Safety Rules for Using Cordless Drills

1. DO NOT USE in a wet location, or in a gaseous explosive atmosphere.

2. When using all drills, WEAR SAFETY GLASSES and DO NOT WEAR loose clothing. Loose clothing could get wrapped up in your drill and may cause serious injury.

3. DO NOT CARRY the tool with your finger on the trigger.

4. USE A CLAMP OR VISE to hold your work. It’s safer and will free both hands for operating.

5. PAY CLOSE ATTENTION when drilling into a wall, floor or wherever there could be a “live” electrical wire.

6. KEEP VISITORS AND CHILDREN AWAY from the work area.

7. DO NOT TOUCH the bit after drilling. It is hot and can cause sever burns.

8. NEVER charge cordless drills in an environment where the temperature is less than 50 degrees F or more than 130 degrees F.

9. USE ONLY the charging system that came with your drill to recharge the batteries. Using a charger other than the one that came with your system may cause serious damage to the charger or the battery. There are different volt chargers and each charger is designed for the cordless drill it came with.

10. INSPECT the tool and charging system PERIODICALLY for loose or broken components. REPAIR any defects before further use.

Cordless drills are great tools to have in your work shop, and following these rules makes it safe for everyone. These safety rules for cordless drills are designed to keep you out of harms way. Careful planning and safety go hand in hand when you are working on all your projects.

What To Do If You Are Bitten By A Rattlesnake

Rattlesnakes are one of four poisonous snakes that inhabit the United States. There are several different varieties of rattle snake that can be found across all of the contiguous 48 states of the United States: the Prairie Rattlesnake, the Eastern Diamondback, the Timber Rattlesnake, and the Western Diamondback. Some of the rattlesnake species are comparably small, while other species can grow as long as 8 feet. The Diamondback Rattlesnake, located in western states, is responsible for more snake bite-related deaths in the U.S. than any other snake.

The venom of a rattlesnake is hemotoxic, which means that it causes damage to tissues, especially tissues of the circulatory system. The venom also contains neurotoxic compounds that interfere with the function of the nervous system. Interestingly, the venom of a juvenile rattlesnake actually contains a higher concentration of neurotoxins than that of a mature adult snake.

If you get bitten by a snake, and you don’t know what kind of snake it was, you should inspect the bite wound. If there are two visible fang marks at the site of the bite, the snake was poisonous. There will also be a significant amount of pain and inflammation at the site of the bite wound. You may also feel nauseated and weak, or have a strange rubber-like taste in your mouth.

If you have been bitten by a rattlesnake, it is extremely important to remain calm. If you get worked up or start running around, it will increase your heart rate and blood pressure, thus pumping the venom through your veins at an accelerated rate. You will need to get away from the snake. As you move away, try to get a good look at the snake (from a safe distance if at all possible), because antivenom is specific to the type of snake that bit you. Do not make any attempts to catch the snake, though, because you will be in danger of getting bitten again. Call 911 (emergency medical assistance) immediately, or as soon as possible.

After you call for assistance, immobilize the area of the bite as much as possible. You will also want to remove anything that could become constricting as the area swells, things like watches, rings, and shoes. Try to fashion some kind of a splint, keeping the bitten area lower than your heart. If you happen to have a snake bite kit, it is okay to try to suck out the poison, but do not cut the bite area or put your mouth on it to suck out the poison. Both cutting and your mouth can introduce bacteria to the wound, adding the risk of dangerous complication to the already very serious threat of the snake bite, itself. Wash the area with soap and water if you are able, but do not apply ice to the bite area, as it will make the bite worse.

Do not tourniquet a bitten limb, as cutting off the blood supply will put you at risk of requiring amputation. However, it is alright to tie a piece of cloth or rope around the bite to slow the flow of venom into your bloodstream. You need to make sure that it is not tied too tight, so make sure that you are able to slip a finger under the tie. Make sure to check the tie frequently and loosen it as the area swells.

If you need to move to call or get help, make sure to wait for about twenty minutes after the bite occurred in order to slow the flow of venom through your veins as much as possible. If you know that it is going to be a long time, say several hours, before help can reach you, lie still with the bitten area lower than your heart. It would also be good to use a coat or blanket to cover yourself up and preserve your body heat.

The best choice is to avoid getting bitten in the first place. If you spend a lot of time outside, hiking, biking, etc., it is wise to learn about the types of poisonous snakes that you could encounter, their habits and areas where they prefer to live. Because snakes are cold blooded, they are most active when the weather is warm, so be extra cautious of snakes in warm weather. Rattle snakes have their built-in alert system when they feel threatened, they rattle their tales, so take heed and move away from an aggravated rattlesnake as quickly and quietly as possible to avoid getting bitten.

