than 30 years old you can be reasonably sure a high water table is not your problem. If you have a wet basement, be aware of this issue! Inform yourself by contacting your local building inspector and getting information about your local water table.

Do you have drainage problems?

Try this experiment: dig a hole one foot across and two feet deep and fill it completely with water during a dry spell. If the hole drains completely in less than five minutes or in more than 15 minutes, you have a problem. A more simple way to spot problems is to look at your lawn during and following a rain. If you have water flowing quickly across the yard removing topsoil during a rain or pools of water on driveways, parking lots or lawns following rain, then you have a problem. Other indicators include yellowing plants, yellowing or thin turf although it receives plenty of sunlight and has no obvious disease, fungus or mold on the lawn, stagnate water smell and water seeping through door sills, basements and garages.

Types of drainage solutions

A comprehensive drainage system will include surface and subsurface drain solutions. Surface drains remove the large amounts of water that fall in short periods of time and subsurface drains remove the excess water absorbed into the soil. The two systems work in conjunction to maintain the moisture in your soil at the proper level for protection of your landscaping and your home or building.

Gutters: Your first line of defense against foundation flooding is your gutters! During a moderate rainfall, the average sized roof sheds 160 gallons of water runoff per hour. To prevent the runoff from being deposited on the ground next to your foundation, a proper gutter system is essential. Not only is the correct gutter size for your roof area a consideration, but an insufficient number of downspouts is equivalent to having no gutter system at all. Downspouts are needed to handle the volume of runoff your roof will collect and splash blocks must be utilized to direct the runoff away from your home or building and out to your drain system. A better solution to splash blocks, however, is to install PVC piping to the end of the downspouts to remove the water 6-10 feet or more away from your home or building. Furthermore, gutters must be properly maintained to prevent clogs and gutter joints must be inspected for leaks. Having a suitable, effective gutter system should be the first step in your drainage solution.

Grades: To protect structures, the most important grades on your property are those within 10 feet of your foundation or basement. This will prevent the water you just diverted away from the structure from soaking back through the soil toward your structure. Suitable grades vary depending on who you consult but a safe measurement is a 1 inch (or more) drop for every 1 foot out for the first 10 feet. This results in at least a 10 inch slope for the 10 feet closest to your foundation walls. The rest of your yard should contain a continuous slope downward to keep the water moving away from your foundation.

Surface Drains: Surface drainage can be defined as the controlled removal of water that collects on the land from rainfall, irrigation, snowmelt or hillside seeps. As gravity is the primary force driving this type of system, it involves shaping the land with a continuous fall in the ground level to provide a downhill passage for surface runoff at an appropriate rate of flow. For grass drainage channels, or swales, a minimum slope of 1% to 5% is desired. The contours of the land then direct the runoff to a suitable collection site, such as ditches, basins or storm sewers. At the low point of the ditch or interception point, area drains are installed which are connected to a main or submain and prevents the water from pooling in your yard. The underground pipes need a minimum slope of 1% or 1/8 inch per foot to keep water moving through them. If the ditch is long, several smaller drains should be spaced in a series, rather than one large drain in the middle, to help prevent erosion.

For driveways and other hardscapes, channel drains and exposed French drains are ideal. These linear trenches collect sheets of water that run off, as concrete and asphalt absorb none of the water as it falls. The open area of the channel/ exposed French drain is much greater than an area drain and is better suited to the greater volume of rain it will need to collect. Additionally, channel drains allow designers to modestly slope hardscapes, rather than requiring numerous, extreme slopes to direct runoff to area drains.

Subsurface Drains: While the benefits of subsurface drainage are hard to see because they occur within the soil, the difference will be noticeable in your plants, grass and soil. Subsurface drainage is the removal of gravitational water from the soil, which is accomplished by placing French drains underground to collect and remove water to a drainage outlet. Subsurface drains do not remove water necessary for plants, only excess water, which flows to the drains by gravity. Sub-Surface French drains consist excavating a sizable trench and lining it with a filter or geotextile fabric, which helps prevent soil particles from entering the French drain. The trench is then filled with clean rock/gravel and a proper sized perforated PVC pipe for the application is placed in the gravel.

Once the trench is filled with grave, it will be covered with a layer a permeable filter fabric, installing a mixture of high quality topsoil/ sand and lastly installing new sod on top (assuming this French drain will be located in a grassy area). French drains function when water in the soil enters the gravel bed, flows into the perforated pipe and travels through connecting solid pipes to a discharge point. A general guideline for placing French drains is to use 4 – 6 inch perforated pipes, bury them 18 to 36 inches deep and space them 15 to 20 feet apart. In the trenches, pipes must maintain a .1% to a 1% slope. Soil construct, acreage and turf usage, however, may require variation from these guidelines and a professional can help you determine the best solution for your situation.