The Lingo of Lumber – Understanding Hardwood Lumber Grading Terms

The first time you go to a hardwood dealer can be pretty intimidating. It can be like stepping into a foreign country where they speak a different language. Here’s an example: You walk into the lumber warehouse and you think you’ve died and gone to heaven. Wood as far as the eye can see. Every conceivable species just waiting to go home with you. This alone can make your head spin. While you’re picking your chin off the floor an employee comes up and asks if they can help. You come to your senses and and finally spit out that you’re looking for some walnut. “Well,” he says, “do you want that FAS, Select, No. 1 Common? What size do you want it, 4/4, 5/4, 6/4, or 8/4? Do you want it air dried or kiln dried?” And you thought your head was spinning before! What language is this guy speaking, “lumbernese”?

Armed with the right information you can avoid this scenario altogether. Lumber has its own grading system that the United States and Canada uses that is set by the National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA). This association was formed in 1897 to standardize hardwood grading because before each mill had their own grading system (and you thought the example above was confusing).

The grading of hardwood is based solely on the two faces of a board, and how wide it is, the thickness of the board doesn’t come into play. When grading hardwood lumber the worst side (face) of a board is usually used to grade that board (sometimes the best face is considered). There are eight grades of hardwood lumber.

FAS: First and Seconds. This used to be two separate categories but was combined many years ago. FAS is the best grade of lumber meaning that it has the largest percent of clear area over all the other grades for this species of wood. And as you would guess it’s also the most expensive. A board must be at least 6″ wide and the poorer of the two faces is used to grade it.

FAS 1-Face: First and Seconds One Face. Similar to FAS except the better face is graded instead of the worst. It must also be 6″ wide.

Select: Select is No. 1 Common on one face and FAS on the other. The board must be at least 4″ wide and like FAS 1-Face, the better face is graded. The price between the first three grades can be very similar depending upon the dealer.

No. 1 Common: This grade is often times just called No.1 or Common. This is still furniture grade material but more defects are allowed than the previous grades. Poorer side is graded and must be 3″ wide.

No. 2A Common: You can still get short to medium size pieces that are furniture grade material. Poorer side is graded and must be 3″ wide.

No. 2B Common: Much the same as 2A Common.

No. 3A Common: Worm holes are allowed in this grade, other wise the same as 2B Common.

No. 3B Common: Used in pallets and crates, graded on the soundness of the board rather than defects.


The thickness of hardwood lumber is measured in 1/4″ increments. The measurement is taken before the board is surfaced. Expect to have to take off at least 3/16″ – 1/4″ in thickness to get a smooth flat surface on both sides. Remember to take this into consideration when buying stock for a project.

4/4 = 1 inch

5/4 = 1 1/4 inches

6/4 = 1 1/2 inches

8/4 = 2 inches


Armed with this information you can confidently walk into your hardwood dealer and talk “lumbernese” with the best of them.

Condominiums – Condo Board Responsibilities

Many condo projects will have a board of directors who are responsible for the buildings, often managing them on account of the actual owners of the condo and ensuring that everything is done properly.

If you become a member of one of these boards you need to be aware of the responsibilities that you have towards the rest of the board and the people who have invested in the condominium. This is especially the case if you yourself are an investor and you’re looking to become a part of the board so that you can protect your own investment.

Playing By The Rules

The rules and laws that you need to abide by will have been created by both the state government and the governing documents created by the condo association that runs the project, so it is vitally important that any actions you take as a member of the board follow these rules.

This serves to protect the condo and ensure that no bad decisions can be blamed on a failure to follow proper procedure. It also protects investors from potential legal action against them should it be discovered that something is not being done as it should be.

You will also be responsible for enforcing what are known as the “covenants”, which are the rules that all of the residents of the condo need to follow. These rules must be enforced fairly and evenly, without any favour being shown to any residents.

Acting In The Best Interests Of The Condo

Investors will be expecting to make a return on their investment, so it is important that every decision you make as part of the board is made with the best interests of these people in mind.

Of course, this shouldn’t stretch so far that you start breaking the rules that have been laid out for you, but you should always ensure that what you do is for the benefit of the whole, rather than for yourself or particular residents of the condo.


While condo owners will be tasked with repairing issues that happen on their own units, the board will be responsible for maintaining the common areas that every resident of the condo is able to use. For example, the hallways, amenities and the exterior of the building all fall under the control of the board and thus must be dealt with by them.

This means the board must be able to prioritise repairs based on resident’s needs, in addition to informing them of when repairs will be carried out.

Financial Issues

The overall budget of the condo association that maintains the building is governed by the board, which means that each member has a responsibility for deciding where those funds are spent and one what.

The director’s job is to review each year’s budget and decide where it is going to be spent, so as a member of the board you will be required to provide as much information as possible for a good decision to be made.

Furthermore, you will also be required to extract payment from members of the association and owners of units if they fail to make their required payments, which includes handling any legal issues that arise as a result.

Repairing Cufflinks

Cufflinks are fun to wear. They add dazzle to a pretty boring sleeve or suit almost like magic. And since they’re usually small that come with many different, not to mention inexpensive, designs, they also make great gift ideas and collectible items. But just like other accessories, cufflinks are not damage-proof. Sometimes, no matter how much care you handle it with, your cufflinks will wear off one way or another – either something will fall off or be broken or missing.

Of course, when this unfortunate thing happens, you have a choice of either buying a new pair or repair it yourself. Now if you broke your everyday casual-style cufflinks, you can buy a new one instead to save you much trouble. Novelty and casual cufflinks are inexpensive anyway. But if you’re wearing a prized cufflink – either of rare design, that holds sentimental value, a vintage one, or a collector’s item material, you would not be too quick to replace it. You will try to salvage it, either repair it yourself or have it repaired.

Some cufflink stores provide warranty for their cufflinks and will replace or repair your broken cufflinks free of charge. If that is the case, you’re in luck. Broken cufflinks under warrantee will save you lots of trouble (time and money) than repairing them on your own.

If that is not the case, your best option is to take your accessory to a jeweler instead.

Here’s a short analysis. If you opt to do it yourself and you know that this is not your specialty, you get to save on money on repair, but there’s also the risk of possibly aggravating the damage. If you have it repaired professionally, you spend extra but at least you can expect quality.

People normally take their broken jewelry to professional jewelers for repair and restoration. Cufflinks, just like most jewelry, are small, with sometimes intricate patterns and design, which altogether makes it harder to fix.

When repairing cufflinks, take note of the exact damage and the specific part you’re trying to fix. Of course, also consider what type of cufflink you are repairing. Cufflinks may come in different base material s – usually as metal, wood, or silk.

For missing or broken pieces of cufflinks

Since cufflinks are small, it is very possible to chip off some piece of it or bend some part out of place. For metal based cufflinks, you either glue your pieces together or solder them (the metal ones).

You will by now know that repairing cufflinks is not like your ordinary art class. For example, you have to use a special metal glues such as metal epoxies, when gluing metal and other cufflink pieces. Ordinary glues will simply not hold on.

Same is applicable if you have a broken gemstone. Carefully take all pieces out and get a replacement; fortunately gemstones are not hard to find. Get the right kind (or perhaps a new one) and the right size, then glue it properly to your cufflinks.

If and when gluing your metal is not the most appropriate, you can also try soldering (for the metal parts only). Soldering melts the metals first and they’re bounded together after it cools down. Again note that cufflinks are small and so are its pieces, which makes it hard it keep in place.

Still, if you’re inexperience, you’re best option would be to have your cufflinks repaired instead.

All About the New and Exciting Painters Community

Great art is always considered to be priceless because it conveys the inner thoughts of a painter and the perception of the painters about the various aspects of life which they come across. To bring these beautiful paintings to the world, the painters portray their paintings in exhibitions. These days the concept of painting directories has gained popularity. It helps the painters to portray their paintings to the world, with online marketing gaining loads of popularity, even the painters have started to portray their ads and the paintings in the directories.

One among these directories is the painting max directory which provides both the painters and the users to use the services at free of cost. As far as the benefits concerned to the painters is concerned, the painters can demonstrate their paintings to the customers which in turn helps them to increase the sale of their paintings, plus the benefits do not end here the painters also get an opportunity to show to the world their profile which can in turn help them attract the right kind of audience or the prospects. The users can view the profile and decide whether they would view the artists paintings based on the coincidence of the interests of both the prospects as well as the artists. Thus the profile allows the prospects to take a quick decision whether to see the painting or not. Painting lovers are very choosy and selective at this stand they love a particular kind of painting and they stock the most delightful paintings. The directory also provides the painters an opportunity to demonstrate and market their paintings through the publication of advertisements.

Thus the benefits which the painting directories cater to the painters have been listed as far as the benefits to the consumers are considered: the customers are provided with a valuable source which can help them find the beautiful painting which they might be looking for. Thus the search procedure becomes easier and they are provided with the best of the paintings available.