Discharge Outlets: Once water is collected in the pipes, it must be diverted to a suitable outlet to be released. This outlet can be a street gutter, a storm sewer or an onsite pond. Using a pop-up drainage emitter, water can be diverted to a water-safe area on your property away from your home or building. Pop-up drainage emitters are opened by the hydrostatic pressure of water flowing through the drain pipe, releasing water collected from gutters, downspouts, basins, grates, etc. If placed close to the street, the released water can flow over the curb and into the street without having to drill through the curb. The emitters then close as water flow diminishes, preventing debris and animals from entering the end of the pipe and clogging the system. Property owner or maintenance personnel need to make sure they perform routine maintenance on the pop-up emitters. This can be done by removing the pop-up to make sure there is no debris washed down from the roof gutters or surface drains that could potentially slow down the water flow in a heavy rainfall event.

Cleanout Connections: It is a good idea to install cleanout connections on all drainage systems integrated into your property. This is commonly overlooked until pipes need to be accessed by cameras or cleaning equipment years after the initial installation. Access points are needed for the following three reasons. 1) Routine maintenance, and especially if routine maintenance is neglected because the contractor will have to access the pipe to unclog them for a fee of course. 2) If the systems functionality has declined. 3) If damage has occurred to the drainage system pipes from heavy equipment or excavation during an on-site construction project. Although cleanouts add cost to your project, it is highly recommended to have cleanouts installed on all downspout connections, all French drain systems and all long mainline pipe runs over 80′ without drain grates in which you can access.

Before contracting to have you project installed, make sure cleanouts are integrated into your drainage system. It has been calculated that the cost to cut into a pipe and then patch it because there are no cleanouts will be a minimum of twice the cost as having them installed in the first place. Sometimes it is 5-10 times as much when access is needed to an existing French drain without cleanout connections. So don’t gamble because when you’re installing a system with materials that last decades, you undoubtedly will need access; if for nothing else, routine maintenance. A professional drainage contractor should be able to help you determine the best cleanout points for the system their proposing for your property.

 Finding & Hiring a qualified drainage contractor

Doing your homework on potential drainage installers is important. You need to be assured that your contractor is insured and has the skills needed to properly install your systems. Be wary of “special deals” or the “great deal from a friend of a friend” – these will most likely cost you more dollars and headaches in the long run.

Tools for Locating a Potential Drainage Contractor: The Better Business Bureau is a great starting point in your search for a contractor. They maintain an online directory for BBB-accredited businesses in your area. You can check not only how long a contractor has been in business, but also any complaints filed about their operation. Angie’s List is another great tool for recommendations, as you can get testimonials from actual customers. Even if you “hear of a guy from a friend,” check their references online. See what other people’s experiences have been and choose a pool of potential contractors from the best you can find.

Portfolio and References: After you have a list of potential people for the job, ask to see a portfolio of their previous jobs and whether you can see former worksites. If possible, see their handiwork in person, perhaps driving by a home or business during or after a rain. This will help you not only to understand their drainage plans for your property, but to assure you they can indeed get the job done right. If you can speak with former customers, ask if they were satisfied with the work, whether the contractor stayed within budget and if the project was completed in a timely manner. You need to look for the best person for the job, not the lowest bid. You want the problem to be fixed upon project completion; you do not want to be dealing with drainage problems or, in worst case scenarios, legal problems, long after the contractor has left.

Bids: Get at least two bids for your specific job and get them in writing. Furthermore, make sure you understand the difference between the bids. Higher bids do not always mean a contractor is trying to get more money into his pocket. Better materials, more skilled workmanship and better reliability may be worth a slightly higher price. Keep in mind that, usually, you “get what you pay for.”

Insurance: An important issue when hiring a contractor is his insurance. If your contractor does not carry general liability insurance or worker’s compensation, the property owner can held responsible for any accidents which occur while work is being done. To protect yourself, ask for proof of insurance. Reputable contractors will understand that you are doing your research and will not be offended. Be wary of any that try to convince you this is unnecessary – they may have something to hide.