The procedure for becoming a privileged user of the painting max directory, you can just sign in with your email id and then you post your profile which is very user friendly guide helping you to post your profile in a very simple and a precise manner. The artist can post their advertisement about the various paintings accompanied by an image of their painting which can act as an immediate attraction for the customers. The ads would be published in the directory for a period of three weeks and the artist can post advertisements for a maximum of three paintings. Thus these ads convey the message to the public and call for the attention of the public for the sale of the product. There are different categories based on which you can post the ads of different paintings. The different categories are oil paintings, acrylics on canvas, bedroom paintings, living room paintings, etc. This enables the visitors to easily view the ads in the category which they are looking for. Thus Painting max directory helps the both the artists as well as the customers to get both of their requirements filled.

2 Post Lift – Safety Tips

There are many variations of garage lifts around, but the one type that suits most small businesses and repair shops is called a 2 post lift. These dependable machines permit a car to be hoisted high above head height, allowing the mechanic easy access to all areas underneath the vehicle. A two post lift does this lifting through two arms, which are in turn attached to two posts, which are affixed to the ground by several reinforced bolts.

Since they consist of bulky moving parts, and also because the lift such heavy loads, proper safety precautions should be taken before using one:

– Every lift has a maximum safe working load (SWL) rating that must be observed. If you have a large vehicle, check to make sure it is under this value before attempting to load it onto the lift.

– Take into account the balance of the car, on older cars the midpoint isn’t necessarily where you would think it is. A good idea when first lifting a car on a 2 post lift is to raise it up a few inches off the ground, and then gently rock it. If it feels unsafe, lower, reposition, and repeat.

– Remember that in addition to the height of the lift posts, a fully raised lift will boost the roof of the vehicle even further. To prevent the roof of the vehicle from hitting the ceiling, factor in this additional height.

– The manufacturers of the lift will usually have a helpline you can call to get advice (if it is from a well known company, at least). Call this number if you have any queries about its use.

– Make sure you get the lift serviced regularly, and that means every couple of years. These types of lift are incredibly robust once installed, but like all machinery, the moving parts can wear out over time.

Safety should always come first with regards to car garage lifts, but as long as you follow these tips you should be in a position to advert any accidents!

How To Find Out-Of-Print Sheet Music

Sheet music and music books are easier to find than ever, thanks to many on-line retailers. For working musicians, big, fat “fake books” containing lead sheets (i.e., simplified sheet music stripped down to bare essentials) are still popular.

You might ask, “Paper and ink sheet music? — In this day and age, with all-digital this-and-that?”

Yes. People still buy sheets of paper with music notation printed on it, to learn and to memorize, and especially to play for their own pleasure and satisfaction. Amateur musicians buy sheet music to play along to. Student musicians buy sheet music to learn from the masters. They seek sheet music of popular songs and classical solo pieces.

Unfortunately, not all songs get published in the form of sheet music. Some songs you hear on an album are not chosen by its publisher to justify the expense of having sheet music created for it.

Also, even if a song was published, songs have a kind of shelf life, where the sheet music is available for a while, but their supply is not replenished by the publisher. If you don’t buy the sheet music within the first year or two, you might never get the chance.

At some point, demand for a song’s sheet music becomes so low that retailers have no incentive to keep no-longer in-demand sheet music in stock. When this happens, the song is technically”out of print.”

But that brings up an interesting question:

Q. How do you find sheet music which is either no longer in print, or never was in print?

Q. How would you find a “hard to find” song?

The simple solution is easy advice to give because it is three little words: “Find the publisher.” But that simple solution is not easily realized.

The steps to find the publisher are easy. But just because the steps are easy, that does not imply success. Your chances are low that a publisher will respond to your letter or phone call with a real solution.

Nonetheless, despite long odds of success, there are three basic steps you can take to at least give it a shot. Listed below are the steps I recommend you take.

Step #1: Find the right song from among all those songs with the same title.

Beware: Song titles are not copyrightable, according to the U.S. Copyright Office. Therefore, there will be countless songs using identical titles. So if your favorite song is titled something like “Sunday Morning” or “My Girl,” then you will have to weed through countless songs by other writers, other publishers, and other recording artists, to find the right song by the right person(s).

Step #2: Look up the song title in the databases of all the performing rights organizations.

Lucky for you, all published songs which are still protected by copyright are surely registered somewhere in a database maintained by one of the organizations responsible for collecting money on behalf of songwriters. Such organizations are called “performing rights organizations.” In the U.S., the two biggest performing rights organizations are ASCAP and BMI, with the smallest one being SESAC. They all have on-line search engines which list the songs for which they are responsible. If you know who wrote the song in which you are interested, and have the exact title, then you will eventually run into the correct entry in the database, even if you have to skip over 10 or 20 songs with the exact same title. But until you look, you won’t know if your song is under the control of ASCAP or BMI or SESAC.

Step #3: When you find the right song in the database, write down the name and address of the publisher.

Your task is almost complete. You will need to contact the publisher and ask the publisher how to obtain sheet music for your song. Writing a letter the old fashioned way is probably your best bet, since you will have the help of the U.S. Postal Service to forward your letter to the appropriate address or appropriate company.

I cannot vouch for the customer service of any given publisher. They may respond quickly, or not at all. They may have e-mail access for their customer service department, or they may be next-to-impossible to reach at all.

Beware, again: Publishing houses go out of business regularly. If your targeted publisher has merged with another company, or has filed for bankruptcy, then your task of reaching a sympathetic person at the right publishing house is low. This is another reason to write a letter instead of telephoning or e-mailing. — You get help from the U.S.P.S. to go one step farther than you could on your own. A change of name, or a change of headquarters, can throw your bloodhounds off the scent of a promising trail.

That last step of “contacting the publisher” completes the process. It’s that simple.

Now, you are at the mercy of the Fates whether your letter will arrive at the right address, and reach the right party. Even then, if the right party has no budget and no resources to do support for its customers or support for the fans of the given recording artist, then you are out of luck. Remember, tiny publishing companies have no budget for any personalized customer support. They tend to just sit back and collect royalties, and are not interested in one more sale, here and there, every couple weeks. They just don’t have the staff for any kind of personalized service. There’s no profit in selling their modest inventory one song at a time.

On the other hand, since countless tiny publishing companies have administration relationships with the huge publishing houses, there is a chance that your letter may reach the large company, who in turn is administering hundreds of tiny publishing companies. The big publishing house may point you in the right direction, like referring you to a major retail outlet with official ties to that big publisher.

In summary: Even though your chances of obtaining out-of-print sheet music of your favorite song is low, the steps you can take are so easy to do that you might as well take a chance and invest the time of an on-line look-up and invest the cost of a postage stamp and mail your letter. At least, you can dash off a quick e-mail and see what happens. You might even get lucky and reach a knowledgeable representative who has the right contacts.

And who knows? If enough people write that letter, then the publishing house might think, “Hey, there is a market demand for this song. Let’s cash in on this surge of interest and print up one more run and ride this wave of popularity all the way to the bank.”

And you will celebrate by sitting down with your guitar or piano and playing your brand new sheet music.

Vinyl or Linoleum Flooring For Bathrooms?

Do not underestimate the importance of choosing a good floor for a bathroom. A floor changes the way an entire room looks and also has a significant effect on the kind of experience you will have in there. Bathrooms especially need durable floors that can take moisture and dirt and the most common choices are generally vinyl and linoleum, or lino.

Many people think that lino and vinyl are the same, but they are actually markedly different substances. Both, however, are good for bathroom flooring. Vinyl is synthetic and popular for its practicality, low cost and ease of installation. It is not difficult to lay a vinyl floor yourself and it comes in a range of styles and designs. In other words, if what you’d really love is a wood, marble or brick floor, you can easily find vinyl that gives you the look with the added advantages of being much easier to clean and more durable. Vinyl is water and dirt-resistant and can be cleaned easily.

You can also get non-slip vinyl so it is still easy to walk on when wet. Linoleum is a different material and while in recent times many people have switched from it to vinyl, it still holds a number of advantages. A natural substance, it is derived from linseed oil – hence the name. Though vinyl wears well against having things dropped on it, lino is sometimes considered to be even more long-lasting if it is properly maintained. It may have a special treatment to help it repel water and grime. Lino can also be thought of as more sustainable, since it is natural, and is easy to look after.

You will just need a mop, water and a gentle cleaner. It can tear, however, so dragging objects over it is best avoided. Lino may also be more likely to fade in appearance if the room receives a lot of sunshine. Both vinyl and lino are popular for bathroom flooring and well-suited to the purpose. Neither is significantly better than the other. To decide between them, think about your lifestyle and circumstances and also look to see differences in their appearances. Keep your bathroom floor clean and well-maintained and both vinyl and lino will repay you for many years.

Flooring – How to Remove Linoleum

If you want to learn how to remove linoleum because you have decided to remodel your home, it is quite easy to do if you know the right steps which are shown below. However if you are bluntly going at it without any preparation, it could prove to be quite a difficult task.