Skills Needed: Make sure potential contractors have the skills needed to do your job. Is your contractor a drainage specialist or merely a landscaper who has dabbled in drainage installation? Can he utilize a transit to analyze your slopes if needed? Does he know the proper depths and spacing for pipe placement in your yard? Most importantly, is he diverting your excess water to a suitable outlet? Purposefully diverting water to a neighbor’s yard, when runoff didn’t already naturally flow to that yard, can result in huge fines. As the property owner, you will be held responsible for your contractor’s end result.

Equipment, Supervision & Project Site Management: Find out who will supervise the work and how often will they be onsite to see that the plans are followed? Will the project continue daily until finished without interruption other than weather delays? You need to know who to call if you have a question or problem. Furthermore, does your contractor have access to the equipment needed to get the job done?

Products: Which products does the contractor use and are they the best in the industry? Be wary of contractors that offer a big discount because they will use materials left over from a previous job. While you may be interested in saving a few bucks, are you certain these materials are suitable for you project and needs? Having the project done with substandard materials that will not last never ends well for the property owner. You might have to have the system torn up and reinstalled a couple years later, costing you double down the road.

Warranty: Make sure there is some sort of a warranty with your drainage system installation once it is complete. More importantly feel confident enough with the company that they will even be in business to fulfill that warranty agreement. See if they can give you a past customer that you can call to talk to where they had a warranty issue that the contractor successfully resolved for them. Many specialized drainage companies offer a minimum of a 12-month warranty of full functionality, some contractors offer more.

Warning: We know of a family who hired a contractor that a friend’s neighbor had used. Although they met with him and thought he seemed like a “good guy,” they did no research on him or his business and references were not checked. After realizing that no real progress had been made in spite of the thousands of dollars they had paid him, they began to investigate. As it turns out, the friend’s neighbor had had similar complaints and was dissatisfied. If the homeowners had spoken to the people for whom the contractor had worked, rather than going by their impression of his personality, they would have been spared a good chunk of change. In addition to leaving their home a complete mess, they lost all the money initially invested and had to pay someone else to finish the job. Furthermore, because they had not done their due diligence regarding the contract, they had little legal recourse. The lesson: always err on the side of caution! Do not assume that a contractor has your best interests at heart; look at their previous jobs and, if possible, consult people for whom they have worked. Most people are happy to tell you about their experiences with a business, whether good or bad, and businesses with a solid reputation are not wary of you seeing their previous work.

Copyright © 2010 Team Green Outdoor Inc. All rights reserved

Clay Footer Drain Tiles – a Danger For Basement Waterproofing

One of the most fundamental elements of any good drainage system for protecting your home’s foundation walls from water damage are footer drains, which act as conduits to move excess groundwater away from your basement. Footer drains are not a new modern concept, and have been around for many years. Still, the materials used to construct drains today are superior to those used years ago, which deteriorate and become ineffective over the years. Traditionally, basement waterproofing footer drains were made using clay tile, which worked well at the time. But if your house is several decades old, these clay footer tiles may be losing their effectiveness.

The problem with clay tile pipes and drains is that they can deteriorate over time, and develop cracks, breaks and slips that allows sediment and tree roots into the system. When enough roots and dirt have clogged a clay drain, it can become completely blocked and no longer allow the conveyance of water out away from your foundation. And if this happens, it’s only a matter of time until excess groundwater builds up around your basement walls and begins to cause problems like water damage, mold, mildew, cracking and leaking. Any of these can end up being much more expensive to fix than simply fixing your current clay footer drain tiles.

That’s not to suggest that you will necessarily have to replace your clay drains with modern PVC pipe drains in order to solve your basement waterproofing problem. on the contrary, in many cases your clay drains can be serviced by simply tapping into one corner of the drainage system and cleaning the drain itself. This is possible with either a drain snake auger or a high-pressure water jetting system, which can blast obstructions out of the drain and allow water to flow freely through it again.

If, however, your clay footer tiles are severely cracked, broken or slipped out of place, it may be necessary to replace some or all of your foundation drainage system. This can involve an extensive amount of work, since a complete excavation of your foundation is necessary to reach the footer drains themselves. And if your basement walls have been significantly damaged by hydrostatic pressure already, it may be necessary to also replace the blocks themselves, as well. As you can tell, it’s better to service your existing clay footer to work properly before the damage becomes irreversible.

The advantage of having modern, perforated PVC pipe footer drains is that the materials are vastly more durable than clay and last longer without the need to clean them out as often. While newly constructed homes are now built using modern drainage materials, older homes that were built before PVC pipe may have to be serviced more often to ensure that there is no flooding or water damage in your basement. By having your clay footer drain tiles serviced regularly by professional drain cleaners, you can ensure that costly water damage and flooding issues won’t be in your future.