The most important factors to consider are the age of the linoleum, the type of glue that was used and your level of patience. Don’t get alarmed if you won’t be able to completely remove it from the get go. Particularly if the material is quite old, you might not be able to easily lift the glue. In some cases it might be actually better to leave it and install the new flooring on top. However this is rather the exception than the rule.

You might have to do the entire removal process in several passes to get rid of all traces of linoleum and glue from your subflooring. And speaking of subflooring, concrete can easily take more abuse than hardwood, so when you are working with a scraper, you might have to use it lightly. Use a scraper that has a very sharp razor blade so it penetrates the glue easily. You can also use a utility knife, however people found that they get better results with the scraper.

How to remove linoleum

The first thing you need to do is cut the linoleum in smaller pieces, as they will be easier to remove than attempting it on a larger surface. Once you have the cut pieces start pealing them back. Go slow and with enough pressure to move the material from the subfloor. This way you will also remove the glue easier.

The more difficult part comes after removing the top layer, as now you need to remove those difficult pieces that are still stubbornly stuck to the concrete or wood. This is where the scraper comes into play. First add some solvent that is used for this, however make sure that it can be easily applied on the wood and it will not destroy it. You can find solvents at the local DIY store. Alternatively you can try using hot water by pouring it straight onto the adhesive backing. Leave it to soak for a while and then try scraping again. If you have a wooden subfloor, go easy on the scraping.

Something that I haven’t personally tried but I’ve heard good things about is using a hair dryer to heat the glue so it comes off easier. Once the adhesive is soft enough it should come off the subfloor quite fast.

Ladders – Choosing the Best Ladder

Most people do not even consider ladders until they need one. Then they pull out whatever ladder that they can find to do the job, even if it is the wrong one. There are many different types of ladders, with differing lengths, duty ratings, and materials. The key is to find the one or ones that are right for what you need it for to ensure that you will be as safe as possible and be able to complete your project. Whether you are working on the roof, painting inside the house, changing light bulbs, or trimming trees, you want to be sure you have the right ladder for the job. What do you need to consider when choosing a ladder?

Length. Ladders come in all different lengths, from step ladders to adjustable ladders. By considering what you are using the ladder for or what you may use it for in the future, you can determine what size that you need to purchase. The rule of thumb for stepladders is adding four feet to the maximum height that you want to reach. For example, if you want to be able to reach 16-feet, you will want a 12-foot ladder. For extension ladders, you want to buy one long enough to reach the gutter or support point and include at least 3-foot above the roof line to make sure that you can get on the roof safely and easily.

You need to consider where you are going to use it. If you are going to use it inside, you can only get a ladder so tall, while if you are using it outside, you can get a taller one to use for several different types of projects. A ladder that is too short where you have to stretch to do work can be dangerous, so you want to carefully consider what size you need before purchasing. You will probably need two ladders at least, one stepladder and one to use for other projects outside.

Duty Rating. The duty rating is the weight that a ladder can safely hold and this includes the person getting on the ladder and the materials that they are using. The rating depends upon what type of activity that you are going to use the ladder for. A light duty ladder will work for painting, yard work, and chores around the house, like changing a light bulb, etc. and it is rated for 200-lbs. A medium duty ladder is rated at 225-lbs and is for light commercial work, cleaning, and light repairs. For building, maintenance, dry walling, and general contracting, you will want to choose a heavy duty ladder that is rated for 250-pounds. For heavier work, like roofing, building, and industrial construction, an extra heavy duty ladder rated at 300-lbs is best. By considering what you are going to be doing, you can determine what duty rating of ladder that you need and want.

Materials. Ladders come in a few different materials, including wood, fiberglass, and aluminum. The most inexpensive ladders are made of wood and they are good for a number of different projects, including painting, doing light chores, and yard work. They are non-conductive when clean and dry, as well, which means that you can use them for light electrical projects, like changing a light bulb, installing a ceiling fan, etc. An aluminum ladder is strong, lightweight, and corrosion resistant and if you are only buying one ladder, this material is the one you want to choose. A fiberglass ladder is electrically non-conductive, and strong. Most professionals use this type of ladder, due to its strength.

While it may seem confusing to purchase a ladder, it doesn’t have to be. By evaluating your present needs and your future needs, you will be able to better narrow down your choice. Whether you are doing some heavy-duty work, like roofing or building, or light work, like painting or changing light bulbs, you want to consider what you need. Most people need at least two ladders, a stepladder to use inside and an extension ladder to use outside. This will allow you to take care of basic needs in and around your home without purchasing a ladder that you will never use or that will be too big to handle.

The Miracle in Santa Fe – The Loretto Staircase Mystery

There are few things more beautiful the spiral stairs and curved stairs. They often have elegant lines with a graceful ascension. Some say the earliest known spiral stair case was built in 480-470 BC at Temple A in the Greek Colony in Selinante, Sicily. There are many famous spiral staircases. The Round Tower in Copenhagen Denmark is less of a staircase and more of a ramp that rises to an observatory. It was commissioned in 1637 and is wide enough for carriages, as Tsar Peter the Great and Catharine I proved on a visit to Denmark. The Vatican museum has a double helix of some renown. It is often photographed. One of the most fascinating of all spiral staircases is the one in a small chapel in Santa Fe.

The Loretto Chapel was built as part of the Academy of Our Lady of Light. It was begun in 1873 under the guiding hand of the French Architect, Antione Mouly and his son. Mouly had been involved in the renovation of the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, and the Loretto Chapel was modeled after it on a smaller scale. Before it was completed, the architect died. There are some reports that he was shot by the Bishops nephew over a woman. In any case, left uncompleted was the access to the choir loft which was 22 feet in the air. It is believed that the original idea may have been to provide a ladder for entry. This did not appeal to the nuns. They requested carpenters to offer their suggestions. All said it was impossible. The chapel was too small to build an adequate stairway.

This is where the legend begins. The nuns prayed for nine days, conducting a novena. They prayed to St. Joseph, the patron saint of carpenters. For eight days nothing happened. On the ninth day a stranger arrived at the church looking for work. With him he had a donkey loaded down with carpentry tools. He said he could build a stair case but would need a couple barrels of water to soak the wood.

There are reports that he worked for 6 months. Others claim it was done much more quickly. The result was a wooden spiral staircase the made a double helix on its way to the loft. It was constructed using only wooden dowels, no nails or glue, and had 33 steps leading to the choir loft. The Sisters of Loretto were so pleased they made a celebratory dinner for the carpenter. He didn’t show. He disappeared without a trace. He didn’t receive his pay. The Sisters ran an ad in the paper looking for him, but he was gone.

There are other curious facts. The wood used for the staircase is somewhat of a mystery. It hasn’t been identified. Some say it is made from an extinct species. None of the lumber yards had any bill of sales for the Loretto Chapel in regards to the staircase. The double helix was a master piece of workmanship. It had no center support. Spiral staircases need to have a support structure, a center pole or attachment to fixed objects like walls. Some speculate the inner radius of the stair case was narrow enough to act as its own support. Still, it is a marvel of craftsmanship and the Lorretto Staircase continues to awe visitors.

How to Dress Up Your Stairway

Out of all the areas in our home, probably the area that receives the least attention is our stairway. The reason for this is probably because it is a boring area being as there is not much we can do with it. If ones want to be creative though there are a few things, you can do to give it a bit of interest.

To begin with, it depends on which stairway you are tackling. Is it the one leading to the upper level of your home or the lower level? You can address them both a little differently.

The Upper level stairs.

This is the stair area that is in view and is more open. Here you have to keep your creativity somewhat in check making sure it flows with the rest of the house. You really do not want to make it the focal point but you do want it interesting. The challenge here is really making it tie in with the area, which is likely the hallway. There are staircases however, that run directly off a room such as a living room or kitchen for example.

Assuming the stairs that we are dealing with are running off the hallway, then the walls that the stairs are butted up against will most likely be the same as the hall walls. You do not want to put anything on the stairs or the railing that is going to be a hazard.

If the walls are neutral, consider using stair runners of carpet that are bright and bold perhaps in a floral pattern. This can really add some pizzazz to a once a boring set of stairs.

For the wall on your left going up the stairs, consider using various sized framed mirrors. This will create the illusion of a much bigger area, which is beneficial to a narrow hallway.

If you have stair rails , set a flowerpot to the side of the stairs at the bottom and let ivy twine its way around the stair rails. Do not let it wrap around the banister itself though. This is quite an eye catcher.

The Lower level stairs

You can be a little funky here if you like as in most cases there is a door leading down the lower level stairs. Here you could create a collage of pictures on the walls and paint the stains in some unique geometric designs. Here you can let your creativity run wild.

Scaffold Accident Statistic – The Unspoken Warning

Scaffold accident may be seen as the secondary hazard in chemical plant. It could be understood because the use of scaffold is less frequent in operating or existing chemical plant. Scaffold is probably used if there is a construction work done in the plant site.

In addition, scaffold-related accident has higher probability to happen due to scaffold users are construction workers or construction labors who may have received inadequate safety training.

Scaffold usage could cause various accidents at work. Fall accident may become the major work accident related to scaffold operation. It could cause fatal injuries and deaths. So that’s why safety precautions on such accident at work should be given in high priority.

The Statistic

Employers have to take necessary preventive actions to stop scaffold accident through improvement of safety work permit, better scaffold check, safety talk, safety signs and safety induction program.

Another idea is to use scaffold accident statistic to warn both employers and employees. You can use the scaffold accident statistic to enhance their awareness. You can include such data as safety topic for safety talks, safety signs, safety meetings or safety posters.

According to the report of the Bureau of Labor Statistic US in 2007, 88 fatalities occurred from scaffolds. In its recent study, it was reported that 72% of workers injured in scaffold accidents were caused either by support giving away or by employee slipping or being struck by a falling object.

Meanwhile, according to that around 50 people die each year in United Kingdom because of scaffolds that have collapsed and over 4,500 are injured due to faulty or defective scaffolds.

The two scaffold accident statistics are more than enough to convey clear message that scaffold operation could cause work accident in chemical plants.

Acoustic Guitars – Laminated Wood Versus Solid Wood

A lot has transpired through the years in the debate over acoustic guitars in the area of laminate versus solid wood construction. It is not a secret that the type of materials and craftsmanship affect the quality, durability, sound and price of acoustic guitars. However, there is probably no other discussion bigger than this.

The question that many players ask themselves is whether a solid body is worth the price? Despite the better sound, they require care and regular maintenance to prevent cracking. When using laminated you run the risk that it will separate over time. There is no clear answer to this question and as long as there is a discussion about acoustic guitars, it will always be at the forefront.

The Debate – Uncut

Laminated is several pieces of wood glued together and solid body is exactly that, one piece. There are pros and cons to both kinds. It is a fact that laminate is known to produce a ‘dead’ sound that does not sustain or project sound very well and the one-piece body is known for its richer tone. Laminate is more used because it is more durable and less sensitive to humidity and change in temperature. A body that is made from one-piece timber is very sensitive to humidity and climate change. The top is like a sponge that you can’t let dry out.

A Bit Of History

Years ago the debate was not about sound quality or durability, it was about price. The one piece timber body guitars were very expensive so many musicians did not have a choice but to buy one made of laminate. A one piece is coveted because of its rich and beautiful tone that only seems to become better over time. However, times have changed quite a bit in the world of laminate including the craftsmanship. Better quality laminate is being used and more detailed craftsmanship has been applied so they are sounding better and better everyday.

It is evident why this debate is becoming less spectacular, but the fact will always remain the same that a laminate will never be able to sound as good.

The Main Problem

When building a guitar you want the soundboard, better known as the top, to be as lightweight and strong as possible. Creating this ratio with laminate is often difficult because in order to make it strong it ends up too heavy. The wet glue used to secure the pieces of timber together can become to heavy when too much is used. Unfortunately, when too little of the glue is used, the timber pulls apart. Recently new adhesives have been introduced that have helped to solve this problem and ensure lightness. This is one of the ways that laminated construction is becoming more popular and competitive.

Necks, Sides & Backs

Acoustic laminate necks are very common and widely accepted. This has become a popular way to make the neck stronger. Hybrid guitars are also extremely common. Many models are made with one piece body tops and laminate sides and backs. The sound quality is 90% dependent on what the top is made of, so as long as the soundboard is one piece the rich sound will be present. This is also a great way to make solid body tops affordable.

How Do You Tell The Difference?

Depending on how dark the timber or stain is, telling the difference between them can be a difficult task. First, you need to look at the inside edge of the sound hole on the top of the body. If the edge has a natural finish it is a one piece body and if it has two or more layers it is made of laminate. To determine what the back and sides are constructed with you need to first look at the back of the guitar. Next, look inside the sound hole at the same spot on the back and see if the wood grains are the same. If they are the same it is a whole body. You can do this same technique with the sides.

It’s a Wrap

Everyone’s opinion is different. Many believe that there is no need to buy an acoustic made of laminated timber when solid bodies are so affordable now. Others believe that the sound quality of laminate bodies on their own and in a hybrid model is comparable. Each individual needs to evaluate the pros and cons of both, and decide what makes sense for them. For example if you travel often, perhaps it makes sense to purchase a laminate model for its durability. When buying there are always a lot of questions that need to be answered, this is just another one.